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Storing and transport of crude oil offshore Crude oil lifted from the ground far below the sea level has to be stabilized and stored before it is loaded to a shuttle tanker and shipped to terminals onshore. In the older Norwegian oilfields, crude oil is stored in or under the platform in the sea and is loaded on to the shuttle tanker through a loading boye. In a more modern technology, crude oil is stored in a floating storage vessel, and loaded on to the shuttle tanker from the floating storage vessel. Emission of VOC occurs both during storage in storing vessels, and during loading on to shuttle tankers. Storing vessels and shuttle tankers are different in function and technology, and the methods used to curb the emissions are also quite different. Emissions from storing and loading of crude oil, and their respective abatement options, are therefore treated separately.

Abatement of nmVOC from loading of crude oil to shuttle tankers offshore Emission of nmVOC from loading Crude oil is transported on shuttle tankers from the oil fields offshore to terminals onshore. To prevent an explosive mixture of oxygen and hydrocarbons in the empty storage tanks after landing of the crude oil onshore, the atmosphere in the tanks is inerted with exhaust gas. When the crude oil is loaded to the tanks offshore the inerted atmosphere is emitted to the surroundings. The atmosphere from the oil tanks may be almost saturated with hydrocarbons, or VOC. The amount of the VOC that is emitted is largely dependent on the quality of the crude oil that is loaded. In this case, VOC is synonymous with light fractions of crude oil. The different kinds of crude oil contain different amounts of hydrocarbon fractions, and those qualities which contain large amounts of light fractions emit more VOC than those with less amounts of light fractions. The composition of the crude oil from one specific oil field is quite constant, but variation occurs over time. As a consequence of differences in oil qualities there are large variations in the amount of VOC emitted from crude oil loading on the different oil fields in the Norwegian sector. Unabated emission factor for shuttle tankers Each oil field has got a specific crude oil quality, and to some extent it is possible to determine an emission factor for each oil field. This is a complicated matter to handle, and for modelling purposes it is necessary to simplify the situation. An average value for the emission factor, representing all the oilfields in the Norwegian sector, is therefore made. It is important to bear in mind that this emission factor only applies for offshore loading of crude oil to shuttletankers, other processes like storing of crude oil, or fugitive emissions from the process have other factors. It is also important that the factor may vary over time, and the factor is specific for the year the data is collected from. Abatement Technology on shuttle tankers For several years Norwegian oil companies have worked on technology to abate these emissions. Three different technologies are developed, but only two of them are implemented in the Norwegian sector. In the first type nmVOC is reabsorbed in the crude oil

Offshore platforms.doc

2 cargo, and shipped to terminals onshore. In 2002 this absorption technology was installed on 6 shuttle tankers. The second type of technology is installed on one shuttle tanker. In this condensation technology concept, the nmVOC is condensed on a tank and shipped to terminals onshore. The crude oil in cargo and the nmVOC condensate are handled separately. Both technologies are designed for reducing the nmVOC emissions with 78% when fully operative. For special purposes the condensation technology may be designed to recover the even larger amounts.

Abatement Technology on storage vessels Emission of nmVOC from storing nmVOC are emitted from storing vessels because the light fractions of the crude oil escapes during the storing process. The crude oil quality, the emission factors applied to the loading of shuttle tankers and the the amount of oil stored in the storing vessels vary the same way. Unabated emission factor for storing vessels In 2002 there where 7 storage vessels in the Norwegian sector. There are large variations in the amount of crude oil streaming through these vessels, but for simplicity, an average value for the unabated emission factor representing all the storage vessels is used. Abatement Technology on storing vessels There are several different methods for curbing the nmVOC emissions from storage vessels, but in principle they resemble the absorption technology used on shuttle tankers. Technology for reducing nmVOC emissions are implemented on 3 storing vessels. The technology is only referred to as a VOC recovery unit, and are designed for reducing the emissions with at least 95 %, or more. As an average, 97.5 % may be used as abatement factor.

Offshore platforms.doc