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Abortion complications in Nepalese Women: A study based on Nepal Demographic Health Survey, 2006 Mukesh Kumar Mishra (M.

phil), Department of Social Science, NIMS College, Lalitpur, Nepal *Corresponding Author, Mukesh Kumar Mishra, NIMS College, Lalitpur-6, Bagmati, Nepal Mr.callmishra@gmail.com Complications from abortion are a significant yet preventable cause of maternal mortality and morbidity. Regardless of implementation of abortion law, maternal deaths with abortion complications exist high in Nepal. The study uses a dataset from 2006 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey to assess abortion complications among Nepalese women (ages 15-49) who had their last induced abortion or miscarriage in the three years preceding the survey (2003-2006). The total number of women who had their last miscarriage or induced abortion during three years period (2003-2006) in Nepal was found to be reported as 354 respondents, among them 220 (62.1%) had experienced miscarriage and 134 (37.9%) had undergone induced abortion. Binary logistic regression was used to show the effect of each of the independent variables on the likelihood of complications from induced abortion and miscarriage in the multivariate analysis model. The result shows that women experiencing miscarriage who visited health facilities were 7.3 times more likely to have had complications from miscarriage. Age at marriage showed positive and statistically significant impact on complications from miscarriage ,women who married before 15 years and at 15-19 years were 10.9 times and 7.4 times respectively more likely to have complications from miscarriage than women who married after 20 years and above. Educational level shows statistically significant difference on complications from induced abortion. Women who have no education were 3.6 times more likely to have complications from induced abortion than women who had secondary and higher education. The study indicates that there is a substantial need among women to utilize abortion services at health facilities in Nepal. Government and policy planners should concentrate more on programs that improve the health service system and enable women to exercise their safe and legal rights to sexual and reproductive health. KEY WORDS: ABORTION COMPLICATIONS/INDUCED ABORTION / MISCARRIAGE / REPRODUCTIVE AGE WOMEN / NEPAL Demographic Dynamics and Human Development Nexus Mukesh Kumar Mishra (M.phil), Department of Social Science, NIMS College, Lalitpur, Nepal *Corresponding Author, Mukesh Kumar Mishra, NIMS College, Lalitpur-6, Bagmati, Nepal Mr.callmishra@gmail.com

Abstract This paper tries to shed light on the development consequences of demographic parameters. Four demographic parameters total fertility rate, natural growth rate, crude death rate and infant mortality rate are considered for analysis. Using the cross-country cross-sectional data from 173 countries for the period 2005 to 2007, regression model is fitted to determine the causal relationship between demographic parameters and human development. Bivariate scatter plots show total fertility rate and infant mortality rate have linear negative relationship with human development whereas natural growth has roughly concave but negative relationship and crude death rate is found to have roughly convex but negative relationship with human development. The final regression coefficients show that both natural growth rate ( = -.025, p<0.001) and infant mortality rate (= -.004, p<0.001) (R2 = 0.864) are significant negative predictor of human development. Alike the earlier research arguments, a favourable demographic environment is required to sustain development, this study confirms demographic parameters if not managed properly can play a negative catalytic roles for human development. Therefore, countries should pay attention to make their demographic indicator favourable to promote and sustain their human development.

FERTILITY TRENDS IN NEPAL: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF DATA FROM NEPAL DEMOGRAPHIC HEALTH SURVEYS 1996- 2006

ABSTRACT This paper presents current estimate of fertility trends in Nepal for the period 1996-2006, derived from three national surveys- Nepal Family Health Survey (NFHS) 1996, Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) 2001 and NDHS survey 2006. Age Specific fertility rates (ASFRs), the Total Fertility Rate (TFR) and mean age of child bearing is estimated with the help of the UN soft ware MORTPAK and its indirect fertility estimated programme FERTCB. We obtain a reasonably accurate estimation of the trend in the total fertility rate over time. The trend so obtained suggests that current fertility is somewhat higher than commonly thought. Our best estimate indicates that, between 1996 and 2006, the TFR decline from 4.96 to 3.98 in the country as a whole. During recent 10 years period the TFR decline by 0.98 points. It is very significant in nature. This help us

to conclusion that we are going to replacement level in near future though the present TFR is not satisfied compare to other most developing nations TFR in present time. The estimation of ASFR is used as a constant factor to inflate recorded ASFR. Each survey separately shows a substantial decline in the ASFR.

SOCIO -ECONOMIC AND DEMOGRAPHIC DETERMINANTS OF FERTILITY IN NEPAL: A ANALYSIS OF DATA FROM 2006 DHS SURVEY
ABSTRACT This study is based on Determinants of Fertility on the basis of some socio- economic and demographic variables. This is based on the Nepal Demographic Health Surveys 2006. The main objective of this study is to identify the some determinants factors of fertility among people. The multivariate analysis is used to show the strength of relationship of fertility with its correlates. It estimates the effect of socioeconomic and demographic variables on total Children Ever Born (CEB). Fifteen explanatory variables of fertility are selected to examine the relationship and effect of these variables in terms of mean CEB. This study is also an attempt to find out variation of fertility among people by using frequency table, cross tabulation and mean CEB. As a whole the mean CEB (2.44) of respondents shows still high level. There are eleven variables which are contributing 42.7 percent to bring differentiation on fertility (mean CEB). Number of sons died and number of daughters died has significant impact on fertility. These two variables impact on fertility by 25.8%, and 13.8 % respectively. Other nine variables are Educational attainment, Age at Marriage, Ideal Number of Children, No of Child Death, Religion, Employment all years/seasonal, Ethnicity, Region, Destination Nepal, are dominant factors contributing to the CEB size by 3.1% which are significant at above 99 % confidence level.

The fertility in Nepal is still high due to higher death of sons and daughter at the time of infant and child period so Nepalese people desired more children which are proved by this study. To reduce the fertility in Nepal it is still much more important to reduce the infant and children death. Unmet need, educational attainment, Age at Marriage, the size of Ideal Number of Children, No of Child Death, Religion, mployment all years/seasonal, Ethnicity, Region, Destination Nepal, are also the some other variables which also impact the fertility significantly but the impact of these variables have comparatively low with children death variables.

Socio-demographic Characteristics of Elderly Population in Nepal


Abstract
The proportion of elderly population has been increasing in Nepal. Decline in level of fertility and mortality, improvement in health care and prevention of infectious diseases are main causes of increase elderly population. During 1991-2001, average annual growth rate of elderly population was 3.44 percent. If this growth rate continues, elderly population will be double in 20 years. The rapidly growing elderly population has several policy implications. The sex ratio for elderly population was higher than that of the overall population of Nepal. The old age dependency ratio is increasing due to the decline in adult mortality. There are significant different between elderly men and women in marital status. The higher proportions of elderly female were in widowed category in comparison to elderly male. The literacy rate of elderly population is very low and most of the literate people have not attained formal school level education. The higher percentages of elderly population are in no schooling category.