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Applications of Hopfield Neural Networks to Distribution

Feeder Reconfiguration

Demck Bouchard and Aziz Chikhani V.L John M.M.A.Salama

Department of Electrical and Department of Electrical Engineering Department of Electrical and
Computer Engineering Queen's University Computer Engineering
Royal Military College of Canada Kinmton. Ontario. Canada University of Waterloo
K 7 c 3N6 waterloo: Ontario. Canada
N2L 3G1

Abstract the fact that the losses to be minimized are $R losses, which
are nonlinear.
Dktribution feeder reconflguration k an optimization
problem for loss minimization, and, in this paper; we Feeder reconfiguration is an active area of research, and
investigate the use of a Hopfield neural network for several algorithms have recently been proposed to solve the
dktribution feeder reconfigumtion. A network model is feeder reconfiguration problem (for example, [1-6]). Much of
devebped andpresente4 and then the method applied to a the research explores heuristic methods that employ rules-of-
dktribution system used by Wagner et a1 [ l ] conskting of thumb to reduce the number of possible configurations to be
threefeeders, thirteen normallyclosed sectionallihg swWzes, searched. None of the algorithms presented to date guarantee
three normally open tie switches and thirteen load points. that the solution found is the optimum one, and in all cases
Simulation results using thk distribution system modelled the prohibitive computational requirements limit applications
a neural network are presented to smaller systems.

Keywords: dktribution automation, feeder Recently, researchers have investigated the use of the
reconfiguration, loss reduction, Hopfield neural Hopfield neural networks to solve optimization problems, such
network as the Travelling Sales Person problem [71. Hopfield nets are
attractive for optimization problems because the solution is
determined collectively in a very short time by a large number
Introduction of neurons. Hopfield neural networks are beginning to find
application in electric circuits [8-101 and communications [ll].
Distribution automation feeder reconfiguration involves
the opening and closing of distribution feeder switches to Hopfield Neural Networks
minimize system power losses, while at the same time
providing for improved load balancing amongst a system's Hopfield and Tank [7] have suggested that neural
feeders and satisfying the required voltage profile using networks are well suited to the solution of combinatorial
voltage regulators. Switching operations are constrained by optimization problems. They have illustrated the basic idea by
the capacities of the system transformers and feeders, voltage solving the travelling salesperson (TSP) problem, which
profiles and by the need to keep phases as closely balanced as requires that a route be found for a salesperson to visit n
possible. In an emergency, feeder reconfiguration allows cities, visiting each city only once, and minimizing the
sections without power to be switched to another feeder to distance to be travelled. 'rhus, the solution is to find the best
restore power, providing increased reliability to customers. order among n cities to be visited. If we introduce a square
matrix containing n x n neurondbinary elements, the solution
Even a relatively small distribution network will allow can be represented by entering a "1" into the row/column to
for many possible feeder configurations, and an exhaustive indicate when the ith city is to be visited. For example,
search of all possible configurations to determine the optimum table 1 below represents a five-city tour. Here, the solution is
configuration is impossible in real-time applications. Each to visit city 1 f i t , city 4 second, then city 5, then city 3 and
feeder in a distribution system usually has a mix of residential, finally, city 2.
commercial and industrial cust?mers with varying needs
depending on the season of the year and the time of day, and, Note in table 1 that there is only one "1" in each row,
thus, lengthy computation times are not possible in a real-time only one "1" in each column, and that the total number of
implementation. The optimization problem is compounded by ones is equal to the number of cities.

0-7803-1217-1/93/$3.00 01993 IEEE

31 1
Position on tour

Table 1 - Possible solution to the. fivecity Travelling Salesperson Problem (TSP)

These constraints can be incorporated into an energy is to reconfigure the network. Figure 1 shows a three feder
function, as follows [12,131: distribution system consisting of 3 three feeders serving 13
loads. There are 16 sectionalizing switches, with 3 of them
open. The data for this system (line impedances,voltages at
. n n n
the busbars and MVAs at each busbar) is shown in table 2.
This system was studied in [l] by Wagner et al. This
i#j distribution system could be reconfigured, for example, by
closing the switch in feeder section 15, and opening the switch
in feeder section 19.


1 116 122

The solution to the problem is to minimize this energy 13
function. We should examine what this function represents. 26
The first term will be zero once a solution is reached if and
@- 1
only if there is only a single value of 1 in each row. The
second term will be zero if and only if there is a single value
of 1 in each column. The third term is a summation of all
output values, and there should only be n of these that have
a value of 1 - all others should be zero. The final term


computes a value proportional to the distance between cities,
and should be a minimum when a solution is reached. Note
that there are four constraints. of which three are strong and
one is weak.

Distribution Systems Problem Statement

In a radial distribution system, sectionalizing switches A typical distribution network has a radial structure, with
have two purposes - the first is to isolate faults, and the other
each load supplied by only one feeder. The following aiteria

must be met to solve the distribution network problem: The final term computes a value that is proportional to
the losses in the feeder configuration. This will have a non-
a. each load is connected to only one feeder; zero value, but one that should be a minimum when a solution
is reached.
b. the n u m b of switches closed equals the number of
loads connected; and, How can we turn this energy function into a neural
network? Let us define a connection weight matrix in terms
c. the total line losses, SR,are minimized. of inhibitions between processing elements. We will make
use of a four-index scheme instead of the double index
Solution to the system shown in figure 1 notation that has been used up to now to describe the weight
matrix. Our notation will be TXLv
To represent the system shown in figure 1 as it is
connected in figure 1 as a Hopfield neural network, we could Let us now reconsider the energy function. The first
represent it using the matrix shown in table 3. Here, A "1" in term will be zero if and only if there is one element in each
a matrix element indicates a load is connected to a particular column of the output matrix. Consider modelling this as
feeder. A "blank" indicates the load is not connected to that

In [ll, Wagner et al showed that the optimal -B 6 , (1-6g),

configuration for this network was to move load 11 to feeder
1, and to move load 10 to feeder 3. After this reconfiguration,
the matrix would be as shown in table 4.

The energy function to be minimized is as follows: Using this model, 6,, will be zero everywhere except
where X = Y. The quantity in parentheses will be one except
B "f "f " when i = j . This is to ensure that all other units in a column
-2 i-1 C Vxivyi
- 1 Y-1
are inhibited except the unit itself.
The second term involves a sum of all outputs, and can

+ [.5 5
X=1 i l l
"f "
vxi-n J be said to be a global inhibition term, and can be modelled as
The third term can be modeled as follows
+, D
2 c Cdxyvxi
x-1 Y-1 -D dxy 6xy

In the above expression, n is the number of loads and nf The % , term ensures that inhibitory connections are made
is the number of feeders. The loss associated with each load only between loads. The term -D dxy ensures that loads
is represented by dxu. If the constants, B, C,D are all greater causing the biggest line losses will receive the largest
than zero,then E will be nonnegative. inhibitory signal.

We should examine what our energy function represents. Combining these terms gives
Note that the t e m containing the constant A in the original
energy function for the TSP problem has disappeared, as the TX,V = - B 6g (1-6m)
- C - D d m 6,
constraint that there be only one "1" in each row does not
exist. The first term of the modified energy function, vxj yyj,
will be zero if and only if each column of the processing For small increments of time, the time evolution of the
elements matrix contains a single value of 1. This term above network can be approximated by
should be zero when a solution is reached.

The second term, Exxi

YM is a summation of all n x nf
output values. There should only be n of these that have a
value of 1 all others should be zero. Hence, this term
should also be zero when a solution is reached. where N is the number of processing elements, t is the system

time constant, and Ii is the input. where the line impedance between branch i and branch i+l is
rj + xQ the load at branch i+l is SLi = PLi + QLi, and thus
Pi+r, Qi+l and Vi+l are the values at branch i + I , having
determmed those values for branches U . . . i.

The power loss on a line between two branches, i and

i+l , is then given by

pi = ri (P: + Q;) p.u.

where the assumption is made that Vi' is approximately equal

where A is called the gain parameter. to 1 p.u. ?his, then, can be used as the distance parameter,
dm, above.

Simulation results

We have attempted to represent the three-feeder network

shown in figure 1 as a neural network. The results have not
been encouraging.
= 2 (1 + tmh(hXi))
After several attempts and using various values of B, C,
Substituting Txi previously defined, and defining D, z, A, and n', the network did not provide a valid solution
Ixi = Cn', where C is as previously defined and n' is a to the optimization problem. Using the hyperbolic tangent as
constant, a transfer function typically resulted in all switches being
open, or all switches being closed, depending upon the value
of A.

Y#X We tried using other transfer functions. We had limited

success using the following transfer function:
vi =
1 + e-pi
This expression was evaluated if& was greater than some
threshold, t, and set to zero otherwise. Using this transfer
Y#X function, we were able to get a mixture of switches being
closed and opened. However, in this case, we usually found
that some loads were connected to two feeders, while some
To complete the solution, the constants B, C,D,z, A, and loads were not ~ o ~ e c t to
e dany feeder.
n ' must all be specified.
Power Flow Equations
We have modelled a distribution network as a Hopfield
In [14]. Baran and Wu provide a set of power flow neural network, and solved it in a fashion similar to the
equations for radial distribution networks. By assuming that Travelling Salesperson Problem. However, the network did
the losses on the lines between branches are much smaller not converge to a valid solution for the network of figure 1.
than branch power terms, they develop the following set of Future research will explore why the network did not
branch equations: converge.

Pi+l = Pi - pLi+l = 'Lk


Bus to Section Section EndBus EndBus EndBus End Bus
bus Resistance Reactance Load Load Capacitor Voltage
@.U.) (p.u., (Mw) (WAR) (WAR) (p.u.1
1-4 0.075 0.1 2.0 1.5 0,9911-0.370
4-5 0.08 0.11 3.0 1.5 1.1 0.9881-0.561
4-6 0.09 0.18 2.0 0.8 1.2 0.986/-0.697
6-7 0.04 0.04 1.5 1.2 0.9851-0.704
2-8 0.11 0.11 4.0 2.7 0.9791-0.763
8-9 0.08 0.11 5.0 3.0 1.2 0.9711-1.451
8-10 0.11 0.11 1.o 0.9 0.9771-0.770
9-11 0.1 1 0.11 0.6 0.1 0.6 0.9711-1.525
9-12 0.08 0.11 4.5 2.0 3.7 0.969/-1.836

o.ll -1 reoI o.9 I I 0.9941-0.332


13-14 0.09 0.12 1.0 0.7 1.8 0.995/-0.459


13-15 0.08 0.11 1.o 0.9 0.992/-0.257


15-16 0.04 0.04 2.1 1.o 0.9 0.991/-0.596


5-11 0.04 0.04

10-14 0.04 0.04
7-16 0.09 0.12

Table 2 - System data for the system shown in figure 1.

Table 3 - Distribution system of figure 1 illustrated as a Hoptield neural network.

Table 4 Optimum configuration for the distribution system of figure 1.


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