Problem set 4, solution and key embedded inside it \
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You are on page 1of 21

School of Management

Quantitative Aptitude (Volume IV)

Mar-Nov 2008

Foreword

This is the fourth set in the series. hope you had fun in the first three sets,

like the third set this set also has solutions and keys, kindly check at the end.

I have taken proper care to select nice problems and tried to give one of the

best if not the best solution. Still if you can’t understand teh solution or you

have a better approach, you know how to find me.

Problem Set 4

a) 20 b) 24 c) 50 d) 75 e) 97

202) How many number are there in range of 10 to 106 such that their digit

sum is 18 ? For ex. 99000, 9072, 90027, 66006.. .

a) 23 C5 b) 23 C5 +13 C5 c) 23

C5 −13 C5 d) 23

C5 + 6.13 C5

e) 23 C5 − 6.13 C5

a) 1 b) 2 c) 4 d) 8 e) none of these

204) Find the area of right angle triangle whose inradius is 4 and circumra-

dius is 10?

205) Find the number of triplets of real numbers (x, y, z) which satisfy

(x + y)3 = z

(y + z)3 = x

(z + x)3 = y

1

a) 0 b) 1 c) 2 d) 3 e) none of these

206) Find the sum of all 3 digit numbers which are equal to 25 times the sum

of their digits.

Given that α ≤ β ≤ γ ≤ δ. Find δ − α

√ √ √ √ √ √

a) 2 2 b) 2 3 c) 2 d) 1 + 2− 3 e) 1 + 2+ 3

sible value of x + y respectively. Then compute pq

1 −1

a) 0 b) 2

c) 2

d) 2 e) −2

√ √

209) Let y = x2 + x + 1 + x2 − x + 1, where x<. Then which of them

is true?

e) y < −1

210) Six distinct positive integers are randomly chosen between 1 and 2008,

inclusive. What is the probability that some pair of these integers has a

difference that is a multiple of 5?

1 3 2 4

(A) 2

(B) 5

(C) 3

(D) 5

(E) 1

211)

( Find the number of triplets (x, y, z) of positive numbers such that

x+y+z =1

x4 + y 4 + z 4 = xyz

a) 0 b) 1 c) 2 d) 3 e) none of these

212) Find the number of pairs of positive integers (a, b) such that a! + b! = ab

2

a) 0 b) 1 c) 2 d) 3 e) none of these

213) Ganesh and sarath walk up an escalator which moves up with a con-

stant speed. For every two steps that ganesh takes, sarath takes one step.

Ganesh gets to the top of the escalator after having taken 30 steps, while

sarath takes only 20 steps to reach the top.If the escalator were turned off,

how many steps should each o them take to reach the top?

a) 30 b) 40 c) 45 d) 60 e) none of these

x+y+z+t=3

x2 + y 2 + z 2 + t2 = 9

214) Let x, y, z, t < and

x3 + y 3 + z 3 + t3 = 27

4

x + y 4 + z 4 + t4 = 81

Then find S = x2008 + y 2009 + z 2010 + t2011

determined

215) Find the number of pairs of real numbers x, y such that (x2 + 8x +

17)(y 2 − 2y + 6) = 5

a) 0 b) 1 c) 2 d) 3 e) 4

zx = xyz

a) 0 b) 1 c) 4 d) 7 e) 10

3

217) In the figure shown above, ABCD is a square alongwith two other

squares which are inscribed in ABCD. Find the ratio of the area of S to the

area of ABCD

√

a) 25/54 b) 71/81 c) 30/81 d) 10/9 e) none of these

are two digit positive numbers and c is a one digit positive number. Then

abc equals ?

ments X and Y. Answer each question using the following instructions

Choose A if the question can be answered using X alone

Choose B if the question can be answered using Y alone

Choose C if the question can be answered using either X or (exclusive) Y

Choose D if the question can be answered using X and Y together

Choose E if the question can not be answered using X and Y also

gles and a + b = p + q . Is c = r?

X: aq + pb + pa + bq = cr

4

Y: cq − rb = ra − cp

p

221) If a, b, c, d, e are integers and p = 2a .3b and q = 2c .3d .5e . Is q

a ter-

minating decimal?

X: a > c

Y: b > d

222)Two friends get home at 2:30 P.M. They both go to bed 10 P.M. If

both friends will go to a park twice for 15 minutes, what is the probability

that they will be able to see each other at any random time between the two

time intervals? Assume that the travel to and from the park takes no time.

25 8 27 29 3

(A) (B) (C) (D) (E)

225 15 225 225 17

223) Let p be a prime number such that f (p) = (2 + 3) − (22 + 32 ) + (23 +

33 ) − ... − (2p−1 + 3p−1 ) + (2p + 3p ) is divisible by 5. If p1 , p2 and p3 are the

three smallest such primes, then p1 + p2 + p3 equals

a) 15 b) 19 c) 21 d) 25 e) 35

is true?

a) a ≥ b b) b ≥ c c) b ≥ c d) a, b, c e) b, c

a) 1 b) 2 c) 3 d) 4 e) Infinite

226) Positive integers x and y satisfy 3x2 − 8y 2 + 3x2 y 2 = 2008. Find the

product x2 y

a) 28 b) 49 c) 16 d) 98 e) 112

√ √

227) Let x and y be positive integers such that x > y and x and y

5

√ √ √ √

are pure surds. Let T = ( x + y)222 + ( x − y)222 . Which is/are always

false? [.] indicates greatest integer function.

√ √ √ √

a)√[T ] = [( x + y)222 ] b)[T ] = [( x + y)222 ] + 1 c) [T ] =

√

[( x + y)222 ] − 1 d) a and b e) a and c

228) Let n be a 5-digit number, and let q and r be the quotient and re-

mainder, respectively, when n is divided by 100. For how many values of n

is q + r divisible by 11?

(A) 8180 (B) 8181 (C) 8182 (D) 9000 (E) 9090

229) For prime numbers p and q, p + q = 102 and p > q. What is the

least possible value of p − q?

a) 2 b) 4 c) 8 d) 12 e) 16

230) Amit has a total of n balls of which r, g, band w are red, green, blue

and white respectively. His friend Sumit asks him about the balls he says,

I have so many balls such that if I select four balls, probability of selecting

four red balls is same as the probability of one ball of each kind and is same

as probability of selecting one white and three red balls and is same as the

probability of selecting two red, one white and one blue ball. Sumit asks him

whether this is the minimum of such set of balls. Amit says yes. He tells

him the value of r. What is it?

a) 9 b) 10 c) 11 d) 12 e) 13

231) Amit asks the total number of balls, sumit answers correctly what is his

answer?

a) 17 b) 19 c) 21 d) 23 e) 25

that 3x + 4y can have?

6

233) The director of a marching band wishes to place the members into

a formation that includes all of them and has no unfilled positions. If they

are arranged in a square formation, there are 5 members left over. The di-

rector realizes that if he arranges the group in a formation with 7 more rows

than columns, there are no members left over. Find the maximum number

of members this band can have.

(A) 172 (B) 273 (C) 374 (D) 294 (E) 476

234) Let n be a positive integer such that 1335 + 1105 + 845 + 275 = n5 .

Find n

(A) 134 (B) 144 (C) 154 (D) 164 (E) 174

235) The perimeter of a right triangle is 60. The height to the hypotenuse is

12 what is the area?

(A) 75 (B) 144 (C) 150 (D) 300 (E) noneof these

and B are on the semicircle and C is a point on ON such that minor arc MA

= 40 degrees, angle OAC = 10 degrees, and angle OBC is 10 degrees. find

the degree measure of minor arc BN.

237) Given that A be a set such that A={1,2,A}. Then n(A) equals?

(A) 2 (B) 3 (C) 4 (D) can not be determined (E) none of these

238) 4 identical dice are tossed simultaneously. What is the probability that

at least 3 of the four nos. shown are different?

20 120 5 1200

(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) none of these

216 216 6 1296

239) In triangle ABC the medians AM and CN to sides BC and AB, respec-

tively, intersect in point O. P is the midpoint of side AC, and M P intersects

7

CN in Q. If the area of triangle OM Q is n, then the area of triangle ABC is:

(A) 16n (B) 18n (C) 21n (D) 24n (E) 27n

w is in interval of (0, ∞), and that:

logx w = 24

logy w = 40

logxyz w = 12

Find the value of logz w.

defined to be a path on the cube from A to B and then back to A, using the

least possible number of edges, and without using the same edge more than

once. How many round-trip paths are there?

242) Find the number of pairs of positive integers (x, y) such that

xy = y 50

243) Let n be a positive integer such that when we add 1 to the product

of any n consecutive positive integers, the result is a perfect square, then n

equals?

Determine the minimum value taken by f (x) for x in the interval p ≤ x ≤ 15.

8

(A) 0 (B) 15 (C) 30 (D) 45 (E) none of these

245) Let x = 3a + 3b , where a and b are chosen independently from the in-

tegers 1 through 100 inclusive (with each integer having an equal likelihood

of being chosen). Compute the probability that x is an integral multiple of 5.

1 1 5 1

(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) none of these

2 3 6 4

246) Define

n f (n) by:

if n is even

f (n) = n 2

+ 1023 if n is odd

2

Find the least positive integer k such that f (f (f (f (f (k))))) = k and the

least positive integer m such that f (f (f (m))) = m. Then m + k equals

247) find the number of ordered pairs of real numbers (x, y) such that

(

x2 + y 2 + x + y = 8

xy + x + y = 5

(A) 2 (B) 4 (C) 6 (D) 8 (E) 10

248) The equation x3 − 4x2 + 5x − 1.9 has real roots r, s, and t. Find

the area of the triangle with sides r, s, and t.

1 1 1 1

(A) √ (B) √ (C) √ (D) √ (E) none of these

2 3 5 6

249) Express the base 7 repeating decimal 0.023023023023... as a base 10

fraction in lowest terms.

119 23 17 23

(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) none of these

2400 999 342 666

250) How many of the first 1000 positive integers can be expressed in the

form [2x] + [4x] + [6x] + [8x], where x is a real number, and [z] denotes the

greatest integer less than or equal to z?

9

(A) 50 (B) 125 (C) 250 (D) 500 (E) 600

Answer Key

10

206) e) 207) e) 208) e) 209) c) 210) e)

211) d) 212) c) 213) d) 214) e) 215) c)

216) e) 217) a) 218) b) 219) e) 220) a)

221) b) 222) d) 223) e) 224) e) 225) d)

226) e) 227) e) 228) b) 229) e) 230) c)

231) c) 232) b) 233) d) 234) b) 235) c)

236) b) 237) b) 238) c) 239) d) 240) e)

241) c) 242) b) 243) c) 244) b) 245) d)

246) d) 247) a) 248) c) 249) c) 250) e)

Appropriate care has been taken to keep this document free. But, if you

find any errors, please report to the author at rahuljha.jha@gmail.com. This

document is not for sale! Good Luck !

Short Hints

201)

P∞ As 100it is binary expansion. we need to find the power of 2 in 100! i.e

k=1 2k = 97

which comes out as (18+6−1) C6−1 =23 C5 . But this will also include the num-

bers whose digit is greater than 9. which is not possible. So, we subtract

those solutions. Let a = 10 + a0 then a + b + c + d + e + f = 18 becomes

a0 + b + c + d + e + f = 8. number of solutions is 13 C5 . Now in place of a, we

can have b, c, d, e and f so 6.13 C5

11

23

final solution C5 − 6.13 C5

203) these are two consecutive even nos.so the lcm is (73001 − 1)(73001 + 1)/2

(76002 − 1)/2. The cyclicity of 7 is 4 and 6002 = 4.1500 + 2 so unit digit of

(76002 − 1) is 9 − 1 = 8 so unit digit of (76002 − 1)/2 = 8/2 = 4

then (a + b + 20) = 2s and A = ab/2

r = 4 = A/s = ab/(a + b + 20) ⇒ (a + b + 20) = ab/4

also a2 + b2 = 400

square the first one we get a2 + b2 + 400 + 2ab + 40(a + b) = (ab/4)2

⇒ 400 + 400 + 2ab + 40(ab/4 − 20) = (ab/4)2

⇒ 12ab = (ab/4)2 ⇒ ab = 4.4.12

area = 2.12.4. = 96

x = y = z. putting it we get x = 0, 2√1 2 , 2−1

√

2

⇒ 75a = 15b + 24c

⇒ a = (5b + 8c)/25

now a is a natural number,so

(5b + 8c)/25 = 25, 50, 75, 100

applying the constraint that 0 ≤ b, c ≤ 9

we get (b, c) = (5, 0), (2, 5)(7, 5)

The fourth equation gives no solution

taking the sum 750

set of solutions. Thus x2 + 6x + 6 is one of the factors of the equation. let

the other factor be x2 + ax + b. so we can write (x2 + 6x + 6)(x2 + ax + b) = 0

equating the constat term of initial equation and the factored equation we

get 62 + 7.6 + 6 = 6b ⇒ b = 14 similarly equate the term of x3 we get a = 8

√ √

So, we have (x2 +6x+6)(x2 +8x+14) = 0 roots are x = −3 ± 3, x = −4 ± 2

12

208) clearly we

√ can take x = cos θ and y = sin θ

then x + y = 2 sin( π4 + θ)

√ √

so clearly p = 2 and q = − 2

so pq = −2

209) Rationalise and add. We will get a quadratic of x. use the condi-

tion for x to be real. we will get −1 < x < 1

the same remainder when divided by 5. Since there are 5 possible remainders

(0 − 4), by the pigeonhole principle, at least two of the integers must share

the same remainder. Thus, the answer is 1

y = z = 1/3

one triplet

214) Let total no of steps be A. Let them both start together. Then steps

covered by escalator while Ganesh takes 30 steps is x. Then Sarath Takes 15

steps. He takes remaining 5 steps to reach top. By that time escalator will

take x/3 more

A = 30 + x = 15 + x + 5 + x/3

=> x/3 = 10

=> x = 30

214) (x2 + y 2 + z 2 + t2 )2 = x4 + y 4 + z 4 + t4

So after expanding, we see that in every pair of numbers, at least one must

be 0. Therefore, 3 of the numbers must be 0. Then by the first equation, the

4th number is 3. These yield the 4 values of s = 32008 , 32009 , 32010 , 32011

13

We can write the original equation as (X + 1)(Y + 5) = 5. As both x, Y

are positive. The only solution is X, Y = 0 and so we get one final pair (−4, 0)

x = 2 gives yz +2(y +z) = 2yz ⇒ (y −2)(z −2) = 4 gives (y, z) = (3, 6)(4, 4).

Also let x = 3 gives 3(z + y) = 2yz. But (y − 3)(z − 3) ≥ 0 =⇒ yz + 9 ≥

3(y + z) = 2yz. Thus yz ≤ 9 which is only possible if y = z = 3.Thus

(x, y, z) = (3, 3, 3), (2, 3, 6), (2, 4, 4) taking the permutations we will get 10

ordered solutions.

217) We need to use the fact that the medians of a triangle divide the triangle

into three triangles of equal area. this is used to find the area outside the

octagon. Please note that the octagon is not regular.

Lets assume the area of the square is 9 Then the area of unshaded region is

(2/3).8 − (1/8)4 = 29/6. subtracting we get area of S = 9 − 29/6 = 25/6 so

ratios is 25/54

xy

and 132 is what we need.

The gcd of 18 and 132 is 6 so the lcm is 6 which equals (18!)(12!)

xy

3!

. hence

abc = 18 × 12 × 3 = 648

219) clearly the remainder should be divisible by 9 but none of the options

are so answer is e)

221) p/q = 2a−c .3b−d 5−e . clearly the only thing which will ensure termi-

nating decimal is b − d > 0 which comes from Y

we divide the total time interval in units of 15

lines now we need the area under the curve

14

|y − x| ≤ 1

302 − 292 59

= 900

302

this is for one meeting as they come twice we will need some cases

|y − x + 1| ≤ 1 and |y − x − 1| ≤ 1

this will take care of all the cases !!

so finally it becomes 2

= =

30 900 225

223) the odd terms (2n + 3n ) , n is odd,will be divisible by 5 as (2 + 3 = 5)

see this is 22 + 24 = 20

and 32 + 34 = 90

so (22 + 24 ) + (32 + 34 )

so p is of the form 4k or 4k + 1

so sum is 35

so we can assume a = b without loss of generality

2a2 = c2 (1 + a2 )

a2 < a2 + 1 => c2 .a2 < (a2 + 1)c2 => c2 .a2 < 2a2 => c2 < 2

⇒ c = 1 now a, b being positive integers will be greater than or equal to 1,

hence option e

y = 1 will give a solution

y = 2 will give x = 9 another solution y = 4 will give x = 5 and y = 8 will

give x = 3 we get 4 solutions now we won’t get any solution because next

value is y = 12 but if y = 12 or greater x will become close to 1 but never 1

so no more integral solution

15

⇒ 3x2 (y 2 + 1) − 8y 2 = 2008 clearly rhs and the second term on lhs is divisible

by 8, so we need x as even and yas odd let x = 2k and y = 2m + 1 we get

3k 2 (2m2 + 2m + 1) − (2m + 1)2 = 251

clearly m=0 gives us a rhs divisible by 9 but lhs of 3

clearly m=1 is not a solution

m=2 gives no solution chk divisibility

m = 3 gives k = 2

m=4 no solution

m=5 none

m=6 gives none

clearly for a larger m we will get a smaller k which is not possible

so only one pair of (x, y) = (4, 7)

so x2 y = 112

227) One of my favourite questions√in this set. It √ uses some basic concepts

√ 222 √

rigorously. lets roll! See this T = ( x + y) + ( x − y)222 is clearly an

integer as the even powers will give integers and the odd powers which will

make surds will add up to zero√ due√to the presence of corresponding negative

terms. SO [T ] = T Let p = x − y now √ p > 1 or p < 1,if p < 1 then p222 is

√

very close to zero yet positive then [T ] = [( x+ y)222 ]+1 so √ option b is true

222 √ 222

in this case if p > 1 then p will be very large So [T ] = [( x + y) ] + k

where k is a positive integer much greater than 1 so option a and c are always

wrong. So option e)

have 11|n. so number of terms we need is just all 5 digit multiples of 11. that

is [99999/11] − [9999/11] = 8181

q = 51 − x now we have to make sure 51 + x, 51 − x both are primes which

comes for x = 8 and 59 and 43 so p − q = 16

n = 3 n 1 = 2 n1 1 = 1 1 n 1 1

(4) ( 4 ) (4) (4)

All the n4 can be canceled. We write them in factorial form and set the

16

(first and second), (second and third), and (third and fourth) expressions

equal to get r − 3 = 4w, r − 2 = 3b, r − 1 = 2g. Solving this, the general

solution is r = 12k + 11, w = 3k + 2, b = 4k + 3, g = 6k + 5. put k=0 we get

r = 11 and n = r + g + b + w = 11 + 2 + 3 + 5 = 21

get (x − 7)2 + (y − 3)2 = 64. Though we could solve this geometrically,

applying the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality is much more effective.

From Cauchy-Schwarz, ((x − 7)2 + (y − 3)2 )(32 + 42 ) ≥ (3(x − 7) + 4(y − 3))2 .

Because (x − 7)2 + (y − 3)2 = 64 and 32√+ 42 = 52 , we can substitute and

take the square root of both sides to get 82 52 ≥ 3x − 21 + 4y − 12.

Testing possible values of x in terms of y, we see that x = y + 3 is the largest

possible value for positive x, y, so we have 6y + 9 = 7y − 5 ⇒ y = 14, so our

answer is 294

234) Do we need a solution for this ? :) Anyways k 5 has same the unit

digit as k(check it). so last digit of n is 3 + 0 + 7 + 4mod10 = 4. All the

options have 4 as unit digit.:) now clearly see lhs is divisible by 3. Now check

options n = 144, 174 are divisible by 3. But 174 is very large a number. hence

n = 144

864 ⇒ a = 20, b = 15 so area is ab/2 = 150

10o

= 1

sin(170o −x)

=> sin(170o − x) = sin 30o = 1/2

o o

So x = 20 or 140 .

The angle x = 140o would put B right on top of A, so the solution that

we want is x = 20o .

237) We can’t for sure say what is A but we can for sure say that A has

3 elements 1, 2 and A

17

there are 6 ∗ 5 ∗ 4 ∗ 3 ways for the first 3 to be different and the next one to

be the same. multiply by 4 c3 , then divide by 2 because we have one thats

the same as another. thats 360 ∗ 2 = 720. divide by 64 = 1296. Then add

6 ∗ 5 ∗ 4 ∗ 3 which is 360. so the total is 1080/1296 = 5/6

is D

240) x12 y 12 z 12 = w

⇒ x120 y 120 z 120 = w10

⇒ w5 w3 z 120 = w10

⇒ z 120 = w2

⇒ z 60 = w

⇒ logz w = 60

241) From A to B there are clearly 3.2.1 = 6 paths. Now while coming

back we cant take any of the edges again. So 2 paths are ruled out at B

itself. now out of the 4 remaining one will have to go through one edge use

while coming to B. so we are left with 3 paths. So a total of 6.3 = 18

50

242)xy = y 50 ⇒ x = y y

clearly y =factors of 50 = 2.5.5 = 2.3 = 6 factors so 6 solutions here. Also

y = 50k so y = 100 but no other value will give a integral x as k th root of

50k will not turn out to be an integer for any other value of k. So a total of

6 + 1 = 7 solutions

n) + 1 = (n2 + n − 1)2 so n = 4

244) Using the two inequalites we are given about x and p, it becomes

f (x) = (x − p) + (15 − x) + (15 + p − x) = 30 − x. This will be at a minimum

when x is at its maximum which is when x = 15 so it is 30 − 15 = 15

3mod5. So we can divide 100 into four segments of 25 each, giving remain-

der 3, 4, 2 and 1 on division by 5. Suppose we choose any athen we we can

choose b from the corresponding segment which makes the sum of the two

18

1

remainders as 5. then probability is 100.25/(100.100) =

4

Alternatively then the equation simplifies into 3a [1 + 3(b−a) ]. We can obvi-

ously conclude that 3a is not a multiple of 5. Since a − b has equal probability

of being anything, (assuming a >= b), we say that a − b = n. then since

there is only one value (mod 5) where (3n )+1=0(mod 5), then we can deduce

that n is such that 3n = 4mod5. Now clearly 0 ≤ n ≤ 99, again we can find

1

25 such n0 s out of 100 The probability of that happening is

4

(

2n if n even

246) Let g be the inverse of f . then g(n) =

2n − 1023 if n odd

5

clearly k = g(g(g(g(g(k))))) = 2 k − 1023 ⇒ 31k = 1023 ⇒ k = 33 similarly

m = 4m − 1023 ⇒ m = 341 so k + m = 341 + 33 = 374

247) add twice the second equation to the first we have (x+y)2 +3(x+y) = 18

putz = x+y then z 2 +3z−18 = 0 ⇒ z = 3, −6 if z = −6 ⇒ xy = 11, x2 +y 2 =

14 ⇒ (x − y)2 = 14 − 22 = −8 which is not possible. So z = 3 gives xy = 2

and x2 + y 2 = 5 this gives (x − y)2 = 1 ⇒ x − y = ±1 So (x, y) = (1, 2) or

(2, 1) so 2 pairs

A = 4 (r + s + t)(r + s − t)(r − s + t)(−r + s + t). = 41 4(4 − 2t)(4 − 2s)(4 − 2r) =

1

p p

2(2 − t)(2 − s)(2 − r) = 16√ + 4(rs + st + rt) − 8(r + s + t) − 2rst. =

√ √

16 + 20 − 32 − 3.8 = 0.2 = 55

manner:

0(7− 1) + 2(7− 2) + 3(7− 3) + 0(7− 4) + 2(7− 5)....

2(7− 2 + 7− 5 + 6− 8...) + 3(7− 3 + 7− 6 + 7− 9...)

17

2((7− 2)/(1 − 7− 3)) + 3((7− 3)/(1 − 7− 3)) =

342

250)clearly x is positive. What we need to do is solve this problem graph-

ically. The critical points are 1/8, 2/8, 3/8, ..1 and 1/6, 2/6..1 and 1/4, 2/4, ..1

and 1/2 and 1. Combining we get 1/8, 1/6, 1/4, 1/3, 3/8, 1/2, 5/8, 2/3, 6/8, 5/6, 7/8

19

and 1. At each critical point there will be an increase of atleast one and

at special points like1/4, 3/4 we will have increase of two and at 1/2, 1

we have an increase of f our. So the numbers that can be represented are

1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 20. So out of first 20 we get 12 so out of 1000

we will get 600

20

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