Power Quality Following Deregulation


Utility deregulation will have tangible and intangible effects on power quality requiring industry-wide action to maintain adequate standards. These effects are discussed in the first part of the paper. The increasing trend towards more extensive use of power electronic control at the generation, transmission, and utilization systems following deregulation has power quality implications that will affect the standards, system simulation, and monitoring tools. The paper reviews the present methods available in these areas to achieve specified levels of power quality in the deregulated environment. Keywords—Deregulation, harmonics, HVDC, power quality, power systems, unbalanced three phase circuits.

I. INTRODUCTION A. General In its broadest sense, the term “power quality” should be interpreted as service quality, encompassing the three aspects of reliability of supply, quality of power offered, and provision of information [1]. A more restrictive interpretation, widely used in the recent literature, relates to: • the ability of a power system to operate loads without disturbing or damaging them, a property mainly concerned with voltage quality at points of common coupling; • the ability of loads to operate without disturbing or reducing the efficiency of the power system, a property mainly, but not exclusively, concerned with the quality of the current waveform. In contrast to the term “reliability” [2], which generally covers intervals of minutes, typical power quality issues include short-term events such as voltage sags or dips lasting a few cycles to a few seconds caused by faults on nearby feeders, large loads switching on, etc., and subcycle

Manuscript received May 7, 1999; revised August 20, 1999. J. Arrillaga and N. R. Watson are with the Electrical and Electronic Engineering Department, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand. M. H. J. Bollen is with the School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Sothenburg, Sweden. Publisher Item Identifier S 0018-9219(00)00949-X.

transients caused by switching power factor correction capacitors, lightning strikes, etc. Power system harmonic and flicker issues also fall into the category of power quality, even though these issues tend to occur over much longer intervals than sags and transients [3]–[6]. Today, electricity is generally sold from one supplier to one consumer, with ownership changing hands at only one physical point: the revenue meter. In contrast, after deregulation we can expect that the ownership of the commodity will be exchanged at several points along the generation/transmission/distribution chain. Like all other commodities, for electric power there will be quality issues at each physical location where ownership is transferred. This paper concentrates on the two most important power quality issues at the moment: voltage sags and harmonic distortion, with a brief reference to interruptions. A general feeling among experts is that momentary voltage sags constitute the most pressing power quality problem. This view is influenced by the extensive disruption of industrial processes caused by low voltage conditions. Voltage sags and interruptions at a transmission substation will affect all customers in the distribution system, but a sag originating at distribution level will not affect other distribution systems. However, faults cleared by overcurrent relays or by fuses may lead to sag durations of 1 s or more, which have shown to be of serious concern even after propagation through the transmission network [7], [8]. Deregulation will not change the technical issues behind this, but the responsibility problem may become rather complicated, especially as a local load may affect the severity of voltage sags and a short-circuit fault inside customer premises will cause voltage sags elsewhere. Further complication arises from the fact that voltage quality is, in general, an aggregate effect of the characteristics of all of the suppliers upstream from that physical location, while current quality is, in general, the aggregate effect of all the loads downstream from that physical location. (Of course, voltage quality and current quality affect each other through system and load impedances, so the

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separation between the two is not quite as clear as it initially appears to be.) System networking is a compromise between a high degree of interconnection (which provides good reliability but relatively more and more severe voltage sags) and dedicated circuits (with relatively poor reliability but less voltage sags). Finally, deregulation, and consequent competition and reluctance to exchange information, will make it more difficult to design systems with optimal local and global compensation. B. Impact of Power Electronics A variety of active equipment is now commercially available covering the full range of power ratings, from HVdc links and flexible ac transmission systems (FACTS) to custom power devices, and their role is likely to increase in the deregulated environment. At the generation level, an increase in the connection of independent power producers (IPP’s, such as wind and gas-fuelled microturbines) with poorly controlled synchronization will make power quality more difficult to control. The increase in embedded generation will cause further voltage magnitude variations as well as introduce additional voltage magnitude steps [9]. Wind power is known to lead to an increase in flicker severity. Solar power and the more advanced ways of connecting wind power will lead to an increase in harmonic distortion. At the transmission level, the need for system operators to transmit power according to contracts between the requested locations is likely to accelerate the demand for series connected FACTS controllers. In the future, series compensation and unified power flow controllers are expected to be used extensively once they are shown to offer better technical features at reasonable costs. Because system planning under deregulation will be more difficult due to uncertainty in the generation and load locations, fast solutions will be needed to improve the operating conditions, and FACTS controllers can offer such solutions with short delivery and installation times. FACTS and its distribution equivalent, custom power, have the potential to improve various aspects of power quality [10]. Power electronics control at distribution level may mitigate voltage variations, harmonics, and voltage sags. However, the increased use of power-electronics controllers may introduce new problems, like additional harmonic voltage distortion, especially for higher order harmonics. At the same time, there will be reluctance to expand the distribution system (or a drive to minimize distribution system margin), leading to increased customer interaction. Also, at the loads themselves, increased awareness of power costs will create an emphasis on local compensation with corresponding passive or active components. Some of these changes tend to degrade power quality. Fast local compensation will create loads of a constant-power type. The controller will keep the voltage constant by drawing more current when the voltage drops. This will cause additional voltage drops for noncompensated customers. Widespread use of compensation equipment may even become a voltage stability issue.

Most of these issues are not exclusive to deregulation. For example, there continues to be a significant increase in nonlinear loads, including adjustable speed drives, office equipment, and high-efficiency fluorescent lighting. At the same time, sensitive information technology equipment, such as PC’s, continues to be dispersed into power locations that previously were restricted to lights, motors, and heaters. There is no reason to believe that this trend will reverse. The effects of this trend will certainly overlay the power quality effects of deregulation, so it may therefore be difficult to segregate them. C. Other Effects An important possible effect of deregulation may be a reduction in maintenance and in new investments. Lack of investment in new transmission and generation facilities, together with a continuing growth in electricity consumption, will reduce the margins in the system and thus increase the risk for a large-scale blackout. Deregulation has already led to a large increase in the inter-regional transport of electricity. This will further decrease the available margins. Reduced maintenance and inspection may lead to an increased number of short-circuit faults. A fault at distribution level will lead to an interruption for some customers and a voltage sag for others. A fault at transmission level will only lead to a voltage sag, but often for many customers. The number of voltage sags will further increase with the use of transport of power over longer distances. Large-scale generation is moving further away from the customers so that more of them are affected by a voltage sag when a fault occurs on the transmission systems [11]. Deregulation disperses responsibility for power quality. In the past it was clear, for the most part, that the utility was responsible for delivering some level of power quality to the customer. After deregulation, however, who is responsible for the customer’s power quality? The generator? The economic supplier? The distributor? The aggregator? The customer himself? These blurred power quality boundaries will lead to confusion and possibly to an increase in disputes. Some studies have shown that customer expectations rise unreasonably immediately after deregulation. Although most of these studies have concentrated on price expectations, the same effect may occur for quality expectations as well [12], [13]. Once a customer has a choice of electric suppliers, the human relationship between individuals at the electric supplier and the customer becomes more important. Power quality can affect this relationship in surprising ways. Several utilities have found unexpected benefits from monitoring power quality at key customers and sharing real-time power quality data with individuals at those customers via pagers. A sense of partnership develops, and that sense of partnership becomes a competitive advantage for that utility. This sense of partnership is a somewhat surprising benefit of deregulation on power quality. On the downside, in regions where utilities have been deregulated, there has generally been a reduced exchange of information and cooperation between utilities. This is an

inevitable result of competition, but it has an unfortunate effect on the development of power quality technology, tools and standards. There are some indications that information about power quality itself will become a valuable commodity after deregulation, subject to negotiations, pricing, ownership, and all of the other practical characteristics of valuable commodities. Both regulated and deregulated utilities may develop power quality contracts with their major industrial and commercial customers, either in preparation for competition or as an ordinary improvement of service. As deregulation progresses, these types of contracts may well become more widespread (Detroit Edison, EdF’s Emerald Contract, ESKOM’s Quality of Service contract, etc.) [14]. Many utilities have responded to deregulation by seeking out new, profitable power quality business opportunities [15], often unsuccessfully [16]. II. NEED FOR ADEQUATE STANDARDS First, the industry needs to establish uniform and complete power quality measurement standards so that data can be compared (over location, over time, etc.) and disputes resolved. Standards such as IEC 61000-4-7, which covers harmonics measurements, are a good model. IEC 77A Working Group 09 has made enormous progress in this area [17]. Utility-oriented power quality standards are under continuous development [18]–[45]. These types of standards can be used to set a common quality basis for competition between suppliers, and they should create a minimum-acceptable level of power quality. The European standard already contains some well-defined margins for harmonic distortion and other variations. Much work, however, still needs to be done to set acceptable levels for events like voltage sags and interruptions, a subject discussed in greater detail in the following section. The voltage characteristics by themselves are not sufficient for equipment immunity requirements and a maximum-permissible number of equipment trips needs to be decided on. A decision on such a value is a task for international standard-setting bodies and is outside the scope of this paper. Finally, more work is needed on power quality standards that can be used by equipment manufacturers. It is far less expensive to inform manufacturers about the real level of power quality that is available than it is to attempt to improve the level of power quality. Some industries, such as the semiconductor industry, have already developed their own standards [46]. This kind of power compatibility standard will ultimately minimize all power quality issues, including those introduced by deregulation. Next to these industrial initiatives, a serious effort is needed from standard setting organizations like IEC and IEEE, to publish requirements for equipment immunity against voltage sags and short interruptions. III. VOLTAGE SAGS A voltage sag is a sudden reduction (between 10–90%) in the voltage magnitude, such as shown in Fig. 1, and lasting

Fig. 1.

Voltage sag.

for 0.5 cycle to several seconds. Sags with durations of less than half a cycle are regarded as transients. A voltage sag may be caused by switching operations associated with temporary disconnection of supply, the flow of heavy current associated with the start of large motor loads or the flow of fault currents. These events may emanate from customers’ systems or from the public supply network. In terms of duration, sags tend to cluster around the typical fault-clearing times in the system, e.g., four cycles (the typical clearing time for faults) 30 cycles (the instantaneous reclosing time for breakers), and 120 cycles (the delayed reclosing time of breakers). The effect of a voltage sag on equipment depends on both its magnitude and its duration; in about 40% of the cases observed to date, they are severe enough to exceed the tolerance standard adopted by computer manufacturers. Possible effects are: extinction of discharge lamps; incorrect operation of control devices; speed variation or stopping of motors; tripping of contactors; computer system crash; and commutation failure in line commutated inverters. Among the actions available for voltage sag mitigation are [5]: • reducing the fault-clearing time; • changing the system design such that a fault leads to a less severe sag at the equipment terminals; • installing mitigating equipment such as uninterruptible power supplies, either at the equipment terminals or at the customer–utility interface; • improving equipment immunity (voltage tolerance). Two different scenarios are considered here. The first accepts the transmission and distribution as natural monopolies. The second permits full competition on all aspects of the power supply. As long as transmission and distribution remain so-called “natural monopolies” the incentive will be low for investments aimed at an overall reduction of the sag frequency. Even though customers are able to choose supplier, their physical connection will not change. There are indications that the number of sag events will increase in the future. Still, some customer will demand a reduction of sag frequency. One option is to introduce “powerquality guarantees” whereby the customer receives compensation for each event exceeding a certain severity (in magnitude, duration or frequency). Such an additional service may be offered by the (monopolized) distribution company, by the supplier, or by any other player in the market (e.g., an

insurance company). Next to these “bilateral agreements,” a regulatory body may decide to enforce a basic compensation scheme for all customers as part of the connection fee. Such a scheme is already in place in the United Kingdom [47]. A second option is for the utility to offer high-quality power to a small group of customers. These customers will experience less voltage sags than similar customers elsewhere. Certain customers may not be satisfied with a compensation scheme only, e.g., when safety is concerned. Most likely this additional service will consist of the installation of mitigation equipment at the service entrance. Again it may be offered by the distribution company, by the supplier, or by any other player in the market. Additional regulation is needed here to prevent unfair competition by the (monopoly) distribution company. Full competition at transmission and distribution level is not currently viewed as a feasible scheme. It may, however, become an option in the future. Such a situation will enable a customer to physically choose between different levels of reliability and quality. Note that such a situation already exists in some large industrial and commercial power systems. Next to the regular supply, the customer may decide to connect all or some load to a high-quality supply, a dc low-voltage supply, a “dirty supply” allowing the connection of heavily polluting equipment, a high-frequency supply, etc. In the existing natural-monopoly scheme, additional regulations are needed to guarantee a minimum level of compatibility between equipment and supply (however, these regulations may become obsolete if competition is introduced for the distribution systems as well). • Requirements for equipment immunity must be produced by standard-setting organizations. The IEC is obviously the best platform for the development of such a standard. In the United States, the IEEE may take the lead. Standards for equipment testing, like IEC 61000-4-11 [48], are needed to obtain and verify equipment immunity. • As a complement to equipment immunity requirements, voltage characteristics for the supply must be made available to the customers. The European standard EN 50160 should be extended with voltage characteristics for voltage sags and other events. Equivalent documents should be written for other parts of the world as well as local standards for individual countries or even cities [49]. • Regulatory bodies should publish statistics on the power quality performance of utilities. Such a scheme is already in place in the United Kingdom for long interruptions [50]. • Voltage sag characterization is an important basis for the above standards and regulations. Standardization on this issue is under development both in the IEC [12] and in the IEEE [51]. Current activities concentrate on sags experienced by single-phase equipment. A proposal for the characterization of voltage sags experienced by three-phase equipment is described below. This scheme can be the basis for, among others, a testing protocol for three-phase equipment [52].

IV. ANALYSIS OF THREE-PHASE UNBALANCED SAGS All existing standard documents on voltage sags characterize the event through one magnitude (remaining voltage or voltage drop) and one value for the duration [48], [58], [59]. Obvious limitations to this method are that it neglects the phase-angle jump [53] and the postfault sag [54]. For the majority of sensitive single-phase equipment, the existing characterization enables a prediction of the behavior of the equipment during and after the event. Further, the phase-angle jump can be incorporated by using a complex sag voltage; the postfault sag can be incorporated by giving the magnitude as a function of time. Three-phase equipment will typically experience three different magnitudes, as the majority of sags are due to singlephase or phase-to-phase faults. The commonly used method of characterization uses the lowest of the three voltages and the longest duration. Sag characterization is often part of the voltage characteristics/power quality in general. In that case, the results should be applicable both to single-phase and three-phase equipment. Using the lowest of the three voltages to characterize the sag will result in erroneous results for both single-phase and three-phase equipment. The alternative technique described here enables a characterization through one complex voltage, without significant loss of information. The method is based on the decomposition of the voltage phasors into symmetrical components. An additional characteristic is introduced to enable exact reconstruction of the three complex voltages. The mathematics behind the method and additional examples are described in [9], [55]–[57], and [60]. A. Basic Classification The basic classification considers three-phase, single-phase, and phase-to-phase faults, star and delta-connected equipment, and all types of transformer connection. It is further assumed that positive and negative-sequence source impedances are equal. This results in the four types of three-phase unbalanced sag shown as a phasor diagram in Fig. 2. Type A is due to three-phase faults and types B, C and D are due to single-phase and phase-to-phase faults. Type B contains a zero-sequence component which is rarely transferred down to the equipment terminals. Three-phase equipment is normally connected in delta or in star without neutral connection. Single-phase, low-voltage equipment is connected between phase and neutral but the number of sags originating in the low-voltage system is small. Therefore, the vast majority of three-phase unbalanced sags at the equipment terminals are of types C or D, so that a distinction between type C and D is sufficient, together with a characteristic magnitude and phase-angle jump. The definition of characteristic magnitude and phase-angle jump is such that these do not change when the sag transfers from one voltage level to the other. The characteristic magnitude and phase-angle jump are defined as the absolute value and the argument of the complex

Table 1 Complex Voltages for Voltage Sags with Symmetrical Phase B or C

Fig. 2. Four types of three-phase unbalanced voltage sags in phasor-diagram form.

phasor representing the voltage in the lowest phase for a type D sag, and the voltage between the two lowest phases for a type C sag. The complex voltages for a three-phase unbalanced sag of type C with characteristic voltage are as follows:

These relations are used to obtain the characteristic complex voltage . As the underlying assumptions are never exactly correct, for a number of reasons, a second sag characteristic is introduced: the PN-factor . For a sag of type C, the definitions are (7) and for a sag of type D

(1) For a sag of type D, the complex voltages are C. Symmetrical Phase (2) B. Generalization The three (complex) phase voltages in an unbalanced three-phase system can be completely described through , negative , and symmetrical components of positive , which are calculated from the complex zero-sequence , , and as follows: phase voltages (3) , and from the complex sewhere quence voltages, the voltages in the three phases are (4) From (1), (2), and (4), the following relations hold for a sag of type C: Expression (4) gives the symmetrical components with reference to phase a. Expressions (1) and (2) are valid for a fault in phase a or between phases b and c, i.e., with phase a as the symmetrical phase. Considering the three possible symmetrical phases results in six (sub)types of three-phase and , , . Expression (1) unbalanced sags: , , ; (2) describes a sag of type . describes a sag of type Expressions for the complex voltages of the four remaining types are given in Table 1. Transforming the six different three-phase unbalances sags to symmetrical components results in the expressions given in Table 2. Note that in all cases the positive real axis is along the a-phase pre-event voltage and (3) has been used to obtain the positive and negative-sequence voltages. From Table 2 it follows that the positive-sequence voltage is type independent. The direction of the positive-sequence voltage is along the reference axis (phase a pre-event voltage in this case) if the argument of the characteristic complex voltage is neglected. The direction of the negative-sequence voltage depends on the type of sag. By rotating the negative-sequence voltage over an integer multiple of 60 , all sag types can be obtained from one prototype sag. When type is chosen as prototype sag, the following relation between positive and negative sequence voltage is obtained: (9) D. Obtaining Sag Characteristics (6)


(5) The equivalent expressions for a sag of type D are

The sag type can be obtained from the angle between the negative-sequence voltage of the measured sag and the negPROCEEDINGS OF THE IEEE, VOL. 88, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2000

Table 2 Symmetrical Components for the Six Types of Three-Phase Unbalanced Sags

ative-sequence voltage of the prototype sag. Due to various approximations made and measurement errors, this angle is not exactly an integer multiple of 60 so that the following expression may be used to obtain the sag type: round angle (10)

Thus, the characteristic magnitude (the absolute value of the characteristic complex voltage ) can be used to characterize three-phase unbalanced sags without loss of essential information. Using characteristic magnitude and duration, corresponds to the existing classification (through magnitude and duration) for single-phase equipment. Where needed, the characterization for three-phase unbalanced sags may be extended in several ways. • The characteristic phase-angle jump may be defined as the argument of the complex characteristic voltage; it is also used as an additional characteristic for sags experienced by single-phase equipment. • The PN-factor may be used as an additional characteristic when positive and negative-sequence source impedances differ significantly. This is the case in systems with a large content of induction motor loads. • The zero-sequence voltage is needed as an additional characteristic for specific system configurations in combination with three-phase star-connected load. • Characteristic magnitude, characteristic phase-angle jump and PN-factor may all be given as a function of time. V. INTERRUPTIONS Interruptions can be considered voltage sags with 100% amplitude. Supply interruptions of a few cycles (in the case of a glass factory) or a few seconds (at a major computer center) may cost hundreds of thousands of dollars. The main protection of the customer against such events is the installation of uninterruptible power supplies. Interruptions are mainly due to short-circuit faults being cleared by the protection. The same short-circuit that leads to a voltage sag for some customers will lead to an interruption for a smaller number of customers when the fault takes place in a radial part of the system. Short-circuit faults in meshed parts of the system will normally only lead to voltage sags. For a given system design and fault location, a certain number of customers will be affected and there is no way to prevent this process without major system structural changes. However, interruptions due to overload are somewhat more predictable. These include overload of the whole system (due to lack of generation) as well as individual lines and cables. Voltage collapse can also be viewed as an overload situation, but in this case it can be alleviated by load shedding. In the prederegulation era, load shedding took place according to utility rules. Deregulation allows utilities to offer interruptible and noninterruptible supply. During times of overload or overload risk, utilities may decide to increase the incentive for customers to be interrupted [61], [62]. At present, this action only covers a very small fraction of the interruptions, but this will obviously change if the congestion in the system increases. VI. CBEMA AND ITIC CURVES The well-known “Computer Business Equipment Manufacturer Association (CBEMA) curve” [63], shown in Fig. 3,

where round ( ) returns the nearest integer to and angle ) returns the angle between and in degrees. The value ( of gives the sag type and the symmetrical phase type type type type type type

Knowing the sag type, the negative sequence voltage can be calculated back to the corresponding value for the prototype sag (11) where is obtained according to (10); negative sequence voltage of the measured sag. Characteristic voltage and PN-factor are obtained from the expressions for the prototype sag (8) (12) E. Overview of Characterization This method has been applied to recorded sags in both transmission (220 and 400 kV) and distribution (11 and 33 kV). It is found that the PN-factor is very close to unit in transmission systems and less than unity in distribution systems, due to the effect of induction motor load. However, even in distribution systems, the PN-factor is rarely less than 90% in absolute value.

Fig. 3.

CBEMA curve.

can be used to evaluate the voltage quality of a power system with respect to voltage interruptions, sags or undervoltages and swells or overvoltages. This curve was originally produced as a guideline to help CBEMA members in the design of the power supply for their computer and electronic equipment. By noting the changes of power supply voltage on the curve, it is possible to assess if the supply is reliable for operating electronic equipment, which is generally the most susceptive equipment in the power system. The curve shows the magnitude and duration of voltage variations on the power system. The region between the two sides of the curve is the tolerance envelope within which electronic equipment is expected to operate reliably. Rather than noting a point on the plot for every measured disturbance, the plot can be divided into small regions with certain range of magnitude and duration. The number of occurrences within each small region can be recorded to provide a reasonable indication of the quality of the system. CBEMA has been renamed Information Technology Industry Council (ITIC), and a new curve [64], as shown in Fig. 4, has been developed to replace CBEMA’s. However, due to the prominence of the CBEMA among the computer and electronic industries, the ITIC curve is being regarded as the new CBEMA curve within the high technology circle. The main difference between them is that the ITIC version is piecewise and hence easier to digitize than the continuous

CBEMA curve. The tolerance limits at different durations are very similar in both cases. Although currently only the CBEMA curve has been officially endorsed in IEEE Std. 446, it is anticipated that the ITIC curve will also be endorsed by various standard bodies in the near future. The boundary of the ITIC curve is defined by seven possible disturbance events. • Steady-state tolerances: This range describes an rms variation between ±10% from the nominal voltage, which is either very slowly varying or is constant. Any voltages in this range may be present for an indefinite period and are function of normal loadings and losses in the system. • Line voltage swell: This region describes an rms voltage rise of up to 120% of the rms nominal voltage, with duration of up to 0.5 s. This event may occur when large loads are removed from the system and when a single-phase fault occurs in the distribution part of the system. • Low-frequency decaying ringwave: This region describes a decaying ringwave transient, which typically results from the connection of power-factor-correction capacitors to a distribution system. The transient may have a frequency ranging from 200 Hz to 5 kHz, depending on the resonant frequency of the system. It is assumed to have completely decayed by the end of

Fig. 4. ITIC curve.

the half-cycle in which it occurs, and it occurs near the peak of the nominal voltage waveform. Its amplitude varies from 140% for 200-Hz ringwaves to 200% for 5-kHz ringwaves with a linear increase in amplitude with frequency. High-frequency impulse and ringwave: This region describes the transients which typically occur as a result of lightning strikes, and it is characterized by both peak value and duration (energy) rather than by rms value and duration. Long duration voltage sags down to 80% of nominal: These sags are the result of application of heavy loads, as well as fault conditions, at various points in the distribution system. They have a typical duration of up to 10 s. Voltage sags down to 70% of nominal: These also result from heavy loads switching and system faults. Their typical duration is up to 0.5 s. Dropout: This transient is typically the result of occurrence and subsequent clearing of faults in the distribution system. It includes both severe rms voltage sags and complete interruptions, followed by immediate re-application of the nominal voltage; a total interruption (i.e. zero voltage) should be tolerated by the equipment for up to 20 ms.

lower limit of the steady-state tolerance range. Information technology equipment is not expected to function normally in this region, but no damage to the equipment should result. In the other region, called prohibited region, the voltage swells exceed the upper limit of the curve boundary; damage to the equipment is expected if it is subjected to voltages with these characteristics. Both the CBEMA and ITIC curves were specifically derived for use in the 60-Hz 120-V distribution voltage system. To our knowledge, no study has been carried out to find if they are suitable for use in the 50-Hz 240-V distribution voltage system. The guideline expects the user to exercise their own judicial decision when applying those curves on equipment operating under different voltage level than those specified. VII. WAVEFORM DISTORTION Power quality baseline studies must be completed so improvements and degradation can be tracked. EPRI’s three-year distribution power quality study in the United States is an excellent model of how this can be accomplished [65], [66]. However, prevention is better than cure, and extensive system simulation at the design stage goes a long way to achieve that target. This is particularly important in the area of harmonic distortion, which in the past has been largely ignored. Good harmonic prediction requires understanding of two closely related topics. One is the accurate location and char253

Outside this bounded tolerance region, two other unfavorable regions are defined. The no-damage region includes sags and dropouts that are more severe than those described above. The voltages applied continuously are less than the

acteristics of the harmonic sources and the other the interaction of these sources via the predominantly linear ac system that interconnects them. This task is made difficult by insufficient information on the composition of the system loads and their damping to harmonic frequencies. Further impediments to accurate prediction are the existence of many distributed nonlinearities, phase diversity, the varying nature of the load, etc. Simulation of the interaction between large static power converters and the ac systems is a complex issue considering the large size of the converter plant in many applications and their sophisticated switching control. The operation of the converter is highly dependent on the quality of the power supply, which is itself heavily influenced by the converter plant. System nodes containing nonlinear components are often represented as harmonic current sources, which are estimated from their power conversion characteristics. The equivalent harmonic impedances of the nonlinear devices are normally neglected, and the only justification given for such approximation is the limitation of present commercial models to calculate those impedances. A. Characterization of Harmonic Sources Mathematical models with various levels of complexity are appearing in the literature to represent individual nonlinear components, such as ac/dc converters, in the form of harmonic Norton equivalents. They involve iterative harmonic analysis to represent the interaction between the converter and the linear system. Further work is needed, however, to represent simultaneously the effect of multiple interconnected nonlinear components. The system steady state is substantially, but not completely, described by the harmonic voltages throughout the network. In many cases, it is assumed that there are no other frequencies present apart from the fundamental frequency and its harmonics. This type of analysis can be viewed as a restriction of frequency domain modeling to integer harmonic frequencies but with all nonlinear interactions modeled. Harmonic domain modeling may also encompass a solution for three-phase load flow constraints, control variables, power electronic switching instants, transformer core saturation, etc. There are two important aspects to the Harmonic Domain modeling of the power system: • the derivation, form, and accuracy of the nonlinear equations used to describe the system steady state; • the iterative procedure used to solve the nonlinear equation set. Many methods have been employed to obtain a set of accurate nonlinear equations, which describe the system steady state. After partitioning the system into linear regions and nonlinear devices, the nonlinear devices are described by isolated equations, given boundary conditions to the linear system. The system solution is then predominantly a solution for the boundary conditions for each nonlinear device. Device modeling has been by means of time domain simulation to the steady state [67], analytic time domain expressions

Fig. 5. Unbalanced current injections into an unbalanced ac system.

[68], [69], waveshape sampling and fast Fourier transform (FFT) [70], and, more recently, by harmonic phasor analytic expressions [71]. In the past, harmonic domain modeling has been hampered by insufficient attention given to the solution method. Earlier methods used the Gauss–Seidel type fixed point iteration, which frequently diverged. Improvements made since then have been to include linearizing RLC components in the circuit to be solved in such a way as to have no effect on the solution itself [69], [72]. A more recent approach has been to replace the nonlinear devices at each iteration by a linear Norton equivalent chosen to mimic the nonlinearity as closely as possible, sometimes by means of a frequency coupled Norton admittance. The progression with these improvements has let toward Newton-type solutions, as employed successfully in the load flow for many years. When the nonlinear system to be solved is expressed in a form suitable for solution by Newton’s method, the separate problems of device modeling and system solution are completely decoupled and the wide variety of improvements to the basic Newton method, developed by the numerical analysis community, can readily be applied. B. Harmonic Flows [5] In its simplest form the frequency domain provides a direct solution of the effect of specified individual harmonic or nonharmonic frequency injections throughout a linear system, without explicit consideration of the harmonic interaction between the network and the nonlinear component(s). The sources of harmonic injection, depending on the available information of the nonlinear components, can be current sources or Norton or Thevenin harmonic equivalents. A common experience derived from harmonic field tests is the asymmetrical nature of the readings. Asymmetry, being the rule rather than the exception, justifies the need for multiphase harmonic models, illustrated in Fig. 5. The basic component of a multiphase algorithm is the multiconductor transmission line, which can be accurately represented at any frequency by means of an appropriate equivalent PI-model, including mutual effects as well as earth return, skin effect, etc. The transmission line models are then combined with the other network passive components to obtain three-phase equivalent harmonic impedances.

The system harmonic voltages are calculated by direct solution of the linear equation (13) is a reduced system admittance matrix of order where equal to (three times) the number of injection busbars.

C. Harmonic State Estimation An important issue in the deregulated environment is the allocation of financial responsibilities to guarantee agreed levels of power quality. The main requirement in this respect is the availability of accurate and sufficiently discriminating measurements. The use of conventional indexes such as the total harmonic distortion (THD) are not suitable for this purpose because they do not distinguish between “injected” and “absorbed” harmonic currents. Such discrimination requires measuring the displacement angle between each harmonic current and its corresponding bus voltage. A simplistic philosophy, the “first come first served,” although easy to implement, is unfair with new customers. At the same time, the addition of a new plant, linear or nonlinear, can magnify the harmonic content in other parts of the system. Therefore, criteria based purely on measurements at the connection points may be disastrous to other system components. The problem arises from the interaction between the nonlinear plant and other network components; this is a system-wide problem and has no unique and objective solution. The location of each individual harmonic source must be taken into account to apportion financial responsibility among the interconnected users of the grid. However, it is impractical to simultaneously measure harmonic voltages and currents at a large number of locations because harmonic instruments are generally much more expensive than fundamental frequency meters. System-wide harmonic state estimation (HSE) is capable of providing information on harmonic generation and penetration throughout the power network. The main applications of state estimation to electric power quality are described in [4]. HSE is a reverse process of harmonic simulation that analyzes the response of a power system to the given injection current sources at harmonic frequencies, while the HSE uses the measurements from the power system to identify the harmonic sources [73], [74]. In a harmonic state estimator [75], the three-phase power system is partitioned into two parts: an ac backbone containing no harmonic sources and a set of suspicious harmonic sources. The ac backbone, surrounded by a boundary line, is defined as the interconnected linear network part of the power system, consisting of the individual linear components (such as generators, transformers, and transmission lines). The suspicious nodes could be unknown passive loads or nonlinear devices. In the context of deregulation, each point of connection between the independent network components must be considered a “suspicious bus.”

Fig. 6. Physical components of the harmonic state estimator.

A number of multichannel measurement points are then placed at selected suspicious buses and lines within the backbone, to perform partial, synchronized, and asymmetric harmonic measurements of suspicious node voltages, suspicious node injection currents, and line currents. Synchronization is achieved by time stamping via Global Positioning System (GPS) [76]. An illustration of the physical components of HSE and a typical measurement placement are shown in Figs. 6 and 7, respectively, and Fig. 8 shows the framework of a harmonic state estimator. The measurement placement can be modified by observability analysis (OA) [77], which is an essential tool for system-wide HSE to identify its solvability. Observability is dependent on the number, locations, and types of available measurements, network topology, as well as the system primitive admittance matrix. Generally, the measurement values obtained from the harmonic instruments are close to their true values, but they differ by some unknown system measurement errors, such as inaccurate transducer calibration, effect of A/D conversion, and noise in communication channels. Gaussian noise models usually provide an adequate description for the uncertainties present. Harmonic phasor voltages at all buses within the backbone are chosen as the state variables to be estimated. Based on the system bus admittance matrix and the measurement placement, a set of linear equations formulates how the measurements are functionally related to the state variables. The system-wide HSE using partial measurements is usually underdetermined. That is, the number of independent measurement equations is less than the number of state variables. To overcome this difficulty, the HSE transforms the underdetermined problem into an overdetermined one by substantially reducing the number of unknown state variables to match the limited measurements available. The reduction starts from harmonic voltages at all buses within the backbone to the voltages at suspicious buses, then to the voltages at unmeasured suspicious buses, and finally to the real part of the voltages at unmeasured suspicious buses. The size of the HSE problem (e.g., the dimensions of matrices to be inverted) becomes much smaller.

Fig. 7. Example of measurement placement.

Fig. 8. Framework of HSE: 1) partial and synchronized measurements of phasor bus voltages, bus injection currents, and line currents at each harmonic and 2) phasor bus voltages, bus injection currents, line currents, and power flows at each harmonic throughout the system.

network. The criterion used to judge if an estimate is the “best” can be one of the following: maximum likelihood; weighted least-squares; minimum variance; conditional expected value; weighted least absolute value; or least median of squares. The harmonic voltages at the suspicious buses and harmonic currents injected from the suspicious sources to the backbone are provided by the estimator at the end of HSE. Thus, each suspicious source can be clarified as a harmonic injector or a harmonic absorber. As an illustration of HSE application, Fig. 9 shows a threedimensional (3-D) display of the harmonic current injections (or absorptions) at 27 nodes, and up to the twenty-fifth harmonic, for the nine bus test system of Fig. 7 with only two measuring points and nine measuring channels placed distant from the harmonic sources. VIII. MONITORING OF POWER QUALITY A. Event Recording As explained earlier, the main power quality concerns of customers are voltage sags and short interruptions. In the past, detection of these events provided imperfect information. Lack of reporting, inaccuracies in network mapping and changes in the operating schemes, combined to reduce the

Although the information available is still relatively small, i.e., the reduced harmonic admittance matrices and the partial harmonic measurement values, that is sufficient for the system-wide estimation to be carried out at a central computer. The harmonic state estimator will use this limited data, to generate the “best” estimate of harmonic spectra for all the bus voltages, injection currents, and line currents (including measured and unmeasured) throughout the backbone

Fig. 9.

Harmonic current injections in the test system.

Fig. 10.

An illustration of the definition of events.

Fig. 11.

Major subsystems making up a monitoring system.



Fig. 12. Conventional centralized processing architecture.

Fig. 13.

A possible distributed processing architecture.

monitoring reliability. An example of new technology for general use by customers is the Indicateur de qualite de fourniture (IQF) concept, used by Electricite de France. This instrument operates in two modes, as illustrated in Fig. 10. In normal mode, the “instant rms value” defined as 10 ms[ (1/2)period 50 Hz] rms value of the voltage is permanently compared to thresholds. When the voltage exceeds the upper ascending threshold, a timer is activated till the voltage goes under the upper descending threshold. The elapsed time is then compared to a time threshold. If the threshold is trespassed, an event is declared and recorded with time, duration, and mean value of the “instant rms value” computed on this duration. A similar process is defined for undervoltage. When the voltage goes below, say, 10% of the nominal, the device switches to a “power shortage mode” and the tracking of the voltage is interrupted. This event is recorded after power recovery, with time of occurrence and duration, with rms value. The voltage is derived from a resistor divider, and a microprocessor performs the necessary processing 90 times every half cycle. B. Waveform Distortion Assessment The variety of power electronic controlled devices appearing in the market for interfacing new generating sources and increasing the controllability of power exchanges in the deregulated environment requires broadening the scope of the instrumentation. Ideally, these requirements are: • continuous monitoring at points of interface and energy exchange between different parties; • synchronization between geographically separated monitors; • ability to determine the location of the distorting sources; • ability to detect nonharmonic signals (e.g., sub, intermittent and interharmonics). Most digital instruments in existence use the FFT, and the processing of information can be continuous or discontinuous depending on the characteristic of the signals under measurement with reference to waveform distortion. The required monitoring system can be broadly divided into three subsystems of: input signal conditioning and acqui258

sition subsystem; digital processing and storage subsystem; and the user interface subsystem as shown in Fig. 11. Many existing data acquisition systems used in power systems such as supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) inherit the centralized processing architecture of the 1980’s as shown in Fig. 12. Despite the advances in the computer hardware and software technology, the centralized processing structure places a constraint on the data processing capability of the system. From the power quality monitoring perspective, this limited real-time processing capacity results in offline postprocessing of the acquired data to derive the necessary information. The lack of online analysis processing capability means large volumes of raw data have to be acquired and stored. Consequentially, the limited system throughput, bandwidth and storage volumes only allow the system to record snapshots. The configuration described above relies on the current transformers and voltage transformers outputs being routed to a central location, typically in the control or metering room. Although this configuration is normally sufficient for relay operation or metering purposes, the limited bandwidth and electromagnetic susceptibility of the long analog communication links create serious concerns over the integrity of the measurements. In general, the designs of metering systems are optimized for precise operation at the system nominal fundamental frequency while protection systems may give some cognizance to fast transients. The functions of the local acquisition modules are usually confined to some signal conditioning and possibly A/D conversion, leaving the data processing to be implemented in a centralized system. Although the centralized system may possess distributed processor architecture with industrial standard high-speed bus systems, extensive use of the bus system to shuffle large volumes of raw data through the system is usually required. Ultimately this not only limits the data acquisition to snapshots, but it also places constraints on the number of data channels, with little opportunity for expansion. In order to overcome the above shortcomings due primarily to insufficient online processing capability, some form of distributed processing architecture is required. Fig. 13 shows a possible configuration, but many variants of

Fig. 14. Simultaneous measurement of voltages and currents in a three-phase line.

it may suffice. There are two key features in this architecture compared to the conventional one of Fig. 12. The first is the shift of A/D conversion from the central location to the switchyard close to the transducers. This enables the use of digital communication link between the switchyard and the central system, improving the bandwidth, dynamic range, and noise immunity of the acquired signals. The fiber-optic link also reduces the system’s susceptibility to electromagnetic noise, which can be significant in a switchyard environment. The second key element is the provision of a digital signal processor (DSP) (or CPU) for undertaking the data processing for each individual channel. By dedicating a single DSP/CPU to every data channel, computationally intensive manipulations can be implemented online and thereby reduce the traffic through the system. A centralized source of sampling signals provides the opportunity to synchronize the samplings across all data channels. The real challenge in this configuration is a mechanism for routing the sampling pulses from the central location to the front end A/D in the switchyard. An efficient technique is needed so that all the data acquisitions can be synchronized. Furthermore, the modular structure provides flexibility for future expansions. New A/D’s and DSP’s can be gradually added to the system in more cost-effective and manageable stages. The DSP usually communicates with the central data collection system through multiprocessing bus architectures. This enables the DSP modules to be designed as plug-in cards facilitating flexible expansion. Multichannel three-phase real time monitoring is now becoming available. A recently proposed system [78], shown in Fig. 14, includes remote data conversion modules (RDCM),

digital fiber-optic transmission, GPS synchronization, central parallel processing, and ethernet-connected PC’s for distant control and display. Document IEC 1000-4.7 deals with harmonic monitoring and list the following types: • quasi-stationary harmonics; • fluctuating harmonics; • intermittent harmonics; • interharmonics. Only in the case of quasi-stationary waveforms can the use of discontinuous monitoring be justified. In the remaining categories and at points of power interchange between different companies it is necessary to perform real-time continuous monitoring. IX. SUMMARY Electricity deregulation is not expected to introduce new power quality problems but is likely to highlight the existing ones. Accordingly, the paper has summarized the extent to which power quality issues will be affected by deregulation as well as the actions required to meet specified levels of quality throughout the power system. The main issues are the need to agree on adequate standards and the development of suitable power quality simulation and monitoring tools for their implementation. A review of power quality simulation techniques has been attempted and the special needs of power quality monitoring at points of energy interchange have been discussed. Emerging power quality state estimation techniques have also been described, with particular emphasis on their potential capability to pinpoint the sources of waveform distortion.

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Jos Arrillaga (Fellow, IEEE) was born in Spain in 1934. He received the B.E. degree in Spain and the M.Sc., Ph.D., and D.Sc. degrees in Manchester, U.K. While in Manchester, he led the Power Systems Group of UMIST in 1970–1974. Since 1975, he has been a Professor at the University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand. Dr. Arrillaga is a recipient of the 1997 Uno Lamm High Voltage Direct Current Award and of the 1997 John Mungenast International Power Quality Award. He is a Fellow of the Institute of Electrical Engineers (IEE) and of the Academy of Sciences of New Zealand.

Neville R. Watson (Member, IEEE) was born in Dunedin, New Zealand, in 1961. He received the B.E. (Hons) and Ph.D. degrees in electrical and electronic engineering from the University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand. He is currently a Senior Lecturer at the University of Canterbury. In addition to power quality, his interests include steady-state and dynamic analysis of AC/DC power systems.

Math H. J. Bollen was born in The Netherlands in 1960. He received the M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees from Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands. He held a postdoctorate position at Eindhoven University of Technology from 1989 to 1993, a lecturer position at UMIST, Manchester, U.K., from 1993 to 1996, and is currently Associate Professor at Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden. His current research activities include power quality, reliability, and protection. Dr. Bollen is Co-Chair of the IEEE IAS Power System Reliability Subcommittee. In 1998, he received the ABB Gunnar Engström prize for his work on voltage sags.



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