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294 IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 8, No.

1, January 1993
Time Varying Load Analysis To Reduce Distribution Losses Through Reconfiguration
Robert P. Broadwater Asif H. Khan Hesham E. Shaalan Robert E. Lee
member member member

The Bradley Department of Electrical Engineering, Pennsylvania Power & Light,


Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Allentown, Pennsylvania
Blacksburg, VA 24061

-
ABSTRACT An electrical distribution systam recoafiguration
algorithm to reduce aystem loesee is presented. The algorithm
circuit load profile makes reconfiguration possible to reduce
1.- Thus, a circuit's load diversity is establishedby the daily
calculates switching patterns am a function of time. Either electrical power demands of the various customer typee which
seasonal or daily time studies may be performed. Both manual are aerved by the circuit. The modeling of the diversified load
and automatic switchea are used to rexmntigura the system for patterns d t h e various customer types is "idered.
seamnal studies, whereas only automatic switches are Seasonal, daily, and hourly time variations of load provide
considered for daily studies. A load estkaation algorithm analysm pointa for the reconfiguration algorithm. Using thia
provides load information for each time point to be analyzed. The load data the algorithm develops switching p a t t a m to reduce
load estimation algorithm can incorporate any or all of the loosea, where time may vary Over a daily cycle and/or a seasonal
following: spot loads, circuit meaaurementa, and customer time- cycle. Ben&ita fmm eeasonal loee reduction can be accompbhed
varying diversified load charactariotica. Voltage dependency of through manual switching, whereas b e d t a from the daily loes
loads is considered at the circuit level. It is shown that switching reduction requirea automatic switching [l].
at the system peak can reduce lossea but may cause a marginal The reconfiguration of an electrical distribution system to
increase in system peak. Data s t ~ ~ c used t u to
~ ~model loads reduce lasses has a natural tendency to balance loading among
and to store switch configurations as a function of time are circuits. This balancing proceas placee the system in a better
described. Example problem are provided to illustrate resulte. position to respond to emergency load transfem [2,3].
Liu, Lee, and Vu [4] derived a global optimality condition for
Key words: reconfiguration, voltagedependency, switching the loas minimization problem and propoaed two algorithms: the
patterns. f& ia based on the uniformly distributed load model and the
second on a concentrated load model.The first algorithm obtains
1. INTRODUCTION the optimal solution when the minimum losa is obtained for
every feeder pair. In the second algorithm, a similar procedure is
An algorithm which analyzes distribution systems for loss performed by moving open pointa, one at a time, from nn actual
reduction is dmcriied. Distribution systems consist of groups of switch position to another until no further loss reduction can be
interconnected radial circuits. Their configurations may be acbieved. However, the authors left feeder load estimation for
varied with manual or automatic switching operations to future work.
transfer loads among the circuits. ,Ideally, the system Estimation of load distribution along a feeder is critical to
configuration should produce minimum loeees. Starting with a succeclllful reco-ration analysis. The method presented
given set of switch p i t i o m , the algorithm searches for a utilizes feeder measurements, customer information, and
revised combination of switch poaitions to reduce loaaee. The conatant spot loads. Customer information includes numbers and
algorithm converges when the search procadure cannot locate a classes of customers attached at a specified point in the circuit
switch pair operation that further reducea loesee. model and time-varying diversified load characteristicsfor each
Distribution system load varies seasonally by time and type of class. The algorithm accepts whatever load i d o m t i o n is
day. Manual switching to reduce losees satisfies the utility's available. For inatance, if only spot laads are specified, then
need to accommodate S W W M ~load variatione. The emergence of customer information and feeder measuremente are ignored.
distribution automation techology and equipment allows This work builds upon aspects derived from Civanlar's [5]
automatic switches to take advantage of daily and time of day and Huddleaton's [SIprevioue studieu. Civanlar's method does
switching patterna to reduce h e s . The placement and not allow loads to be switched from a higher to lower voltage
operation of switchea to reduce loaaes ia a complex task level Circuit and is baaed on a single switch pair operation per
compounded by the time varying nature of loads. iteration [ 6 ] . Huddleeton solved the minimum loss
The load profile for a circuit is a function of customer typea. " f i i t i o n problem utilizing a quadratic lms function and
Laad profilea vary from circuit to circuit due to the mix and multiple switch pair operations per iteration.
dispersion of customen, served. In distribution eysteme, circuit This algorithm utilizea Civanlar's voltage switching rule, a
peaks are noncoincident due to the diversity of load resulting single switch pair operation per iteration, and a direct search
from the categories of customer classes served. This variation in method which incorporatee Huddleston's loss function. The
direct search method incorporate the constraints of specified
voltage bandwidth and conductor and equipment ampacities.
92 WM 269-1 PWRD A paper recommended and approved by Depending upon the load-voltagedependency relationship,
the I E E E Transmission and Distribution C o m m i t t e e of switching operatiom may cause individual switched loads t o
the IEEE Power Engineering Society for presentation either increase or decrease in magnitude. At the system peak
a t the IEEE/PES 1 9 9 2 Winter Meeting, New York, New
York, January 26 - 30, 1992. Manuscript submitted
condition, switching operatiom which reduce loeees may
simultaneously increase the peak h l t s based on mch
August 28, 1991; made available for printing
November 27, 1991. , conditions are presented.
A mathematical formulation is presented in the following
section. Data structures wed in load modeling and storing
reaulta of the algorithm are deacribed. The load model,
0885-8977/92/$3.W1993 IEEE
295
estimation procedure, and voltagedependency modeling of loads ALCORITHM RESULTS
are explained. Next, the loes function evaluation coupled with a
direct search procedure is presented. The handling of voltage The switching configuration Data structure stores switch
and current constraints is explained. Finally, three examples status for each switch in the eyatem. The set of switch positions
which illustrate the concepts are solved. Subecripts and stored in each data structure io unique, and is given a unique
variablea are defined in Tabla Aand B of the Appendix. identifier referred to as a Configuration Identification.
The Operations Data strudure Storee season, type d day, t h e
2. PROBLEM STATEMENT of day, and the C o d i t i o n Identification for the associated
point in time. Two-hundred and seventeen data &ruch.lres of
The objective is to minimize system real loeses as a function of type Operations Data are utilized. Of these two-hundred and
seventeen ,"st two-hundred and sixteen correspond to the
function of switch positions =.
circuit topology for a given point in time. The circuit topology is a
The problem to be solved can be
mathematically expressed as follows:
twenty-four hours in a day, three typea d days, and three
SBBZJOM. The ~mainingstructure corresponds to the base case
system configurationthat exists a t the start of the solution.
minimize f @ o m T ) } o v e r 3 subject to:
4. LOAD ESTIMATION
The algorithm can uee available system measurements, load
statistics b a d on cuetomer class, and/or load estimates. If
(3) available, the algorithm takes the following into account feeder
circuit meamremenk, the number of customem by customer
(4)
class throughout the circuik diversified cuetomer load curves. If
kWPedT5 max_kwPedT,p (5) none of the preceding load information is readily available,
traditional load estimates may be used. Diversified load curvea
The objective fundion is subject to a set of nonlinear equations may be developed from load research data or experiments such
and linear inequality constraints. For a given time T, the vector as those performed in the Athens distribution automation project
of complex loa& is estimated at nominal voltage. The [a]. The information flow for the load estimation process is
vector ZT includes both automatic and manual switches or just indicated in Figure 1.
automatic switchea depending upon the study to be performed
(i.e. daily or seasonal). The nonlinear functions described by
Eqns. (1)-(2)are representations of the system power flow

TT
equations which are a function of time and switch position. The Diversifid
inequality constraints repreeent voltage bandwidth, equipment Load curves
and conductor ampacitiee, and system peak concerns. &
The algorithm which implements the solution of the problem customer
does not necessarily reach the global minimum, but doea search hformafkn
for switch pair operations which reduce loesee while
simultaneously satisfying system constraints. When no switch
pair operation which d u m loeees can be found (i.e. regarding
the currently open switches), the direct search method
converges. The algorithm generates switching pathma v e m
time, where each time point to be analyzed correaponda to a
different loading condition. "he algorithm is implemented on
Personal Computers running the OSE extended operating
system and the included database management system.

3. DATA STRUCTURES
1
Load information and m d i g u r a t i o n algorithm d t s are
stored in memory in data s t " a and in tables in a database
on the hard disk.
Figure 1. Information Flow Diagram for Circuit Load Estimation
LOAD INFORMATION
Feeder power flow and power factors are modeled as a function
The Diversified Customer Load Data Structure stores of the type of day, time of day, season,and phase for each circuit
information associated with diversified time-varying customer and are defmed aa five dimensional arrays,
load characteristics. Elements of this data structure include
customer class, season, type of day, time of day, hourly
diversified KW usage, power factor, and cold load pickup factor.
The Circuit Measurements Data Structure stores information The diver~SiedKW curves for customer classes are used to
about feeder power flow at the substation. Elements of this data allocate feeder measurements a t the modeled load points. If
structure include feeder name, feeder loss factor, season,type of feeder measurements are unavailable, then the load may be
day, time of day, hourly KW and power factor measurements for directly calculated a t each load point from the number of
each phase. customers and the diversified load curves. The diversified load
296
value for a line section is determined by multiplying the number The voltagedependency load factor (VDF,) for a particular
of customem on a particular line section by the customer class circuit is be defined an
divedied load curve value. A maximum of twelve custom=
classes may be modeled at each line &ion. fractional change in load amp
For clarity of presentation and d d p t i o n , it is assumed that VDF, =
all data are available. The portion of the measured power volt
allocated to customer class "j"is the ratio cf the total divemifii
load for customer class "j" to the total diversified demand, which VDF, may be specified as a positive, negative, or zero value. A
ia independent of cuetomer class, multiplied by the measured positive voltagedependent factor simulates constant impedance
KW for feeder 'c", type loads, whereas a negative voltagedependent factor
simulates constant power type loads. If Vi,p,~,crepreeents the
complex voltage value at the ith load point for phase "p" and
circuit "c" which is deviated from ita nominal value, then the
Feeder loesea and customer load scaling are accounted for by voltagedependent load current is given by,
multiplying Eqn.6 by a loss factor.

= lsj * Plos * Pmcusj,c.


PrnL~ssj,~ (7) (12)

The portion of the meaaured KW allocated to a single customer


of class "j" is given by dividing Eqn. (7) by the total number of
6. LOSS FONCTION EVALUATION
customers of class "j"for phase "p" on feeder "c",
A Direct search method based on concept6 presented in
Reference [7] evaluates changes in k e a predicted by
Huddleston's lose function [6].For a given system codiguration
the loss functions are evaluated for all switch pair operations
The estimated KW load at the ith load point for each phase of
adjacent to open switches, where only transfere from lower to
feeder "c" and for customer class "j"baaed on time of day, type of
day, and seaclon is obtained by multi lying Eqn. (8) by the
higher voltage circuits are considered.
number of customers of class "j"at the it!l load point, Consider a distribution system with 'n' open switches. Results
fmm power flow analysis are ueed to develop loss functions for
P-est i,pj,T,c = Pma ij,c * a s i,pj,c. each circuit [6,91. Circuit loas functions are evaluated at the
(9)
nominal witching current values, where the nominal switching
current ia the sum of the nominal load currents that are being
The number of customem at the ith load point may be specified
switched [SI.The loss functions associated with all circuita are
interactively by the user or may come from a Customer
summed and the bane case loss model is given by,
Information Database interface.
N
The total estimated load at the ith load point is given by, P h S B = P-bap,. (13)
c=o
The loas functions are sequentially evaluated for each possible
(10)
switching operation. Loas functions associated with all circuits
are summed for each possible switching operation, developing
An equation similar to Eqn. (10) is used for the reactive power
additionallose models for each open switch, as given by,
load eatimate.
N
Ploes,, = 2 P-lassc,
5. VOLTAGE DEPENDENCY FACTORS C=O

where BW = 1,2, ...,Maximum number of open switches.


Loads are modeled as voltagedependent. The voltage
dependency factor allows system analysis to be easily performed If a daily r e c o d i t i o n study is being performed, then open
using various degreea of traditional constant power, conatant manual switch- are not considered.
current, and constant impedance load modele. The loas function for each allowable switch pair operation is
For a given phaee "p", the nominal load current at the ith load compared to the base case lasa function and the switchbg
point is given by, operations that produce the maximum decrease in system loas
are selected as the switching operations to be implemented at
the current iteration, as given by,

A voltage dependency factor is associated with each circuit. If A P h s 5 0.0, then the algorithm has converged since no
Th-e factors can be determined experimentally by varying the switch pair operation further reducedthe system loss.
substation bus voltage coupled with rapid sampling of feeder Voltage and current comtrainta are checked before the
voltage and curremta. Experience at Pennsylvania Power & Light recommended switching operation is implemented. If a
has shown that a tbree percent voltage reluction does not constraint vidation occum, then the switching operation is not
appear to reduce load while a decrease of five percent pmducea allowed, and the resulting open switch is tagged as not being
an approximate two and one-half percent drop in load. However, available for U I J ~in further reconfiguration evaluation at that
a load tends to regain ita previous value after about thirty time point. If constraints are violated, then Eqn. (15) is used to
minutes.
297
select the switch operation that reaulta in the next greatest The low functione are evaluated for the base case and for each
decrease in loeses. possible switch pair operation. The din& search method then
determines the switch pair operation that prod- the
7. RECONFIGURATION ALGORITHM maximum decrease in system losses. This switch pair operation
The flow of the Reconfiguration Algorithm is illustrated in is performed and power flow calculations are re-run on the
Figure 2. circuits that changed. If no constraint violations OCCUT. the loas
For the fmt or next time point to be analyzed, program functions of the W e d circuita are updated. A new base case
variablea related to constraint violations (SCE) and convergepce at this time point has now been created, and further comparisons
(PFE) are initialized. Using available information from the are made against this base case. When switch pair operations
Divelaified Customer Load and Circuit Measurements data p d u c e no further loss mduction, the algorithm has converged
structurea, the loading condition for the given time point is for this time point. If a new switching pattern has been
evaluated. A power flow calculation is then performed for each generated, meults are s t o d to the Switching Codiguration
circuit. If constraint violations OCCUT on the fmt iteration, those Data Structure. The Configuration Identification, system loa-,
violations are flagged and the algorithm pnxeeds to the next and load level for the time point are atored in the Operations
time point to be analyzed. Otherwise, the low functions are Data Structure. This procedure is repeated for all time pinta
calculated. under atudy.

P Start

B
I Load Model I
Powor Flow
GFl
V

Check
0 alnts

Exit on SCE = 1
I

I
N I t7
Store Results
I
Switch Pair Operation
B Q
I
Figure 2. Recontiguration Algorithm Logic
298
8. IMAMPLEPROBLEMS Ezamde 2:
The second example analyzes m e r weekday and weekend
Three example problems are considered which d e m ~ ~ t mme te
loading while aomming the voltage dependency factor to be
of the load models. The fust example uees spot loa& only. zero. The sptem of two cbmita shown in Figure 4 has a
Modeling in the second example is based on reaidenth1 and midpoint constant spot load of 300 KW which is used to
small commercial divernified load curves along with a spot load.
de"ta the benefita available by taking advantage of load
The third example indudea feeder meam"enta along with divernity between m e r e n t customisr claesea. Circuit 1has 1000
cusltomsr divemified load curven and spot loads, and illuntratea
all el& residential c-untomen~ per phase while Circuit 2 has
the &e& of voltage dependency. Feeder voltage level is assumed 341 small commercial customers per phase. These numbem were
to be 13.2 KV for all three ~p~~~mples. For eaee of manual chceen such that the noncoincident circuit peak loading is equal
calculation to verify algorithm multa, short line aectians were
for a s u " weekday, but unequal for the weekend. Figure 6
assumed to be C O M ~ X U C wi~th~ conductors and conductor shows the load curves for both customer classee. Recommended
configuratio~~ with an impedance of one ohm per mile. While switching c h a w nhift the epat load to the circuit with the
loss r e d d o n s are shown to be small,they are demonstrated to smaller load. Table 2 shows the switch pooitions, the
eorist and are small due to the choice of line impedance and recommended switching operation time points, and the circuit
length. lOading.
Examde 1: "he conatant spot load for the mummer weekday is served 13
The main featurea of the r e c o n f i i t i o n algorithm are houm per day by Circuit 1 and 11 h m per day by Circuit 2,
illustrated in this example. The problem wao deaigned to test whereas for the " m e r weekend Circuit 1 only supplies the
the algoritm and therefore the solution is known in advance. spot load for 1hour. Furthemore, the total reduction in loesee for
Figure 3 shown the three circuita used. There are 126 possible the " m e r a w n is 2141 KWh aeeUming 66 weskdaye and 26
switching configurations. Voltage dependency is assumed to be weekends. Although not presented, and in contrast to the
zero (i.e. conatant current load). Circuit loading and the "Ita summer reaulta, multa for wintar weekdays and weekends
of the analysis are shown in Table 1. The time point analyzed is reveal that the apot l a d is alwaye served by Circuit 2.
a " m e r weekday at 6 p.m. The r e c o d i t i o n algorithm
converged in twelve secondo. The results show that
reconfiguration tends to balance loads, losses, and voltage levels.
As a sanity check the load before and &er reeonfiguration
remains the same at 198OOKW, while the losses are reduced by
26 KW. Operation of the four highlighted switchea in Figure 3

s
produce the calculated renulb.

Figum 4. Example 2 System of Circuits

I.

FigLlre 3. Example 1System of Circuite

Table 1. b d i g u r a t i o n Results of Example 1

circuit1 circuit2 circuit3

Before Reconfiguration:
Total KW Load 7800 6000 6000
KwhLoesee 698.3 413.2 413.2
Voltage h v e l 116 118 118
ARer Reconfiguration:
Total KW h d 6600 6600 6600
os' . . . . . . 8. . . . . . 11
0
s . . . . I .
18
. . . . .
2;
KwhLoMee 600 600 600 -dPq
Voltage Level 117 117 117 Figure 6.Load Curves For Summer Weekday
299
Table 2. b u l t a of Example 2

Hourof Switch1 Switch2 KWLoading


day status status circuit1 Circuit2

Summer Weekday:
12a.m. open closed 4410 3840
2 a.m. closed open 3150 3161
7 a.m. open closed 3210 3297
9 a.m. closed open 4200 3678
5 p.m. open closed 5280 5394

Summer Weekend
12a.m. open c l d 4590 3614
5 a.m. closed open 2850 2578 circuit
6 a.m. open closed 2670 2786 2

Example 3:

Example three is designed to demonstrate the need for


automatic switching to take advantage of daily loss reduction. A Figure 6. System of Three Circuita
system of three circuita shown in Figure 6 contains forty-one line
sections, seven protective devices, three line voltage regulators, Table 3
and six switches. Load In KW For Three Circuita As A Function Of Voltage
Many loads are found to be voltagedependent [SI. Due to the Dependency Factor For Summer Weekday at 2 a.m.
voltage dependency of loads, system total load varies with
calculated voltage levels. Total system load also changea when Voltage Dependent Facto-
switching operations are performed with voltage dependency -0.03 -0.01 0.00 0.01 0.03
factors unequal to zero. The effects of voltagedependency on Base Case 11161.8 11029.8 10965.8 10903.0 10781.0
system loading and loeaea is shown in Tables 3 and 4. The After Switchin 11123.2 11017.4 10965.8 10914.9 10815.6
results presented are for a summer weekday at 2 a.m. with an Change In Loa3 38.6 12.4 0.0 -11.9 -34.6
arbitrary selection of voltage dependency factors of -0.03, -0.01,
0.0, 0.01, and 0.03.
Positive voltagedependency factors simulate constant Table 4
impedance load behavior and negative voltagedependency Loaa In KW For Three Circuita As A Function Of Voltage
Dependency Factor For Summer Weekday at 2 a.m.
factors simulate constant power load behavior. From Table 3 it
can be seen that as the voltagedependency fador increases in Voltage Dependent Factors
the positive direction the total load demeasea, and Table 4 -0.03 -0.01 0.00 0.01 0.03
illustrates similar behavior for lowea. Table 3 also indicak that
for a load mix with a positive voltagedependency factor (i.e. Base Case 317.5 307.4 302.6 297.9 288.9
constant impedance load), system load increases as lossen Afterswitching 265.6 259.2 256.1 253.1 247.3
Loss Saving 51.9 48.2 46.5 44.8 41.6
decrease. Without a coordinated voltage control system, this
effect could be detrimental at the aystem peak time point.
For the constant current base case system load, the total 9. CONCLUSIONS
system lossea represent only 2.8 percent. However, the algorithm
demonstrates that a 15.4 percent loas reduction is still available A reconfiguration algorithm which analyzes time varying load
for this time point. Additional analysis not shown here indicates patterns is presented. It is shown that seasonal, daily, and time
that the status of switches swl and aw2 are a function of daily of day system reconfiguration based on time varying loads and
load variation, whereas switches sw3 and sw5 change their customer class diversities will reduce system losses.
status b a d on seasonal load variations. Hence, from a loss Furthermore, system reconfiguration has a tendency to balance
reduction perapedive switches swl and sw2 should be chosen as loading and voltage levels among circuita. Depending upon the
automatic, with the reat of the switches being manually voltagedependency of the load mix, the system peak could
operated. increase while loss reductions are being realized. However,
d t a indicate that the increase in total system load was very
small. Extrapolating theae resulta to system peak conditions,
switching for reduced lossea should have little &e& on peak
load.
300
REFERENCES Table B
Definition of Variables
[I] R. E. Lee, C. L. Brooks, "A Method and Its Appliition to
Evaluate Automated Distribution Control", IEEE Transactions Variable Definition
on Power Delivery, Vol. 3, No. 1,July 1988, pp. 1232-1240.
[2] C.H. Cantro, J. B. Bunch, T. M. Topka, 'Gemeralized number of customers
Algorithum for Distribution Feeder Deployment and equipment current vector
Sectionalizing, " IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatue and load current
Systems, April 1980,pp. 649-667. equipment current rating vector
131 R. E. Lee, R. H. Osborn, V. F. W h k e r , M. T. Bishop, voltagedependent load current
"Analysieof Time Varying Distribution Circuit Current and Laas ayatempeak in kw
C h a r a ~ c s "IEEE
, Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 2, customer type load scaling factor
NO.4, October, 1987, pp. 1249-1264. maximumvalue ofsystean peak in KW
[4] ChenChing Liu, Seung J. Lee, Khoi Vu, "h Minimization circuit KW loss fador
of Distribution Feeders: Optimality and Algoritbma," IEEE total diversified KW load
Tramactionon Power Delivery, April 1989, pp. 1281-1289. normalized diversified lnnr load
[6] S. Civanlar, J. J. Graingw, H. Yin,S. S. Ise,"Distribution constant KW load
Feeder Reconfiguration for Loss Muction,"IEEE Trans. on cuatomer baaed KW estimate
Power Delivery, Vol. 3, No. 3, July 1988, pp. 1217-1223. quadratic Iwsfunction
[q C. T. Huddleaton, R. P. Broadwater, A. Chandnrsekaran, base w e loss model
"Reconfiguration Algorithm for Minimizing Losaw in Radial loea model bawd on load tranafer
Electric Distribution Systems," Electric Power Systems Research measured power allocated to cuetomer type
Journal, Vol. 18, NO.1,1990, pp. 67-67. P-mea feeder KW flow measurement
[7] M.J. Box, D. Davis, W.H. Swann,"Non-Linear Optimization Pmloss Pmcue excluding line losses
Techniquw,' Monograph No.6, Oliver & Boyd, 1969. PmS m e a d power allocated to single customer
[8] P. A. Gnadt, J. S. Lawler, " A u t m " a g Electric Utility PF-mea feeder power factor measurement
Distribution Systems: The Athens Automation and Control -S load vector
Experiment," Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1990. -
SW switch poeition vector
191 R. P. Broadwater, A. Chandraeekaran,C. T.Huddleston, and tcus total number of customers
A. H. Khan, "Power Flow Analyuia of Unbalanced Multiphase Tp_est total kw estimate
Radial Distribution System,"Electric Power Reclearch Journal, V node voltage vedor a t time T
January, 1988, pp. 23-33. Ynom nominal voltaga
Vmin lower bound for syatem voltage
VmaX upper bound for aystem voltage
Appendix: Definition of Subscripts and Variables
Table A Biographies
Definition of subscripts
Robert P. Broadwater is an associate profegeor of electrical
Subscript Definition engineering at V i Tech. His primary intereat is in electrical
distribution system analysis, deeign, and automation. He
i load point i=1,2,... currently sewea as the aswciate editor of distribution and
m load point m=1,2,... utilization systems for the Electric Power System Journal. He
9 load point q=l,2,... has worked with GE, B&W, TVA, TVF'PA, Oak Ridge National
s segment a=1,2, ... Lab, PP&L, and AP&L.
n number d open switch-
c,cl,cZ circuits c=1,2, ... A d H. Khan is pzwently puzauing a Ph.D. in electrical
N number of ckuita engineering at V i n i a Tech. He received his BE in electronica
P p=a,b,c from NED University, Karachi, Pakistan. He received his MS
3 ' Z m e r type
t time of day from Tennessee Tech. His primary area of intereet ia software
a
Se
trpeofhY
season
development for electrical diatribution systems.
Heaham E. Shaalan is a Ph.D. candidate in Electrical
T repre8ent.a time of day, type of day, Engineering a t Virginia Tech. He received hie BSEE and MEE
and season { t, d, Se }
Pk peak from The Univemity Of Houston in 1986 and 1987, respectively.
He is a member of Eta Kappa Nu Honor Society and IEEE Power
Engineering Society. Hie reeeamh involves electric utility
economic evaluation and distribution automation.
Robert E. Lee began employment at PP&L in 1961 after
graduation f " Drexel Univemity. Progreasing through
distribution engineering, his most recent position has been
supervising distribution dand reliability activities since
1982. He is Industry Advisor to two EPRI Distribution
Automation projecta and is active in the IEEE/PES Transformer
Committee and the IEEE/PES Distribution Subcommittee.