1. Check for a Halal logo on the food package. If a Halal logo issued by an established Islamic council is present, then the food can be consumed. If a Halal logo is absent, then proceed to Step 2.

2. Read the ingredient listing on the label and then refer to Table 1 and 2. Identify the Halal/Haram/Mashbuh status of each ingredient. 3. If all ingredients of the product are Halal, the product is fit for Muslim consumption. 4. If any of the ingredients is Haram, the product should not be consumed. 5. If any ingredient falls under the Mashbuh category, avoid this product. To find out the status of ingredients, write in or call up the manufacturer. The product can be consumed only if the manufacturer claims that the ingredient is of Halal source Table 1: Islamic Status of Food Additives
NO 1 2 3 4 FOOD ADDITIVE Acacia gum Adipic acid Agar Algin FUNCTIONS Stabiliser; emulsifier Tartness Gelling agent; retards sugar crystallisation Suspending & thickening agent; film forming agent; prevents syneresis Adjusts alkalinity Gelling agent Stabilises fatty acids Adds colour Vitamin C; stabiliser; colour preservative Preservative Chemical preservative; antioxidant Chemical preservative; antioxidant Thickener; gelling agent; improves body & mouth feel Sequestrant; stabiliser Preservative Sweetener Flavour enhancer Anti-caking agent Whipping agent ISLAMIC STATUS Halal Halal Halal Halal Halal Halal (plant) Mashbuh Halal Halal Halal Halal Halal Halal (plant) Halal Halal Halal Halal Halal Mashbuh

5 Alkali 6 Ammonium carrageenan 7 Antioxidant 8 9 10 11 12 13 Artificial colour Ascorbic acid Benzoate of Soda BHA BHT Calcium carrageenan

14 Calcium disodium EDTA 15 Calcium propionate 16 Calcium saccharin 17 Calcium salt 18 Calcium silicate 19 Calcium stearoyl lactylate



FUNCTIONS Gelling agent; emulsifier; thickener; suspending agent Colouring agent Stabiliser; solubility Prevents crystallisation; enhances flavour Prevents oxidative deterioration Anti-caking agent; thickener Emulsifier Emulsifier; stabiliser Flavour adjuvant Emulsifier Chemical preservative Antioxidant Nutritive Nutrient/dietary supplement Tartness; flavouring agent Flavour enhancer Moistness Moistness; emulsifier Sweetener Stabiliser; thickening agent Emulsifier; thickener; adhesive Thickener; binder; stabiliser Emulsifier Prevents crystallising Improves & protects flavour Adjusts acidity; flavouring agent Emulsifier; inhibits spoilage Inhibits spoilage; flavouring agent Emulsifier Malt diastase Prevents crystallising Vegetable gum thickener; emulsifier; stabiliser Better frying; antifoam Emulsifiers; extractants; improve texture Flavour enhancer Inhibits crystallisation; release agent Suspending agent; improves colour Acidulant Emulsifiers Sequestrant Sequestrant; production of caramel

ISLAMIC STATUS Halal (plant) Halal Halal Halal Halal Halal Halal Halal Halal Halal Halal Halal Halal Halal Halal Halal Mashbuh Mashbuh Halal Halal Halal Mashbuh Halal Halal Halal Halal (synthetic) Halal Halal Mashbuh Halal Halal Halal Halal Mashbuh (Halal if from plant) Halal Mashbuh Halal Halal Mashbuh Halal Halal

20 Carrageenan 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 Carrot oil Cellulose gum Citrate Cobalt sulphate Corn starch Dextrin Dipotassium phosphate Disodium inosinate Disodium phosphate Erythorbic acid Ethoxyquin Ferric Orthophosphate Ferrous gluconate Fumaric acid Glutamic acid Glycerine Glycerol monostearate Glycine Guar gum Gum arabic Gum tragacanth Hydroxylated lecithin Invertase Isopropyl citrate Lactic acid Lactostearin Lactylate Lecithin Malic acid Malt diastase Methyl cellulose Methyl silicone

53 Mono- & di-glyceride 54 55 56 57 58 MSG Oxysterin Pectin Phosphoric acid Polysorbate 60 & Polysorbate 80

59 Potassium citrate 60 Potassium phosphate

NO 61 62 63 64 65

FOOD ADDITIVE Potassium sorbate Propyl gallate Propylene glycol Propylene glycol alginate Propylene glycol monostearate

FUNCTIONS Preservative Antioxidant Emulsifying agent; solvent Emulsifier Emulsifier Sweetener Prevents caking Sequestrant Stabiliser Vitamin C; preservative; colour fixative Preservative; anti-microbial agent Chemical preservative Chemical preservative Stabiliser; prevents syneresis; retains moisture Binding agent; nutrient Controls acid; improves & protects flavour Colour fixing agent Sequestrant; water blending agent Whipping agent Colour fixative; preservative Preservative; colour fixative Sequestrant Anti-microbial agent Prevents lumping Conditioning agent Suspending agent Anti-microbial; preserves colour & flavour Chemical preservatives Emulsifier; surfactant Improves texture; nutrient Emulsifier Chemical preservative Preservative; anti-microbial Flavour enhancer Colouring agent Flavouring agent Flavouring agent Preservative

ISLAMIC STATUS Halal Halal Halal Mashbuh Mashbuh Halal (discouraged for health reasons) Halal Halal Halal Halal Halal Halal Halal Halal Halal Halal Halal Halal Mashbuh Halal (watch for health reason) Halal (discouraged for health reasons) Halal Halal Halal Mashbuh Mashbuh Halal Halal Mashbuh Halal Halal Halal Halal Halal Halal Mashbuh Mashbuh Halal

66 Saccharine 67 Silicon dioxide 68 Sodium acid pyrophosphate 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 Sodium alginate Sodium ascorbate Sodium benzoate Sodium bicarbonate Sodium bisulphite CMC Sodium caseinate Sodium citrate Sodium erythorbate Sodium hexametaphosphate

79 Sodium lauryl sulphate 80 Sodium nitrate 81 Sodium nitrite 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 Sodium phosphate Sodium propionate Sodium silicoaluminate Sodium stearate Sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate Sodium sulphite Sorbic acid Sorbitan monostearate Sorbitol Soybean lecithin Stannous Chloride Sulphur dioxide Tartaric acid Titanium dioxide Vanilla Vanillin Vinegar

NO 99 Whey



ISLAMIC STATUS Mashbuh (when enzymes are used, it should be investigated) Mashbuh (Haram when it produces ethyl alcohol during fermentation) Halal

100 Yeast

Fermenting agent

101 Zein

Coating agent

Source: Hussaini, M. (1993). “Islamic Dietary Concepts & Practices”, 1st edition. The Islamic Food & Nutrition Council of America (IFANCA), USA.

Table 2: Code Number of Haram Food Additives
E120, E140, E141, E252, E422, E430, E431, E470, Haram additives with “E” prefixes E471, E472(a), E472(b), E472(c), E472(d), E472(e), E473, E474, E475, E477, E478, E481, E482, E483, E491, E492, E494. 120, 141, 160(A), 161, 252, 300, 301, 422, 430, 431, 433, Haram additives without “E” prefixes 435, 436, 441, 470, 471, 472(a, e), 473, 474, 475, 476, 477, 481, 482, 483, 491, 492, 494, 542, 570, 572, 631, 635, 920. Source: Islamic Religious Council of Singapore (MUIS) Downloaded on 28 Nov 2007 from http://sps.nus.edu.sg/~dewihart/halal%20food%20selection.htm