V
OF THE
UNIVERSITY
OF
u
HYDEAULICS
FOE
ENGINEERS AND ENGINEERING STUDENTS
HYDRAULICS
FOR
ENGINEERS AND ENGINEERING STUDENTS
BY
F.
0.
LEA,
LONDON)
D,Sc. (ENGINEERING,
SENIOR WHITWOBTH SCHOLAR ; ASSOC. R. COL. SC. ; M. INST. C. E. J TELFORD PRIZEMAN PROFESSOR OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
;
IN
THE UNIVERSITY OF BIRMINGHAM.
THIRD EDITION
SECOND IMPRESSION
LONDON
EDWARD ARNOLD
41
&
43,
MADDOX
STREET,
BOND STREET, W.
1919
{All Rights reserved]
Engineering Library J^ .
PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION OINCE the publication of the first edition of this book there has been published a number of interesting and valuable papers describing researches of an important character which add materially to our knowledge of experimental hydraulics. has not been easy. without being overburdened. essentially an experimental one. As proved far to be the case when the original book was written. At a later reading he will find the Appendix useful and of interest not only as an attempt to give some account of the is which most recent researches but also as a reference to the original papers. extent and of attempting to them in the original relevant chapters summaries of the researches together with a few critical notes have been added in the Appendix. therefore. 424806 a3 . This arrangement has the advantage that. he able to obtain a grasp of a subject. C. from is the point of the student. without going beyond the original purpose of the book and keeping the volume within reasonable dimensions. F. LEA. so in the present volume the difficulty of selection. While the results of these supplement the matter in the original text they have not made considerable incorporate it necessary to modify the contents to any instead. BIRMINGHAM. June 1916.
.
of Bernouilli's theorem. Small displacements. Steering of canal boats. Stability of rectangular pontoon. Condition of stability of equilibrium. The barometer. CHAPTER Introduction. FLUIDS IN MOTION. Stability of floating body wholly immersed in water. . water. III. Conditions of equilibrium. Examples pressible fluids. Transmission of fluid pressure. Floating docks. The pressure on any horizontal plane in a fluid must be constant. Bernoulli's theorem. Page 37 . Fluids and their properties. Venturi meter.. Centre of . The differential gauge. Pressure measured in feet of water. Extension . . Fluids at rest with free surface horizontal. Hydrostatics. FLOATING BODIES.. Page 1 pressure. I. buoyancy. The pressure at a point in a fluid is the same in all directions. Compressible and incomDensity and specific gravity. Page 21 CHAPTER Steady motion.CONTENTS. Stream line motion. Examples . Pressure head. Stability of floating dock. Intensity of pressure. Piezometer tubes. Total or whole pressure. CHAPTER II. Centre of Principle of Archimedes. Diagram of pressure on a plane area. Metacentre. Definitions relating to flow of Energy per pound of water passing any section in a stream line. FLUIDS AT REST. Examples . Stability of floating vessel containing water.
Bazin's experiments on a sharpedged orifice. CHAPTER FLOW THROUGH Head V. Effect of suppressed contraction on the coefficient of discharge. Examples . Pressure in the plane of the orifice. Discharge through a trianglar notch by the principle of similarity. Hydraulic gradient and virtual Determination of the loss of head due to friction. Discharge of a weir when the air is not freely admitted beneath the nappe. Rectangular sharpedged weir. apparatus. Flow over dams. The form of the jet from sharpedged orifices. Boussinesq's theory of the discharge over a weir. Sudden contraction of a current of water. Velocity of approach. Large orifices. Borda's mouthpiece. Form of weir for accurate gauging. FLOW OF WATER THROUGH ORIFICES AND OVER WEIRS. Reynold's slope. Sudden enlargement of a current of water. Loss of head by friction. Wide weirs. Velocity of discharge from an orifice. Form of the nappe. Bazin's and the Cornell experiments on weirs. Discharge through a rectangular weir by the principle of similarity. Thomson's principle of similarity. Coefficient of velocity for sharpedged orifice. Instability of the form of the nappe. Velocity of approach. Distribution of velocity in the plane of the orifice. Time of emptying a tank or reservoir. Depressed and wetted mouthpiece.viii CONTENTS CHAPTER IV. Notches and weirs. lost at the entrance to the pipe. Conical mouthpieces Flow through orifices and mouthpieces under constant pressure. Coefficient of contraction for sharpedged orifice. Bazin's formula for the discharge of a weir. Drowned or wetted nappes. Equation of flow in a pipe of uniform diameter and determination of the head lost due to friction. Adhering nappes. Drowned orifices. Loss of head due to sharpedged entrance into a pipe or Partially Mouthpieces. and nozzles. Coefficient of discharge. Depressed nappe. PIPES. Derivation of the weir formula from that of a large orifice. Determining by approximation the discharge of a weir. Vertical weirs of small thickness. Coefficient of resistance.crested nappes for flatcrested weirs. Drowned nappes for flatcrested weirs. Hydraulic mean depth. Rectangular weir with end contractions. Time required to lower the water in a reservoir a given distance Page 50 by means of a weir. Influence of the height of the weir sill above the bed of the stream on the contraction. drowned orifice. flat. Empirical . when the velocity of approach is unknown. Drowned weirs with sharp crests. Resistances to the motion of a fluid in a pipe.
Formula of Chezy. Examples for a channel. Variety of the forms of channels. FLOW IN OPEN CHANNELS. Surface floats. Measuring the flow of an orifice. Variation of fc. Pressures on pipe bends. Variations of the coefficient 0. Steady motion in uniform channels. Law of service. Loss of head due fittings. Formula of Darcy and Bazin. Measuring the flow of water by weighing. . above the critical velocity. Page 224 . Variation C in the formula formula. v=G\^mi with CHAPTER VI. Piezometer Effect of temperature on the velocity of flow. Variations of the velocity at the cross section of a cylindrical pipe. velocity. channels. of velocities on a vertical section. Examples . Examples by means . Ganguillet and Kutter's formula. Measuring the flow in open channels. GAUGING THE FLOW OF WATER. Deacon's wastewater meter. Practical problems. maximum discharge. Formula for the flow when the motion is uniform in a channel of uniform section and slope. Kennedy's meter. to bends and elbows. Double floats. The current meter. Depth of flow in a circular channel for maximum velocity and and discharge . frictional resistance for velocities Ganguillet and Kutter's Reynold's experiments and the logarithmic formula. Logarithmic formula for flow in Approximate formula for the flow in earth channels. IX Formula of Darcy. Velocity of flow in pipes. Problems. Siphons forming The best form of channel. Pitot tube. Sections of aqueducts and sewers. The hook gauge. Meters. DistribuForm of the curve tion of velocity in the cross section of open channels. Gauging the flow in pipes Venturi meter. Critical Critical velocity by the method of colour bands. Formulae of Prony and Eytelwein. V_ Page 178 CHAPTER VII. The determination of the values of C given in Table XII. Curves of velocity Applications of the formulae. Rod floats. Page 112 filled with flowing water. Gauging by a weir. The limiting diameter of cast iron pipes. Transmission of power along pipes by hydraulic pressure. . Pressure on a plate in a pipe Pressure on a cylinder. Head necessary to give the mean velocity vm to the water in the pipe. Calibration of Pitot tubes. part of aqueducts. . Bazin's formula. Criticism of experiments.CONTENTS formulae for loss of head due to of friction. Gauging the flow of streams by chemical means. The slopes of channels and the velocities allowed in them. in the formula i=kv n with the diameter.
Oil pressure governor or regulator. Sagebien wheels. Series or multiple stage reaction turbines. Bernoulli's equations for the inward and outward flow turbines including friction.. Effect of diminishing the flow through turbines on the velocity of exit. Definition of angular momentum. Impulse of water on vanes. neglecting friction. Curved vanes. WATER WHEELS AND TURBINES. and the rate when of doing work. Impact of water on a vane the directions of motion of the vane and jet are not parallel.X CONTENTS CHAPTER . Definition of vector. Examples Page 283 . IMPACT OF WATER ON VANES. Hammer blow in a long turbine supply pipe. Losses of head due to frictional and other resistances in outward flow turbines. Impulse turbine for high head. The ratio of the velocity of whirl V to y the velocity of the inlet periphery v. Definition of relative velocity as a vector. Two important principles. = eH. Some actual outward flow turbines. Value of e wheels. parallel flow turbines. Water pressure regulators for impulse turbines. Outward flow turbines. Pelton wheel. CHAPTER Overshot water wheels. IX. The best peripheral velocity for inward and outward flow turbines. Change of angular momentum. Conditions which the vanes of hydraulic machines should satisfy. Effect of changing the direction of the guide blade.. Turbine to develope a given to be used in the formula horsepower. Some actual inward flow turbines.. Work done on a series of vanes fixed to a wheel expressed in terms of the velocities of whirl of the water entering and leaving the wheel. The velocity with which water leaves a turbine.. The form of the vanes for impulse turbines.. Pelton wheel. Difference of two vectors. Regulation of the flow by means of cylindrical gates. Triangles of velocity for an axial flow impulse turbine considering friction. To find the pressure on a moving vane. Examples Page 261 . Inward flow turbines. Impulse turbines. VIII. The form of the wheel vanes between the inlet and outlet cf turbines. Resultant of two velocities. Force tending to move a vessel from which water is issuing through an orifice. Relative velocity. Impulse Poncelet wheel. The limiting head for a single stage reaction turbine. Experimental determination of the best peripheral velocity for inward and outward flow turbines. The propulsion of ships by water jets. Reaction turbines. Breast wheel. when altering the flow of inward flow and mixed flow turbines. The Swain gate. Cone turbine. Turbines. Mixed flow turbines. Parallel or axial flow turbines. Bernoulli's equations for inward and outward flow turbines neglecting friction. Regulation of the flow to Bernoulli's equations for axial flow turbines. Sum of two vectors.
Negative slip. Hydraulic Hydraulic crane valves. Hydraulic riveter. The accelerations of the pump plunger and the water in the suction pipe. High pressure plunger pump.CONTENTS XI CHAPTER PUMPS. Losses in centrifugal pumps. Inward flow Coefficient of discharge of the turbine pump. X. of the vanes of centrifugal pumps. of the The centrifugal head impressed on the water by the wheel. Worked examples. the loss by friction on the discharge of a pump. Accelerating forces in the delivery pipe. Reciprocating pumps. with which the water Turbine pumps. into pressure head. pump. . Separation during the suction stroke. . Variation of pressure in the cylinder due to friction. Bernouilli's equations applied to centrifugal pumps. The effect of the diminution of the centrifugal head and the increase of the friction head as the flow increases. Variation of the discharge of a centrifugal pump with the head when the speed is kept constant. The kinetic energy Form water at exit from the wheel. The suction of a centrifugal pump. The accumulator. Tangye Duplex pump. Joints and packings used in hydraulic work. Air vessel on the suction pipe. Brother hood and Rigg hydraulic engines. Head lost at the suction valve. Intensifiers. Variation of the head with discharge and with the speed of a The effect of the variation of the centrifugal head and centrifugal pump. General equation for a centrifugal pump. Centrifugal and turbine pumps. Gross lift of a centrifugal pump. Diagram of work done considering the variable quantity of water in the cylinder. Steam intensifiers. spiral casings of centrifugal U2 . delivering into a long pipe line. Work done on the water by the wheel. The hydraulic ram. Lifting water by compressed air. The effect of acceleration of the plunger on the pressure in the cylinder during the suction stroke. on the velocity. Series or Advantages of centrifugal pumps. forging press. Separation in the delivery pipe. DifAir accumulator. Discharge curve at constant head. Pump multistage turbine pumps. Starting centrifugal or turbine pumps. Headvelocity curve of a centrifugal pump at zero discharge. Variation of the pressure in hydraulic motors due to inertia forces. Losses in the pumps. Special arrangements for converting the velocity head ^ leaves the wheel. Page 485 . efficiency of a centrifugal pump. Diagram of work done by the pump. Examples . Parallel flow turbine pump. ferential accumulator. Air vessel on the delivery pipe. Double power cranes. Slip. Katio of velocity of whirl to peripheral velocity. Hydraulic cranes. The limiting height to which a single wheel centrifugal pump can be used to raise water. Hydraulic press. Experimental determination of the Design of pump to give a discharge Q. Efficiencies of a centrifugal pump. Page 392 Examples CHAPTER XL HYDRAULIC MACHINES.
. . 7.. Examples . 2. Coefficients of discharge .... 8. 4. The critical velocity in pipes. measuring the \ . 10. Page 521 Page 522 Losses of head in pipe bends Page 525 Page 526 Page 529 Page 531 . Stream line theory of the resistance offered to motion of bodies in water. The Humphrey internal combustion pump The hydraulic ram . The moving diaphragm method of flow of water in open channels 11. 3. 6. . Circular Weirs Page 537 Page 537 Page 539 Page 540 Page 542 9.Xll CONTENTS CHAPTER XII. Determination of the resistance of a ship from that of the model. ANSWERS TO EXAMPLES INDEX 6 Page 553 Page 557 . STREAM LINE MOTION. . Curved stream line motion. Effect of temperature * . .. . .. The Centrifugal Pump .. General formula for friction in smooth pipes . Froude's experiments on the resistance of thin boards. . . . 5. banks at bends XIII. . Page 507 CHAPTER Hele Shaw's experiments. RESISTANCE TO THE MOTION OF BODIES IN WATER. The Pitot tube fall The Herschel increaser . river Scouring of Page 517 APPENDIX 1. . ..
some of which were constructed more than 2000 years ago. science of Hydraulics in its limited sense and as originally understood. translated by Herschel." The founders were principally Torricelli and Mariotte from the experimental. side. were among the "wonders of the world. The practice of conveying water along artificially constructed channels for irrigation and domestic purposes dates back into great antiquity. . CHAPTER 1. were of "great beauty and refreshment. Frontinus. probably * The Aqueducts of Rome. in addition. and works for the better utilisation of the waters of the Nile were carried out at an even earlier date. and it now embraces. The Egyptians constructed transit canals for warlike purposes. may be said to have only come into existence at the end of the seventeenth century when the attention of philosophers was drawn to the problems involved in the design of the fountains.. According to Josephus. 1 L. however.H. The science of Hydraulics.C." and today the city of Athens is partially supplied with water by means of an aqueduct constructed probably some centuries before the Christian era. but it has come to have a wider significance. the study of the principles involved in the pumping of water and other fluids The and their application to the working of different kinds of machines. according to Bacon. as early as 3000 B. and which. had for its object the consideration of the laws regulating the flow of water in channels. and Bernoulli from the theoretical. the gardens of Solomon were made beautiful by fountains and other water works. The experiments of Torricelli and of Mariotte to determine the discharge of water through orifices in the sides of tanks and through short pipes. The aqueducts of Borne*. I. FLUIDS AT BEST. Introduction.HYDEAULICS. which came into considerable use in Italian landscape gardens.
and practically the whole of the knowledge we now possess has been mark the Simple machines for the have been made for power of which are to be found in an interestmany centuries. Similarly. but it must be admitted that the enormous development of this class of machinery. to a body which offers very small resistance to deformation. parts by the and in the application to the plate of an infinitesimal force. utilisation of the of natural streams machinery. scientific interpretation of the results of experiments. it was not until a century later that any serious attempt was made to give expression to the laws regulating the flow in long pipes and channels. 2. if a very thin plate be immersed in the fluid in any direction. and Fourneyron's application of the triangle of velocities to the design of turbines. and Torricelli's famous theorem may be said to be the foundation of modern Hydraulics. in general. and which takes the shape of the body with which it is in contact. and the very high standard of efficiency obtained. Fluids and their properties. imaginary perfect fluid this force would be zero. a horizontal plane be imagined separating the the force necessary to cause the upper part to slide over the lower will be very small indeed. If the plane is very smooth the force may be very small. a force is required to move the body over the plane. and the careful. marked a distinct advance. and to discover the principles involved in their correct Poncelet's enunciation of the correct principles which should regulate the design of the "floats" or buckets of water design. as shown at the end of the chapter on flow in channels. applied to the fluid above the plane and parallel to it. but it has been reserved to the workers of the nineteenth century to develope all kinds of hydraulic acquired during the last century. is the outcome. not of theoretical deductions. or to overcome the friction between the body and the plane. examples ing work Hydrostatiks and Hydrauliks written in English by Stephen Swetzer in 1729. . and any force. wheels. and if we conceive the plane to be perfectly smooth the smallest imaginable force would move the a fluid. If a solid body rests upon a horizontal plane. but of experience. But.^etet*isime flow of water.the laws regulating the v fitit*fejfcf<eiilpis':fcb. body. The name fluid is given. will cause motion. the plate can be made to separate the fluid into two If in fluid into two parts. however small. or in other words will cause a deformation of the fluid.
In the case of water. when the laws of these movement tangential. has a volume of 359 cubic feet. weighs 62425 Ibs. One gallon of pure water at 60 F.FLUIDS AT REST Viscosity. almost entirely. as in Hydraulics. altered for a very large variation in the pressure is so small that in practical problems this variation is entirely neglected. on the assumption that they are perfect fluids. and that therefore no tangential stresses can exist along any plane in a fluid. The density of any substance is the weight of unit volume at the standard temperature and pressure. This branch of the study of fluids is called Hydrostatics. One gallon of pure water has a volume of 27725 cubic inches. is volume of liquid fluids. or those which are easily compressed. forces have to be taken into consideration. as will be seen by comparing the densities of sea water and pure water given in the following table. weighs 64 Iba. such as are ordinarily met with. In this volume only incompressible fluids are considered. to the one fluid. Density and specific gravity. and those which are compressed with The amount by which the volumes of the latter are difficulty. TABLE One cubic foot of water at I. and 3. and the variation due to changes of temperature. that in practical problems it is unnecessary to take it into account. weighs 10 Ibs. The variation of the as stated above. 3 said to have viscosity. negligible. 60 F. Useful data. Fluids found in nature are not perfect and are but when they are at rest the conditions of equilibrium can be obtained. Compressible and incompressible fluids. the presence of salts in solution is of greater importance in determining the density than variations of temperature. The specific gravity of any substance at any temperature and pressure is the ratio of the weight of unit volume to the weight of unit volume of pure water at the standard temperature and pressure. 12 . fluids. 4. is so small. One ton of pure water at 60 F. and attention is confined. gases and liquids. or frictional of fluids are considered. with the pressure. 6236 One cubic foot of average sea water at 60 F. 391 F. water. There are two kinds of they are therefore considered as incompressible fluids. with sufficient accuracy.
will From 5. and are contained in closed vessels in which pressures of any magnitude act upon the fluid.. The intensity of pressure at any point in a fluid is the pressure exerted upon unit area. Hydrostatics. for instance. First. knowledge of the principles of hydrostatics is very helpful in approaching the subject of hydraulics.4 HYDRAULICS Table of densities of pure water. It has been stated above that when a fluid is at rest its resistance to lateral deformation is practically zero and that on any plane in the fluid tangential stresses cannot exist. . as. 6*24 gallons in a cubic foot. and second. those cases in which the fluids are at rest. 5fluid is the The pressure at any point in a same in all directions. A therefore. If P is the total pressure on a. one gallon as 10 pounds. and upon which the pressure is uniform. advisable to consider the laws of fluids There are two cases to consider. Temperature Degrees Fahrenheit Density 99987 32 391 50 60 80 104 1000000 099973 099905 099664 099233 the above it will be seen that in practical problems it be sufficiently near to take the weight of one cubic foot of fresh water as 62*4 Ibs. is then or when P and a are '. and in the wider sense in which the latter word is now used it may be said to include the former. Consider any little element of area a. From this experimental fact it follows that the pressure at any point in the fluid is the same in all directions.. 8P pa3 7. fluids at rest under the action of gravity. if the pressure on the unit area is uniform and is exerted at the same rate as at the point. in hydraulic lifts and presses. Intensity of pressure. or are moving very slowly. 6. at rest. the Intensity of Pressure p. and one cubic foot of sea water as 64 pounds. It is. about a point in the fluid. indefinitely diminished.
p will be the atmospheric pressure. The pressure on any horizontal plane in a fluid must be constant. Let p. fluid Let the pressure per unit area acting on the surface of the be p Ibs. Therefore 8. and its upper end A coincident with the surface of the fluid. pi . A 9. BC. = p^ BO. the weight of fluid in the cylinder must be w. but if the free surface is exposed to the atmosphere. The pressure acting on the end of the column A is pa Ibs. and But AB = AC cos 0. . the pressures on them must be normal. and cross sectional area a. and since these pressures on the ends are of equal area. 0. with the free surface horizontal. Since there can be no tangential forces acting on the cylinder parallel to the axis. the cylinder must be in equilibrium under the and B of the cylinder. Fig. be placed in the fluid. or AC. . If the fluid is in a closed vessel. the resolved components of the force acting on AC in the directions of p and pi must balance the forces acting on AB and BC respectively. with its axis vertical.FLUIDS AT REST Consider a small wedge fluid at rest. the pressure p may have any assigned value. pressures The weight of the wedge will be very Fig.h Ibs. Fluids at rest. The pressure per unit area at any depth h below the free surface of a fluid due to the weight of the fluid is equal to the weight of a column of fluid of height h and of unit sectional area. 5 ABC. If a small open tube AB.a. 1. 1. of length h. p 2 AC sin and BC = AC sin p = PI = p2 . Therefore p2 AC cos = p AB. and pa be the intensities of on these planes respectively. As the wedge is in equilibrium under the forces acting on its three faces. floating immersed in a stress Since there cannot be a tangential on any of the planes AB. small compared with the pressures on its faces and may be neglected. the weight per unit volume of which is w Ibs. the pressure must be the same at each end of the cylinder. and Consider a small cylinder of a fluid joining any two points A B on the same horizontal plane in the fluid..
2. + pa Ibs.. therefore.. per sq. . 2. Ibs. the intensity of pressure on disturbing the level CD AB would remain unaltered. in all cases. and per sq. In the case of water. inch *433/& Ibs. . and the pipe taken away without in any case. wah The pressure per fluid =f (wh + p) . the pressure of the air is 2 Ibs. per cubic and the pressure per sq. and on any horizontal plane AB the pressure would be the same. If now the various vessels were sealed from each other by closing suitable valves. foot at a point 3 feet below the free surface of the water. 62'40/z. due to the weight of the only is wh Ibs. equal to wh. Find the pressure per sq. Ibs. This can be If these illustrated by the different vessels shown in Fig. therefore. w may be taken as 62'40 Ibs. Example. In a condenser containing air and water. Fig. The pressure per unit area at B. inch absolute. foot. therefore. the force of wah Ibs. foot D Pr&sure an the Plane AB~w& Ws per sq Foot. It should be noted that the pressure is independent of the form of the vessel. and simply depends upon the vertical depth of the point considered below the surface of the fluid. per sq. unit area. foot at a depth of h feet is. and would be. must kept in equilibrium by the pressure of the external fluid acting be on the fluid in the cylinder at the end B. j> = 2x 144 + 3x624 = 475 2 Ibs. were all connected together by means of a pipe. the fluid when at rest would stand at the same level in all of them.6 HYDRAULICS Since there cannot be any force acting on the column parallel to the sides of the tube.
FLUIDS AT REST
10.
Y
Pressures measured in feet of water.
Pressure head.
pressure per sq. foot or sq. inch. It follows from the previous section that if the pressure per sq. foot is p Ibs. the equivalent pressure in feet
of water, or the pressure head, is
It is convenient in hydrostatics and hydraulics to express the at any point in a fluid in feet of the fluid instead of pounds
h=
ft.
and
for
any other
fluid
having a
specific gravity
/o,
the pressure per sq. foot for a head or h
h of the
11.
fluid is
p = w.p.h,
=
Piezometer tubes.
The pressure in a pipe or other vessel can conveniently be measured by fixing a tube in the pipe and noting the height to which the water rises in the tube. Such a tube is called a pressure, or piezometer, tube. The tube need not be made straight but may be bent into any form and carried, within reasonable limits, any distance horizontally.
The
vertical rise
h
of the water will be always
w
the pressure per sq. foot in the pipe. If instead of water, a liquid of specific gravity p height h to which the liquid will rise in the tube is
is
where p
is
used the
w .p
tube having one end open to the atmosphere is fitted into a pipe Example. containing water at a pressure of 10 Ibs. per sq. inch above the atmosphere. Find the height to which the water will rise in the tube. The water will rise to such a height that the pressure at the end of the tube in the pipe due to the column of water will be 10 Ibs. per sq. inch.
Therefore
A
h
12.
The barometer.
pressure by understood.
The method of determining the atmospheric means of the barometer can now be
If a tube about 3 feet long closed at one end be completely filled with mercury, Fig. 3, and then turned into a vertical position with its open end in a vessel containing mercury, the liquid in the tube falls until the length h of the column is about 30 inches above the surface of the mercury in the
vessel.
Fig. 3.
HYDRAULICS
Since the pressure p on the top of the mercury is now zero, the pressure per unit area acting on the section of the tube, level with the surface of the mercury in the vessel, must be equal to the
weight of a column of mercury of height
h.
The
per
specific gravity of the
mercury
is
13'596 at the standard
temperature and pressure, and therefore the atmospheric pressure
sq. inch,
p ay
is,
,. = 14 7
Pa
=
30" x 13596 x 624 10 IXM 12 x 144
Ibs.
per
sq. inch.
Expressed in feet of water,
,147x144 = 33'92
624
feet.
This
is
so near to 34 feet that for the standard atmospheric
be taken throughout this book. can be conveniently used for measuring low pressures, lighter liquids being used when a more sensitive gauge
pressure this value will
A
similar tube
is
required.
13.
The
differential gauge.
convenient arrangement for measuring pressures, and utility in many hydraulic experiments, is known as the differential gauge. Let ABCD, Fig. 4, be a simple U tube containing in the lower part some fluid of
A more
one of considerable
:
known
density.
If the two limbs of the tube are open to the atmosphere the two surfaces of the fluid will be in the same horizontal plane. If, however, into the limbs of the tube a lighter fluid, which does not mix with the
D
*"
lower fluid, be poured until it rises to C in one tube and to D in the other, the two surfaces of the lower fluid will now be at
different levels.
f
S
iJB
be the common surfaces of h being their difference of Fig. 4. level, and hi and h z the heights of the free surfaces of the lighter fluid above E and B respectively. Let p be the pressure of the atmosphere per unit area, and d and di the densities of the lower and upper fluids respectively. Then, since upon the horizontal plane AB the fluid pressure must be constant,
Let
B
and
E
the two
fluids,
p+
or
di
(Tia
dih^
hi)
=p + = dh.
djii
+ dh9
FLUIDS AT REST
9
If now, instead of the two limbs of the U tube being open to the atmosphere, they are connected by tubes to closed vessels in which the pressures are pi and p2 pounds per sq. foot respectively,
and
hi
and
h
are the vertical lengths of the columns of fluid above
B and B
or
respectively, then
= P! + d
l .
^+d
.
h,
An application of such a tube to determine the difference of pressure at two points in a pipe containing flowing water is shown in Fig. 88, page 116. Fluids generally used in such U tubes. In hydraulic experiments the upper part of the tube is filled with water, and therefore the fluid in the lower part must have a greater density than water.
When the difference of pressure is fairly large, mercury is generally used, the specific gravity of which is 13'596. When the difference
of pressure is small, the height h is difficult to measure with precision, so that, if this form of gauge is to be used, it is desirable to replace the mercury by a lighter liquid. Carbon bisulphide
has been used but its action is sluggish and the meniscus between it and the water is not always well defined. Nitrobenzine gives good results, its principal fault being that the falling meniscus does not very quickly assume a definite
shape.
sitive
The inverted air gauge. more sengauge, than the mercury gauge, can be made by inverting a U tube and enclosing in the upper part a certain quantity of air as in the tube BHC, Fig. 5. Let the pressure at D in the limb DF be PI pounds per square foot, equivalent to a head hi of the fluid in the lower part of the gauge, and at in the limb AE let the pressure be p 2 equivalent to a head h 2 Let h be the difference of level of Gr and C.
A
A
,
.
Fig. 5.
contains air, and the weight of the air be Then if neglected, being very small, the pressure at C must equal the pressure at Gr ; and since in a fluid the pressure on any horizontal plane is constant the pressure at C is equal to the pressure at D, and the pressure at equal to the pressure at B. Again the
CHG
A
pressure at Gr
is
equal to the pressure at K.
Therefore
or
h*h = h
1
10
If the fluid is
HYDRAULICS
water
p
difference of pressure the value of h will clearly be much greater than for the mercury gauge, and it has the further advantage that h gives directly the difference of pressure in feet of water. The affect the readings, as temperature of the air in the tube does not
may
then be taken as unity for a given
;
rise in temperature will simply depress the two columns without affecting the value of h. still more sensitive gauge can The inverted oil
any
gauge.
A
however be obtained by using, in the upper part of the tube, an oil lighter than water instead of air, as shown
in Fig.
6.
/
Let pi and p 2 be the pressures in the two limbs of the tube on a given horizontal plane AB, hi and h2 being the equivalent heads of water. The oil in the bent tube will then take up some such position as shown, the plane AD being supposed to coincide with the lower surface C.
Then, since upon any horizontal plane in a homogeneous fluid the pressure must be constant, the pressures at G
f
and H are equal and also and C. Let PI be the specific gravity of the water, and p of the oil. = pi (h^h). Then pi hiph  p) = Pi Oa  hi) Therefore h (pi
those at
D
FLUIDS AT REST
11
Kerosene gave the best results. The author has used mineral oils lighter than water of specific gravities varying from 0'78 to 0'96 and heavier than water of specific gravities from 1*1 to 1'2. Temperature coefficient of the inverted oil gauge. Unlike the inverted air gauge the oil gauge has a considerable temperature coefficient, as will be seen from the table of specific gravities at various temperatures of water and the kerosene and gasoline used by Williams, Hubbell and Fenkell. In this table the specific gravity of water is taken as unity at 60 F.
Water
Temperature F.
Specific gravity
12
HYDRAULICS p=
area, the pressure per unit area
p
,
arid the piston at
B
on the
same
level as Q,
which has an area A, can be made
sq.
to lift a load
is
W
equal to
A
p
;
Cb
or the pressure per
inch at
R
equal to the
is assumed to be on the same level pressure at Q. The piston at as Q so as to eliminate the consideration of the small differences of pressure due to the weight of the fluid.
R
If
a pressure gauge
is fitted
on the connecting pipe at any
point, and fluid may
p
so large that the pressure due to the weight of the be neglected, it will be found that the intensity of
is
pressure
is p. of section 8.
This result could have been anticipated from that
Upon
this simple principle
forces can
depends the fact that enormous be exerted by means of hydraulic pressure.
If the piston at Q is of small area, while that at E, is large, then, since the pressure per sq. inch is constant throughout the
fluid,
W_A
or a very large force can be overcome by the application of a small force P. very large mechanical advantage is thus
W
P ~a
f
A
obtained.
be clearly understood that the rate of doing work W, neglecting any losses, is equal to that at P, the distance moved through by being to that moved through by P in the ratio of P to W, or in the ratio of a to A.
It should
at
W
pump
pump ram has a stroke of 3 inches and a diameter of 1 inch. The The force supplies water to a lift which has a ram of 5 inches diameter. driving the pump ram is 1500 Ibs. Neglecting all losses due to friction etc., determine the weight lifted, the work done in raising it 5 feet, and the number of strokes made by the pump while raising the weight. Area of the pump ram '7854 sq. inch. Area of the lift ram= 19'6 sq. inches.
Example.
A
=
Therefore
W=1

Work done
Let
= 37,500 x 5 = 187,500 ft.
number
of strokes of the
Ibs.
Ibs.
N
equal the
pump
ram.
Then
and
15.
N x T35 x 1500
= 187,500 ft. Ibs. N = 500 strokes.
Total or whole pressure. The whole pressure acting on a surface is the sum of all the normal pressures acting on the surface. If the surface is plane all the forces are parallel, and the whole pressure is the sum of these
parallel forces.
FLUIDS AT REST
13
Let any surface, which need not be a plane, be immersed a liuid. Let A be the area of the wetted surface, and h the pressure head at the centre of gravity of the area. If the area is immersed in a fluid the pressure on the surface of which is zero, the free surface of the fluid will be at a height h above the centre of gravity of the area. In the case of the area being immersed in a fluid, the surface of which is exposed to a pressure p, and below which the depth of the centre of gravity of the area is h then
in
,
w
If the area exposed to the fluid pressure is one face of a body, the opposite face of which is exposed to the atmospheric pressure, as in the case of the side of a tank containing water, or the
masonry dam
atmosphere
faces
in Fig. 8, the
of Fig. 14, or a valve closing the pressure due to the
end
of a pipe as
is the same on the two and therefore may be neglected. Let w be the weight of a cubic
T"
i
i
foot of the fluid.
Then, the whole
is
pressure on the area
If the surface is in a horizontal
plane the theorem
.
is
since the intensity of pressure stant and equals w h.
obviously true, is con*
Flg 8t In general, imagine the surface, divided into a large number of small areas a, Ch, Oa ... . Fig. 9, Let 05 be the depth below the free surface FS, of any element of area a ; the pressure on this element = w x a. The whole pressure P = ^w .x.a. But w is constant, and the sum of the moments of the elements of the area about any axis equals the moment of the whole area* about the same axis, therefore
. .
2# a = A
.
.
h,
and
16.
P=w
Centre of pressure.
of pressure of
.
A
.
h.
The centre
surface
s
any plane
is
acted upon
by a
fluid
the
point of action of the resultant pressure acting upon the surface.
Depth of
the centre of pressure.
9,
Let
DEC,
Fig.
be
*
any plane surface
See textbooks on Mechanics.
exposed to
fluid pressure.
14
HYDKAULICS
be the area, and h the pressure head at the centre of Let gravity of the surface, or if FS is the free surface of the fluid, h is the depth below FS of the centre of gravity. Then, the whole pressure
A
P = w.A.h.
be the depth of the centre of pressure. Let Imagine the surface, as before, divided into a
areas a,
Oi, 03,
...
X
number
of small
etc.
The pressure on any element a =w a x P = 2wax. and
.
.
t
Taking moments about FS,
P
or
.
X = (way? + wciiX? +
wAh
~
'
...)
A/i
When the area is in a vertical plane, which intersects the " " 2 second moment of the surface of the water in FS, 2a# is the area about the axis FS, or what is sometimes called the moment
of inertia of the area about this axis.
Therefore, the depth of the centre of pressure of a vertical area below the free surface of the fluid
moment
of inertia of the area about an axis in its and in the free surface
own
plane
area x the depth of the centre of gravity
or, if I is
the
moment
of inertia,
of Inertia about
any axis. Calling I the Moment an axis through the centre of gravity, and I the Moment of Inertia about any axis parallel to the axis through the centre of gravity and at a distance h from it, 2 IIo + ATz,
Moment of
Inertia about
.
Examples.
(1)
Area
is
a rectangle breadth 6 and depth
d.
P=w.b.d.h,
FLUIDS AT REST
If the free surface of the
15
water
is level
with the upper edge of the rectangle,
(2)
Area
is
a circle of radius B.
X=
~Th + h tk
E2
,

If the top of the circle is just in the free surface or 7&=B,
X=B.
TABLE
II.
Table of Moments of Inertia of areas.
1G
17.
HYDRAULICS
Diagram of pressure on a plane area. a diagram be drawn showing the intensity of pressure on a plane area at any depth, the whole pressure is equal to the volume of the solid thus formed, and the centre of pressure of the area is found by drawing a line through the centre
If
of gravity of this solid perpendicular to the area.
For a rectangular area
side
AB
ABCD, having
the
diagram volume of
in the surface of the water, the of pressure is AEFCB, Fig. 10. The
AEFCB
is
equals %bd?w, b being the depth of the area.
the whole pressure and width and d the
Since the rectangle is of constant width, the diagram of pressure may bo represented by the triangle BCF, Fig. 11, the resultant pressure acting through its centre of gravity, and therefore at f d from the surface.
L
Fig. 11.
a,
b Intensity of pressure,
ojv a/ci.
Fig. 12.
For a vertical circle the diagram of pressure is as shown in Figs. 12 and 13. The intensity of pressure ab on any strip at a The whole pressure is the volume of the truncated depth \ is wh cylinder efJch and the centre of pressure is found by drawing a
.
line perpendicular to the circle, of this truncated cylinder.
through the centre of gravity
Fig. 13.
FLUIDS AT REST
17
Another, and frequently a very convenient method of determining the depth of the centre of pressure, when the whole of the area is at some distance below the surface of the water, is to consider the pressure on the area as made up of a uniform pressure over the whole surface, and a pressure of variable intensity.
again, as an example, the vertical circle the diagrams of for which are shown in Figs. 12 and 13. pressure At any depth h the intensity of pressure on the strip ad is
Take
The pressure on any strip ad is, therefore, made up of a constant pressure per unit area wh\ and a variable pressure whi ; and the whole pressure is equal to the volume of the cylinder efgh, Fig. 12, together with the circular wedge fkg. The wedge fkg is equal to the whole pressure on a vertical circle, the tangent to which is in the free surface of the water and
equals
w
.
A
.
,
and the centre
of gravity of this
wedge
will
be at
the same vertical distance from the centre of the circle as the centre of pressure when the circle touches the surface. The whole pressure P may be supposed therefore to be the resultant of two
and P 2 acting through the centres of gravity of the cylinder efgh, and of the circular wedge fkg respectively, the magnitudes of PI and P2 being the volumes of the cylinder and the wedge respectively. To find the centre of pressure on the circle it is only to find the resultant of two parallel forces necessary
parallel forces PI
AB
Pi
of
= A.whA and P2 = i0.^
c,
which Pi acts at the centre
and P2 at a point
Ci
which
is
at
a distance from
A of
r.
Example. A masonry dam, Fig. 14, has a height of 80 feet from the foundations and the water face is inclined at 10 degrees to the vertical find the whole pressure on the face due to the water per foot width of the dam, and the centre of pressure, when the water surface is level with the top of the dam. The atmo;
spheric pressure may be neglected. The whole pressure will be the force tending to overturn the dam, since the horizontal component of the pressure
AB due to the atmosphere will be counterbalanced by the horizontal components of the atmospheric pressure on the back of the dam. Since the pressure on the face is normal, and the intensity of pressure is proportional to the depth,
on
L.
D R is the> reswLtcLTLt thrust OIL the base, DB and, defy
E.
Fig. 14.
H.
18 HYDRAULICS the diagram of pressure on the face AB will be the triangle ABC. the water is also shown. The whole pressure P =wirW . Example. 15. therefore. . Figs. ef and hk being the intensities of pressure at the top and bottom of the valve respectively. is Ibs. free surface. Combining P with W. level WL of The end W . pressure may be neglected. BC being equal wd and perpendicular to AB. 8 = 1570 Depth of the centre of pressure. the resultant thrust and its point of intersection E with the base is determined. f inch below the centre of the naive. 12 and 13. The whole pressure acts perpendicular to AB. the weight of the dam. which is 8 feet above the centre Therefore x =1f= 8 ' *" That is. Find the whole pressure on the end of the pontoon and the centre of pressure. the pressure at the centre of the pipe is equal to a head of 8 feet of water. TT. A vertical flap valve closes the end of a pipe 2 feet diameter . The diagram of pressure is a truncated cylinder efkh. and is equal to the area ABC to = %wd? x sec 10 per foot width = \ 624 x 6400 x 10154 = 202750 Ibs. R on the base Example. To determine The atmospheric the whole pressure on the valve and the centre of pressure. The centre of pressure is at the centre of gravity of the pressure diagram and is. at $ the height of the dam from the base. 8' = 624. The moment of inertia about the of the valve. The of a pontoon which floats in sea water is as shown in Fig.
Determine the total pull in the bolts at both ends of the elbow. x 2 x f' + 1256 Ibs. Depth of water at one side of the gate 32 feet and 20 feet on the other side. on the semicircle The distance of the centre of gravity of a semicircle from the centre of the circle is Therefore. The pipe contains water at a pressure of 700 Ibs.FLUIDS AT REST Then the intensity of pressure at depth 7? 19 = to when the diameter . 22 . 2 + to is . = 201R2 + 42 66 E 3 = 1256 + 666 Ibs. per square inch. = 293 feet. and 5 feet deep with water. 1901. also the total pressure on 1 foot length of the dam. 2 feet in below the surface (3) of pressure. and the centre sluice. therefore. Sea. Then taking moments about AD the product of the pressure on the whole area into the depth of the centre of pressure is equal to the moments of all the forces acting on the area. circular in form.] masonry dam vertical on the water side supports water of 120 feet depth. Find the pressure per square foot at depths of 20 feet and 70 feet from the surface. width 30 ft. the whole pressure on the semicircle is the sum of two forces. filled A rectangular tank 12 feet long. : _ 6480 Ibs. acts at the centre of gravity. x 347' EXAMPLES. of the centre of pressure of the semicircle water is at tho centre of the circle. x 3' + 320 Ibs. A A dock gate is hinged horizontally at the bottom and supported in (4) a vertical position by horizontal chains at the top. (1) (2) is Find the total pressure of the water. therefore. 5 feet wide. and the other of 666 Ibs. S. is The depth when the surface of the ' 2 '6ir And. the centre of which is 4 feet [M. one of which. find the height of a (5) column corresponding to a pressure of 100 Ibs. Height of gate 45 feet. on a vertical/ diameter. T. d. x 306 + 666 Ibs. Find the tension in the chains. per sq.water weighs 64 pounds per cubic foot. Cambridge. The depth of the centre of pressure is. 1256 Ibs. acts at a distance of 3 47' from AD. A straight pipe 6 inches diameter has a rightangled bend connected (6) to it by bolts. inch. Find the total pressure on an end and side of the tank. If mercury is 13 times as heavy as water. about AD.. the end of the bend being closed by a flange. 2* And the whole pressure on the semicircle is in P =w + the whole pressure the surface of the water. or at a distance of 3'06' from AD.
for use in a stokehold. is made of a glass U tube (9) with enlarged ends. 1905. Find the difference of the pressure oil at the two points in the difference of level of the 15 inches. The width of a lock is 20 feet and it is closed by two gates at each (12) end.'M B 5 k 40. Un. 1905. If the area of the enlarged end is fifty times that of the tube.] (11) An which is . One cubic foot of water =625 Ibs. surfaces in the pipe when the limbs of the U is opening in a reservoir dam is closed by a plate 3 feet square. *! An U tube contains oil having a specific gravity of 1*1 in the lower (8) part of the tube. 1906. The gauge is filled with water on one side.20 (7) HYDRAULICS The end of a dock caisson is as shown in Fig. Un. how many inches of water pressure in the stokehold correspond to a displacement of one inch in the surface of separation ? [Lond. Show also that the reaction at the hinges is equal to the pressure between the gates.0Fig. [Lond. one of which is exposed to the pressure in the stokehold and the other connected to the outside air.] . Determine the whole pressure and the centre of pressure. A pressure gauge. and the pressure between the gates. The weight of the plate is 400 pounds.] (10) specific gravity of 0*7955 water. in gauge has its upper U filled with oil having a and the lower part of the gauge is filled with The two limbs are then connected to two different points on a pipe inverted oil An which there is flowing water. 16. If the gates are closed and the water stands 16' above the bottom on one side and 4' on the other side. find the necessary pull in the chain if its line of action makes an angle of 45 with the plate. 16 and the water AB. 43 level is A\ *A L. each gate being 12' long. Above the oil in one limb is one foot of water. [Lond. and oil having a specific gravity of 0*95 on the other the surface of separation being in the tube below the enlarged ends. If this plate is opened by means of a chain attached to the centre of the lower edge. find the magnitude and position of the resultant pressure on each gate. Un. and above the other 2 feet. Find the difference of level of the oil in the two limbs. and its top edge is 12 feet below the surface of the water. hinged at the upper horizontal edge the plate is inclined at an angle of 60 to the horizontal.
Let G. 17. a body floats in a fluid the surface of the body in contact with the fluid is subject to hydrostatic pressures. The resultant of the 18. the intensity of pressure on any element of the surface depending upon its depth below the surface. Conditions of equilibrium. The position of equilibrium for a floating body is obtained the of the body. there are two parallel forces each equal to acting through G. for horizontal if not the body will either rise or sink. Fig. Since the buoyancy Fig. otherwise the body will have a lateral movement. 18. 18. be the centre of gravity of a floating ship and BK. Fig. which does not pass through Gr. FLOATING BODIES. the line of action of the resultant of the vertical buoyancy forces. so that BK . that is. Again when (a) the buoyancy is exactly equal to the weight of the body. and its magnitude must be exactly equal to the weight vertical components of these hydrostatic forces must be in equilibrium amongst themselves. or in other words.CHAPTER II. 17. and these form a couple of magnitude "Wo?. When components of these hydrostatic forces is called the buoyancy. in such a way as to produce no couple tending to make the body rotate. and (6) the vertical forces the weight and the buoyancy act in the same vertical line. which tends to bring W the ship into the position shown in Fig. must equal the weight of the ship.and along BK respectively.
this principle will be proved. Fig. the body is displaced from this position of equilibrium. there will generally be a couple. the whole pressure on the area a is wha. The problems connected with floating bodies acted upon by forces due to gravity and the hydrostatic pressures resolve themselves therefore into two. HYDRAULICS Gr. 19. however. is When a body equal to the weight of the body is Since the weight of the body equal to the resultant of the vertical hydrostatic pressures. AC being Fig. acting upon the body. as in Fig. the equilibrium is said to be unstable. depth . If. or to the buoyancy. To find the position of equilibrium of the body. 19. To find whether the equilibrium is stable. The above condition (&) can therefore only be the resultant of the buoyancy forces passes through when the centre of gravity of the body. which should in all cases tend to restore the body to its position of equilibrium. the vertical forces act in such a way as to cause a couple tending to increase the displacement.22 passes through realised. its Consequently the floating body will oscillate about equilibrium position and it is then said to be in stable equilibrium. Let ABC. be a in the surface of the fluid. Principle of Archimedes. if when the body is given a small displacement from the position of equilibrium. 19. 17. body floating in equilibrium. if the weight of the water displaced is shown to be equal to the buoyancy. Consider any small element ab of the surface. and the vertical component of this pressure is seen to be wha cos 0. (a) (6) only. as for example a ship at sea would be when made to roll by wave motions. On the other hand. floats freely in a fluid the weight of the fluid displaced. the plane of the element being inclined at any angle the horizontal. if w is the weight of unit volume of the fluid. Then. of area a and to h.
FLOATING BODIES Imagine now a vertical cylinder standing on which is in the surface AC. the weight of this displaced of area water. 20. the body will float at any depth. equal to the buoyancy on the If similar area ab. again equal to the weight of the water displaced. and is. the is ha cos and the weight of the water filling this volume wha cos 0. and this point is. In this case if the fluid be assumed to be of constant density and the weight of the body as equal to the weight of the fluid of the same volume. and that the whole buoyancy is the sum of the weights of all these cylinders. In recent submarines the lowering and raising of the boat are controlled by vertical screw propellers. and the total buoyancy is. as has been attempted in a certain type of submarine boat. the top of volume is The horizontal sectional area of this cylinder is a cos 0. while a very small diminution of its weight or increase in its volume would cause it to rise immediately to the surface. by endeavouring to adjust the weight of the body. the vertical component of the pressure on ab will be wha cos and on ab' will be wh^a\ cos <. The whole buoyancy and is is therefore 2>wha cos ^whitti cos <. 23 this area. that the resultant of the buoyancy forces must pass through the centre of gravity of the water displaced. it at once follows. each being i Fi 8 equal to the horizontal section of the small cylinder. therefore. Since the buoyancy on any element of area is the weight of the vertical cylinder of the fluid above this area. Centre of buoyancy. If the is body body is wholly immersed as in supposed to be made up of small vertical cylinders intersecting the surface of the body in the elements of area ab and ab'. which are inclined to the horizontal at angles and 4> and having areas a and ai respectively. therefore. called the Centre of Buoyancy. But a cos must equal cos <. the total volume of these cylinders is the volume of the water displaced. water. by pumping out. cylinders be imagined on all the little elements which make up the whole immersed surface. therefore. or letting in. . It would clearly be practically impossible to maintain such a body in equilibrium. The slightest increase in the weight of the body would cause it to sink until it reached the bottom of the vessel containing the fluid.
Fig. 23. AD M B 71 Fig. it is necessary to and the centres of buoyancy for the two positions the floating body. Let AND. intersecting the line is above G.HYDRAULICS Condition of stability of equilibrium. M displacement. be the section made by a vertical plane containing G the centre of gravity and B the centre of buoyancy 21. Let the vessel be heeled over about a horizonal axis. 3 DE must equal When M M G dC . 22. or in Fig. being the surface of the fluid when the centre of gravity and centre of buoyancy are in the same vertical line. the above vertical sectional plane being taken to contain G.the couple a? will tend to GB in M. B. since the volume displacement is constant the volume of the wedge ODE must equal CAF. 22. To determine M. 22. Then. 21. Then. 21. and Bi. In designing ships it is necessary that. the Metacentre. as in Fig. the vertical through BI. Metacentre. or will heel over into a new position of equilibrium. if restore the ship to its original position of equilibrium. 21 to be small and equal to 0. and the distance of Assume the angular displacement in Fig. for even large displacements such as may be caused by the rolling of the vessel. the couple will tend to cause a further now M W . and let Bi be the new centre of buoyancy. and the ship will either topple over. Draw BiM. Fig. This in many cases is a long arid somewhat shall M G tedious operation. the angular displacement is small the point is called from can be calculated. Small displacements. FE being the fluid surface. of a floating vessel. but if is below Gr. the point of determine be above G.
since small. Z = twice the sum of the moments about the axis C 2 Ci. is =w.BM.0 .. But. of gravity of the 25 wedges df B Fig..v .V.. x.FLOATING BODIES Let Gi and G2 be the centres and CiC 2 DE respectively. The restoring couple _ T7 .V. and if ac the volume of the 3Z. Let be the total volume displacement. The heeling of the ship has the effect of moving a mass of water equal to either of these wedges from GK to Gr2 .. . (4).. and this movement causes the centre of gravity of the whole water displaced to to BI the horizontal distance between GK and Gr2 . and S the perpendicular distance from B to BiM. w. and Jo =* o is.1... "V7" ~D/^ /Q / O\ But w .. o (3). Moment of Inertia I of the waterplane area ACiDC2 about dCa.0 (1).. is Or. v ...sin0.... Therefore w .Z = w . V. The centre of gravity of the element is at \x ~ w s r/J from CiC a . S = .. 23.Z = w..v.. of all the elements such as acdb which make up the wedge is 9Z. bf is o?0. move from B Let Z be is V wedge and Then w the weight of unit volume of the fluid. when FE horizontal.. v the volume of the .. 5o is the Second Moment or Moment 2 / of Inertia of the therefore.BM.. the element of area aceb about C2 Ci. Taking ab as element is 2 J# # ....
and varies a positive in various classes of ships value of 4 or 5 feet. pontoon since the weight of water displaced equals the weight Then. 24.400 tons. therefore.000 feet units.000x64 15. 23. be the surface of the water when the sides of the Let the surface of the water when the pontoon are vertical. ship has a displacement of 15.Bj is not the centre of area of it is YE and further removed from B than AFJL.400x2240 = 171 feet. from a small negative value is to When it the metacentric height finds a position of stable equilibrium. of the pontoon. 32*1 feet. Stability of a rectangular pontoon. As long as the centre of gravity is not higher than 0*6 feet above the surface of the water. Let RFJS. be the section of the pontoon and Gr its centre of gravity.Z = w.400. it actually should be. Fig. and YE is AL given an angle of heel 0. The height of the centre of buoyancy from the bottom of the keel is 15 feet. if less than unstable. Determine the position of the centre of gravity that the metacentric height shall not be less than 4 feet in sea water. BI* being the centre of area of AFJL.. . ~ 9. the equilibrium is stable. The moment of inertia of the horizontal section of the ship at the water line 4 is 9.400. If BGr is equal to BM the a new position equilibrium The distance GrM is called the Metacentric Height. B being the centre of area of YFJE. for the sake of clearness. and If BM is greater than BGr the equilibrium is stable. Height of metacentre from the bottom of the keel is.26 HYDRAULICS The restoring couple is then If this is positive. is said to be neutral. . Then the line joining BGr must be perpendicular to the surface * In the Fig. negative the ship heels until This heeling can be corrected Example. and a draught of 27'5 feet.Y w Y BM . the area AFJL is equal to the area YFJE. the metacentric height is more than 4 feet. Again therefore since from (1) wv. by A ballasting. as. and Bi the centre of buoyancy for the new position. 6 = wlO. but if negative it is unstable. BGr it is and the body will heel over until of equilibrium is reached. Let B be the centre of buoyancy for the vertical position. .
w CLE = ~ and the weight of the wedge x I . 24. a couple. The new centre of buoyancy BI can be found in several ways. and w the weight of a cubic foot of water.FLOATING BODIES is 27 the direction in which the buoyancy force acts when the sides is the pontoon are vertical. If the line BiH were to the right of the vertical through Or. or in other words the point was below G. such that BBi x weight of pontoon = GiG2 x weight of water in GEL. The figure AFJL is formed by moving the triangle. of the AL M Fig. therefore. and therefore it may be is imagined that a volume of water equal to the volume of this wedge moved from G2 to Gi This will cause the centre of buoyancy to move parallel to GiG2 to a new position BI. the pontoon would be in W W . Let 6 be half the breadth of the pontoon.D. Then. W. the length. d the length LE. or really the wedgeshaped piece GEL to CYA. and BiM perpendicular to direction in which the buoyancy force acts when the pontoon is is the metacentre. heeled over through the angle 0. . w. the weight of the pontoon acting vertically through G and an equal and parallel buoyancy force through BI There is.l. the weight of the pontoon I D W = 2b. tending to restore the pontoon to its vertical position. or AY. the depth of displacement for the upright position. The following is probably the simplest. M unstable equilibrium.HG. . The forces acting on the pontoon in its new position are.
d . other. Therefore If BG is known. the term containing tan negligible. BR = ^GA. Since X M M from G and is 0. p^^M. along and . the angle BMBi equals Therefore X QM = B Q cot B = J^ cot QG = = Jg Let z be the distance of the centre of gravity G from 0. Besolving BB> and GriGr2 which are parallel to each and perpendicular to BM respectively. D 6 tan 2 The distance of the metacentre from the point B. 26 . Then QC 3 = BCBQ z 6 tan 2 P 2 Therefore 2 6D And since HGr = GrM sin ^. the value of the and to BM VE. can be obtained from formula is (4) given in I for the rectangle T y (26) 3 = %W. ^ TiO = d ~ d f 2 W\ = ld = &nan Bl Q rK4D GlK 4D o J 2 V3 M 3D ^D~' 6D ' ^ R D _ ^'a K~3D26~6D~ 1 n &2K B M <L * .Q cot " Wlien is ^~~ 2 _ 3D 6D is small. and V = 2bDL now be found. and This result section 22.Vt&rfQ To find the distance of the point restoring couple. . perpendicular to AL .28 HYDRAULICS Therefore HB. + 13 QM + QB = B. the metacentric height can . 2 the righting couple.
. of the centre of The height buoyancy B above the bottom of pontoon ia BT = Since the freeboard is to D.. pontoon and centre of the cross section KJ.1ft.. Therefore D6 = 71'5 .. Stability of a floating vessel containing water.. =200 tons x 2240 Ibs.. (1).. If a vessel contains water with a free surface. the surface of the water in these compartments will remain horizontal as the vessel heels over.FLOATING BODIES Example. and The breadth B = 202 depth ft. 25... Let D be the depth of displacement. Fig. from which therefore 6(2K176) 6 =10.. and the freeboard shall not be less than 2 feet... =71 An*. which. the turning moments due to the water in the vessel must be taken into account.. As a simple case consider way vessel.. Then Therefore B0 = l' and BG = 2*. 6. such as is described on page 31. The G Then.... Its length is 50 feet.. GO = 1 foot.. and the centre of gravity of the water in any compartment will change its position in such a as to increase the angular displacement of the In considering the stability of such vessels.. 24. Find the breadth and depth of the pontoon so that for an angular displacement of 10 degrees the metacentre shall not be less than 3 feet from the centre of gravity. and substituting from equation (1) 2145 ' = 429 2 ): 5. GM = 3feet. be 2 feet.. centre of gravity is 1 loot above the centre of area of the cross section...... is the centre of gravity of the is the Referring to Fig. the rectangular vessel... F =2 feet. Then D x 26 x 624 x 50 Ibs.. 24. therefore. 29 A pontoon has a displacement of 200 tons. But 6D Multiplying numerator and denominator by 6s & 3 tan 2 ..... floats with the plane AB in the Fi  25 .... ft... BM=5'. as for instance the compartments of a floating dock.. when its axis is vertical....
as shown in of the water surface Z is If KH section 22. I being in all cases the moment of inertia of the about its own axis of oscillation. It body wholly immersed. 27. the turning couple is the same wherever the compartment is situated. and . This will be seen at once on reference to Fig. and the turning couple is w 6 1 tan 0. 1 being the moment of inertia about an axis through O. fluid in the When The to the vessel is heeled through an angle the surface of fluid in the vessel is KH. as far as vertical motions are concerned. to move the wedge of fluid OEH the turning couple due to this movement is w v Z.so surface of the fluid. effect ODK. surfaces is fluid surface 2i0I0. 25. therefore. as however it rolls the centre of buoyancy must be the centre of gravity of the displaced water. 27. OHE. is small wvZ is equal to wI0. is moved by the same amount for the centre of gravity of the wedge in all cases. . Fig. can only with great difficulty be maintained in equilibrium. or the axis through the centre of gravity of the surface. therefore. 5 tan 0. has been. v 2 is ^ I tan 0. If further the body is made to roll through a small angle. For the same width and length of water surface in the compartment. the equilibrium will be unstable unless the centre of gravity of the body is below the centre of buoyancy. and this is not altered in form by . HYDRAULICS DE being the surface of the 0. has already been shown that a floating body wholly imStability of a floating mersed in a fluid. Since the body is wholly immersed the centre of buoyancy cannot change its position on the body itself. If 26 is the width of the vessel and I its 3 length. vessel. Fig. 26. Fig. for any small angle of heel 0. 26. v being the volume of either wedge and Z the distance between the centre of gravity of the wedges. there are free fluid surfaces in the floating vessel. the tipplingmoment due to these If.
The position of the centre of gravity of the dock will vary . As more water is pumped from the pontoons the dock rises with the ship. the dock is sunk to a sufficient depth by admitting water into compartments formed in the pontoons. If.FLOATING BODIES 31 any movement of the body. Water is then pumped from the pontoon chambers. therefore. G2 of the dock and its water ballast and G the centre of gravity of the dock and the ship. Gr is above B and the body be given a small angular displacement to the right say. 29. and the ship is brought into position over the centre of the dock. 28 :. the couple will act so as to bring the body to its position of equilibrium.*! Fig. Figs. and 29 show a diagrammatic outline of the pontoons a floating dock. Gr will move to the right relative to B and the couple will not restore the body to its position of equilibrium. if Gr is below B. and the dock in consequence rises until the ship just rests on the keel blocks of the dock. To dock a ship. 26. Let Gri be the centre of gravity of the ship. Floating docks. and in the section is shown the outline of forming a ship on the dock. On the other hand. which may thus be lifted clear of the water.
B as Gr is to be vertically above B. a total quantity of W + YYO w cubic feet will have to be taken from the pontoons. the dock will sink. while the centre of As buoyancy of the ship BI changes its position as the ship is raised. and a further volume of water V Y Y W W cubic w raise the feet will be required to be taken from the pontoons to its dock again to To water raise the dock. the centre of gravity Gr2 and the weight of the pontoon must be altered by taking water from the various compartments in such a way as to fulfil this condition. and the ship. on to the dock. B 2 must always lie will only move vertically. The centre and the ship divides GiGr2 the dock rises the centre of gravity Gr of the dock and the must be on the vertical through B. highest position. pumped from the pontoons is when the dock is in its highest position. Quantity of water to be pumped from the pontoons in raising the dock. on the line joining BI and As 2. B and stated above. Let be the volume displacement of the dock in its lowest To position. so that WL Y r of gravity G. and water must be ship pumped from the pontoons so as to fulfil this condition and as nearly as possible to keep the deck of the dock horizontal. Then if Vi and are the volume displacements below 2 the water line of the ship and dock respectively. the centre of buoyancy B of the whole water displaced divides B 2Bi. As the dock is raised care must be taken that the metacentre " is above Gr or the dock will list. a weight is put If. The centre of buoyancy B 2 of the dock will also be changing. but as the submerged part of the dock is symmetrical about its centre lines. therefore." is the Suppose the ship and dock are rising and that water line. as water is pumped from the pontoons. raise the dock without a ship in it the volume of the water to be . .32 relative to the HYDRAULICS bottom of the dock. Let B 2 be the centre of buoyancy of the dock and BI of the portion of the ship still below the water line. YO the volume displacement in its highest position. The centre of gravity G^ of the ship is fixed.of the dock in the inverse ratios of their weights.
The total quantity. I the moment of inertia of the section of the ship and dock by the waterplane about the axis of oscillation. and two side chambers on the top of the bottom pontoon 447 feet long by 8 feet deep and 2 feet wide at the top and 8 feet at the bottom.824 tons. 700 cubic feet. I is equal to the moment of inertia of the horizontal section of the ship at the water surface. If Gr is the centre of gravity of the dock and ship on the dock.000 cubic feet. 15. B the centre of buoyancy. When the ship just takes to the keel blocks on the dock. Stability of the floating dock. the bottom of these pontoons being 2 feet above the bottom of the dock. 351.400 x 2240 this equals the  =539. 3 .2) = 890. The volume displacement of the ship is . Simply to raise the dock through 31'5 feet the amount of water to be pumped is the difference of the displacements. Of the 890. to be taken from the pontoons from the time the ship takes to the keel blocks to when the pontoon deck is in the surface of the water is 868. The volume of dock displacement when the deck is just awash is 540 x 96 x 1475 + 2 x 380 x 13' x (1475 . and Ii.FLOATING BODIES S3 Example. L. Determine the amount of water that must be pumped from the dock. and the stability varies accordingly. 27.400 tons displacement and 27' 6" draught. A floating dock as shown dimensioned in Fig.600 cubic feet displacement when the ship is clear of the water. to take account of the tipplingmoments caused by the movement of the free surface of the water in these compartments. the bottom of the The The dock is to lift dock is 275' + 1475' + 4' =46 25 feet The volume displacement of the below the water dock is then line. together with the moment of inertia of the horizontal section of the side pontoons. about the axis of oscillation 0. 100 cubic feet. two side pontoons 380 feet long x 13 feet wide x 48 feet deep. the moments of inertia of the water surfaces in the compartments about their axes of oscillation. a ship of 15. therefore. To raise the ship with the dock an additional 539. is The moment of inertia of the waterplane section varies considerably as the dock is raised. When the ship is immersed in the water. keel blocks may be taken as 4 feet deep.219.600 cubic feet is therefore required to support the dock alone. Ia etc. therefore. of the compartments of the dock are partially filled with water. to raise the ship so that the deck of the lowest pontoon is in the water surface.100 cubic feet =24. and is. and weight of the ship in cubic feet of water. it is necessary. 329.000 cubic feet must be extracted from the pontoons. 1475 x 540 x 96 + 2 x 4425 x 13 x 380 + 447 x 8 x 5'= 1. the righting moment when the dock receives a small angle of As some heel 0. in considering the stability. H. 28 is made up of a bottom pontoon 540 feet long x 96 feet wide x 1475 feet deep.600 cubic feet.
If the dock is Lshaped as in Fig. .700 The height cubic feet.269. 000. = 30.000 + 2 (380 x 13' x 55 5 a + T^ x 380 x of displacement 133 ) = 9.000 + & x 5 40' x 96 = 70.000 Therefore (c) cubic feet.. and then taking moments about any axis. BM = 328 the pontoon deck I is feet. The centre of buoyancy of the bottom pontoon is at 7 '375' from the bottom. (b) the pontoon deck is just above the water.000.000. For example. be eliminated by fitting an air box. of the centre of buoyancy above the bottom of the dock can be determined by finding the centre of buoyancy of each of the parts of the dock. and of the ship if it is in the water.430. when the ship just comes on the keel blocks. The volume = 539. however.000 + 139. which is a very convenient form for some purposes. 4 units.569. When just above the surface of the water.000 ft. 30. The volume displacement 540 x 96 x 1475 + 380 x 2 x 13 x (1475 I. The centre of buoyancy for the ship is at 15 feet above the bottom of the keel.4 . BM = 79'8 feet. (a) the keel is just clear of the water.000 + 1. 28 when the ship just takes to the keel blocks. Example. This critical point can.600 cubic feet.219. the waterplane is only that of the side pontoons.000 + 30. and that the dock deck is horizontal.. side pontoons 24125' chambers 17'94' . (c) Take the moment of inertia of the horizontal section of the ship at the water line as 9. of the metacentre above the centre of buoyancy is therefore (6) When the keel is just is clear of the water the moment of inertia is 30. The height.34 HYDRAULICS When the tops of the keel blocks are just above the surface of the water. on the Fig 30 outer end of the bottom pontoon. the top of which is slightly higher than the top of the keel blocks. shown dotted. To find the height h of the centre of buoyancy of the dock and the ship. . is The volume displacement Therefore 890. The horizontal distance between the centres of the side tanks is 111 ft.2) = 930.400. and I has its minimum value. the stability when the tops of the keel blocks come to the surface simply depends upon the moment of inertia of the area AR about an axis through the centre of AB.569. 400. and assume that the ship is symmetrically placed on the dock. Total moment of inertia of the horizontal section is (a) 9.400. To find the height of the metacentre above the centre of buoyancy of the dock of Fig.
The total weight of the ship is 10.. The centre of buoyancy for the dock alone is 2475 feet below the surface of the water. by 1500 tons. at the plane 16*5 feet above the of the keel.244. a freeboard of not less than 3 feet. and the metacentre is not to be less than 3 feet above the centre of gravity when the angle of heel is 15 degrees. Find the difference in draught in the dock and at sea after the weight of the ship has been reduced by consumption of coal. 40*3' above the bottom of the dock.600. (4) A ship has a total displacement of 15. Determine the height of the metacentre above the centre of buoyancy. feet. A ship when fully loaded has a total burden of 10. Let 9 be the difference in draught. Then 9 x 22. the metacentre is. therefore ft =19 '7 feet.000 tons and a draught of 27 feet.000 x 2240 6243 8500 x 2240 64 =6130 cubic Therefore 8 feet. the centre of buoyancy is 10 feet from the bottom of the keel and the displacement is 9000 tons. of The moment of The horizontal bottom inertia of the waterplane is 7.000 foot4 units.000 x 3375 + 765. is The moment of inertia of the section at the water line of a boat (3) 1200 foot4 units.000 x 24125 + 35.000 + 35. etc. When the ship is lifted by a floating dock so that the depth of the bottom the keel is 16'5 feet.000 x 7'375 35 + 437. = 278 feet =3*34 inches.000 tons when it leaves the river dock.000 + 76. 32 . Find the width and depth of the pontoon.000 sq.760) = 540. metacentre above the centre of buoyancy. Determine (6) (a) The The height of the centre of buoyancy for the whole ship and the dock. consists of two rectangles 380 feet x 11 feet. Find The sides of a ship are vertical near the water line and the area of (2) the horizontal section at the water line is 22.000= the difference in volume displacement _ 10. the weight of the boat is 11'5 tons.000 tons. The centre of gravity coincides with the centre of figure.5. (1) the volume displacement in sea water.000 + 437. section of the dock. therefore. A rectangular pontoon 60 feet long is to have a displacement of (5) 220 tons.760 x 17 '95.000 cubic feet.FLOATING BODIES Taking moments about the bottom of the dock h (510. the distance apart of the centre lines of the rectangles being 114 feet. If now the centre of gravity of the dock and ship is known the metacentrio height can be found. The volume displacement of the dock at this level is 1. For case (a) EXAMPLES.
Un. 1906. Find the height of the metacentre above the water line and determine the position of the centre of gravity to give a metacentric height (7) or otherwise. the surface of the water being free to move. and 26 feet draught. Find the change in the depth of immersion after the ship has been sufficiently long at sea to burn 500 tons of coal. and the sides of the ship are vertical at the water line. [Lond.] The total weight of a fully loaded ship is 5000 tons. A vertical diaphragm divides the pontoon longitudinally into two compartments each 12 feet wide and 50 feet long. Determine the position of the centre of gravity of the pontoon that it may be stable for small displacements. Weight of 1 cubic foot of fresh water 62 Ibs. (6) has a displacement of 180 tons. 50 feet long and 14 feet deep. The depth of the centre of buoyancy from the water line is 10 feet. the water line (8) encloses an area of 9000 square feet. 60 feet beam.000 tons displacement is 600 feet long. The ship was loaded in fresh water. "Weight of 1 cubic foot of salt water 64 Ibs. In the lower part of each of these compartments there is water ballast.36 HYDRAULICS A rectangular pontoon 24 feet wide. . Define "metacentric height" and show how to obtain it graphically A ship of 16. ^ of 18 inches. A coefficient of may be taken in the moment of inertia term instead of fo to allow for the waterline section not being a rectangle.
as will be either in magnitude or direction. but an assumption of such flow is helpful in connection with hydraulic problems. when the particles which succeed each other at any point whatever have the same density and velocity. it is convenient to assume that at any point in the section. and when the motion is steady these filaments are supposed to be fixed in In a pipe or channel of constant section. that is shown later. are. the filaments position. and the mean rate at which water flows through this section is constant. the velocities of succeeding particles of water which arrive at any In practice is flow point in the channel. or the mean velocity of the stream. The particles of a fluid in motion are frequently regarded as flowing along definite paths. The motion of a fluid is said to be steady or permanent. are generally supposed to be parallel to the sides of the channel. Mean velocity. as even in the case of the water flowing steadily along a pipe or channel. it is probably very seldom that such a condition of absolutely realised. III. FLUIDS IN MOTION. or in threadlike filaments. The mean velocity through the section. if . however. 28. and are subjected to the same pressure. if a section of a stream be taken at right angles to the direction of flow of the stream. it is convenient if the rate at which a fluid is passing through any assume area finite constant. although the velocity at different points may not be the same. not the same to For practical purposes. Stream line motion. except at very low velocities.CHAPTER Steady motion. the velocity always remains constant both in magnitude and direction. 29. then at all points in the area the motion is steady. is equal to the quantity of flow per unit time divided by the area of the section. It will be seen later that such an ideal condition of flow is only not abused realised in very special cases. For example.
W W Velocity head. HYDRAULICS Definitions relating to flow of water. above the atmospheric pressure. it will rise in the tube to a height h t which and equals the pressure head above the atmospheric pressure. The pressure head at a point in a fluid at rest has been defined as the vertical distance of the point from the free surface of the fluid. sq. is w  feet.38 30. Pressure head. h= . foot and is equal to . assuming it can fall to the datum level and that no energy is lost. If through a small area around the point B. is w Proof. if a vertical tube. be inserted in the fluid. That the work is which can be done by the pressure head per pound ^ foot pounds can be shown as follows. 31. in which the pressure is h feet of water as in . but if p is the absolute pressure per \L*A Fig. sq. If the point B is at a height z feet above any convenient datum level. g being the acceleration due to gravity in feet per second per second. foot. Fig. Imagine a piston fitting into the end of a small tube of cross sectional area a. a stream The total amount of work that can be obtained from every pound of water passing the point B. 31. the velocity of the fluid is v feet per second. 31. the position head of the fluid at B above the given datum is said to be z feet. Fig. per sq. the pressure head at point in a moving fluid at which the is pressure p Ibs. the velocity head is 5 . any Similarly. foot. If p is the pressure per sq. where p is the pressure per and w is weight per cubic foot of the fluid. 2g Work available due to pressure head. 31. Energy per pound of water passing any section in line. foot. and pA the atmospheric pressure. Position head. called a piezometer tube.
=a. that is without resistance.32  is. 39 and let a small quantity 3Q cubic feet of water enter the tube and move the piston through a small distance dx. The work done on the piston will as it enters be w . or foot pounds. 32.dx. . as for example. the whole of utilised in giving kinetic energy to and therefore the kinetic energy per pound fluid v2 is ^ . Work available due to velocity. the work done on the body by gravity is h foot pounds per pound. an is amount of energy equal to foot j pounds per pound If therefore available before the velocity is destroyed. if the fluid is at a height z feet above any datum. h a dx = u . the velocity the body acquires in feet per second is v = \i2ghj * =h L ' 2g And the since no resistance is work done on the body has been it. When a body falls through a height h feet. . But the weight of dQ cubic feet and the work done per pound is w 9Q . This is a most important theorem and should be carefully studied by the reader. falls a weight of one pound it by gravity will be z foot pounds. water at a given height above the sea level. h. Bernoulli's theorem. and. Work available due to position. pounds. offered to the motion. In a steady moving stream of an incompressible fluid in which the particles of fluid are moving in stream lines. It is shown in books on mechanics that if the body is allowed to fall freely. through the height z the work done on 32. Then dQ. A pressure head h is therefore equivalent to h foot pounds of energy per pound of water. and there is no loss by friction or other causes f) w is + cT + 2g V* z constant for all sections of the stream. therefore. Fl 8.FLUIDS IN MOTION Fig. therefore. the available energy on allowing the fluid to fall to the datum level is z foot pounds per pound. In the case of the Q moving with velocity v.
Let of E. Then the amount of fluid that flows in at D through the area AB equals the amount that flows out at E through the area OF. Let DE. the D _3Q_ ~Ad*' = and the velocity at E is VE ^ dQ entering at The kinetic energy of the quantity of fluid D . and since. Imagine a small tube to be surrounding DE. Fig. Let p D and VDJ and p E and V E be the pressures and velocities at D and E respectively. be the path of a particle of the fluid. a quantity of fluid ABAiBi equal to 3Q similar quantity is velocity at and a CFCiFi leaves at E. between any two points in the stream no energy is lost. by the principle of the conservation of energy it can at once be inferred that this expression must be constant for all sections of a steady flowing stream. 33. tube. and A and a the corresponding areas of the in this be steady.40 It HYDRAULICS has been shown in the last paragraph that this expression the total amount of energy per pound of water flowing represents through any section of a stream. and let the flow and let the sectional area of the tube be so small that the velocity through any section normal to DE is uniform. 33. Fig. A more general proof is as follows. z be the height of if D above some datum and z^ the height Then. VD in a time enters at D. tit.
^D2 ) = wdQ (z. If the end of the pipe is closed the water will rise in all the tubes to the same level as the water in the reservoir.Zi) + p D 3Q . and therefore 2 nj (t>B . at a 2gr /VJ ^ + PE + w + PD + tant> a steady head plus of these height H /* equal to w + ?r + z above the datum level. is the same as if ABBiAi fell to w 8Q (z . * British Assoc.FLUIDS IN MOTION 41 and that of the liquid leaving at E Since the flow in the tube is steady. The at total pressure on the area AB is p D .Zi). and the work done D in time dt and the work done by the pressure at B in time t = pE #UE dt = PE dQ. A. if at points in moving stream. illus 2g Mr Froude* has given some very beautiful experimental trations of this theorem. through a pipe of variable diameter fitted with tubes at various points. But the gain of kinetic energy must equal the work done. Since the pipe is short it may be supposed to be frictionless. l From which w 2g From this theorem it is seen that. 34 water is taken from a tank or reservoir in which the water is maintained at a constant level by an inflowing stream. . the kinetic energy of the portion ABCF does not alter. the upper extremities ordinates will be in the same horizontal plane. water will flow through the pipe and the water surfaces in the tubes will be found to be at different levels. In Fig.PB ^Q. a vertical ordinate equal to the velocity the pressure head is erected. but if the end C is opened. Keport 1875. and therefore the increase of the kinetic energy of the quantity dQ The work done by gravity i and therefore equals .
the small difference being due to fractional and other losses of energy. and. At C the pressure is equal to the atmospheric pressure. Ibs. the velocity UD is greater than v and therefore p^ is less At D . the actual velocity measured will be than v c as calculated from this equation. the absolute pressure head at that section is w w 2g w 2<7 2g' p a being the atmospheric pressure at the surface of the water in the reservoir. and neglecting friction in the pipe. the velocity will be greater than VG . B. the whole of the work done by gravity on any water leaving the pipe while it falls from the surface of the water in the reservoir through the height H. and the pressure will be less than the atmospheric pressure. If v is the velocity at any section of the pipe. and the velocities at A. the sectional area is less than the area at C. Due less to the neglected losses. If to the 5^ head of water in the tubes at A and B the ordinates and ^ be added respectively. which ft. which is supposed to be horizontal. Fig. and C can be found by dividing this quantity by the crosssectional areas of the pipe at these points. per pound. the upper extremities of these ordinates will be practically on the same level and nearly level with the surface of the water in the reservoir. 34. in setting up internal motions. as will be seen later.42 HYDRAULICS The quantity of water flowing per second through the pipe can be measured. If at any point D in the pipe. is utilised in giving velocity of motion to is the water. H Neglecting these resistances.
. velocity head is v 36. &t the section B. 35 and 36 show two of Froude's illustrations of the theorem. the tube being diminished at one section to 0'05 inch diameter. If is a is the section of the pipe at A. and discontinuity of flow will take place. 36. and If now a is made so that the pressure head h A becomes equal to the atmospheric pressure. the pressure head is hs and the H. that p becomes negative. and a t at B. 43 it If the tube DE coloured water be put into the vessel E. the !luid will be in tension. If the fluid is water which has been exposed to the atmosphere and which consequently contains gases in solution. He allowed water to flow through a tube f inch diameter under a high pressure. to a height will rise in w w 2g' If the area at the section is so small.FLUIDS IN MOTION than p a . Fig. Professor Osborne Reynolds devised an interesting experiment. as shown in the figure. since there continuity of flow. to show that when the velocity is high. 35. Fig. and the pipe can be divided at A. Figs. these gases will escape from the water if the pressure becomes less than the tension of the dissolved gases. and there will be discontinuity even before the pressure becomes zero. the pressure is small. Fig.
E. Let pi be the pressure head at the upstream gauge A. or a H =P>. The meter is inserted horizontally in a line of piping.. gauge C. this pressure fell so diminished section. Am. Let v 2 be the velocity at the downstream large end of cone C. Venturi meter. 1887. = W E. In its usual form the Venturi meter consists of two truncated conical pipes connected together by a short cylindrical pipe called the throat. Let v be the velocity through the throat.C. Let 0. Let H and H be the differences of pressure head at the throat and large ends A and C of the cone respectively. the diameter of the large ends of the frustra being equal to that of the pipe. Piezometer tubes or other pressure gauges are connected to the throat and to one or both of the large ends of the cones. * Transactions . W Let Q be the flow through the meter in cubic feet per sec. Let p 2 be the pressure head at the dcrwnstream.S. the difference always ~ pi Pa being equal to this loss of head. w and + 2g w + Sfc+SL w 2g 20 2g* H= p2 is ^. Let p be the pressure head at the throat. Let a be the area of the throat. the velocity was very high and the low that the water boiled and made a hissing 33. but there is in practice a slight loss of head in the meter. Let v l be the velocity at the upstream large end of cone A. 37 and 38. Then. The meter takes its name from an Italian philosopher who in the last decade of the 18th century made experiments upon the flow of water through conical pipes. Let a2 be the area of the pipe or the large end of the cone An atC. as shown in Figs. If v 2 is equal to Vi. w w 9 and H. theoretically equal to pi. as invented by Mr Clemens Herschel*.44 HYDRAULICS At noise. assuming Bernouilli's theorem. application of Bernoulli's theorem is found in the Venturi meter.1 be the area of the pipe or the large end of the cone at A. and neglecting friction.
.FLUIDS IN MOTION 45 The velocity v is a Q* . and a . Therefore (^ \a / = %q H. and v ^] efc l is a\ .
TABLE Herschel III. . the discharge than a2 this theoretical value. given in Table III.46 HYDRAULICS Due to friction. For smaller meters and lower velocities the error may be considerable and special calibrations are desirable. and eddy motions that may be is slightly less set up in the meter. For meters having a throat diameter not less than 2 inches and for of 0'985 pipe line velocities not less than 1 foot per second a value for h will probably give discharges within an error of from 2 to 2*5 per cent. or (1) v ch 2 *Jc being a coefficient which has to be determined by experiment. so that the coefficient varies but little for a large variation of H. Herschel found the following values for fc. For a meter having a diameter of 25*5 inches at the throat and 54 inches at the large end of the cone.
per _*4o_ second. feet. ft. by Bernoulli's theorem E and PE + w V = Pv + V 2g n ' 2g At B the water zero. The surface at E will . per sec. 34. 41. is practically at rest. When a boat is moved at a high velocity along a narrow and shallow canal. An interesting application of Bernoulli's theorem is to show the effect of speed and position on the steering of a canal boat. the boat tends to leave behind it a hollow which is filled by the water rushing past the boat as shown in Figs. and therefore v s is and Pv _ PI + v w w 2g' therefore be higher than at F. Fig. Fig. Let stream it be assumed that the water moves past the boat in lines. and what is called a bow wave is formed. A Fig. 47 The area The of the pipe is 63'5 sq. and the velocity of flow through the throat. while immediately in front of the boat the impact of the bow on the still water causes an increase in the " " pressure and the water is piled up or is at a higher level than the still water. throat 705 difference in pressure head at the two gauges is 6 feet.FLUIDS IN MOTION Find the discharge. is through the throat 194 ft. 40. 39 and 40. ft. F If vertical sections are taken at B and F. and the points are on the same horizontal line. Steering of canal boats. 39. Therefore x 322x6 = ^/sse = 137 c. The velocity of flow in the pipe is 2'15 per sec.
This difficulty is diminished if the canal is made sufficiently deep. or due to internal motions of the fluid. or by the relative motion of consecutive elements of the fluid. . ' PE = PF + v^ = pr + v^ w w 2# w 2g And since vy is greater than t? P the pressure head pF is greater than >r. or in other words the surface of the water at the right side D of the boat will be higher than on the left side B. In actual cases the value of is w *** 2g A diminishes as the motion proceeds. 41. or loss of energy per pound of fluid. increases the difficulty of steering. Venturi meter has a diameter of 4 ft. so that flow can readily take place underneath the boat.4S HYDRAULICS When the boat is at the centre of the canal the stream lines on both sides of the boat will have the same velocity. between any two given points and B in the stream. In deducing this theorem it has been assumed that the fluid a perfect fluid moving with steady motion and that there are no losses of energy. at the throat. in the throat. and of (1) the pipe to which it is connected If inches. will be higher than the velocity v v on the other But for each side of the boat side. then more generally w 2g w 2g EXAMPLES. Extension of Bernoulli's theorem. in the large part and With water flowing through it. The discharge through the meter in 20 minutes was found to be 314 gallons. the velocity v F of the stream lines between the boat and the nearer bank. in the large part and 97 ft. by friction of the surfaces with which the fluid may be in contact. but if the boat is nearer to one bank than the other. as shown in the figures. The diameter of the throat of a Venturi meter is  inch. If hf is the loss of head. Fig. The greater pressure on the right side D tends to push the boat towards the left bank A. Coefficient of meter taken as unity. the pressure head is 100 ft. Find the velocity in the small part and the discharge through the meter. (2) A 125 ft. Determine the coefficient of discharge. The difference in pressure head at the two gauges was 49 feet. 35. and at high speeds considerably ' .
per second. the velocity is 3 ft. section 35. water water The suction pipe of a pump is laid at an inclination of 1 in 5. Then deduce the greatest practicable length of is suction pipe. v can be found. ft.) A horizontal of 10 square feet. ft. B. the energy lost per pound of flow between the two sections. respectively. Three cubic falls varies in (Use equation (8) 1. 100 ft. Water is delivered to an inwardflow turbine under a head of 100 feet Chapter IX). (5) Friction neglected. ft. 11. and pumped through it at 6 ft. ft. pipe in which the sections vary gradually has sections and 10 square feet at sections A.FLUIDS IN MOTION 49 pipe AB. and the velocity 3 feet per second. Find (a) the loss of energy in foot pounds per minute. The pressure just outside the wheel is 25 Ibs. per second. A A section is 1 (4) sq. feet of water per second flow along a pipe which as it diameter from 6 inches to 12 inches. flow from the higher to the lower section. and the inlet pressure is mp. The pressure head at the large end is found to be 100 feet. Find when 10 4 c. Friction (see neglected. The pressure head A Venturi meter in a water main consists of a pipe converging to (9) the throat and enlarging again gradually. The difference of pressure in the main and at the throat is 12 feet of water. where the of the pipe is 3 sq. Find the discharge of the main per hour. at A is 100 feet. the second. to 2 feet at the small short conical pipe varying in diameter from 4' 6" at the large end end forms part of a horizontal water main. Take A as the lower end of the pipe. ft. Suppose the air in the is disengaged if the pressure falls to more than 10 Ibs. and C.. . and the difference in pressure head at the two points 50 feet apart. ft. show that and show that (11) if p and mp are observed. Find the velocity with which the water approaches the wheel. sq. Find the discharge through the (7) pipe. The head due (3) is 45 ft. and 1 sq. and the area of throat 1 sq. and in horsepower. Find the velocity at A. Two sections of a pipe have an area first of 2 sq. Find the pressure head and velocity at B. L. ft. If the inlet area of a Venturi meter is n times the throat area. and at the small end (6) A 965 feet. The section of main is 9 sq. falls 12 feet. per inch by gauge. In 50 feet the pipe Due to various causes there is a loss of head of 4 feet. below atmospheric pressure. has an inclination of 1 in 5. Given that in another case the difference of the pressure heads at A and B is 2 feet. and (10) v and p are the velocity and pressure at the throat. of water per sec. and the section to the pressure at Find the head due to the pressure at B. 1 square foot. The centre of the The pressure head section is 10 feet higher than that of at each of the sections is 20 feet. long. Coefficient of discharge unity.
in the lower part of the vessel there is an orifice AB. filled with water. . presents considerable somewhat outside the scope of this treatise. Let the velocities at E and F be V E and V F the pressure heads hE and 7i F and the position heads above some datum. the free surface of is maintained at a constant level. Fig. The general theory as for difficulties. 42. is of the discharge of fluids through orifices. Z E and z p . it is assumed that the density of the fluid is constant. the flow of steam and air. and consider any stream line EF. the vessel surface CD. therefore. the effect of small changes of temperature in altering the density being thus neglected. 42. Attention In what follows. . confined to the problem of determining the quantity of water which flows through a given orifice in a given time. Let it as to maintain a constant head. the velocity of flow is zero. and some of the phenomena connected therewith. fluids through orifices. Flow of example and is. . FLOW OF WATER THROUGH ORIFICES AND OVER WEIRS. 36. be assumed that although water flows into the vessel so is so large that at some Imagine the water in the vessel to be divided into a number of stream lines. respectively. Fig.CHAPTER TV. and pressure which Consider a vessel.
and horizontal orifices. it is found that the water rises nearly to the level of the water in the vessel. through a height. about equal to its radius. + If v f is zero. which was discovered experimentally. in a vacuum. orifice is circular be taken as equal to the distance of the centre of the below the free surface. and it is inferred. The theoretical velocity of flow through the small section GK the stream lines.& E + z But from the equal to figure it is seen that is h. 51 VK ^T + ZE = ^ ft? + or + Vv then 7^ = Tip . point E. equal to the atmospheric pressure . in falling. of free level for all and the pressure head will be and if the orifice is small the fall the stream lines is H. the section GK is at a distance. equal to the depth of the centre of the orifice below the free surface of the water in the vessel. the distance of the centre below the free surface of the water. The theorem is proved experimentally as follows. applying Bernoulli's theorem to the stream line EF. For small vertical orifices." At some section GK near to the orifice the stream lines are all practically normal to the section. therefore. from the plane of the orifice. that if the resistance of the air jet and of the orifice could be eliminated. as in Fig. by him. the would rise exactly to the level of the surface of the water in the vessel. 44 and 45. The above is Thomson's proof of Torricelli's theorem. the same for all velocity which a body will acquire. the water would rise in a tube having its end open at E. as in Figs. and therefore or VE = Since h% is the pressure head at E. 43.FLOW THROUGH ORIFICES Then. a height hE and h may thus be called following Thomson the fall of "free level for the . If the aperture is turned upwards. and equal to the is. If the of the section GK and sharpedged. about orifice H may the middle of the 17th century. .
show. If <o is the area of the jet at this section and a the area of the orifice At a the ratio  is called the coefficient of contraction and may be denoted by c. for. or in the bottom of a vessel. Fig. and the theoretical velocity becomes \/2g (H + y). Fig. Coefficient of contraction for sharpedged orifice. and has a sharp edge. and the directions of flow of the particles of water. Weisbach by Bazin. and defines the coefficient of contraction as this area divided by the area of the orifice. the mean velocity through the orifice differs from v/2#H by a very small quantity. the which are shown in Table IV. states. in section for a greater distance than that is to be expected. as shown in Figs. the jet has a minimum area at a distance from the orifice slightly less than the radius of the orifice. but the cross sectional area of the jet is considerably less than the area of the orifice. the stream lines set up in the water approach the orifice in all directions. If an orifice is cut in the flat side. as the jet moves away The diminution given by Weisbach from the orifice the centre of the jet falls. producing a contraction of the jet.52 HYDRAULICS Other experiments described on pages 5456. as shown in the figure. 37. 45. but they converge. that the section of the jet diminishes continuously and in fact has no minimum value. are not normal to the plane of the orifice. measurements of the sections of jets from horizontal and vertical sharpedged circular and rectangular results of orifices. . 44 and 45. small distance from the orifice the stream lines become practically parallel. Whether a minimum occurs for square orifices some of is doubtful. 44. For a Recent careful circular orifice he gives to c the value 0'64. also show that. that for a circular orifice. with carefully constructed orifices. however. except very near the centre.y being the vertical distance between the centre of the orifice and the centre of the jet.
square. The maximum contraction of the jet takes place when the orifice is sharp edged and is well removed from the sides and bottom of the vessel. The stream lines at the lower part of the orifice are normal to its plane and the contraction at the lower edge is consequently suppressed. Fig. Similarly. Experiments show. 47. M. and although the vein appears to expand. that for complete Complete contraction. and the coefficient of contraction by orifice. An example of incomcontraction is shown in Fig. for an orifice '20 m. The same effect is produced by placing a horizontal plate in the vessel level with the bottom of the orifice.FLOW THROUGH ORIFICES 53 At a small distance away from lines are practically parallel. as be seen later. section of the jet at a distance of *3 m. 47. In this case the contraction is said to be complete. the section becomes very difficult to measure. the stream very little error is introduced in measuring the stream near the a minimum Poncelet and Lesbros in 1828 found. the lower edge of the rectangular orifice being made level with the bottom of the vessel. but. 46. plete Fig. contraction the distance from the orifice to the sides or bottom of the vessel should not be less than one and a half to twice the least diameter of the orifice. and it is uncertain whether the area is really diminished. in discussing these remarks that at distances greater than 0'3 m. the side or lateral contraction is suppressed. the orifice must be made of such a form that the stream lines become parallel at the orifice and normal to its plane. Incomplete or sn/ppressed contraction. Bazin. . 46. the orifice. To suppress the contraction completely. however. the discharge coefficient may vary more than when the contraction is complete. the sides become hollow. if the width of a rectangular orifice is made equal to that of the vessel. or the orifice abed is provided with side walls as in Fig. from the orifice this section c and at results. In any will case of suppressed contraction the discharge is increased. was '563.
and the areas measured with considerable accuracy. The velocity is determined by measuring the discharge in a given time under a given head. The theoretical shown in section t?i as is equal to \/2#H. M. There are two methods Experimental determination of k. and Q the discharge per second. Above the orifice is fixed a horizontal scale 011 which is a slider carrying a vertical scale. Coefficient of velocity for sharpedged orifice. as explained in the last paragraph. adopted for determining k experimentally. Some of the results obtained are shown in Table IV and also in the section on the form of the liquid vein. is. is obtained. with a sharp vessel . An orifice. but the actual velocity slightly less than this due to friction at the orifice.= Jc L is called the coefficient of velocity. to the bottom of which is clamped a bent piece of wire. Fig. The screws are adjusted until the points thereof touch the jet. 50. 49. which consists of a ring having four radial set screws of fine pitch. velocity through the contracted section 36. if Vi is the actual velocity. Bazin has recently used an octagonal frame with twentyfour set screws. The ratio . 48.54 HYDRAULICS Experimental determination of c. Fig. all radiating to a common centre. is formed in the side of a and water allowed to flow from it. to determine the form of the section of jets from various kinds of orifices. The section of the stream from a circular orifice can be obtained with considerable accuracy by the apparatus shown in Fig. The forms of the sections could then be obtained. and the cross sectional area also o> of the jet. 49. and Second method. The frame was then placed upon a sheet of paper and the positions of the ends of the screws marked upon the paper. 38. Fig. The water after leaving the orifice flows in a parabolic curve. Then. First method. The screws were adjusted until they just touched the jet.
... movement is..... and the horizontal and vertical distances of any point in the axis of the jet from the centre of the orifice can thus be obtained..... Assume the velocity of flow. At a time it t and let Vi be the horizontal seconds after a particle has passed is the orifice..... (1)........ Fig.. = vi sin 6^ + \gt? ......... .. (3)........ y = \g Vl X* 3 Vi and =x V jfy' The theoretical velocity of flow is Therefore & It is better to take two values of x and y so as to make allowance for the plane of the orifice not being exactly perpen dicular....FLOW THROUGH ORIFICES point................. 55 The vertical scale can be adjusted so tliat the point touches the upper or lower surface of the jet....... 50...... y 1 i l l ............... At a time t seconds after a particle has passed the orifice... seconds Xi = v co&0t .......... (4)... the horizontal component to the plane inclined at an angle of the velocity is Vi cos and the vertical component Vi sin 0.............. If the orifice has its vertical. the distance has moved horizontally x = vj ................. y = v *m0t + lgp ... orifice is vertical...... the horizontal movement from the orifice is...... and the vertical After a time ti X = ViCOS0t ........... (1).... (2)....(2).... The vertical distance is v = \gf Therefore ..
In Table IY are given values of k as obtained by Bazin from 39. further from the column 3 increases as the section is taken and in nearly all cases is greater than unity. the theoretical The coefficient of jet.56 HYDRAULICS Substituting the value of t from (1) in (2) and tr from (3) in (4). and the actual discharge per second was determined by noting the time taken to fill a vessel of known The mean velocity through capacity.  and. for various values of the head. sec can be calculated. m Prom (5). # yxtanO . . Let y be the vertical distance of the centre of any section below the centre of the orifice . experiments on vertical and horizontal sharpedged orifices. Those in column 4 were found by dividing the actual mean The coefficients given in mean velocity through the section by velocity at any section of the jet. The section of the jet at various distances from the orifice was carefully measured by the apparatus described above. the various sections was different. Substituting for v* in (6). */2g (H + y). Then Bazin's experiments on a sharpedged orifice. XX (X l 0?i) tables. and for this in calculating the coefficient k in the A H the actual column 3 were determined by dividing velocity through different sections of the jet by \/2#H. any section was then Q being the discharge per second and The fall of free level for allowance is made fourth column.(8). Having and from calculated tan (7) Vi can be found from mathematical 0. the theoretical velocity at the centre of the orifice. then the fall of free level for that + y and the theoretical velocity is section is the area of the section.. tan^^'^y.
FLOW THROUGH ORIFICES
57
TABLE
Sharpedged
IV.
Orifices Contraction Complete.
Table showing the ratio of the area of the jet to the area of the orifice at definite distances from the orifice, and the ratio of
the
H
mean velocity in the section to \/2^H and to \/2g (H + 7/), being the head at the centre of the orifice and y the vertical
.
distance of the centre of the section of the jet from the centre of the orifice. = '990 m. Vertical circular orifice 0*20 m. ('656 feet) diameter,
H
(3248 feet). Coefficient of discharge m,
by actual measurement
Mean
Velocity
of the flow is
Distance of the section
from the plane of the orifice in metres
008 013 017 0235 0335 0515
Area of Jet Area of Orifice
c
Mean
Velocity
6079 5971 5951 5904 5830 5690
0983 1001 1004 1012 1025 1050
998 999
1003 1007 1010
Horizontal
circular
feet).
orifice
0*20 m.
('656
feet)
diameter,
= '975m. (3198
0075 0093 0110 0128 0145 0163
m = 06035.
06003 05939 05824 05734 05658 05597
1005 1016 1036 1053 1067 1078
0968 0971 0982 0990 0996 0998
Vertical orifice '20 m. ('656 feet) square,
H = '953 m. (3126 feet)
997
1000 1007 1010 1027 1024
m = 0'6066.
0151 0175 0210 0248 0302 0350
06052 06029 05970 05930 05798 05783
1002 1006 1016 1023 1046 1049
The
real value of the coefficient for the various sections is
however that given in column 4. For the horizontal orifice, for every section, it is less than unity, but for the vertical orifice it is greater than unity. Bazin's results confirm those of Lesbros and Poncelet, who in
* See section 42
and Appendix
1.
58
HYDRAULICS
1828 found that the actual velocity through the contracted section the jet, even when account was taken of the centre of the section of the jet being below the centre of the orifice, was sV greater than the theoretical value. This result appears at first to contradict the principle of the conservation of energy, and Bernoulli's theorem. It should however be noted that the vertical dimensions of the orifice are not small compared with the head, and the explanation of the apparent anomaly is no doubt principally to be found in the fact that the initial velocities in the different horizontal filaments of the jet are different. Theoretically the velocity in the lower part of the jet is greater
of
+ y), and in the upper part less than \/2g (H + y). \/2<jr (H Suppose for instance a section of a jet, the centre of which is 1 metre below the free surface, and assume that all the filaments have a velocity corresponding to the depth below the free surface, and normal to the section. This is equivalent to assuming that the pressure in the section of the jet is constant, which is probably
than
not true. Let the jet be issuing from a square orifice of side, and assume the coefficient of contraction simplicity that the section of the jet is square. Then the side of the jet is '1549 metres.
theoretical velocity at the centre is \/2#, assuming this velocity for the whole section is
'2
m.
is
"6,
('656 feet) and for
The
and the discharge
6
x 04 x *Jfy
=
'024
J2g
cubic metres.
The actual discharge, on the above assumption, through any horizontal filament of thickness dh, and depth h, is
3Q = 01549
and the
total discharge is
x<ta
rl 0775
Q = 01549
theoretical discharge, taking account of the varying heads therefore, 1*004 times the discharge calculated on the assumption
The
is,
that the head is constant. As the head is increased this difference diminishes, and when the head is greater than 5 times the depth of the orifice, is very
small indeed.
The assumed data agrees very approximately with that given
in
Table
IY
for a square orifice,
where the value of
A;
is
given as
1006.
FLOW THROUGH ORIFICES
59
This partly then, explains the anomalous values of fe, but it cannot be looked upon as a complete explanation. The conditions in the actual jet are not exactly those assumed, and the variation of velocity normal to the plane of the section is probably much more complicated than here assumed. As Bazin further points out, it is probable that, in jets like those from the square orifice, which, as will be seen later when the
form of the jet is considered, are subject to considerable deformation, the divergence of some of the filaments gives rise to pressures less than that of the atmosphere. Bazin has attempted to demonstrate this experimentally, and his instrument, Fig. 150, registered pressures less than that of the atmosphere; but he doubts the reliability of the results, and points out the extreme difficulty of satisfactorily determining the
pressure in the jet. That the inequality of the velocity of the filaments is the primary cause, receives support from the fact that for the
horizontal orifice, discharging downwards, the coefficient Jc is always slightly less than unity. In this case, in any horizontal
section
below the
orifice,
the head
is
the same for all the stream
velocity of the filaments is practically constant. lines, The coefficient of velocity is never less than '96, so that the loss
and the
due
to the internal friction of the liquid
is
very small.
40.
Distribution of velocity in the plane of the orifice.
Bazin has examined the distribution of the velocity in the various sections of the jet by means of a fine Pitot tube (see In the plane of the orifice a minimum velocity page 245). which for vertical orifices is just above the centre, but at a occurs, little distance from the orifice the minimum velocity is at the top
of the jet.
having complete contraction Bazin found the minimum velocity to be '62 to '64 N/20H, and for the rectangular orifice, with lateral contraction suppressed, 0'69 N/20H. As the distance from the plane of the orifice increases, the velocities in the transverse section of the jets from horizontal orifices, rapidly become uniform throughout the transverse section. For vertical orifices, the velocities below the centre of the jet are greater than those in the upper part.
For
orifices
41.
Pressure in the plane of the
orifice.
M. Lagerj elm stated in 1826 that if a vertical tube open at both ends was placed with its lower end near the centre, and not
perceptibly below the plane of the inner edge of a horizontal
60
orifice
HYDRAULICS
made in the bottom of a large reservoir, the water rose in the tube to a height equal to that of the water in the reservoir, that is the pressure at the centre of the orifice is equal to the head
over the
orifice even when flow is taking place. M. Bazin has recently repeated this experiment and found,
that the water in the tube did not rise to the level of the water in the reservoir.
If
Lagerj elm's statement were correct
it
would follow that the
velocity at the centre of the orifice must be zero, which again does not agree with the results of Bazin's experiments quoted above.
42.
Coefficient of discharge.
orifice, is
The discharge per second from an
of the jet at the contracted section
GK
clearly the area multiplied by the mean
velocity through this section,
and
is
therefore,
Q
Or, calling
=
c.fc. as/2011.
m the coefficient of discharge,
This coefficient
m
is
equal to the product
c.Jc.
It is the only
problems and fortunately it can be more easily determined than the other two coefficients c and k.
coefficient required in practical
Experimental determination of the coefficient of discharge. method of determining the coefficient of satisfactory discharge of orifices is to measure the volume, or the weight of water, discharged under a given head in a known time. The coefficients emoted in the Tables from M. Bazin*, were determined by finding\accurately the time required to fill a vessel
The most
of
known
The
capacity.
coefficient of
a great degree and Lesbrost, Bazin's values The values
of accuracy for sharpedged orifices,
.
has been determined with by Poncelet In Table IY Bazin and others WeisbachJ,
discharge
}
m
for
m
are given.
as given in Tables
Y
and VI may be taken as
representative of the best experiments.
For vertical, circular and square orifices, and for a head of about 3 feet above the centre of the orifice, Mr Hamilton Smith, junr.H, deduces the values of m given in Table YL
* Annales des Fonts et Chaussees, October, 1888. f Flow through Vertical Orifices. j Mechanics of Engineering. Bazin translated by % Experiments upon the Contraction of the Liquid Vein. Trautwine. Also see Appendix and the Bulletins of the University of Wisconsin. The Flow of Water through Orifices and over Weirs and through open Conduits and Pipes, Hamilton Smith, junr., 1886.

FLOW THROUGH ORIFICES
61
TABLE
Experimenter
V.
62
HYDRAULICS
The heads for which Bazin determined the coefficients in varied only from 2'6 to 3'3 feet, but, as will be Tables IY and seen from Table VII, deduced from results given by Poncelet and Lesbros* in their classical work, when the variation of head is not small, the coefficients for rectangular and square orifices vary considerably with the head.
V
43. Effect of suppressed contraction on the coefficient of discharge.
Sharpedged orifice. When some part of the contraction of a transverse section of a jet issuing from an orifice is suppressed, the cross sectional area of the jet can only be obtained with
difficulty.
however, be easily obtained, the discharge in a given time. The by determining most complete and accurate experiments on the effect of contraction are those of Lesbros, some of the results of which are quoted in Table VIII. The coefficient is most constant for square or rectangular orifices when the lateral contraction is suppressed. The reason being, that whatever the head, the variation in the section of the jet is confined to the top and bottom of the orifice, the width of the stream remaining constant, and therefore in a greater part of the transverse section the stream lines are normal to the plane of the orifice.
coefficient of discharge can,
The
as before,
m
According to Bidone, if x is the fraction of the periphery of a sharpedged orifice upon which the contraction is suppressed, and the coefficient of discharge when the contraction is complete, then the coefficient for incomplete contraction is, mi = m (1 + *15#),
for rectangular orifices,
for circular orifices.
and
m
Bidone's formulae
Lesbros' experiments.
l
=
m(l + *13aj)
results
give
agreeing
fairly
well
with
His formulae
are,
however, unsatisfactory when x approaches
'606,
unity, as in that case mi should be nearly unity. If the form of the formula is preserved, and
for
mi to be unity
it
m taken as would require to have the value, mi = m (1 + *65oj).
For accurate measurements, either orifices with perfect contraction or, if possible, rectangular or square orifices with the lateral contraction completely suppressed, should be used. It will
*
orifices,
Experiences hydrauliques sur Us lois de Cecoulement de Veau a travers Poncelet and Lesbros. etc., 1832.
'
lea
FLOW THROUGH ORIFICES
63
for various heads, generally be necessary to calibrate the orifice but as shown above the coefficient for the latter kind is more likely to be constant.
TABLE
coefficient of discharge.
VIII.
Table showing the effect of suppressing the contraction on the Lesbros*.
Square vertical
Head of water above the upper edge of the orifice
orifice 0*656 feet square.
64
45.
HYDRAULICS
Large
orifices.
Table VII shows very clearly that if the depth of a vertical orifice is not small compared with the head, the coefficient of discharge varies very considerably with the head, and in the discussion of the coefficient of velocity &, it has already been shown that the distribution of velocity in jets issuing from such orifices is not uniform. As the jet moves through a large orifice the stream lines are not normal to its plane, but at some section of the stream very near to the orifice they are practically normal.
If now it is assumed that the pressure is constant and equal to the atmospheric pressure and that the shape of this section is known, the discharge through it can be calculated. Rectangular orifice. Let efgh, Fig. 55, be the section by a vertical plane EF of the stream issuing from a vertical rectangular
orifice.
Let the crest
E
of the stream
be at a depth h below
the free surface of the water in the vessel and the under edge
F
at a depth h^.
Fig. 55.
At any depth
the. strip of
h, since
the pressure
section, the fall of free level is h,
width dh
is
is assumed constant in the and the velocity of flow through therefore, k\/2gh, and the discharge is
If k
be assumed constant for
is
all
the filaments the total discharge
in cubic feet per second
Q=
hr,
Here at once a difficulty is met with. The dimensions h hi and b cannot easily be determined, and experiment shows that they vary with the head of water over the orifice, and that they cannot therefore be written as fractions of H Hj, and B.
,
,
FLOW THROUGH ORIFICES
,
65
Hi and B an empirical By replacing h hi and b by formula of the same form is obtained which, by introducing a Then coefficient c, can be made to agree with experiments.
,
H
or replacing c
by n
n
t
(1).
The
coefficient
varies with the
the simpler formula
Q=m.a.v/2^H .............................. (2),
a being the area of the orifice and H the head at the centre, can be used with equal confidence, for if n is known for the particular orifice for various values of H m will also be known. From Table VII probable values of ra for any large sharpedged rectangular orifices can be interpolated. Rectangular sluices. If the lower edge of a sluice opening is some distance above the bottom of the channel the discharge through it will be practically the same as through a sharpedged orifice, but if it is flush with the bottom of the channel, the
,
_
head
H
,
and
for
any
orifice
contraction at this edge
is suppressed and the coefficient of discharge will be slightly greater as shown in Table VIII.
46.
Drowned
an
orifices.
When submerged as in Fig. 56 and the water in the upstream tank or reservoir is moving so slowly that its velocity may be neglected, the head causing velocity of flow through any filament is equal to the difference of the up and downstream Let be the difference of level of the water on the two levels. sides of the orifice.
orifice is
H
Pfe, 63.
L.
H.
66
HYDRAULICS
Consider any stream line
at B.
The pressure head
at
the downstream level.
If
FE which passes through the orifice E is equal to h the depth of E below then at F the velocity is zero,
z
,
'
or
or taking a coefficient of velocity k
which, since
orifice.
H
is
constant,
is
the same for
all
filaments of the
c
If the coefficients of discharge
and contraction are
is
and
m
respectively the whole discharge through the orifice
then
Q = cka v 2<?H = wi
*The
coefficient
.
a
.
v 2yH.
m may be taken as 0'6.
drowned
is
47.
Partially
orifice.
H
two
the orifice
partially drowned, as in
Fig. 57, the discharge
parts.
may
be considered
in
Through the upper part
is
AC
the
discharge, using (2) section 45,
..and through the lower part
BC
B
48.
Velocity of approach.
It is of interest to consider the effect of the
Kg. 57. water approaching an orifice having what is called a velocity of approach, which will be equal to the velocity of the water in the stream above the orifice. In Fig. 56 let the water at F approaching the drowned orifice have a velocity VF. Bernoulli's equation for the stream line drawn is then
and
which
is
again constant for
all
filaments of the orifice.
Then
*
Q = m.c
Bulletins of University of Wisconsin, Nos. 216
and
270.
SUDDEN ENLARGEMENT OF A STREAM
49.
Effect
67
of velocity of approach
orifice.
on the discharge
through a large rectangular
If the water approaching the large orifice, Fig. 55, has a velocity of approach v\ 9 Bernoulli's equation for the stream line passing through the strip at depth h will be
y
w
p a being the atmospheric
velocity,
2g
w
pressure, or putting in a coefficient of
The discharge through the
orifice is
t>,2
now,
50.
Coefficient of resistance.
In connection with the flow through orifices, and hydraulic " " plant generally, the term coefficient of resistance is frequently used. Two meanings have been attached to the term. Sometimes it is defined as the ratio of the head lost in a hydraulic system to the effective head, and sometimes as the ratio of the head lost to the total head available. According to the latter is the total head available and h/ the head lost, method, if
H
the coefficient of resistance
is
51.
It
Sudden enlargement of a current of water.
to
orifices to that of
proceed from the consideration of flow the flow through mouthpieces, but before doing so it is desirable that the effect of a sudden enlargement of a stream should be considered. Suppose for simplicity that a pipe as in Fig. 58 is suddenly enlarged, and that there is a continuous sinuous flow along
seems reasonable
through
the pipe. (See section 284.) At the enlargement of the pipe, the stream suddenly enlarges, and, as shown
in the figure, in the corners of the large
pipe it may be assumed that eddy motions are set up which cause a loss of energy.
52
assuming that each filament of fluid at aa has the velocity va . . t w .W from which (p*  p a) A<i = wA v y (v a . then fe + w 2g zg Let A and A^ be the area at aa and dd respectively.v pounds feet. then it is to be expected that the pressure throughout this still water will be practically equal at all points and in all directions. or if h is the loss of head due that the flow to shock. the total head at dd equals the total head at aa minus Then. the one part having a motion of translation. and the momentum of the water that passes dd the momentum of a mass of pounds moving with a velocity v feet per second being ~M. and v d at dd. but it is generally assumed that it is equal to p.PAa . 66.) If this assumption is correct.v<i . pd^d acting on dd. while the other part. if p is the mean pressure per unit area on the annular ring A). the loss of head between aa and dd.68 HYDRAULICS Consider two sections aa and dd at such a distance from 66 is steady. and must be equal to the pressure in the stream at the section 66. M The change of momentum is therefore. an additional force p(Ad There is considerable doubt as to what is the magnitude of the pressure p.Aa) . or the pressure Therefore p is equal to pa . and. Since the flow past aa equals that past dd. The water in the enlarged portion of the pipe may be looked upon as divided into two parts. the momentum in unit of the quantity of water which passes aa time is is equal to A^ a 2 .a + f + fc Then. which is in contact with the annular ring. (See section 284. for this The the following reason. is practically at rest. forces acting on the water between aa and dd to produce change of momentum. are paAa acting on aa.
at the section cc will be less than in the pipe to the left of the Bernoulli's equation an expression similar to eq. but this correction so small that as can be neglected. Suppose a pipe partially closed by means of a diaphragm as in Fig. diaphragm. The loss of head due to this contraction. is ca.. Inst. area of the orifice*. as seen in section 39. a v a therefore Pd Isa^a  w to ?j w + ^a. As the stream approaches the diaphragm be sharpedged it way to the stream passing through an orifice on the side of a vessel.E. and such a diaphragm can be used as a meter. 1 p. Proc. 59. Let A be the area of the pipe and a of the orifice. 52. C. there is a considerable loss of head. . cxcvii. Sudden contraction of a current of water.SUDDEN ENLARGEMENT OF A STREAM and . so that the minimum cross sectional area of the flow will be less than the supposed to contracts in a similar is  which ^ __ Fig. but due to the sudden enlargement of the stream to fill the pipe again. 4. the loss of head due to shock and. 46 can be obtained for the discharge through the pipe. and let c be the coefficient of contraction at the orifice. Then the area of the stream at the contracted section therefore. w or h the loss of = 2g to w 4. 2g is head due shock equal to 29 According to St Yenant *1 this quantity should be increased by is an amount equal a rule it to ~ ~ 2 . or due to passing through the orifice is small. * The pressure From . Vol.1 69 since f 'Pa A. 59. g g Adding into both sides of the equation and separating two parts.
If the orifice is cylindrical as shown in Fig. and this may be taken as the coefficient of contraction in this formula. 53. les f See M. If the mouthpiece is J Short external cylindrical mouthpieces. the section of the stream enlarges from the contracted area ca to fill the pipe of area a. cylindrical as ABFE. The mean value of c for a sharpedged is. Experiences nouvelles sur la distribution des vitesses dans See Bulletins Nos.70 HYDRAULICS If the pipe simply diminishes in diameter as in Fig. the discharge may be very different from that of a sharpedged orifice. . This value large pipes t. { tuyaux. as in the second case considered in section 52. having a sharp edge at AB and a length of from one and a half to twice its diameter. cxcvn. about 0'6. through which the liquid can flow. therefore. therefore the loss of head in this case is Or making St Yenant correction Value of the coefficient c. there is first a contraction. Mouthpieces. Loss of head due to sharpedged entrance into a pipe or mouthpiece. the difference depending upon the length and form of the mouthpiece. Shorter mouthpieces are unreliable. may be taken therefore as ~ Further experiments are required before a correct value can be assigned. Substituting this value in equation (1) the loss of head is circular orifice * found to be ~ . Drowned Mouthpieces. the small pipe. When water enters a pipe or mouthpiece from a vessel through a sharpedged entrance. 216 and 270 University of Wisconsin. and in equation It (2). v being the velocity in . 61. it behaves as a sharpedged orifice. Bazin.E. is probably too high for small pipes and too low for 54. as seen in Table IV. and then an enlargement. 60. being sharp at the inner edge. the jet * Proc. and so short that the stream after converging at the inner edge clears the outer edge. taken and this agrees as approximately ~ ~ with the experimental value of  given by Weisbach. If an orifice is provided with a short pipe or mouthpiece. The loss of head may be. 58. 61. Inst. Vol. ^ . Fig. as in Fig. C.
The pressure head at the section CD. the coefficient from 0'80 to of the tube. and therefore. the coefficient of discharge. and the coefficient of contraction is then Experiment shows. tto~ l*65v. the discharge as Or m. Fig. so that at EF discharges full bore. ^ + Pa W ' or = H. Therefore and vof the jet at The area per second is EF is a. 60. and p a as the atmo PCD "" ^CD <7 w = Pa. are 0*815 for cylindrical tubes. and taking into account the loss of head of spheric pressure. according to Weisbach. The coefficient of contraction being unity. Fig. Good mean values. and is ' 2g v being the velocity of discharge at EF. 61. + '5^ 2 w 2g 2g p. sudden enlargement. Taking the area 0'606 the area at EF. is 0'812. and then expands to fill the pipe. Applying Bernoulli's theorem to the sections CD and EF. and 0'819 for tubes of prismatic form. 2 . at CD .FLOW THROUGH MOUTHPIECES contracts to it 71 CD. diminishing with the diameter the coefficients of velocity and discharge are equal. These coefficients agree with those determined on the assumption that the only head lost in the mouthpiece is that due to 0'85. that the coefficient of discharge is unity.tf_.
Neglecting frictional resistances. neglecting IK. simply depend upon the depth below the free surface AB. Again. and the lower end dipped in water. Therefore pa + <o 2#H = pa + walL. _ 2g or the pressure at C is less than the atmospheric pressure. Fig. The momentum given to the issuing water per second. 61. Let the mouthpiece be so short that the jet issuing at EF falls clear of GH. The hydrostatic pressure on EF is pa Ibs. the water should rise to a height of about o feet above the water in the 55. BC is it far enough away from EF to assume that the pressure upon gives follows the hydrostatic law. is vfylL Let a be the area of the orifice and w the area of the transverse section of the jet. Ibs. Then the hydrostatic pressure on AD. and at all points on it except the area BF the A short cylindrical mouthpiece projecting into the vessel. Imagine the mouthpiece produced to meet the face BC in the area IK. comes the pressure on EF. neglecting EF. The AD hydrostatic pressure will. is as in called a Borda's mouthpiece. as in Fig. the velocity of flow v t through the orifice. 62. Let H be the depth of the centre of the orifice below the free surface and p the atmospheric pressure. and .72 HYDRAULICS Therefore P=& + ^2^ = w _ w w 2g 2g vessel. as the coefficient of discharge upon certain assumptions can be readily calculated. Borda's mouthpiece. The discharge per second will be w w V20H The hydrostatic pressure on IK is . and the resistance of the mouthpiece. therefore. which over momentum to the water escaping through the orifice. If a pipe be attached to the mouthpiece. and is of interest. orifice projecting into the liquid has the effect of keeping the liquid in contact with the face practically at rest. is M = . is the force The hydrostatic pressure on IK. w= a. therefore. will be equal to the hydrostatic pressure on BC. pa + waS. Ibs.
63. justified. 66 has a coefficient of velocity of '977. for this mouthpiece. and it is then 0'94 a J2gh. Fig. in this case. 65. Fig. its sides are curved as in Fig. approximate very nearly to unity. instead of making the convergent mouthpiece conical. equal to half. Soc. f Transactions Am. If. . 56. 63. obtained. Experiments by Borda and others.. and a convergent tube a greater discharge than a cylindrical tube of the same diameter. Conical mouthpieces and nozzles. 64. xxi. * Mechanics of Engineering. convergent tube is is obtained when the angle of the cone . Since the mouthpiece discharges full the coefficients of velocity k and to Fig. 64. the firehose nozzle shown in Fig. 65. with high heads. using the method described on page 55 determine the velocity of flow.E. the following values of k.FLOW THROUGH MOUTHPIECES The one 73 coefficient of contraction is then. from 12 to 13J degrees. Fig. so that it follows as near as possible the natural form of the stream lines. show that this result is the experimental coefficient being slightly greater than J. C. in feet 066 164 Head k and 1148 558 338 994 m 959 967 975 994 According to Freeman t. Vol. discharge m are practically equal. the coefficient of discharge may. or divergent as in These are either convergent as in Fig. Weisbach*. . Experiments show that the maximum discharge for a outlet. Calling the diameter of the mouthpiece the diameter at the a divergent tube gives a less.
the pressure cannot be negative. the velocity through the contracted section CD increases. the divergence being sufficiently gradual for the stream lines to remain in contact with the tube. as the discharge increases. and Calling pa the atmospheric pressure. if water is the fluid. 66. ening the divergent part of the tube and thus increasing a. the velocity decreases due to the friction of the sides of the tube.74 If the HYDRAULICS mouthpiece is first made convergent. Vi the velocity at CD.the atmospheric pressure. be increased page indefinitely. as in Fig. that the discharge could be increased indefinitely by lengthFig. As pointed out. pi the pressure at CD. if continuity is to be maintained. it cannot be less than . due to the separation of the air from the water. and the discharge is ra a >/2#H. then w and If ~. and further. 67. however. . w than g H+ pi becomes negative. and in reality. and then divergent. and the coefficient m . 43. therefore.is greater 2g w w . and the pressure head at CD consequently falls. Fig. It would appear. the coefficient of contraction is unity and there is but a small loss of head. but as the length increases. The velocity of efflux from EF is then nearly equal to \/2#H . 67. approximates to unity. a being the area of EF. The velocity v\ cannot. in connection with Froude's apparatus.
The head of water causing flow through an orifice may be produced by a pump or other mechanical means. theoretical effective 7i of The orifice head forcing water through the may be written . 68.FLOW THROUGH MOUTHPIECES just become zero. 5 7. the maximum and the maximum ratio of the area of EF to CD is 34ft. TT~* Practically. Fig. into a vessel B. and let the pressure per sq. of water. suppose water to be discharged from a cylinder A. is and taking the ft. foot in B be po Ibs.. For example. in which the pressure is less than that of the atmosphere. the maximum ratio of value of Vi may be taken as and the maximum EF to CD as The maximum discharge is The ratio ratio given of EF to CD may be taken as the maximum between the area of a pipe and the throat of a Venturi meter to be used in the pipe. as equivalent to a head of 34 atmospheric pressure 75 Assuming the pressure can possible velocity. Let the area of the piston be A square feet. and the discharge may take place into a vessel. Plow through orifices and mouthpieces under constant pressure. Let h be the height of the water in the cylinder above the centre of the orifice and the water in the vessel B. through an orifice or mouthpiece by means of a piston loaded with P Ibs. such as the condenser of a steam engine.
Q= 75 x 7854 x = 1*84 cubic ft. ^ x ^644 x 392 cubic see. per of emptying a tank or reservoir. feet. In practical examples the cylinder and the vessel will generally be connected by a short pipe.*/2gH. Find the discharge into the condenser. a few feet long the principal loss of head will be at the entrance to the pipe.W 2g w .. and the coefficient of discharge will probably vary between 0'65 and 0*85. and let the ratio a be sufficiently large that the velocity of the water in the reservoir may be neglected. inch. if is 7& At the any stream orifice + is . the reservoir. per sq. Water is discharged from a pump into a condenser in which the pressure is 3 Ibs. The pressure in the pump is 20 Ibs. 44. +a P A. will If it is only Example. feet per seo. for which the coefficient of velocity depend upon the length.76 If HYDRAULICS P is large line h and h will generally be negligible. and if Jc and the discharge is Q=m . due to a coefficient of velocity. dt. The effective head is H Therefore. It is required to find the time taken to empty 58. _ 20x144 624 3x144 024 = 39 2 feet. for through the + there no ft. inch through a short pipe 3 inches diameter. . and the area of the Time A orifice a sq. friction. the volume which flows through the orifice in any time ot will be ma \/2gh . Let the area of the horizontal section of the reservoir at any height h above the orifice be sq. taking the coefficient of discharge 0'75. the pressure head orifice. the velocity is then v = Jc. feet. a reservoir to have a sharpedged horizontal orifice Suppose as in Fig. a\/2gIL. and therefore friction. The effect of lengthening the pipe will be understood after the chapter on flow through pipes has been read. per sq.* w is The actual velocity will be less than v. When the surface of the water is at any height h above the orifice.
then \/2gxdtt or ot = ma To reduce the level by an amount H. 56. let x be the height of the water in the lock at any instant above the downstream water. Adh h% ma \/2g J ma and the time to empty the vessel is = ma \/2gr ' or is equal to twice the time required for the same volume of water to leave the vessel under a constant head H. \/2gh for the water to fall from a height 1 H to H! is a \/2g J H. a the area of the sluice. dt ia . Then the time required is that necessary to reduce the level in the lock by an amount H. If A is constant. Let the water in the lock when the sluice is closed be at a height H. and m is assumed constant. When the flow is taking place. the time required for the surface to fall from a height to Hi above the orifice is \l2gh ma A^_ = _ H ( Adh H _ 1 f H H. at the level of the water in the lock. and m its coefficient of discharge. Let A be the sectional area of the lock. Time of emptying a lock with vertical drowned sluice. above the downstream level. If da? is the distance the surface falls in the lock in time Ada? = ma fit. The discharge through the sluice in time 9Q = m a \l2gx dt. . o ma . _ ma \J2ghdt ' ma The time H H. Fig.FLOW THROUGH MOUTHPIECES The amount dh by which the surface falls in 77 of water in the reservoir the time dt is g.
what height will the jet rise. Therefore t t= 2x30 8x0049^ \2rh)*dh = 1274x95 = 1210 sees. feet. the coefficient of velocity 0'97 ? What must be the size of a conoidal orifice to discharge 10 (4) per second under a head of 100 ft. of the pipe is 0049 sq. the coefficient of velocity for which is 0'8. has a depth of water in it of 25 feet.? w='925. 070 ' 5 A = (600 + 2/i) a=7'068 (450 + 2/i). EXAMPLES. . A short pipe 3 feet diameter is used to draw off water from the reservoir. sq. 2A N/H ma \/2gr " Example.850 sees. feet. = 495 hours. The coefficient of discharge for the pipe is 07. and having side slopes of 1 to 1. V20. (1) Find the velocity due Find the head due to a head of 100 ft. To c. 200 yards long and 150 yards wide at the bottom. A horizontal boiler 6 feet diameter and 30 feet long is half full of Find the time of emptying the boiler through a short vertical pipe 3 inches diameter attached to the bottom of the boiler. Water issues vertically from an orifice under a if head is of 40 ft.78 If HYDRAULICS m and A are constant. (2) (3) to a velocity of 500 per see. . A reservoir. ft. Find the time taken for the water in the reservoir to fall 10 feet. Let r be the radius of the boiler. The pipe may be taken as a mouthpiece discharging full. Example. When the water has a depth h the area of the water surface is The area of the pipe is Therefore . When the water has any depth h above the bottom of the boiler the area A is =30x2 s/r2 (r*) 2 = 30x2 N/2r** 2 The area _. water. ft.7068J /* 15 (+) (+*) fci = ^ P * ' 2 x 270000*4 39'b Ll5 + 1 x 2100** + (610200 + 93800 + 3606) = 17.
ft. under a head of 6 Coefficient of discharge 0'60. per sq. and is 1 sq. Ibs. Find the supply of water per hour in gallons. in. from the ins. which the pressure is 50 atmosphere where the pressure is 15 vessel in is discharged from a per sq. in. diameter at 25 (6) diameter at the above the orifice. (11) A fluid of one quarter the density of water Ibs. in the bottom. . T338 cubic inches square discharges under a head of 100 feet Taking the coefficient of velocity at 0'97. per hour. An of 9 orifice 1 sq. The pressure in the hose of a fireengine is 100 Ibs. in (13) cross section.400 Ibs.FLOW THROUGH ORIFICES AND MOUTHPIECES (5) 79 Find its A jet 3 in. Coefficient of discharge 0'62. area. (7) per sq. taking 0*60 as the coefficient of discharge. coefficient of resistance corresponding to a coefficient of velocity =097. assuming the resistance of the valves. On opening an orifice of 1 sq. At 6 ft. under an average head of 6 ins. per second under a head Assuming velocity =0*98. Find the coefficient of velocity. in one minute. Find the discharge if An . and the backwater on the other at the level of the centre of the orifice. Find the coefficient of velocity. under a constant pressure of 34 Ibs. per sq. Find the coefficient of resistance of the apparatus. and the jet is observed to rise to a height of 150 feet. (absolute) into the per sq. inch. The plunger of a fireengine pump of one quarter of a sq. A cylindrical cistern contains water 16 ft. A miner's inch is defined to be the discharge through an orifice in (14) a vertical plane of 1 sq. deep. in driven by a force of 9542 Ibs. (15) A vessel fitted with a piston of 12 sq. ft. of a circular orifice to discharge 2000 c. (8) the jet rises to a height of 150 ft. ft. Find the velocity of discharge. find Find the discharge per minute from a circular orifice 1 inch (17) diameter. ft. in. ft. area discharges water placed on the piston would double the An orifice 2 feet per second. ft. and the height to which the jet will rise. and nozzle is such that the coefficient of resistance is 0*5. (12) Find the diameter ft. hose. (9) A orifice it (10) has fallen vertically 15 Required the horizontal jet issues under a head of 9 ft. under a head of 10 rate of discharge? (16) What weight ft. the coefficient of contraction. ft. orifice rises vertically 50 ft. in. Find the coefficient of discharge. (18) area is (19) above side is its orifice 8 feet wide and 2 feet deep has 12 feet head of water centre on the upstream side. ft. find coefficient of contraction. find the velocity of discharge. inch. in area discharges 18 coefficient of c. The pressure in the pump cylinder of a fireengine is 14. ft. the water level fell 7 ft.
The ratio of head lost to velocity head in small pipe. and gain of pressure head. Water flows through these two pipes from the smaller to the larger. The pipe is below the surface Find the time taken for the water in the of the water in both reservoirs. wide.80 HYDRAULICS Ten c. The specific gravity of mercury is 13'6. as in Figs. (2) the pressure in the larger part. through a sluice of 5 sq. to level. (26) feet. When yond the notch. tail ft. ft. (25) A verticalsided lock 65 Find the area Coefficient 0'6. The reservoir is connected to a second by means of a pipe 2 feet diameter. Calculate the time required to lower the level in the tank from tank 1200 50 ft. The (&) (23) sluice discharges (24) below sq. per sq. ft. A pipe is suddenly enlarged from 2 inches in diameter to 3 (22) inches in diameter. (20) which suddenly enlarges to 4 sq. ft. area. area. Notches and Weirs. it is called a Notches are generally made triangular or rectangular as shown in the figures and are largely used for gauging the flow of water. to 25 ft. ft. a sluice below tail ft. per second from the small to the large section and vice versd. two reservoirs 59. Find the difference in level in the two limbs of the U when water flows at the rate of 2 c. in the smaller part of the pipe. long and 18 ft. A in area. Taking the pressure at 100 Ibs. area. at points where the flow is steady. A reservoir has a bottom width of 100 feet and a length of 125 The sides of the reservoir are vertical. ft. of water per second flow through a pipe of 1 sq. Find The loss of head. Lond. above the of orifice. in area discharges through an orifice 1 sq. Un. ft. the sides of an orifice are produced. is Coefficient of discharge 0'6. Find the time of emptying the lock. ft. water level. 69 and 70. at the enlarge(a) : ment. The area of the lock basin is 700 sq. ft. find (1) the head lost in shock. A pipe of 3" diameter is suddenly enlarged to 5" diameter. one on each side of the enlargement. The become reservoir of the same dimensions surface of the water in the first reservoir is 17 feet above that in the other. . with a coefficient 0*5. The head and tail water of a verticalsided lock differ in level 12 ft. so that they extend befree surface of the water. A U (21) tube containing mercury is connected to two points. water to empty the lock in 5 minutes. Coefficient of discharge 0'8. and the discharge from the end of the bigger pipe is two gallons per second. Lift 15 ft. (3) the work expended in forcing the water through the enlargement.
above the sill. 70. a sharpedged orifice. of the weir corresponds to the horizontal edge of the notch and is called the sill of the weir. The conditions of flow are practically the same as through a rectangular notch. and to those in which the air has free access under the nappe so that it detaches itself entirely from the weir as shown in Fig.FLOW OVER WETRS For example. and the weir is narrower than the approaching channel. sheet. the height of the sill above the bottom of the The sheet upstream channel. and also to gauge the supply of water to water wheels and turbines. 81 if the flow of a small stream is required. Fig. contraction similar to that at If the crest 60. Rectangular Notch. of the water at L. as shown in Fig. there is at the sill and at the sides. or nappe. and sides of the weir are made sharpedged. They can conveniently be used for measuring the compensation water to be supplied from collecting reservoirs. The term weir is a name given to a structure used to dam up a stream and over which the water flows. the width of the upstream channel. The shape of the nappe depends upon the form of the sill and sides of the weir. for the present. of water flowing over a weir or through a notch is generally called the vein. and the construction of the channel into which the nappe falls. 70. 6 . 70. of the vein over the weir. and the sill some distance above the bed of the stream. The effect of the form of the sill and of the downstream channel will be considered later. and hence such notches are generally called The top weirs. The surface H. and in what follows the latter term only is used. is less than H. Rectangular sharpedged weir. the height. but. of the water as it approaches the weir falls. so that the thickness hS) Fig. 70. taking a curved form. attention will be confined to weirs with sharp edges. a dam is across the stream and the water allowed to pass constructed through a notch cut in a board or metal plate.
70. Suppression of the contraction. is then. a coefficient C introduced. if Francis' value be taken. The height H. The side contraction can be completely suppressed by making the approaching channel with vertical sides and of the same width as the weir. and k is unity. Fteley and Stearns state.82 HYDRAULICS some distance from the weir. is When L 61. 64. which is called the head over the weir. and in all the formulae following it has this meaning. the discharge in cubic feet per second is 1 Q = 3'o3(L. For the present. 70. that this distance should be equal to 2 times the height of the weir above the bed of the stream. that the water surface has not commenced to curve. let it be assumed that at the point where is measured the water is at rest.O'INH) H (2).01NH). With N contractions I =^L . Derivation of the weir formula from that of a large If in the formula for large orifices. H are in feet. Fig. the effective width Z. and there may then be more than two contractions.O'INH) Hi If C is given a mean value of 0'625. In actual cases the water will from H always have some velocity. should be carefully measured at such a distance it. the formula becomes If instead of hi the head H. may be called the still water head over the weir. h is made equal to zero and for the effective width of the stream the length I is substituted for 6. If the width of the approaching channel is made equal to the width of the weir I is equal to L. and the effect of this velocity will have to be considered later. . by O'lH. very long the lateral contraction may be neglected. orifice. 47. p. is substituted. and L and . as was done for the orifice shown in Fig. and The for the for actual width I is retained instead of L. and Francis obtained a mean of O'lH. at each of which the effective width of the weir will be diminished. Side contraction. H (LO'INH). and Q = f C v/2^ (L . According to Fteley and Stearns the amount by which the stream is contracted when the weir is sharpedged is from 0'06 to 0'12H at each side. to make allowance end contraction which as explained above is equal to O'lH each contraction. A wide weir may be divided into several bays by partitions. The width of the stream is then equal to the width of the sill. If L is the total width of a rectangular weir and N the number of contractions. Fig.
open to of obtaining it from that for large orifices very serious objection. then. so that it would appear. Assuming constant pressure in the section. is clearly not equal to zero. the discharge through EF can be calculated. Fig. experiments The formula. whereas the coefficient of discharge is practically 0'625. being about 0*625. that although the assumptions made in calculating the flow through an orifice may be justifiable. The method however. 0108H L = 53272^. O'lOSH. The fall of the point F is. as will be understood later (section 83) is not likely to be constant. Bazin for special cases has carefully measured the fall of the point F and the thickness EF. the height of the point E above the sill of the weir for one of Bazin's experiments was 0'112H and the thickness EF was 0'78H. the discharge per foot width of the weir is. neither is the direction of flow at the surface perpendicular to the section EF. but the thickness EF of the nappe of the weir is very nearly 0'78H. as the velocity at F is. and the thickness is therefore 1*24 times the coefficient of discharge. 70. New York. the ratio of the thickness of the jet to the depth of the orifice is not very different from the coefficient of discharge. That the directions and the velocities of the stream lines are different from those through a section taken near a sharpedged orifice is seen by comparing the thickness of the jet in the two cases with the coefficient of discharge. For the sharpedged orifice with side contractions suppressed. It appears therefore.FLOW OVER WEIRS This is 83 a careful by Francis* from on sharpedged weirs. that the error principally arises from the assumption that the pressure throughout the section is uniform. yet when it approaches zero. 1858. the assumptions are not approximately true. H*. 62 . The angles which the stream lines make with the plane of EF cannot be very different from 90 degrees. For example. Lowell. Hydraulic Experiments. and the pressure on EF. therefore. as an empirical one. on the section EF. providing the head above the top of the orifice is not very small. is approximately correct and series of the wellknown formula deduced gives reliable values for the discharge. and if the assumptions of constant pressure and stream lines perpendicular to EF are made.
therefore. Then.HYDRAULICS The actual discharge per foot width. the velocities at similar points are proportional to the square roots of the linear dimensions. was q = 0433 x/2<7. therefore." Let and B. 1876 and 1885. a frictionless liquid flows out of similar and similarly placed orifices in similar vessels in which the same kind of liquid is at similar heights. quite erroneous. since it has been shown (page 51) that the velocity in any stream line is proportional to the square root of the fall of free level. Let c and Ci be similarly situated areas on similar stream A A lines. 72. . by experiment.*. 71. the discharge through c = the discharge through d n n which proves the principle. so that the calculation gives the discharge 1*228 greater than the to actual. since the dimensions of fall of free level at c is n are n times those of B. Let v be the velocity A at c and Vi at GI. v : Vi :: *Jn : 1. and since the areas of 62. be exactly similar vessels with similar orifices. When the stream lines are proportional to the squares of the linear dimensions. Then. Ci Again the area at c is n times a the area at and.H*. * British Association Keports 1858. Fig. the stream lines in the different flows are similar in form. . the discharges are proportional to the linear dimensions raised to the power of *. 71 and 72. The assumption of constant pressure is. " Thomson's principle of similarity. Fig. which is approximately the ratio of the thickness EF the thickness of the stream from a sharpedged orifice having a depth H. Figs. the times that at Ci. and let all the dimensions of be n times those of B.
through aA and the discharge through ab that through Oi&i. similar in form. Suppose the area of the stream in the two cases to be divided into the same number Then of aj)i . Then. of horizontal elements. Q = C. be a triangular notch. From experiments with a sharpedged notch having an angle at the vertex of 90 degrees. . Therefore or Q oo H*. but with similar passages of approach. and ab at a distance nx then the width of ab is clearly n times the width of aA. the head above ab is n times the Jiead above afo and therefore the velocity through ab will be >Jn times the velocity . and the area of ab will therefore be n* times the area of aj>i. Discharge through principle of similarity. clearly the thickness of ab will be n times the thickness Let a$i be at a distance x from the apex B. being measured in feet.H'. " will be n* times : More generally Thomson expresses If this as follows two triangular notches. therefore. Figs.FLOW OVER WEIRS 63. and the areas of corresponding elements will be proportional to the squares of the lineal dimensions of the cross sections." As the depth h of each element can be expressed as a fraction of the head H. he found C to be practically constant for all heads and equal to 2 '535. and. . or proportional to the squares of the heads. H the discharge in cubic feet per second is Q = 2535. the cross sections of the jets at the notches may be similarly divided into the same number of elements of area. such as ab and aj)i. 73 and 74. Let the depth of the flow through the notch at one time be H and at another n H. C being a coefficient which has to be determined by experiment. the discharge is proportional to H^. 85 a triangular notch by the Let ADC. have water flowing through them at different depths.H* (3). the velocities through these elements are proportional to the square root of the head. Again.
and the diminution of depth might approximately be allowed for by integrating between fc=0 and /j = H. which agrees with Thomson's formula for a rightangled notch...nVV...... the surface is lower than EF.. The diminution of the width of Oj&j has been allowed for by the coefficient c... .... and Q = T87 B is When 90 degrees.. 74. as the pressure throughout the section can hardly be uniform. Discharge through principle of similarity. Let ADC.. (4). still H " water head over At any depth h the width b of the strip If a^ is ' . same as obtained by the method of similarity. also be obtained . H being the and B the width at a height above the apex. as at no section of the jet are all the stream lines normal to the section. 0.. but the method of reasoning is open to very serious objection. be the triangular notch... The width of the stream through any strip Oj&j is less than a^. HYDRAULICS The Flow through a triangular notch. a rectangular weir by the The discharge through a rectangular weir can by the principle of similarity. stream through o1 & 1 H  is assumed to be v = k^/2gh.. Then  Replacing cc^k by n Qrr^. flow through a triangular notch is frequently given as in which It is B is the top width of the notch and n an experimental deduced as follows : coefficient. and Taking a mean value for n of 05926 and Q = 2535 IT* for a rightangled notch.. the velocity through this strip .86 64. and k cannot therefore be constant..... the width of the it is . ADC. Q = 1464^ for a 60 degrees notch. and introducing a third coefficient Cj... the apex.. and the thickness dht the discharge through The section of the jet just outside the orifice is really less than the area EFD. and the apex of the jet is some distance above B. Fig..BH* Calling the angle . B is equal to 2H........ The assumption that the velocity through any strip is proportional to Jh is also open The result is the to objection... 65..
FLOW OVER WEIRS 87 Consider two rectangular weirs each of length L. ^ K L A. Assume the approaching channel to be of such a form that it does not materially alter the flow in either and H case. . and let the head over the sill be Hi. in the other. or nH. Figs. . 75 in the one case and 76.
Bazin's* formula for the discharge of a weir. sharpcrested weirs with no side contraction Bazin deduced for rat the value ra From experiments on = n . the formula becomes Q = 0(LN01. . . side contraction The discharge through a weir with no written may be or the coefficient ra being equal to Taking Francis' value for C as 3'33. and the width of central part L 2?iA.. is a constant.+ 00984 405 ^ 1 ." Am. and. from Francis' experimental data. * t Annales des Fonts et Chaussees. Vol.E.2wfcH) H* + 20j now Ci is (n  assumed equal to C Q = 0(L2fcH)H*. n . the weir. This is Francis' formula. xxvu. the width width of the end each be (n . In Table IX. 77 are also shown several values of ra. and Fig. therefore. are shown Bazin's values for ra for different heads. 77. to be rational.S. and by Thomson's theory it is thus shown 67. 18881898. ra is then 0*415. The parts of the transverse section of the stream will H.H. due to the weir being divided into several bays by posts or partitions. Let the total parts. similar figures. the end pieces of the since the width is (n 1) &H and A. " Experiments on flow over Weirs.H)H*. weir be now divided into three end part being equal to n k H. whatever the head on expressed as The If total flow is. If instead of two there are N contractions. as calculated by the author. the maximum head in the Cornell experiments being much greater than that in Bazin's experiments.C. therefore. and also those obtained by Rafter at Cornell upon a weir similar to that used by Bazin. In Fig. central part of the weir will be equal to The flow through the of each . Q = C (L . will be stream.88 HYDRAULICS width of each.1) k . the flow through them can be Now.
Bazin. .
HYDRAULICS The value "* results coefficient m when H of these experiments. show that the diminishes and then increases. having a minimum is between 2*5 feet and 3 feet. . 77. Fig.
. over the weir.. and due to this.FLOW OVER WETT5S 91 some In actual cases the water where the head is measured will have velocity.. From five sets of experiments. f . some his experimental results of which are shown in Bazin calculated n for various Table X. the best perhaps being that adopted by Hamilton Smith. This form of the formula. or Expanding quantity. is generally a small The and is velocity v depends . m From heads.. the discharge over the weir will be increased. There have been a number of methods suggested to take into account this velocity of approach... (6).. This consists in considering the equivalent still water head H. (5). the mean velocity in A the channel is v= ... If. is not convenient for use.. the height of the weir above the bottom of the channel being different for each set. If Q is the actual discharge over a weir.A. The discharge is then (5). It will clearly be different from the coefficient m. Bazin found the mean value of a to be 1*66. and is the area of the upstream channel approaching the weir. the discharge Q is expressed as the coefficient n for any weir can be found by measuring Q and h. upon the discharge Q to be determined equal to ^ Therefore Q = mL hJSgh 1 + . however. since for to be used h has to be corrected... since the unknown Q appears upon both sides of the equation. and remembering that =r.. however.. and h the measured head. ... as equal to a being a coefficient determined by experiment.. and Bazin. .
This may be written Q in which = m . ZT 2 7i 2 \ / ) Or. Let few be called 3 Jc. (7). of m as was be clearly understood that in determining the values given in the Tables and in Fig. Fig. and in using this . and the height of the sill.92 HYDRAULICS Substituting this value of Q in the above formula. mi may be called the absolute coefficient of discharge. Fig. when the width of channel of approach is equal to the width of the weir. and h the measured head. 77 the measured head h corrected for velocity of approach. The It should coefficient given in the Tables. and 2 (8). 78. is p feet above the bed of the channel. The mean value given so that to the coefficient k by Bazin is 0'55. f 1 + Substituting for m the value given on page 88. 78. Then Q=m / ( 1 + \ ^f A.
H the head corrected for Head h in feet . two end contractions.FLOW OVER WEIRS coefficient 93 to determine Q. from their researches on the flow over weirs. instead of by 166 g. found the correction necessary for velocity of approach to be from 145 to T5 ^. TABLE Coefficients X. Fteley and Stearns*. Hamilton Smith t suppressed the values adopts for weirs with end contractions T33 and for a weir with to T40 1^. h 9. n and m as calculated by Bazin from the formulae Q= and Q= h being the head actually measured and velocity of approach. 1*1 to 1*25 1~. must first be corrected. or Q calculated from formula Rafter in determining the values of m from the Cornell ex periments.only. increased the observed head h by x.
the formula for discharge be written this Q. by making the width of the channel below the weir equal to the width of the weir. it may assume one of three distinct forms.9888 the stream bed  ' 8 =fKiig. sill above the bed The nearer the sill is to the bottom of the stream. the less the contraction at the sill. Q now 7544x656' "7544x656 If =044 feet per second. 85) the sill When was 1'15 feet to be 0'097. found that. the difference may be much 70. the coefficient n is eighteen per cent. has investigated very fully the effect upon the discharge and upon the form of the nappe. and when it was 3'70 feet. Bazin*. Influence of the height of the weir of the stream on the contraction. larger than for this example. to be 0*112. therefore. greater than m.94 HYDRAULICS was measured. and if the depth is small compared with H. above the bottom of a channel. 1891 and 1898. the diminution on the contraction may considerably affect the flow. Bazin found the ratio ^ (Fig. that when the flow is sufficient to prevent the air getting under the nappe. the discharge was increased. of restricting the free passage of the air below the nappe. 71. m= 6 56 V20. and that the discharge for * Annales des Fonts et Chaussees. and thus preventing free access of air to the underside of the nappe. Francis in the Lowell experiments. seem from Table X that when the height p of the sill of the weir above is small compared with the head. In such cases failure to correct the coefficient will lead to considerable inaccuracy. and which may be called the 218 The velocity at the section where h velocity of approach was. = Then from which It will 9888. and n is calculated from L and h formula by substituting the known values of n= 0421. of the same width as the weir. He finds. . Form of the nappe. Correcting h for velocity of approach. p For greater heights than these the mean value of ^ was 0'13. in the experiments already referred to. Discharge of a weir when the air is not freely admitted beneath the nappe. When the head is 164 feet and larger than p.
No air enclosed and the nappe adherto the downstream face of the weir. The phenomenon is. or wetted nappe. . the form of the nappe for any head depending to a very large extent upon whether the head has been decreasing. 80. Top of ChanrvdK Fig. 79. : Air under nappe at atmospheric pressure. so that the discharge is very uncertain.FLOW OVER WEIRS one of them 95 is may be 28 per cent. Fig. The nappe in this ing case may take any one of several forms. and which is said to wet the nappe. or the of nappe as follows Free nappe. Fig." depends largely upon the head over the weir. 80. Fig. encloses a mass of turbulent water which does not move the nappe with the nappe. M." Which of these three forms the nappe assumes and the amount "by which the discharge is greater than for the "free nappe. (4) Drowned Fig. 79. very complex. and for a given head may possibly have any one of the three forms. 81. No air enclosed but Fig. Figs. (1) 70 and 78. 81. (3) Adhering nappe. greater than when the air nappe is "free. Fig. and also upon the height of the weir above the water in the downstream channel. (2) Depressed nappe enclosing a limited volume of air at a pressure less than that of the atmosphere. however. or increasing. Bazin distinguishes the forms freely admitted.
On a weir 2*46 feet above the bottom of the upstream channel. the nappe was depressed for heads below 0*77 feet. The drowned nappes are more stable than the other two. the nappe came away from the weir face. The coefficient of discharge changed from 1*08 mi to l'28mi. 82. 80. HYDRAULICS Depressed nappe. This large change in the coefficient of discharge caused the head over the weir to fall to 0'69 feet. Let h2 be the Fig. but whereas for the depressed and adhering nappes the discharge is not affected by the depth of water in the downstream channel. and approached 0*97 feet. As the head was further increased. and the nappe became vertical as in Fig. If when the drowned nappe falls into the down stream the rise of the water takes place at a distance from the foot of the nappe. Fig. 82. and at this head the coefficient of discharge was 1'08 mi. 73. Adhering nappes. There is also a rise of water in the downstream channel under the nappe. mi being the absolute The air coefficient for the free nappe. On the other hand if the rise encloses the foot of the difference nappe. Fig.96 72. 81. below the nappe being at less than the atmospheric pressure the excess pressure on the top of the nappe causes it to be depressed. becoming 112 when the head was above 1*3 feet. but the nappe still adhered to the weir. As 74. Drowned or wetted nappes. the head for this weir approached 0*77 feet the air was rapidly expelled. the discharge is affected. the height of the water may influence the flow of the drowned nappe. As the head was further increased the coefficient diminished. assuming the drowned form. . and the coefficient suddenly fell to 119 mi. the height of the downstream water does not affect the flow. The discharge is slightly greater than for a free nappe. its surface having a corrugated appearance.
coefficient of discharge in the first case is independent of h^ but is dependent upon p the height of the sill above the bed of the up stream channel. (12). Further. If.. and is (11). form of the nappe. With the weir 2'46 feet above the bed of the channel and 6'56 feet long Bazin obtained for the same head of 0*656 feet.. the coefficients of discharge being as follows : L. H. the four kinds of nappe. Substituting for m x its value from (10) page 92 m = 0470 + 00075^ . for if h^ becomes greater no longer drowned... Instability of the case. 7 .. The.. for which.. and 0'05 ... may be substituted the simpler formula. stances... with a sufficient degree of approximation... therefore. and as the air is expelled the depressed nappe generally passes directly to the drowned form... (14).FLOW OVER WEIRS 97 of level of the sill of the weir and the water below the weir. In the second case the coefficient depends upon l 06 t0'16 h*... The head at which the form of nappe changes depends upon whether the head is increasing or diminishing.. down stream away from the foot of the nappe and the coefficient The limiting value of is than h the nappe changes to that of the preceding 75. (13).... is... ? cannot be greater than 2*5.. the rise can only enclose the foot of the nappe when As h 2 passes this value the rise is pushed h$ is less than (f p .. Bazin found that the drowned nappe could not be formed is less if h than 0*4 p and.. m is 1*2 mi. the adhering nappe is only formed under special circumFurther. an accidental admission change in their form.h).. the air is not freely admitted below the nappe of air or other interference causing rapid the form for any given head is very uncertain and the discharge cannot be obtained with any great degree of assurance.. and the depressed and adhering nappes are very unstable. therefore.
as the formulae (13) and (14). A2 being the height of the downstream water above the sill of the weir. the coefficient 7% for a sharpedged weir with free nappe is * Attempts have been made to express the discharge over a drowned weir as equivalent to that through a drowned orifice of an area equal to Lft2 under a head hh%. From formula (10). The discharge n and is then n m being coefficients. thus varied 26 per cent. together with a discharge over a weir of length L when the head is h }i%. Depressed nappe. .98 HYDRAULICS Free nappe. gives the same value within 1 or 2 per cent. page 92. The discharge for this weir while the head was kept constant. The length is 8 feet and the surface of the water in the downstream channel is 6 inches above the sill. Find the discharge. Du Q= V^IA (hh^+m JZgl* (hh$ Buat gave the formula 9 and Monsieur Mary 8/ig \/2g (h  /' 2 + head due to velocity of stream). 83. . and Wi the This expression coefficient ((10). Drowned weirs with sharp crests*. h the head actually measured above the weir. 76. 0'433 0'460 level Drowned nappe. 92) for a sharpedged weir. and the height of the sill above the upstream channel is 5 feet. Fig. as in Fig. p. Example. When the sill surface of the water down stream is higher than the of the weir. p the height of the sill above the upstream channel. 0*41 feet of water down stream 0*497 below the crest of the weir. 83. which in its simplest form is. the weir is said to be drowned. 0'554 Nappe adhering to downstream face. The head over a weir is 1 foot. Bazin gives a formula for deducing the coefficients for such a weir from those for the sharpedged weirs with a free nappe.
The conditions of flow for these weirs may be very different from those of a sharpedged weir. Vol. The rounding of the corners. = Jc.. Between these two values the nappe is in a condition of unstable equilibrium . The formula for gives approximately correct results when the width of the sill is great. This will frequently be the case in practice. When the head h over the weir is more than 2c this condition is realised. per second. any external perturbation such as the entrance of air or the passage of a floating body causing the detachment. from 3 to 7 feet for example. . m The discharge* for a weir having a crest 6*56 feet wide. Instead of making the sill of a weir sharpedged. 77. and that of a weir 2*624 feet wide by 12 per cent. was increased by 14 per cent. but if it is free the coefficient m^^m^. Q = 344 x 8 </2g it = 2208 cubic ft. When is '79rai. 78. therefore. when h is less than f c the nappe adheres to the sill. If the upstream edge of the weir is rounded the discharge is increased. and the coefficient of discharge is have a 0185 ^). of timber weirs of ordinary dimensions. affect the flow considerably. * Amiales de* Fonts et Chausstes. when the upstream edge was rounded to a radius of 4 inches. If therefore the coefficients for a sharpedged weir are used it is clear the error may be con m H m siderable. The nappes of such weirs present two distinct forms. the weir being constructed of timbers of uniform width placed one upon the other. it may flat sill of thickness c. If the nappe adheres between f c and 2c the coefficient varies from *98wi to l'07mi. and may become drowned as for sharpedged weirs. or becomes detached at the upstream edge and leaps over the crest without touching the downstream edge. 1896. In the second case the discharge is the same as if the weir were sharpedged. due to wear. u. and may obtain when h passes f c.FLOW OVER WEIRS Therefore 99 Then m = 4215 [1 05 (1 + 021) 0761] = 3440. 72 . according as the water is in contact with the crest of the weir. to a radius of 1 inch or less. will. The nappes of weirs having flat sills may be depressed. Depressed and wetted nappes for flatcrested weirs. Vertical weirs of small thickness.
the coefficients for which are always greater for the depressed nappes than for the free nappes. greater than the limiting value. In this respect they differ from the sharpcrested weirs. is practically the same as for the free nappes. 84. great as 8 per cent. the second The error in this case may be as Wide flatcrested weirs. assuming that the pressure throughout the section of the nappe is atmospheric. When the sill is very wide the surface of the water falls towards the weir. . may be used. and h the depth Let of the water over the weir. being slightly less for low heads and becomes greater as the head increases. but the error is never more than 3 to 4 per cent. as they pass over the weir. but the stream lines. When drowned nappes. or w When the = Wj (0 70 + 0'185/A /' ^ sill ra may . m When the head is formula should be used. It gives values of slightly too small. Fig. and if L is the length of the weir. J the nappe same formula is free from the and becomes drowned. the velocity of any stream line is v= \/20 (H h). As long as the nappe adheres to the sill the coefficient be taken the same as when the nappe is free. Drowned nappes for flatcrested weirs.100 HYDRAULICS The coefficient of discharge for the depressed nappes. the discharge is Q = J&JLh x/CHT^TO (16). whether the nappe leaps over the crest or adheres to it. as for sharpcrested weirs with For a given limiting value of the the same value of m . H ' _^=^^ ^~**77^%77S7777?7\ c^j!' Fig. the former formula should be used. head h these two formulae give the head is less than this limiting value. Then. 79. 84. are practically parallel to the top of the weir. 80. be the height of the still water surface.
to show the necessity of the care to be exercised in choosing the coefficient for any weir. (2) on the upstream face and inclined on the down stream face.FLOW OVER WEIRS" For the flow to J01 XJ> be permanent (see 'page 106) mist be a maximum for a given value of h.. efficient Lesbros' experiments on weirs sufficiently wide to approximate gave '35 for the value of the co m. instead of both being vertical. Bazin found for a flatcrested weir 6*56 feet wide the coefficient will mwasO'373. the up.E.C.ft) . In Table XI the coefficient C for such weirs varies from 2'66 to 310. t Transactions oj tlie Am. For a full account of these experiments and the coefficients obtained.h = 0. the reader is referred to Bazin's* original papers. Bazin has experimentally investigated the flow over weirs having (a) sharp crests and (&) flat crests. H. or to Rafter's t paper.. and also for the various kinds of weirs. etc. H = 308L x/H . The coefficients vary very considerably from those for sharpcrested vertical weirs. h = f H. 81. and the errors that may ensue by careless evaluation of the coefficient of discharge. . be a little less than this due to on the sill. Vol. being (1) vertical vertical on the downstream face and inclined on the upstream face.and downstream faces.and downstream faces. 1900. M. Weirs of various forms. xuv. Substituting for h in (16) = 0385L The actual discharge friction 2^H . to the conditions assumed. or ~ must QLrit equal zero. 1898. or C = 2'991.S. and (c) weirs of special sections. in which also will be found the results of experi* Annalex des Fonts et Chaussges. Therefore From which and 2 (H . Coefficients are given in Table XI for a few cases. Plow over dams. (3) inclined on both the up.
102 HYDRAULICS .
Bazin. Head Section of weir 03 in feet 05 10 13 20 30 40 50 60 310 327 373 390 66' wr a 275 305 352 373 Rafter. Head Section of weir 03 05 in feet 10 13 20 30 40 50 60 335 368 383 3 77 ! 368 370 371 371 314 342 352 361 366 366 364 363 295 316 327 345 356 361 365 367 .FLOW OVER WEIRS 103 TABLE XI (continued).
and 83. be the section of the vein at which the maximum rise of the bottom of the vein occurs above the sill. Unless the weir is long compared with the head. sill. they have a common centre of curvature * Comptes Bendus. (4) air to the sides must be made sharpcrested. the (2) lateral contraction should be suppressed by making the channel approaching the weir with vertical sides and of the same width as the weir. when the sill is near the bed of the channel and is not sharpedged. when accurate gaugings are required. .HYDRAULICS ments made at Cornell University on the discharge of weirs. and also due to the falling If the top of the sill is well removed from the bottom of the the nappe channel. similar to those used by Bazin and for heads higher than he used. As stated above. and that 0. more From closely to those of Bazin's and Rafter's experiments. H let e be the height of D above S. 1867 and 1889. (1) The sill of the weir must be made as high as possible above the bed of the stream. used as weirs. if air is freely admitted below the nappe of a weir there is a contraction of the stream at the sharp edge of the curved surface. Bazin. Fig. some fraction of the head Let CD. curves of discharge for varying heads for some of these actual weirs have been drawn up. Let it be assumed that through the section CD the stream lines are moving in curved paths normal to the section. make it desirable that as far as possible. (3) The sill of the weir Free access of the weir must be ensured. and the instability of the nappe and uncertainty of the form for any given head when the admission of air below the nappe is imperfect. itself to the correction to be applied and the difficulty of making proper allowance for the imperfect contraction at the sides and at the sill. the weir should comply with the following four conditions. 85. and also weirs of sections approximating existing masonry dams. and under the nappe of Boussinesq's* theory of the discharge over a weir. the amount by which the arched under side of and is raised above the sill of the weir is assumed by Boussinesq Bazin's experiments to be this assumption has been verified by on the weir. as laid down by to the The uncertainty attaching measured head for velocity of approach. 82. Form of weir for accurate gauging.
f JVT3 (p + op) a + waoii = pa+ * N From which stream line at EF. 105 stream at H any radii of be the D. Since the element is moving in a circle of radius is R the centri fugal force acting on the element wa Y 3B 2 Ibs. If w is the weight of unit volume. Let R be the radius of the stream line point B in CD at a height x above S. the thickness of which is SR and the horizontal area is a. Fig. Assuming now that Bernoulli's theorem applicable to the w Differentiating. * . 85. Consider the equilibrium of any element of fluid at the point E. Then. YI and Y2 velocities at E. The force acting on the element due to gravity is wa 8R Ibs. the weight of the element is w aSR. J" VdY dx =Q w 9 1 1 w dp = dx VdV g dx . and RI and R2 the curvature at D and C respectively. equating the upward and downward forces. " is (1). Let p be the pressure per unit area on the lower face of the element and p + &p on the upper face.FLOW OVER WEIRS Let be the height of the surface of the water up above the sill. and C respectively. . and remembering H is constant. Let Y. wdR 1 + gR.
. and R from the figure is (Ri + x .. jS^ CLn.... (2). Now if the flow over the weir is permanent.. which makes Q can be written as a function of hQ} the value of a maximum.. otherwise the filaments will be accelerated. ..Q = 0.... the thickness hQ of the the nappe must adjust itself. YR = ViRi = V R. discharge The maximum flow however can only take place if each filament at the section GrF has the maximum velocity possible to H the conditions..106 HYDRAULICS since And dx dli ' ' .. Then.... so that for the given head is the maximum possible.. 2 At the upper and lower surfaces of the vein the pressure is atmospheric. The total flow over the weir is e ... Since YR = YiRi... That is.. therefore or V 2 YdY Integrating... can be determined by differ entiating (3) and equating ^ to zero. Therefore YR = constant.. If therefore RI ho... since and ...... and therefore. . when Q is a maximum. and for a given discharge the thickness h is therefore a minimum.. or for a given value of h the discharge is a maximum..e). (3). therefore..
FLOW OVER WEIRS Therefore. 107 and h = (H . N/2^ and therefore. that the mean value for 4. Giving to g the value 32'2. n which. Q .n*). H/ = ra the coefficient m being equal to 05216 (l  1 g) . that this value is very near to the mean value of as given by Francis and Bazin. and the Cornell experiments. 77. M.e) (1 . & n(l ^ is a function a maximum when Differentiating and equating to zero. m It will be seen on reference to Fig. since of n. is 0'13. when the height of the weir is at considerable distance from the bottom of the channel.0'5216 = 05216 = 0'5216 (H  ^(lg l  * x/2 . Bi = w(l + n) (He). Then. and m = 0'423. ~rjr = 0. is Q is a maximum when = jr Q. Q = 339 H^ per foot length of the weir. Substituting this value of RI in the expression for Q. Bazin has found by actual measurement. If the length of the weir is tractions the total discharge is L feet and there are no end con and if there are N contractions Q = 3'39(LN01H)Hi . l f  0812. the solution of which gives 71 = 04685.
Let A be the crosssectional area of the channel. 4099. C = 328.108 HYDRAULICS The coefficient 3'39 agrees remarkably well with the mean value of C obtained from experiment. . without correcting for from the formula Q = mLJi *j2gh. The head as measured on the weir is 2 feet and the depth of the channel of approach below the sill of the weir is 10 feet. =a and . is. however. but also determines the value of the constant C. A m= 0405 + Therefore = . stituting Example. A as follows. second approximation to A Q is. but the approximation m . is as 04099. v= ^ fg= '77 ft. by approximation. The value of a theory must be measured by the closeness of the results of experience with those given by the theory. Q = 328 (20147)1 16 is sufficiently near for all practical purposes. find First velocity of approach. in common with the other theories. Solving for Q. A weir without end contractions has a length of 16 feet.16 Approximately. simple method of determining the discharge over a weir when the velocity of approach is unknown. can be obtained. and in this respect Boussinesq's theory is the most satisfactory. by approximation. H is approximately H nearer approximation to Q can then be obtained by subfor h} and if necessary a second value for v can be found and a still nearer approximation to H. as it not only. In this case the error in neglecting the velocity of approach altogether. 84. per sec. therefore. Find the discharge. shows that the flow is proportional to H*. an approximation to Q. velocity of approach is. In practical problems this is. when the velocity of approach is unknown. hardly necessary. = 148 cubic feet The and velocity per second. Q=328 2^. The approximate then. probably less than the error involved in taking A third value for Q = 150 cubic feet per second. i^?= 0147 feet.
Then. for the surface to fall (HH ) feet is. but has a small velocity in the direction of the weir. The time taken is not actually infinite as the water in the reservoir is not really at rest. the surface of the water never could be reduced to the level of the sill of the weir. reservoir has a weir of length L feet made in one of its sides. When the surface of the water is at any height h above the sill the flow in a time dt is H Let be the area of the water surface at this level distance the surface falls in time dt. it is nevertheless very great. It is assumed that the area of the reservoir is so large that the velocity of the water as it approaches the weir may be neglected. . equal to weir. A f H dh _ "CLWSo To lower the level to the sill of the and t is then infinite. which causes the time of emptying to be less than that given by the above formula. and having its sill feet below the original level of the water in A H the reservoir. It is required to find the time necessary for the water to fall to a level feet above the sill of the weir. OA When Ho When Ho So that to T it is JH. A and dh the and The time required therefore. t&j*'** L. TVH. H must be made That is. * is t takes three times as long for the water to fall from VH as from H to iH.FLOW OVER WEIRS 109 85./H The If coefficient then A is constant may be supposed constant and equal to 3*34. on the assumptions made. Time required to lower the water in a reservoir a given distance by means of a weir. But although the actual time is not infinite.
what would be the discharge ? weir is A 15 feet long Deduce an expression for the discharge through a rightangled (4) triangular notch. If the velocity of approach to this weir were 5 feet per second. there will be only one inch of water on the weir after 24 hours. Therefore ' ' (3 46 " ' 7 8) ' = 89. ft. per sec. of using a weir without end of the contractions ? (7) Deduce Francis' formula by means Thomson principle of similarity.).000 gallons per day (5) gallon =10 Ibs. therefore. A rectangular weir is to discharge 10. Find the discharge (2) The discharge through a sharpedged water head is gallons per minute. and neglecting the effect of the velocity of approach. ft. (1 or take the coefficient (6) C as 3'33. Choose a coefficient.  . A weir 10 feet long has its sill 2 feet below the surface.000 sees. 2. (3) Find the discharge. Example 15 hours. (20176) 540. = 247 hours. Find the effective and the head over the crest is 15 inches.000 cubic feet = 984.960 cubic feet. neglecting velocity of approach. So that. A reservoir has an area of 60. Find the length of the weir. If the head over apex of notch is 12 ins. A weir is 100 feet long and the head per minute. length of the weir. rectangular weir is 500 2 inches. and the still is 9 inches.110 HYDKAULTCS Example 1. What is the advantage in gauging. Find the time required to reduce the level of the water 1' 11". . (1) in c. EXAMPLES. H = 0176 feet.000=^ (^ ^) N/ H o=' 421 . yards..000 sq. find the discharge in c.000. m = '43. To find hi the last example the discharge from the reservoir in Therefore From which The discharge is. stating for what kind of weir it is applicable. C = 3'34. 54. with a normal head of 15 ins. assuming one end contraction. Apply the formula to calculate the discharge over a weir 10 feet wide under a head of 12 feet.
ft. Find the length of such a (9) A district of 6500 acres (1 The maximum rate at weir for the above reservoir. find the length of the sill of the waste weir. The heaviest daily record of rainfall for a catchment area was (11) found to be 42*0 million gallons. Un. In a rectangular notch 50" wide the still water surface level is 15" above the sill. is used to measure the quantity of water. storage reservoir. each 5 feet wide. Assuming twothirds of the rain to reach the storage reservoir and to pass over the waste weir. so that the water shall never rise more than two feet above the sill. The (see top of the weir may be supposed flat and about 18 inches wide Table XI). If the same quantity of water flowed over a rightangled V notch. the water requires to be discharged over a weir or byewash which has its crest at the ordinary topwater level of the reservoir. coefiicient What is the discharge when the head 4 feet ? Take Bazin's 00984 channel Suppose the water approaches the weir in the last question in a 6" deep and 500 yards wide. (13) 8' The area of the water surface of a reservoir is 20. when the velocity of approach at the point where the head Lon. constructed in six bays. (12) is A weir is 300 yards long. when the yards.560 sq. A rectangular notch above the . 1906. taking into account the velocity of approach. Un. 10 feet long. and the mean head over the notch is found to be 15 inches. in 24 hours.000 square Find the time required for the surface to fall one foot. Available height of faU 120 feet. above its topwater level. 2 ins. 1905. is measured is 100 feet per minute. ^ acre =43. Compare rectangular and V notches in regard to accuracy and (10) convenience when there is considerable variation in the flow. Find the still water head when this volume flows over a weir with free overfall 30 feet in length. what would be the height of the still water surface above the apex ? If the channels are narrow how would you correct for velocity of approach in each case? Lon. the horsepower available in a given : waterfall fall. Find by approximation the discharge. water discharges over a sharpedged weir 5 feet long and the original head (14) over the weir (15) is 2 feet.FLOW OVER WEIRS (8) 111 of 5 A rainfall of *nch Per hour is discharged from a catchment area square miles. Find. under the condition that the water in the reservoir shall never rise more than 18 ins. from the following data. taking O415 as Bazin's coefficient.) drains into a large which rain falls in the district is When rain falls after the reservoir is full.
at a height z above datum. is w + ~T Fig. 86 water is supposed to be flowing from a tank through a pipe of uniform diameter and of considerable length. however. When a Resistances to the motion of a fluid in a pipe. due to the relative motion of the water and the pipe. moving with a velocity v feet per second. the available head is clearly diminished by an amount h. 2g If now water flows along a pipe and. Before proceeding to do so. certain resistances are set up which oppose the motion. and at a pressure head =r. PIPES. and by such as valves which interfere with the free flow of the obstacles. and energy is consequently dissipated. . It will be necessary to consider these causes of the loss of energy in detail.+ z foot pounds. by friction. by sudden changes of direction. In Fig. as at bends.CHAPTER FLOW THROUGH 86. Energy is lost. It has been shown on page 39 that the work that can be obtained from a pound of water. due to any cause. by sudden enlargements or contractions of the pipe. Ti foot pounds of work are lost per pound. the student should be reminded that instead of loss of energy it is convenient to speak of the loss of head. fluid. Loss of head by friction in a pipe. fluid is made to flow through a pipe. w . the end B being open to the atmosphere. 86. V. Loss of head.
the water would rise in all the tubes to the level of the water in the reservoir. 3 are fitted into the pipe AB. Suppose tubes 1. Loss of head by friction. if Then there were no resistances and assuming stream line flow. 2. the loss of head h can be determined. v B = \/2<.ZB = H. at equal distance apart. and it be assumed that all the particles mean B L. Experiment would show. that the mean velocity of the water would have some value v less than V B . the mean velocity at all points along the pipe will be the same .FLOW THROUGH PIPES Let  113 be the head due to the atmospheric pressure. which. in this case. Fig. clearly includes all causes of loss of head. however. are loss at the entrance of the pipe and loss by 87. carefully measuring H. 86. A head has therefore been h = pr 2g rr =H 2g ^~ 2g lost in the pipe. a permanent regime being established. The whole head H utilised to give the kinetic above the point B has therefore been energy to the water leaving the pipe at B.H. and the discharge Q in a given time. the diameter of the pipe d. 8 . Further. and the direction of the tube perpendicular to the direction of flow. and therethere were no resistances fore. and the pipe is entirely full. and with their lower ends flush with the inside of the pipe.H. if between the tank and the point offered to the motion. and the kinetic energy would be ~ . If flow is prevented by closing the end B of the pipe. Bernoulli's equation for the point *>B B i is w 2 ' f) uy 2g w from which or ^ = Z P . if the flow is regulated at B by a valve so that the velocity through the pipe is v feet per second. By For v = * and therefore h=H Q3 ~ * The head h friction.
88. and the line CB. The head lost at entrance has been shown on page 70 to be about Q^. by friction along the surface. but is lower in 2 than in 1 and in 3 than in 2 as shown in the figure. Some portion of this head h z is therefore lost by the relative motion of the filaments of water. being the absolute pressure head at B. is ~ below the surface FD. 2g is. 2 the point C on the hydraulic gradient vertically above 1 5?j E. In any length I of the pipe the loss of head is h. The difference of level h 2 of the water in the tubes 1 and 2 is called the head lost by friction in the length of pipe 1 2. that the water does not same height in the three tubes. and due to relative motions in the mass of water. and by the eddy motions which take place in the mass of the rise to the water. a loss of head. as the water flows along the pipe. there is relative motion between consecutive filaments in the pipe. E pa . It will be shown later that. drawn through the tops of the columns of water in the tubes and called the hydraulic gradient. the water has a sinuous motion along the pipe. When the pipe is uniform the loss of head is proportional to the length of the pipe. w That * w A ^ . however. as if the water were a solid body sliding along the pipe. found by experiment.3 and therefore. Head lost at the entrance to the pipe. is It should a straight line. and that. but is really the sum of the losses of energy. be noted that along CB the pressure is equal to that of the atmosphere. the water would again tubes to the same height.114 HYDRAULICS rise in all the have a velocity equal to the mean velocity. when the velocity is above a certain amount. to ~. As the fluid moves along the pipe there is. therefore. For a point E + just inside the pipe. This head is not wholly lost simply by the relative movement of the water and the surface of the pipe. but now lower than the 2 surface of the water in the tank It is by an amount equal i. . Bernoulli's equation is lost at w +  head Zg entrance to the pipe = h + w .
and the point C 89. 87 is AD. the hydraulic gradient in Fig. i is generally small. Pipe rising above the Hydraulic Gradient.FLOW THROUGH PIPES If the pipe is bellmouthed. But if a tube open to the atmosphere be fitted at 82 . inch. is a distance equal to below the surface. If the pipe rises above the hydraulic gradient AD. is line Hydraulic gradient and virtual slope. This line will only be a straight line between any two points of the pipe. sin i The angle i. is denoted by defined as the the vertical distance between which and the centre of the pipe gives the pressure head at that point in the pipe. ^~ The tube. but if above zero. and may be taken therefore equal to so that y = t. . 87. In what follows the virtual slope y line. and the angle i which it is makes with the horizontal called the slope of the hydraulic gradient. the vertical distance between More generally the hydraulic gradient may be AD and AiDi being equal v 144 to . as in Fig. when the head is lost uniformly along the pipe. 87. pa being the atmospheric pressure per sq. AiDi is the hydraulic gradient. the pressure in the pipe at C will be less than that of the atmosphere by a head equal to CB. there will 115 be no head lost at entrance. CB joining the tops of the columns of water in the called the hydraulic gradient. Fig. If the pressure head is measured above the atmospheric pressure. or the virtual slope. If the pipe is perfectly airtight it will act as a siphon and the discharge for a given length of pipe will not be altered.
main and the pipe. and the flow be diminished. yet air will tend to accumulate and spoil the siphon action. Trans. was connected to the water a suitable regulating device being inserted between the main. will 90. Keynolds. but any accumulation of In an ordinary pipe line it is air at C tends to diminish the flow. Short tubes were soldered to the pipe. A horizontal pipe AB. two holes of about 1 mm. . and the hydraulic gradient will be now AC. that any initial eddy motions might be destroyed and a steady regime established. although the pipe is closed to the atmosphere. Scientific Papers. 88 shows the apparatus as used by Professor Reynolds* for determining the loss of head by friction in a pipe. n. and to give velocity to the water. will only be CF. the pressure at C is equal to the atmospheric pressure. so that the holes communicated with these tubes. At two points 5 feet apart near the end B. As long as the point C is below the level of the water in the reservoir. In practice. diameter were pierced into the pipe for the purpose of gauging the pressure. desirable. 88. Beynolds' apparatus for determining loss of bead by friction in a pipe. at these points of the pipe. Fig. therefore. as the available head to overcome the resistances between B and C. and these were connected by * Phil. and the part of the pipe CD will not be kept full. 1883. 16 feet long. or Vol. that no point in the pipe should be allowed to rise above the hydraulic gradient. and thus at a distance sufficiently removed from the point at which the water entered the pipe. water will flow along the pipe. Reynolds' apparatus. Determination of the loss of head due to friction.116 HYDRAULICS the highest point. Fig.
and be referred method of experimenting. The quantity of water flowing in a time actual measurement in a graduated flask. Q the discharge in cubic feet per second. using this 91. 258. determined. * p. and which contained mercury or bisulphide of carbon. with the velocity. Eeynolda. the difference in the heights of the columns in the two limbs of the siphon measured the difference of pressure at the two points and B of the pipe.1). and thus measured the loss of head due to friction. to later. When water was made to flow through the pipe. made of glass. If s is the specific gravity of the liquid. Let the area of the transverse section be o>. Scales were fixed behind the tubes so that the height of the columns in each limb of the gauge could be read. The results obtained _ by Keynolds. and the difference in height of the columns. t was obtained by Calling v the mean velocity in the pipe in feet per second. will others. . Vol. 89. Equation of flow in a pipe of uniform diameter and determination of the head lost due to friction. Scientific Paper*. i. and p dp the pressure on CD. 89. p the pressure per unit area on AB. A C Fig. and the law connecting head lost in a given length of pipe. a the inclination of the pipe. For very small differences of level a cathetometer was used*. the loss of head due to friction in feet of A H water is h = H (s . and d the diameter of the pipe in feet. The loss of head at different velocities was carefully measured. P the length of the line of contact of the water and the surface on this section.FLOW THROUGH PIPES 117 indiarubber pipes to the limbs of a siphon gauge Gr. Fig. Let dl be the length of a small element of pipe of uniform diameter. or the wetted perimeter.
i. and therefore.P I W FP w w I * o> The quantity is equal to h/ of equation (1). or . is is called the hydraulic radius. The work done by gravity as the fluid flows from AB to CD = Qw . dz = . per sec.118 HYDRAULICS feet per second. p.dp + Y. The quantity p mean depth.dl W W . . dl . . <*> PI Integrating this equation between the limits of z and z ly p and being the corresponding pressures. dz = . Q the flow in cubic and w the weight of one cubic foot of the fluid. 9Z .i0. area of the wetted surface and coefficient frictional is. .92! = (p dp) w V + F w w dz = . Hydraulic mean depth. The work done on ABCD by the pressure . P . the head h lost by ~ w . and I the length of the pipe. 92. .m* . is proportional to the . F P . v ft. . The head lost by friction is therefore proportional to the area of the wetted surface of the pipe Pl} and inversely proportional to the cross sectional area of the pipe and to the density of the fluid. acting upon the area AB = p w v f t. The work done by the pressure acting upon flow CD against the = The (p dp) .P. page 48. Ibs.t. W w W Therefore.w. or the hydraulic then this quantity is denoted by m. velocity being constant. . The work done by friction per sec. frictional force opposing the is per motion . . . If friction. 1 = Pl p. 9a. sec. w FPZ + z F. Let v be the mean velocity of the fluid. v. Therefore . V. equal to F P therefore. where F is some which must be determined by experiment and is the force per unit area. the velocity head is the same at both sections. Ibs. applying the principle of the con The servation of energy. + a>.dp w + F P 9Z.. and is the loss of head due to friction. v . . w . dl. o> .
and any variations in density or viscosity. to the roughness of the of the mean velocity. The difficulty of correctly determining the exact value of f(v) /(d)... to express the head h in terms of the velocity and the dimensions of the pipe.. (1). it simplifies matters to express F. in m which expression ^ may be called the coefficient of friction. (1) is often Another form in which formula found is \v*l * See Appendix 9....) f(d) = av*. ... as a function of v. may be taken as proportional to the density.. . and cannot directly be determined. t See also pages 231233. p from which is deduced the wellknown t Chezy formula. and with the diameter and roughness of the internal surface of the pipe. and velocity of the fluid..... 93. which have proved of great practical service. which has been unit area. are generally negligible. F... Then. and is independent of the diameter of the pipe. and it probably would be better to express F as a function of u.... therefore.. has led to the use of empirical formulae. f(v) h per cubic foot.. the fluid considered is water.... w and as some function. viscosity. and f(d) of the diameter of the pipe. The simplest* formula assumes that the friction simply varies as the square of the velocity. Empirical formulae for loss of head due to friction. In Hydraulics. or /(?... is 119 called above the friction per found by experiments to vary with the density. or to the weight pipe..FLOW THROUGH PIPES The quantity F. but as u itself probably varies with the roughness of the pipe and with other circumstances. due to changes of temperature. ^ or writing 2 for a.. It will be seen later.. or v= C "Jmi. that the mean velocity v is different from the relative velocity u of the water and the surface of the pipe.. and thus h.
Adopting either of these forms. TABLE Values of pipes. different kinds Values of these constants are shown in Tables XII to XIV for and diameters of pipes and different velocities. for C in the formula v = C *Jmi new and old castiron . It should be noticed that C = */ % .120 HYDRAULICS or since m = 7 for a circular pipe full of water. The quantity 2g was introduced by Weisbach so that h is expressed in terms of the velocity head. 2g. XII. (3). the values of the coefficients C and / are determined from experiments on various classes of pipes.d in which for a of (1) is substituted f .
XIII. and that does not. equal av*.FLOW THROUGH PIPES 121 varies with the velocity. suggests that the coefficient the velocity of flow. 4/yj . therefore. TABLE Values of / in the formula . and of the diameter of the pipe. and the diameter of The fact that is itself some function of the pipe.
= 0'000003235.122 HYDRAULICS 94. roughness. was of the form aa+ . Formula of Darcy. castiron. it had been assumed by most writers that the friction and consequently the constant C was independent of the nature of the wetted surface of the pipe (see page 232). that the condition of the internal surface was of considerable importance and that the resistance was by no means independent of it. For old castiron pipes Darcy proposed to double these values. > 0000077 = 000000647 or m Substituting for m its value ^ and multiplying and dividing For old castiron pipes. He also investigated the influence of the diameter of the pipe upon the resistance. & = 000001294 001 l ( 4 l+ I2d) 2g 'd * Eeclierclies Experiment ales. The results of his experiments he expressed by assuming the coefficient a in the formula O'l 7 2 h= ^ m . including wrought iron. He. In 1857 Darcy* published an account of a series of experiments on flow of water in pipes. lead. showed by experiments upon pipes of various diameters and of different materials. and new and old castiron. Darcy's values of and wroughtiron pipes of the same and ft when transferred to English a = 0000077. previous to the publication of which. r being the radius of the pipe. however. For new units are. . r. sheet iron covered with bitumen. for new pipes. glass. Substituting the diameter d for the radius and doubling /?.
but for smooth pipes. and that for some time to come. or even set of experiments. in the According to Darcy. As stated above. The values of C as calculated from his experimental results. however. and though by the introduction of suitable constants they can be made to agree with any particular experiment. and for old pipes. for some of the pipes. can be taken from the tables. It should be clearly borne in mind. The assumption that p>f(v)f(d)=av* in which a is made to vary only with the diameter and roughness. either in the form v = C Vrai. Variation of C in the formula v = C >/mi with service. values of C or fy which most nearly suit any given case. were practically constant for all velocities. that the discharging capacity of a pipe may be considerably diminished after a few years' service. the 2 assumption that h is proportional to v is therefore not in general justified by experiments. it is likely. for the same pipe as the velocity changed. The experiments of other workers show the same results.I The formula In making calculations. it will continue to be used. the coefficient formula varies only with the diameter and roughness of the pipe. or in other words. the value of 20 per cent. without unnecessary labour. expresses truly the laws of fluid friction. of Chezy by its simplicity has found favour. 123 *^8 V l^ffl As the student cannot possibly retain. Darcy's results show that the loss of head in an old pipe may be double that in a new one. and notably for those pipes which had a comparatively rough internal varied from 10 to surface.FLOW THROUGH PIPES Or. the formulae given must be taken as purely empirical. therefore. for new pipes. or since the velocity v is taken as . yet none of them probably 95. 96. values of / and C for different diameters it is convenient to remember the simple forms. or in its modified form .
Am. Inst.C. at the higher velocities. XLIV.124 HYDRAULICS proportional to the square root of h. Ganguillet and Kutter's formula. by changing the constants. A simpler form has been suggested for channels by Bazin (see page 185) which. Experiments by Kuichlingt on a 36inch castiron main showed that the discharge during four years diminished 36 per cent. in one year due to accumulation of slime. 85. C in the They gave C the value. f Trans. and also of the diameter of the pipe. 1919. Vol. p. 97.  . coated with tar. * J Trans. Fitzgerald also found that the discharge of the Sudbury aqueduct diminished 10 per cent. Am. Am. times that of the new pipe. tables and diagrams have however been prepared which considerably facilitate its use. Trans. See Table No. therefore. If. Bazin formula.S. Vra is very cumbersome to use. at low velocities and about 5 per cent. and Hoskins on a 72inch steel main. Proc. it will in most cases be advisable to make the pipe of such a size that it will discharge under the given head at least from 10 to 30 per cent. Vol.C.E.S.. p. The experiments of Marx. values of C or / are used for new pipes. when new. can be This formula coefficient of used for pipes . XIV. while experiments by Fitzgerald % on a castiron main. C. and the value of the roughness n for different cases is uncertain. Ganguillet and Kutter endeavoured to determine a form for the coefficient Chezy formula v = C Jmi. xuv. showed that cleaning increased the discharge by nearly 40 per cent. in calculations for pipes.. Vol. and after two years' service. p. and that the discharge had diminished by 10 per cent. 56. (10).S. An experiment by Sherman *on a 36inch castiron main showed that after one year's service the discharge was diminished by 23 per cent. but a second year's service did not make any further alteration. applicable to all forms of channels. 87. or about 30 per cent. XLIV. more than the calculated value.C.E. Wing. the discharge of the old pipe for the same head will be j=.E. showed that there had been a change in the condition of the internal surface of the pipe.E. and in which C is made a function of the virtual slope i. which had been in use for 16 years. less.
for loss of head due to friction previously given have all been founded upon a probable law of variation of h with v. 88. and for higher velocities may . have a variable value. or i = hv (11). The curves. pipes Castiron and steel pipes = '011.FLOW THROUGH PIPES Values of n in Ganguillet and Kutter's formula. . Trans. Grlazed earthenware Reynolds' experiments and the logarithmic formula. and show that h is proportional to v n where n is an index which for very small velocities* as previously shown by Poiseuille by experiments on capillary tubes is equal to unity. which in many cases approximates to 2. It has been stated in section 93. but no rational basis for the assumptions has been adduced. and of later workers. the equation to which is &i i = Jcv n (12). 90. 125 Wood = "01. 1883. Phil. so Reynolds' work marked a further step in showing that the index n depends upon the state of the internal surface. the coefficient C in the formula 98. throw considerable light upon this subject. in showing experimentally that the roughness of the wetted surface has an effect upon the loss due to friction. The formulae is itself a function of the velocity. by a brief consideration of one of his experiments. The experiments and deductions of Reynolds. the points lie very near to a continuous curve. being generally greater the rougher the surface. that on the assumption that h 2 varies with u . The student will be better able to follow Reynolds. and v respectively. Above 2 feet per second. For velocities up to 1*347 feet per second. the points lie very close to a straight line and i is simply proportional to the velocity. Fig. As Darcy's experiments marked a decided advance. being a coefficient for this particular pipe. XY In columns i 1 and 5 are shown the experimental values of = j . may be as high as '015. = '013. were obtained by plotting v as abscissae and i as ordinates. '02. In Table are shown the results of an experiment made by Reynolds with apparatus as illustrated in Fig.
that is. is The ordinate when v first equal to unity 0*038. Calling log i. Curve N?2 is the part Aft of Curve N?l drawn to laraer * ScaleL Velocity. . Fig. when x = 0. was determined by plotting log i as ordinate and logv as abscissae. the points lie near to a line inclined at 45 degrees to the axis of v. so that for the part of the curve ~k = '038. Further. #. Eeynolds calls the lines of this figure the logarithmic homologues. n is unity. x. y = Jc. The curve. so that the value of Jc can readily be found as the ordinate of the line when x or log v = 0. log i = log k + n log v. and therefore. i is  kv. 90. the inclination of which to the axis of x is = tan" 1 ^.126 HYDRAULICS Taking logarithms. and i = 'OoSv. and log v. or n = tan 0. 90 a. or as stated above. the equation has the form which is an equation to a straight line. when v = 1. Up to a velocity of 1*37 feet per second. Fig.
i = kv n . fc = 0042. In the table are given values of i as determined experimentally and as calculated from the equation i = Jc v n The quantities in the two columns agree within 3 per confc. . . i = 1 '70 log v + log 1 Je. 4 S 6 755/0 Logarithmic plottings of i and v to determine the index n in the formula for pipes. The ordinate when v equals 1 is 0*042. . the inclination of which to the Therefore = tan' T70.FLOW THROUGH PIPES Above the 127 a second straight velocity of 2 feet per second the points lie about axis of v is line. and t so that 30 20 10 8 7 6 5 Z vetoctty 3 Fig. 90 a.
Experiment on Resistance in Pipes. Slope .123 HYDRAULICS TABLE XV. Diameter 0'242". Water from Manchester Main. Lead Pipe.
92). is below the critical velocity. arrangements being made as shown in the figure so that a streak or streaks of highly coloured water entered the tubes with the clear water.FLOW THROUGH PIPES 129 100. The " results (1) were as follows : the velocities were sufficiently low. therefore. 91 and 92). xx. That such a change takes place is also shown by the apparatus illustrated in Fig. Vol. at in the tube. or is " Proceedings of the Royal Society Eoyal Society. 92. pp. but after the critical velocity has been passed. The existence of the critical velocity has been beautifully shown by Reynolds. why there is a sudden change in the law "Water was drawn through tubes (Figs. the motion parallel to the tube is accompanied by eddy motions. This sudden change takes place at the critical velocity. When As the velocity was increased by small stages. as determined by noting the velocity at which streamline flow velocities For parallel to the tubes. and his experiments also explain connecting i and v. 4561. when the critical velocity is reached there is a violent disturbance of the mercury in the U tube. 91). Barnes and Coker* have determined the critical velocity by noting the sudden change of temperature of the water when its motion changes. Fig. which cause a definite change to take place in the law of resistance. 9 . 91. and in which the water had been allowed to come to rest. Transactions. by the method of colour bands. a definite and sudden change in the condition of flow. They have also found that the critical velocity. the flow Stream Line " flow. 88. 1904. LXXIV. the colour band would all at once mix up "(2) some point with the surrounding water. out of a large glass tank in which the tubes were immersed. L." Fig. Phil. and fill the rest of the tube with a mass of coloured water" (Fig. Vol. the streak " of colour extended in a beautiful straight line through the tube (Fig. H. always at a considerable distance from the trumpetshaped intake. Critical velocity by the method of colour bands. There is. * .
Vol. will As of translation of the particles 101.C.E. xxvu. the critical velocity except for very small pipes is so very low that it is only necessary in practical hydraulics to consider the law of frictional resistance for velocities above the critical velocity.C. That the motion of the water in large conduits is in a similar condition of motion is shown by the experiment of Mr Gr. 90.E. is a nrncli more variable quantity than that determined from the points of intersection of the two lines as in Fig. 1893. or in other words the velocity is too high to allow stream lines to be formed. In the former case the critical velocity depends upon the condition of the water in the tank. The colour was readily perceived and it was found that it was never distributed over a length of more than mile be seen by reference to section 130. i = Jcv n . From * p. 1173. red eosine dissolved in water was suddenly injected into the sewer. long. and also Proceedings Am. H.. 9 feet. the results obtained by both methods agree with the formula. Benzenberg* on the discharge through a sewer 12 feet in diameter. and it remains to determine k and n. and when it is perfectly at rest the stream lines may be maintained at much higher velocities than those given by the formula of Reynolds. the plottings of the results of his own and Darcy's Transactions Am.S. . and the time for the coloured water to reach the outlet half a away was noted. As seen from Reynolds' formula.130 HYDRAULICS breaks up into eddies. In order to measure the velocity of water in the sewer. 2534 ft. Barnes and Coker have called the critical velocity obtained by the method of colour bands the upper limit. Law of frictional resistance for velocities above the critical velocity. the velocities on any cross section at any instant are very different.S. If the water is not perfectly at rest. and that obtained by the intersection of the logarithmic homologues the lower critical The first gives the velocity at which water flowing from velocity. while the second gives the velocity at which water that is initially disturbed persists in flowing with eddy motions throughout a long pipe. and if the motion were stream line the colour must have been spread out over a much greater length. rest in streamline motion breaks up into eddy motion. For any particular pipe.
in degrees centigrade and the metre A = 67.700. and P is obtained from formula (13). A and B are constants. = /BD v V (~P~ ' ) T)2 ' "DWT\W nM AP". n . Vn . Reynolds found that the law of resistance " pipes and all velocities could be expressed as 131 " for all ~Prl Transposing. and A D n * D is diameter of pipe. i AD 3 .396.700.000 in D 3 D33" . 67. P ~n = 2 y v* . L + 0036T + 000221T 3 ' or _ " which y B re . Taking the temperature as unit length.000.FLOW THROUGH PIPES experiments.(16). 67. B .000' Values of y when the temperature is 10 C.D K ~7 3 3 (15).700.
and depends upon the condition of the surface of a given material. For large pipes of riveted steel. of The values follows. The determination of the values of C given in Table XII. while for No. and cast iron. In column 5 of Table XVI are given values of n. as is seen by reference to the values for galvanised pipes.(log ra + log fc + w log v) The index n and the coefficient k were determined for a number of castiron pipes. riveted value of n approximates to 2. Coker and Clements found that n for a brass pipe "3779 inches diameter was 1'731. If values of C are calculated by the substitution of the experimental values of v and i in the formula many due to experimental of the results are apparently inconsistent with each other errors. such as cannot be seen by the unaided eye. 3 is 1*72. 4. and others as determined by the author by logarithmic plotting of a large number of experiments. determined as i Since and in the Chezy formula = kv n v= or C *Jmi. allows of experimental errors being corrected without difficulty and with considerable assurance. which is the same pipe some kind. C in the table were. as given by Saph and Schoder. mC*' v* therefore 2 p = kv n and (17). the value of n is 1'93. 21ogC = 21ogv. 3 and 4. The value for n in No. . The method. the of plotting the logarithms of i and v determined by experiment.132 HYDRAULICS brass pipes a mean value for n of 1'75. some taken from Saph and Schoder's paper. 102. therefore. as is seen very clearly from Nos. It will be seen that n varies very considerably for pipes of different materials. make a considerable difference in the value of n. The had no doubt become coated with a deposit of Even very small differences in the condition of the surface. The method of logarithmic plotting has been employed for determining the values of C given in Table XII. wrought iron. after internal surface two years' service.
as ordinates. it will be seen that.1*25 . except for low velocities. in the formula i = kvn with . for different velocities. By plotting logd as abscissae and log A. for these brass pipes the points lie nearly in a straight line which has an inclination with the axis of d. On plotting log/I and logu and correcting the readings so that they all lie on one line and recalculating C the variation was found to be only from 95'9 to 101. The values of C so interpolated differ very considerably. The author has therefore in Table XIV given the values of C as calculated by formula (17). and the values of C. as determined by the author. the It has been shown in section 98 how the value of &. are given values of &. until further experimental evidence is forthcoming for riveted pipes. as calculated by substituting in the Chezy formula the losses of head in friction and the velocities as determined in the experiments. The difficulties attending the accurate determination of i and v are very great. in the pipe of 3'22 ins. of k. can be obtained by the logarithmic plotting of i and v. diameter given in Table XVI which was one of Darcy^s pipes. in some cases. such that tan = . for a given pipe. procedure by the fact that the best experiments do not show any such inconsistencies. the curves are not continuous. In Table XVI. Variation diameter. Similar corrections have been made in other cases. for any given pipe. from the experimental values. having C as ordinates and diameters as abscissae. with the case he is considering. as in Fig. the variation of C as calculated from Ji and v given by Darcy is from 78'8 to 100. as far as he can judge. for example. upon. and the values given in the table were deduced from the curves. and the diameters of the pipes actually experimented this is justified The author thinks many of If curves are plotted from the values of C given in Table XIV. An attempt to draw up an interpolated table for riveted pipes was not satisfactory. the engineer must be content with choosing values of C which most nearly coincide. As. were frequently inconsistent with each other. 93. and. for various velocities. Saph and Schoder found that for smooth harddrawn brass pipes of various sizes n varied between 1*73 and 1'77. the mean value being 1*75. by plotting the results of different experiments.FLOW THROUGH PIPES 133 Yalues of C for velocities from 1 to 10 were calculated. 103. Curves were then plotted.
when From the figure y = G'000296 per foot length of pipe. p= d 1*25. Equation to line log.184 HYDRAULICS to the line is. as deduced from experiments on lead and glass pipes by various workers. log y = log k \. It will be seen that all the points lie very close to the same line. or = 2017 + 0572 log t + 0715 log d. T75. therefore. 0031 \5 X 6 8 WO* t ' < t. and for velocities above the critical velocity.loLog y WSLog d twvO 725 01 02 03 04 OG 08 ho 2O 3 Logd. and for v = 104i' 672^ 715 . For smooth pipes. log v y being 0'000296. log k = log yp log d. and the equation where and therefore. Logarithmic plottings of fc and d to determine the index p in the formula On the same figure are plotted logd and logfc. the loss of head due to friction is given by the mean value for From which. Fig. p T25. . 93. for n.
00028 to '00069^' torflg I d* 1 The of the variations in y. . . For new h= n may be taken. * . Wroughtiron (smooth) Castiron new in service If the student plots from Table XVI. the points for these two lines. 1886. on castiron pipes. about some class of pipes not only lie between line nearly parallel to From A So that p is not very different from 1'25. castiron pipes. and log k as abscissae. 000296 to 000418i?r84tor97 Z ~a~ with bitumen the smaller values of y and If the pipes are lined Industries.. and p are. and log k = log '00028 1'25 log d. the table. that the points all lie between two straight lines the equations to which are log k = log '00069 1'25 log d. . ri 2 . n. and suggested \ for y the following values : Lead Glass pipes \ J '000236 to '00028. but also these lines. any lie Further. by Reynolds in his formula yv n Professor Unwin* pipes. general formula is thus obtained. yy 175 for all classes of pipes. for smooth castiron _ . . n is seen to vary from 1*70 to 2'08. M. too great to admit formula being useful for practical purposes. '000417. Flamantt in available on flow in pipes 1892 examined carefully the experiments and proposed the formula. log d as ordinates. 1892. however. et f Annales des Fonts Chausstes. it will be found. . n. by an examination of experiments deduced the formula. . "000336.FLOW THROUGH PIPES The value of 135 p in this formula agrees with that given . Vol. i . in 1886.'0007?. and for rough pipes.
when d is 1 foot.. IL Is Obouutl 93 Fig. new cast iron. Taking a pipe 1 foot diameter and the velocity as 3 feet per second. and galvanised iron. Use of the logarithmic formula for practical calculations. . the value of i obtained by this formula agrees with that from Darcy's formula for clear castiron pipes within 1 per cent.. and consequently it has for practical purposes very little advantage over the older and simpler formula of Chezy. Fig. is '000364. . h r^ 0004to'00054t... Table 76. cleaned cast iron. Therefore h= ~^ or t> = 59i 518 cZ'647 very approximately expresses the law of resistance for particular pipes of wood. 94 shows the result of plotting log k and log d for all the pipes in Table XVI having a value of n between 1'92 and 1*94. to detefyiine the indea> p ttttfie Locjk. ..136 HYDRAULICS steel. . They are seen to lie very close to a line having a slope of 1*25. For new.. vihvn. r93to2 08 . Logarithmic plottings of log h and log d from.  Z . as to what value to give to n for any given case. and the ordinate of which. A very serious difficulty arises in the use of the logarithmic formula. riveted pipes.. 94.
TABLE XVI. Experimenter .
for pipes of various ._n . and n. y.138 HYDRAULICS TABLE Showing reasonable values kinds. in the formula. of XVII.
* Hydraulics. therefore. of the pipe are not more than an inch Fig. 95. This necessitates that there shall be no obstructions to interfere with the free flow of the water.FLOW THROUGH PIPES 139 The value of n for one of Couplet's* experiments on a lead and earthenware pipe being as low as 1*56. In the latter case there were a number of bends in the pipe. and it is most essential that a perfectly steady flow is established at the point where the pressure is taken. which they thought were due to some accidental circumstance affecting the gauge only. 95. Wing and Hoskins in their experiments on a 72inch wooden pipe to ensure a correct reading of the pressure. It is of Piezometer fittings. of Fig. very essential that all burrs shall be removed from the inside of the pipe. as no change was observed in the reading of when the points of communication to were X Y Y changed by means of the cocks. In experiments on small pipes in the laboratory the best results are no doubt obtained by cutting the pipe completely through at the connection as shown in Fig. and friction only. which illustrates the form of connection used by Dr Coker in the experiments cited on page 129. t Proceedings of the Institute of Civil Engineers. while the results of an experiment by Simpson t on a castiron pipe gave n as 2'5. the pipe only while Small differences were observed in the readings of the two gauges. Junr. In making experiments for loss of head due to friction. The gauge X was connected to the top of Y was connected at four points as shown. special care should be taken to ensure the removal of all air. between the points. and it is. Further. 1855. supreme importance that the piezometer connections shall be made so that the difference in the pressures registered at any two points shall be that lost by friction. 105. 96 shows the method adopted by Marx. . it is desirable that the pipe should be of uniform diameter and as straight as possible is between the points at which the pressure head measured. Hamilton Smith. The two ends apart.
S. Vol. from an examination of Reynolds'* formula. but for velocities above the critical of changes of the temperature velocity the effect is comparatively small.E. Reynolds* showed that for pipes of larger diameter. Transactions of the Royal Society. Vol. Vol. P 2 ~" is a small quantity compared with Saph and Schodert. Fig.C. HYDRAULICS Effect of temperature on the velocity of of flow. Piezometer connections to a wooden pipe. the effect was very marked for velocities below the critical velocity. 1904 Coker and Clements. For brass pipes of small diameter. per Scientific Papers. t See also Barnes and Coker. Proceedings of the Royal Society. Above the critical velocity n does not differ very its much from 2. . Vol. to was doubled. Proceedings Am. the correction at 60 F. * for velocities above the critical velocity. xxix. found friction decreases. temperature rises. was about 4 per cent. 96. value when n is that. as the so that 1. Poiseuille found that by raising the temperature of the water 100 C. the loss of head due to but only in a small degree. LXX. . n.140 106. the discharge capillary tubes from 50 C. The reason for this is seen. cci. at once.
When  = 1. . to 5 per cent. with bends of various radii. and 107. *Loss of head due to bends and elbows. '702 t Mechanics of Engineering. The loss of consequently the experimental determination of this quantity has not received much attention. $ Comptes Rendus. *923r\  v* r being the radius of the pipe. but for practical purposes the correction is generally negligible. the radius of the bend on the centre line of the pipe and v the velocity of the water in feet per second. V R~ See page 525. If the formula be written in the form 7^ R ^_ the table shows the values of a for different values of r ^ A . B 1 2 5 157 250 526 St Tenant TIB J has given as the loss of head & B at a bend. '2. 111. Since the head lost increases. When the bend is a right angle * L R* RV/I = 2 V/I R '5. as the temperature falls. '00152 j~ = y/ 1 v 2 =0'l^ g y^ nearly. expressed the loss of head as + . Weisbacht. 1862. the discharge for any given head diminishes with the temperature.FLOW THROUGH PIPES 141 10 degrees F. head due to bends and elbows in a long pipe is generally so small compared with the loss of head due to friction in the straight part of the pipe. With galvanised pipes the correction appears to be from 1 per cent. from experiments on a pipe 1J inches diameter. that it can be neglected. per 10 degrees F. line of the Z being the length of the bend measured on the centre bend and d the diameter of the pipe.
142 HYDRAULICS Recent experiments by Williams. *sr y.. show that the loss of head in bends. For the castiron pipes of Hubbell and Fenkell. can be expressed as n being a variable for different kinds of pipes.. n. have approximately the following values. Diameter of pipe m. by Saph and Schoder on brass pipes. and others by Alexander t on wooden pipes. Hubbell and Fenkell* on castiron pipes asphalted.:'' . y being a constant coefficient for any pipe. while . and p . . as in a straight pipe.
u the velocity at the circumference. vm the mean velocity. that although the loss of head in a bend of radius equal to * 2 diameters of the pipe is less than for any other. offers less resistance to the flow of water than those of longer radius. the velocity at the Calling centre of a pipe of radius R. Darcy deduced the formulae and vm = unit is When the the unit is the metre the value of Jc is 11 '3. A account of the experiments is to be found in his Recherches Experimentales dans les tuyaux. and 20*4 when the English foot. Later experiments commenced by Darcy and continued by Bazin. but decrease from the centre towards the circumference. the surface of the water being maintained at the horizontal diameter. Variations of the velocity at the cross section of a cylindrical pipe. .FLOW THROUGH PIPES 143 diameters. * See Appendix 3. 97. v the velocity at any distance r from the centre. Experiments show that when water flows through conduits of any form. it does not follow that the loss of head per unit length of the pipe measured along its centre line has its minimum value for bends of this radius. the pipes complete varying in diameter from 7'8 inches to 19 inches. and i the loss of head per unit V length of the pipe. The first experiments to determine the law of the variation of the velocity in cylindrical pipes were those of Darcy. the velocities are not the same at all points of any transverse section. and xx^^^^^^^ the results plotted as shown in 133 Fig. 108. The velocity was measured by means of a Pitot tube at five points on a vertical diameter. on the distribution of velocity in a semicircular channel. It should not be overlooked. however. showed that the velocity near the surface of the pipe diminished much more rapidly than indicated by the formula of Darcy. and in which it was assumed the conditions were similar to those in a cylindrical pipe.
Proc.S... Hubbell and Fenkell*. Am.144 HYDRAULICS Bazin substituted therefore a new formula..C.." Proc..... . 1897. p.. than those given by Experiments of Williams.. p..E.. Am. or snce It was open to question.. 313.. the constants in these formulae being obtained from Bazin's changing the unit from 1 metre to the English foot. Vol. series of values. + J "Experiments at Detroit.. Y . The pipes at Detroit were of cast iron and had diameters of 12. however.. An elaborate experiments by these three workers have been carried out to determine the distribution of velocity in pipes of various diameters. (5). (4). xxvn.. by Equation (5) is the equation to an ellipse to which the sides of the pipes are not tangents but are nearly so. and the velocities at different points in the transverse section by means of a Pitot tubet.. Vol.. and Bazin consequently carried out at Dijon* experi ments on the distribution of velocity in a cement pipe. Mich. and this formula gives values of v near to the surface of the pipe. The Pitot tubes were calibrated by preliminary experiments on the flow through brass tubes 2 inches diameter.... the discharge through which was measured by means of a weir.. 1042. See page 241.. 16. on the effect of curvature on the flow of water in pipes.. (1). 30 and 42 inches respectively.. the total * " Memoire de 1' Academic des Sciences de Paris..S.C.." Vol. . See page 246.. xxxn... .. xxvn. 2'73 feet diameter.v = VRi SS^l^/l..... (1) From these experiments Bazin concluded that both formulae and (2) were incorrect and deduced the three formulae (3). whether the conditions of flow in a semicircular pipe are similar to those in a pipe discharging full bore.'95 () 2 } . Kecueil des Savants Etrangeres..... Pitot tubes being used to determine the velocities...E.. which agree much more nearly with the experimental any of the other formulae.
be made equal to 1. of C. and if the ^m constant *95. f (^ ) \. (4) or (5). = Vm 1287. mental value for for the cement pipe was T1675. between 109'6 and 123'4 for different lengths of the and 10 . the velocity curve becomes an ellipse to which the walls of the pipe are tangents.?rR a . The value L. the simple formula (2) or the more complicated formula When C has the values = from (8) 80. From the results of their experiments they came to the conclusion that the curve of velocities should be an ellipse to which the sides of the pipe are tangents. 120. 100. and therefore 2 vm 7rR = f E f v2o ^ftr3 27r I JV value K> P^VP /rM r ^r ) * / v\ > Substituting for integrating. the value of v at radius r can be expressed by any one 'r of them as C that the flow Then.FLOW THROUGH PIPES 145 discharge being determined by weighing. (3). since the flow past any section in unit time is also equal to Zvrdr.v. in the 30inch pipe referred to above.Q// ifa 53 from equation (1). 1'23. Substituting ^p for >/E5 in (1). in formula (5). These results are consistent with those of Bazin. H. T19. W (8) ^J from equation = Vm 1 + C so that the ratio vm is not very different when deduced from (4). v m being the mean velocity at the centre of the pipe Y velocity. is v. and ^i" and by substitution of ft 1 + "C~ (4). y His experi The ratio can be determined from any of Bazin's formulae. and that the is l'I9vm. varied pipe. and the mean velocity thus determined.
MB v can readily be determined. which would be . Let u = the velocity at the surface of the pipe and v the velocity at any radius r. and Using Bazin's u = "621 m y . and Williams. the form of the velocity curve is known. and the volume of discharge per second will be /R / irR 2 t? m= I Zirrdr .u. = Y . 98. if the semiellipse be revolved about its horizontal axis. so that there is a remarkable agreement of Bazin. . for = are 100. of correct If. '702. and this is slightly greater than v *  . the volume swept out by it will be f*rB.a 6. Let the equation to the ellipse be Fi S. '642. The velocities. Head necessary to give the the water in the pipe. but as shown by Reynolds' experiments the particles of water may have a much more complicated motion than here assumed. if all the particles of water had a common velocity v m however. mean velocity vm to assumed that the head necessary to give a mean 2 is velocity v m to the water flowing in a pipe p.146 the HYDRAULICS mean value was The velocity at is between the results velocity curve 116. Assuming that the the sides of the pipe are tangents. 120. Hubbell and Fenkell. the values of 80. and on the assumption that the water is moving in stream lines with definite velocities parallel to the axis of the pipe. the actual head can be determined by calculating the mean kinetic energy per Ib.98 which and in x=vb u. elliptical formula. water flowing in the pipe. an the surface of ellipse to which a pipe.= '552. 109. It is generally Dm as above determined. Then. . V = 7rRa U + . and that Y=l'19v m the velocity at the surface of the pipe . give the velocity of translation in a direction parallel to the pipe. as in Fig.
100. This value* agrees with the value of 1*12 for a. The head necessary to give a mean velocity vm to the water in the pipe may therefore "be taken to be ^~ . Boussinesq.v ~. The kinetic energy per lb. Delemer who finds for a the value 1*1346.%Trrdr. 20' . Using the other formulae of Bazin the calculations are tedious and the values obtained differ but slightly from those given. of water. * Flamant's Hydraulique. 110. obtained by M. being the weight of 1 c. Practical problems. 2nrdrv The simplest value for / ^ ( ) is that of Bazin's formula (1) above. the kinetic energy per Ib. therefore. ft. Before proceeding to show loss of how the formulae relating to the head in pipes may be used for the solution of various probjems. the value of a being about 1*12. is . of the quantity of water which flows past R y2 io w w.. On the assumption that the velocity curve is an ellipse to which the walls of the pipe are tangents the integration is easy. it will be convenient to tabulate them. and with that of M. T076. w o . and the value of a is 1'047.FLOW THROUGH PIPES 147 As The kinetic energy any section per second before. let v be the velocity at radius r. J. from which 21'5 and Substituting these values and integrating. is 112. and when C a is 80. 102 .
For smooth clean castiron pipes 12<2/20. Values of /are shown in Table XIII.148 HYDRAULICS NOTATION. castiron and steel pipes are shown in ^= 2^5' in this formula being equal to ^ of formula (1). d r=19 Vl2JTI^ N/l2iVl^1 \ = 394 For rough and dirty pipes k?l IZdJZg. with sufficient accuracy. = the virtual slope =j I/ v = the mean velocity of flow in the pipe. h = loss of head due to i friction in a length . or d when /. vy and dt are known. the formulae of Darcy are convenient as giving results. As values of C and / cannot be remembered for variable velocities and diameters. in many cases. and Z. v. Either of these formulae can conveniently be used for calculating h. Formula 3. may be written y v The values of C for Tables XII and XIV. P h = fj 4 when the pipe is c y lindrioal and ful1 ^ Cm = = 4M Cd . m = the hydraulic mean depth = A Tp*p = A Wetted Perimeter Formula This or 1. and any two of three quantities h. I of a straight pipe. d = the diameter. Formula ^2.d* or vssm = 278 ^*Ja v/j2ri x. .
The difference in level of the water in two reservoirs is h feet. It can be expressed as equal to in which a varies from a very small quantity to unity. t log v can be found. to find the discharge through the pipe.v" . The coefficient can then be obtained from this approximate value of d with a greater degree of accuracy. and p are given on page 138. and v are known. The + T^JJ is first neglected and an approximate value of d determined. and they are connected by means of a straight pipe of length I and diameter d. The loss of head at bends and elbows is a very variable quantity. and a new value of d can then be found. Problem 1. The head necessary is to give a mean . The loss of head at the sharpedged entrance to a \/jj^ pipe is about g 7.log h log I y + p log eZ. d can be obtained from p log d . If h lf and d are known. and so on.log h. Formula The loss of head due to a sudden enlargement in ^ Vl t?a a pipe where the velocity changes from vl to ~ V2 ' is . from which h can be found if Z. yi d" ' h Values of y. v. Darcy's formulae can only be used to solve coefficient 11 for d by approximation. If h. and is generally negligible. n. By taking logarithms log h = log y + n log v + log I p log d. This formula is a little more cumbersome to use than either (1) or (2) but it has the advantage that y is constant for all velocities. Fig. Formula 5. Formula 6. velocity v to the water flowing along the pipe about ~ but it is generally v9 convenient and sufficiently accurate to take this head as 5. . and d are known. =t= y.log y + n log v + log I .FLOW THROUGH PIPES If 149 d is the unknown.) 4. . Formula Known as the logarithmic formula. I. 87. 99. Formula 8. as was done in Fig. (See examples. Unless the pipe is short this quantity is negligible compared with the friction head. by writing the formula as n log v .
Let v be the mean velocity of the water. this The head and to necessary to give the water mean l*12y 2 velocity may be taken as ~ . velocity can be deduced directly from the logarithmic formula h=^^. 99.v. can be taken. An approximation to v which in many cases will be sufficiently near or will be as near probably as the coefficient can be known is thus obtained. provided y and n are known .150 HYDRAULICS Let Q be the number of cubic feet discharged per second. 4lv' /Jh 2~VT* 0=394 for clean pipes. or Darcy's value and = 278 if the pipe is dirty. Then The 2 Q=^d for the pipe. the coefficient 0.2 +^ friction is generally great = 025t. Pipe connecting two reservoirs. The head h is utilised in giving velocity to the water and in overcoming resistance at the entrance to the pipe aud the fractional resistances. the coefficient C cannot be obtained from the an approximate value can be assumed. From the table a value of C for this velocity can be taken and a nearer approximation to v determined. A=0174v 3 + 0078t. Then and table. but and these 4 fto 2 h== _ C may be neglected.is greater a than 300 the head lost due to 2 > compared w th the othjr quantities. . Fig. overcome the resistance at the entrances Then Or using in the expression for friction. + C d' 2 2 If . As the velocity is not known.
T5. just inside the The pressure head end A of the pipe is h due . Example A pipe 18 inches diameter brings water from a reservoir 100 feet above datum. jf^ ft. so h=  OOOGiviw. For a pipe 3 inches diameter. 200 The head lost due to friction in this length. feet.000 feet is is.. equal to the difference of level of the water in the two Example 1. per sec. per 500 feet length. the is atmospheric./. is is 2 x feet from the end of the pipe the velocity lost In a length dx the head due to friction 2 4. the pipe the velocity varies uniformly. difference of level of the water in which is 10 feet. l888 . velocity in the first 10. v=388 per sec. to /IB The head is lost to friction is h./.5000 and the total loss by friction is ' The total 2 a /"MM 4/.FLOW THROUGH PIPES The hydraulic gradient At any point is 151 EF. 10. that the approximation is sufficiently near. 1888 _4/. therefore.1888* 2p. Using Darcy's coefficient V=278 3l ft. and this velocity. neglecting the . A pipe 3 inches diameter 200 ft. = 388 per sec.a. The total quantity of flow per minute is The total length of the pipe is 15. is 4. (l888) 5000 2 2 3 ~2<7. For tbis 5000 feet the water is drawn off by service pipes at Find the pressure 00x oOU Area of the pipe The 1'767 sq.5000 Jo 20.l5 In the last 5000 feet of At a distance . therefore.15 head lost due to friction in the whole pipe is. which. are at the the uniform rate of 20 cubic feet per minute. ' ' .15.000 feet and the last 5000 feet datum level. v = 3'85 2. ds 2 ' 20.000. I . and the pressure long connects two tanks. ' gives # ft. C distant x from A the pressure head is equal to the distance between the centre of the pipe and the hydraulic gradient. at the end of the pipe. Find the discharge assuming the pipe dirty. Taking C from the table is about 69. and at the end B the pressure head must be equal small quantity tanks.
d = 308 feet. 7T JL=o V/** 4Z . yv n l be used. I 2 0040G. unknown C is unknown. Logarithmic formula. Find the diameter of a steel riveted pipe. and solve equation From If (1) find v. much from the assumed value. 'h. Using the logarithmic formula . the loss of head by friction being 2 feet per mile. but as the values of G are uncertain it will not as a rule be necessary to calculate more than two values of d. and Therefore. Example 14 cubic feet per second. Neglecting the velocity head and the loss of head at entrance. Bequired the diameter of a pipe of length I feet which will discharge per second between the two reservoirs of tbe last problem.log 16 63. Problem 2. and from the tables find the value of G corresponding to the values of d C differs value of and v thus determined. Let v be the mean velocity and d the diameter of the pipe. d can be found direct. recalculate d and v using this second This will generally be C.152 Taking / as 0082. found to be sufficiently near to the second value to make it unnecessary to calculate d and v a third time.H) feet = 857 feet.log h. and a value for C must be pro(3) Assume C ford. If the formula ^ from p log d=n log u + log7 + log I . Diameter of pipe to give a given discharge. 14 /528Q or therefore $ log d. which will discharge 3. Squaring and transposing. can be taken to any degree of accuracy. is For a thirtyeight inch pipe Kuichling found C The assumption that C 110 is to be 113. ' and Since v and d are visionally assumed. assuming the values of G in the tables are correct. is 100 for a new pipe and 80 for an old pipe.. the pressure head at the end of the pipe is (100 . HYDRAULICS H = 143 feet. From equation (3) 5 _ 255. It is assumed that the pipe has become dirty and that provisionally C = 110.Q d ~~ If I is long compared with d. nearly correct and the diameter may be taken as 37 inches. Q cubic feet (1). The approximation. and from the tables find a third value for C.
Neglecting the term in d and assuming C to be 100.100. Table XII. 100. choosing values of d which are nearly equal to the calculated value of d. Example 4. and taking C as 106. The total head is 10 feet. having a squareedged entrance. and two points of the straight line 2 0406Q d 2/i= The curve y = d5 between the three points can easily be drawn. * <5 Fig. gives the required diameter. and then plot three points on the curve y = d5 . 100. Neglect the term in d and solve as for a long pipe. from this schedule. d = 307 feet. d d6 yl values of d5 and y for values of d not very different from the calculated value. One hundred and twenty cubic feet of water are to be taken per minute from a tank through a castiron pipe 100 feet long. can be solved graphically by plotting two curves and 040GQ ~~~ 2 65ZQ ~ 2 The point of intersection of the two curves will give the diameter d. From d and v. Find the diameter of the pipe. and the velocity corresponding to it. 109 ft. the equation 5 15 log . as hi Fig. The schedule shows the 4 5 6 01024 0297 03125 0776 0329 The line and curve plotted in Fig. the value of is C is seen to be about 106 for these values of A second value for d6 from which d= '476'. . per seo. at 2 0406Q d 65ZQ 3 when a value is given to C. and where the straight line cuts the curve.FLOW THROUGH PIPES and substituting for v the value 153 2 h 000450^ /_\ ( ) 195 d5 15 ' from which and d = log 000 451 95 log 07854 + 195 log 14 + log 2640. intersect atp for which d= 4*98 feet. Short pipe. Choose a new value for C corresponding to this approximate diameter. 100. If the pipe is short so that the velocity head and the head lost entrance are not negligible compared with the loss due to friction. It is however easier to solve by approximation in the following manner.10 and Therefore d= 4819 v=2 feet. 100.
.... ... *+ When suitable values are given to 7 and n. (3). therefore. about 200..... (1)... therefore.. the points into several circuits in parallel.. but to depend upon the slope of the hydraulic gradient. Let v be the velocity in AB. Problem 3.. the friction head only need be con For smaller values of the ratio the quantity '02502 may become im portant.L H laid side by side having diameters d. the head lost in together with the head lost in any one of the branches..154 It is seen therefore that HYDRAULICS taking 106 as the value of C. are connected at ... and rf.. The case is analogous to that of a conductor joining two points between which a definite difference of potential is maintained.. The logarithmic formula may be used for short pipes but it is a little more cumbersome.101.. difference of level between the reservoirs ^ l (2). Using the logarithmic formula to express the loss of head for short pipes with will what extent squareedged entrance. *< ^s/^ *%* Let Qj be the discharge in cubic feet. And since the head lost in BC is the same as in BD. f '2 If provisionally Gj be taken as equal to C2 . for all practical purposes. since both the branches BC and BD x> 1) B and to the same reservoir. y ( * >v> * ~ Then... and the virtual slope is j^. 1 I . AB Then and the vd^^v^ + v^ h=?2L + . This problem shows that when the ratio even as great as sidered. this can be solved by plotting the two curves and U) i * the intersection of the two curves giving the required value of d. the head lost in friction must be the same in ~ BC as in BD. The total head lost between the reservoirs is..... if for a given distance Za the pipe of diameter d is divided into two branches >K... v 1 in BC and vz in BD... t< Z^ * 4> Fig. neglecting the term in r is d. makes an error of 022' or 264". the conductor being divided between j  A j _   j ^  j ' .. and if there were any number of branches connected at B the head lost in pj g 101 them all would be the same. To find what the discharge between the reservoirs of problem (1) would be..... Assume all the head is lost in friction.
and thus Q can . Since the flow from A and C must equal the flow into D.. Assume all losses. connect three Pipes connecting three reservoirs. From If (2). let three pipes reservoirs A. the upper or lower signs being taken. therefore.. is The head lost due to friction for the pipe Let and AB (1). from. and t>8 be the velocities in AB. (4). 102. v 2 . D..... BC. the reservoir C. z3 be the heights of the surfaces of the water in the reservoirs. and BD. or Q iQ2 =Q8 t^AtvVtyV .. Vj from is (4).. BD Fig.. C. may be found.. llt Ja .. da aud ds their diameters...FLOW THROUGH Therefore. and for the pipe BC.. Let hQ be the pressure head at B.. if it is There are two cases to . 105!. AB.. BC..... Q and Q 3 the quantities flowing along these pipes in cubic feet per sec. t.. and d^ . and CD same diameter and ^ equal to then and h Problem 4. 1 .. to be negligible. There are four equations. 2> and z the height of the junction B above some datum.. As in Fig. the level of the water in each of which remains constant. AB.. or (3). Let t>j.d? .... For the pipe BD the head lost is is (2). v can be found by substituting for are of the be determined. PIPES 155 and v... consider..(4). or else the flow from A must equal the quantity entering C and D. BC. and respectively... other than those due to friction in the pipes.. according as to whether the flow towards. and' the lengths of the pipes.. from which four unknowns further known which sign to take in equations (2) and (4)....
the reservoir C. to proceed by "trial and error. from some other condition. that is. . substituting for v l its value from which an approximate value for way. The cost of pipes is very nearly proportional to the product of the length and diameter. . Case (b). Q 2 Q 3 and the levels of the surfaces of the water in the reservoirs and of the junction B. .z . or from. found. v9 and h . Then from (1). the pressure head /? at B is equal to zz .156 HYDRAULICS Case (a). only three equations are given from which to calculate the four unknowns d lt For a definite solution a fourth equation must consequently be dg. and will also cause flow to take place from the reservoir C along CB. therefore. The further condition that may be taken is that the cost of the pipe lines shall be a minimum. an approximate value for Q3 is. trial will settle the question of sign in equations (2) and (4) This preliminary and the four equations may be solved for the four unknowns. differentiating and substituting in (7) t . Substituting in (1). whether water flows to. v lt v%. to find the quantity flowing along each of the pipes. with respect to kQ the condition for a minimum is. for a diminution in the pressure head at B will clearly diminish Q 3 and increase Qj. to find the diameters of the pipes. it is first necessary to obtain by trial. Iid l + l2 d2 + ls ds is made a minimum. and cause flow from B to C. and the lengths and diameters of the pipes. Given the levels of the surfaces of the water in the reservoirs and of the junction B. . the cost of the pipes will be as small as possible. but if Q 3 is greater than the assumed value for h9 is too large. To solve this problem. Differentiating. Q 3 is found to be equal to Q a . In this case. given to h until the calculated values of v lt v 2 and v. that . By solving (3) in the same (6). satisfy If Qu equation (4). the problem is solved . therefore. h is too small. and. It is better. (2) and (3) the values for v lt v a and va ." The first trial shows whether it is necessary to increase or diminish h9 and new values are. equation (4) must be satisfied by the given data. and if. Qx can be found. Given Qj. d3 and h . however. and if less. First assume there is no flow along the pipe BC. therefore. Increasing the pressure head at B will decrease Q 1} increase Q 3 .
FLOW THROUGH PIPES 157 Putting the values of Q a . Let Q be the number of cubic feet per second that enters the pipe at a section A. Flow through a pipe of constant diameter when the flow is diminishing at a uniform rate. that (8) is satisfied. but if not. and The result is simplified by taking for 9& the value and assuming C constant. Q 2 . and Q! the number of cubic feet that passes the section B. and substitute in . If this equation is satisfied the problem is solved. (2). there are four equations as before for four unknown quantities. the whole loss being assumed to be to fall In by friction. the rate of discharge per foot length of the pipe is kept constant. as in simpler systems. 103. the whole of Q will be discharged in a length of pipe. Then calculate d\ and da by putting hn in (1) and (3). I feet from A. velocity at the section is Assuming that in an element of length dx the loss of head due to friction is and substituting for vx its value Q* the loss of head due to friction in the length I is L xn dx /i t _[ "/M 7 VSBPj _y_ /iQ\ _ If n+ Qi is zero. and so on until such values of dl1 d!2 ds are obtained . the quantity Q Q x being taken from the pipe. by branches. this. at a uniform rate of Q~Q* if cubic feet per foot. x feet from *~ L ~ The l *' Fig. it is Then. I is equal to L. if the pipe is assumed to be continued on. that L= '(QQi)' The discharge C. It will be better however to solve by approximation. (3). ^ seen from Fig. equation (8). Then .2 and calculate /? from equation (2). Let I be the length of the pipe and d its diameter. and Q 3 in (1). assume a second value for da and try again. the pressure at any point in the pipes ought not below the atmospheric pressure. will be past any section. 103. and (8). Give some arbitrary value to say d. Let h be the total loss of head in the pipe.
and h feet the head against which Q cubic feet of water per second is to be pumped. ?*! per against a head h and to overcome the frictional resistance of the pipe is 60. . and the cost of a pipe of unit diameter n per foot length. . Kequired the diameter of a long pipe to deliver a given quantity of water. proportional to the diameter and to nld. cost of the pumping plant is total cost per year. d= 675^/01 Mr. through which water is disfrom a reservoir.*J Hr  <h 33. of the capital outlay in the pumping station. Suppose a pipe of length I and diameter D has at one end a nozzle of diameter d. taken together. The total horsepower of the plant is then including the standby plant. is N m+r N. 624 ( 4t. Required the diameter of the nozzle so that the kinetic energy of the a jet is maximum. r^ will be less than r. depreciation. and the cost of upkeep and . d its diameter. d pumped. * See also example 61. P. d and equating to zero. Q. Let I be the length of the pipe. Differentiating with respect to . is That is. T 01186Q The The times this quantity. . e as 06 I and the head against which the water Taking C as and v "*" .Q/ Assuming that the cost of the pipe line the length. be r per cent. in order that the charges on capital outlay and working expenses shall be a minimum. the level of the water in which is h feet above the centre charged of the nozzle. Let the cost of generating power be m per cent. *Pumping water tJirough long pipes. of the station. interest is is to be a minimum. Pipe with a nozzle at the end. as 50. and cost of upkeep of the pumping plant. ^ Problem 6. page 177. of the capital outlay. . then WTj 368 x 50 80 x 80 x = 6 If ( m+r N ) 0603 VOT is 100. is independent of the length 80.000 +^ Let e be the ratio of the average effective horsepower to the total horsepovrer.158 HYDRAULICS Problem 5. and that of the pipe line The horsepower required to lift the water cent. against a given effective head. and the interest. Let the cost per horsepower of the pumping plant and its accommodation be N.. the capital outlay for the pipe is is.
problem 6.. d* 5 * 2g. M Therefore ~ from which and or If 4 * 2 5* . The head lost by friction in the pipe 4/ V 2 l is 4/r 2Z ... f* from which by transposing and taking the square frD.D 2 a* ^ . is 4 This is a maximum when * rr=6. 9 Substituting for * from equation (1). then since in the circular nozzle same area jd2=a.FLOW THROUGH PIPES 159 Let V be the velocity of the water in the pipe. The momentum of the quantity of water Q which flows per W ^V The momentum M is the Ibs. Taking the same data as in problem 6... D5 + 4/Zd 4 = 12/Zd4 D of the the nozzle is not circular but has an area a.. of flow as it leaves the nozzle is  ..fc root.... d*= i 16a2 p.. Then.D~ The 2#D 2 kinetic energy of the jet per Ib.. therefore... to find the area of the momentum of the issuing jet is a maximum. nozzle that the ' second. since there is continuity of flow. Therefore *~* / .. the kinetic energy of the jet..... for Problem 7.. Therefore. feet. D'=i^... w where M> = the weight of a cubic foot of water.. vu from which Therefor.. is... . v the velocity with which the water leaves the nozzle is V. \i The weight of water 2 which flows per second =j d v . and JV /t is 8 By substituting the value of D from (5) in (1) it mazimum kinetic energy. the head lost in friction is at once seen that.. .. as it leaves nozzle..
per second Q 4 Q The total loss of head h in a length I is = /"* 64Q 2 . 104.160 Differentiating. 104. instead of using a pipe the diameter of which varies uniformly with the length. Problem 9. the line is made up of a number of parallel pipes of different diameters and lengths. HYDRAULICS and equating to zero. maximum Problem uniformly. dx 64 . Problem 6 has an important application. is 8 . while problem 7 gives the ratio. in order that the pressure exerted by the jet on a fixed plane perpendicular to the jet should be a maximum. v being the velocity when the diameter Fig. to . D =5 and 5 a = 392 Substituting for D in equation (1) it is seen that when the momentum is a half the head h is lost in friction. . The diameter of the pipe at any distance x from the small end is The loss of head in a small element of length dx is d. If it is desirable to diminish the diameter of a long pipe line. the diameter of which varies Let the pipe be of length I and its diameter vary uniformly from d until they dl Suppose the sides of the pipe produced meet in P. Fig. S5 / J_ 4 __1_ \ (8 (1) \S + /) 4 / the loss of head due to friction Substituting the value of S from equation can be determined. / 4 /D5 If the nozzle has an area a. Pipe line consisting of a number of pipes of different diameters. as for instance in the limbs of a Venturi meter. 16Q 2 . Loss of head due to friction in a pipe. in determining the ratio of the size of the supply pipe to the orifice supplying water to a Pelton Wheel. If Q is the flow in cubic ft. 8. In practice only short conical pipes are used.
which. the pressure at A becomes negative and the flow will cease. not only above the hydraulic gradient as in Fig. The total loss of head due to friction. be the lengths and d lt d z . and the velocity v is as large as possible. Let it be supposed. PIPES 161 Let 7lf Z2 13 . The length L of a pipe. 87. Theoretically if AF is made greater than hat which is about 34 feet. as in Fig. 11 . To start the flow in the pipe. II. that water is to be delivered from the reservoir B to the reservoir C through the pipe BAG. Practically AF cannot be made much greater than 25 feet. of constant diameter D. Let v m be this velocity. would give the same discharge for the same loss of head due to friction. can be found from ^he equation *i**a+*). which necessitates the pipe rising. is Problem 10.. It is sometimes necessary to take a pipe line over some obstruction. The hydraulic gradient is practically the straight line DE. so that the pressure V or "=v /Zgdh* in? head at A shall just be zero. Let it be assumed that the flow is allowed to take place and is regulated so that it is continuous. L. it will be necessary to fill it by a pump or other artificial means.FLOW THROUGH .. Pipe acting as a siphon. Let the difference in be fc level of the surfaces of the water in the reservoirs 2 feet. Let ha be the pressure head equivalent to the atmospheric pressure.. 105. but even above the original level of the water in the reservoir from which the supply is derived.. is The diameter d of the pipe. of the sections of the pipe. the diameters respectively. Let the datum level be the surface of the water in C. *. Then neglecting the velocity head and resistances other than that due to friction.d3 . 105. such as a hill. if C be assumed constant. which will give the same discharge for the same loss of head by friction. Fig. which at the point A rises fy feet above the level of the surface of the water in the upper reservoir. To find the maximum velocity possible in the rising limb AB.4/v L 8 L and d being the length and diameter of the pipe respectively. for the same total length.
. XLIV. and further. and it will be necessary to throttle the pipe at C by means of a " " siphon from being broken. or other causes. so as to keep the limb AC full and to keep the In designing such a siphon it is. An interesting example of this is quoted on p. as at high pressures the per centage loss due to friction is small. velocity of flow in pipes is generally about 3 feet but in pipes supplying water to hydraulic machines it per second. the discharge of the siphon will he determined by this limiting velocity.S. Let water be delivered into a pipe of diameter d feet under a head of H feet. or less than. Vol. the flow in the rising limb under a head ha h^. the total head available will be hs instead of 7^. If AB is short. and thus diminish its carrying capacity. 112. and in short pipes much higher velocities are allowed. the loss of head due to friction in long pipes becomes excessive. Velocity of flow in pipes. On the other hand. therefore. or pressure of p Ibs. by the sudden closing of valves. if the velocity is too small.C.E. necessary to determine whether the flow through the pipe as a whole under a head h 2 is greater. Am. Transmission of power along pipes by hydraulic pressure. and the risk of broken pipes and valves through attempts to rapidly check the flow. unless the water is very free from suspended matter. If the velocity is high.162 Then But Therefore If the pressure HYDRAULICS head is not to be less than 10 feet of water. If vm is less than v. 111. for which the equivalent head * is H= feet. Power can be transmitted hydraulically through a considerable distance. sediment* tends to collect at the lower parts of the pipe. 82 Trans. foot. is The mean considerably increased. with very great efficiency. at low velocities it is probable that fresh water sponges and polyzoa will make their abode on the surface of the pipe. may be as high as 10 feet per second. the head absorbed by friction in AB will be ' 2nd If the end C of the pipe is open to the atmosphere instead of being connected to a reservoir. per sq. valve. or h^ so small that v m is greater than v.
constant TFT is and since v is generally fixed from other conditions it may be supposed constant... .FLOW THROUGH PIPES 163 Let the velocity of flow be v feet per second. and the length of the pipe L feet.... (1) ~j^ > and the horsepower = 0'357  Jj^ dK* (1 . The head lost due to friction is .m). If as the velocity is / and L v* if are supposed to remain constant. at the end of the pipe is.. the efficiency constant. increases...Ji) t and the horsepower transmitted is W W ....d > and the energy per pound available therefore.(Hfr) Since *the horsepower ~" = WH n " m) .. page 177. available work per second at the end of the pipe is (H . H W W. per second. 550" (1 ' = . 2g.(H mH v = 4*01 i\J Tj  From therefore. and the efficiency then increases as the product dH... The efficiency is Mr h m = Hefficiency increases The fraction of the given energy lost is For a given pipe the diminishes.. * See example 60. is the weight of water per second passing through the If foot Ibs... the the work put into the pipe is pipe..
inch. And since the horsepower transmitted is HP = '357 for a given*horsepower ^/^ <#H* d*H* (1 (1 . The initial cost of the pipe per foot will then be C=feJWH = K. docks. These high pressures are. and since the cost of laying the total cost per foot is is approximately proportional to l d. * See example 61.H. to the head H. approximately. If t is is 37*5^^ = fcp=&H. the initial be a minimum when 0357 . and goods yards.e. p=K. .fad H. XI) to raise the ordinary pressure of 700 Ibs. but for special purposes. riveters and other machines is largely used. In large works. and the weight per foot may therefore be written w . From this equation if m to transmit m cost of the pipe line before laying is proportional to its weight. per sq.d.. capstans. i. it is sometimes as high as 3000 Ibs. to the pressure required. cost per horse power including laying will and efficiency. the thickness of the pipe in inches the weight per foot length Ibs. however. common pressure at which water A is supplied from the pumps is 700 to 750 Ibs.m) is a maximum. and the cost of laying approximately proportional to its The diameter. per sq.164 If HYDRAULICS p is the pressure per sq.m).d. Assuming the thickness of the pipe to be proportional to the pressure. inch and the horsepower = 1'24 ^ ^ <2*p* (1 . page 177. frequently obtained by using an intensifier (Ch. the hydraulic transmission of power to cranes. . inch.ra). and if d is known the longest length L that the loss shall not be greater than the given fraction can be found. is given and L is known the diameter d a given horsepower can be found.n+K d.
per sq. The following example shows that. or the is pipe requires to be 1'65 inches thick. that can be transmitted at 1000 Ibs. ra is 5'65 per sq. pipe 15 inches diameter and \ inch thick in which the pressure is 1000 Ibs. has led to the laying down of a network of mains in several of the large cities of Great Britain. inch. of the power is lost and the maximum power that can be transmitted with this length of pipe is. neglecting friction. and TI and ra the internal and external radii of the pipe. 113. therefore. inch. the The largest castiron pipe used for this pressure is between and 8" internal diameter. inch. Using a maximum velocity of 5 feet per second. per sq. per second. Steel mains are working stress much more suitable for may be as high as 7 tons per high pressures. and a pipe 7 J inches diameter. Power is transmitted along a castiron main 7$ inches diameter at a pressure of 1000 Ibs.FLOW THROUGH PIPES 165 The demand for hydraulic power for the working of lifts. Example. the maximum horsepower. 320 horsepower. per sq. If. the internal diameter pipe becomes very thick indeed. Ibs. 15 per cent. In later installations. if the pipe is 13. The p= For a pressure p = 1000 3000 Ibs. Find the maximum distance the power can be transmitted so that the efficiency is A not less thanS5/ . . pressures of 1100 Ibs. The greater plasticity of the metal enables them to resist shock more readily than castiron pipes and slightly higher velocities can be used. therefore. inch by one pipe is 4418x1000x5 55Q= 400. as the sq. 7" greater than 8 inches. The diameter d for a castiron pipe cannot be made very large if the pressure is high. * Swing's Strength of Materials. inch. In London a mean velocity of 4 feet per second is allowed in the mains and the pressure is 750 Ibs. per sq. If p is the safe internal pressure per sq. and the velocity 5 ft. etc. inch of the metal. per sq. inch. limiting diameter of castiron pipes. and a stress s of inches when n is 4 inches. is able to transmit 1600 horsepower.300 feet long. per sq. and s the safe stress per sq. inch are used. The velocity of the water is 5 feet per second. inch. inch.
300 feet. end of a rightangled elbow. common . as in Fig. 108. therefore. as in Pig 106 be bolted to a pipe full of water at a pressure p pounds per sq.aefgc) + and since the area aehgcb is " '^* to the . (1 two projected areas. the projection of DEF is dbcfe. If a bent pipe contain a fluid at rest. and on the other end of the elbow is bolted a flat cover. the intensity of pressure being the same in all directions.cos 0).j. 114. of the arrow equal to '7854wcV/144<7. If the cover B is removed. the horizontal momentum of the water is destroyed and there is an additional force in the direction If one A . therefore h= 015x2300 = 345 feet. d being the diameter of the pipe in inches. the resultant force tending to move the pipe in any direction will be by the pressure per unit area multiplied the projected area of the pipe on a plane perpendicular to that direction. place the vertical force tending to lift When flow is taking the elbow or to shear the bolts at A is A If the elbow is less than a right \ v\ \\ \VLl'' "*" ^ angle. and water flows through the pipe with a velocity v feet per second. p abed = *7854pd2. If the elbow be projected on to a vertical plane the projection of ACB is daefc.166 HYDRAULICS d = 0625feet. The pressure on the cover B is clearly 2 '7854pd . Then from which 2g x 0625 345 x 644 x 0625 00104x100 13. inch by gauge. Pressures on pipe bends. the tension in the bolts at will be the same as in the bolts at B. 34y= L= 4x 00104 x 25 . The resultant pressure on the elbow in the direction of the arrow is. the total is tension in the bolts at A T = p (daehgc .
that. and the couple is M = P' . and the reIf now sultant pressure in the direction parallel to AA is still zero. and the couple P' mn is equal to the pressure on a'd'c multiplied by the distance between the centres of gravity of a'd'c and efg. If the axes of FF and AA are on the same straight line the . mn P . the velocities at these sections diameters at F and and F are in the same being therefore equal. whatever the form of the pipe. by similar reasoning. as long as the are equal. and m and n the centres of gravity of d'de'h'g'c and aefgcb'. Then the resultant couple is the pressure on the semicircle efg multiplied by the distance between the centres of gravity of efg and efg.FLOW THROUGH PIPES 167 Consider now a pipe bent as shown in Fig. the limbs and FF being parallel. pq. change of velocity there is no change of momentum. The couple P pq is also equal to the pressure on the semicircle adc multiplied by the distance between the centres of gravity of adc and efg. AA which clearly is equal to 0. the force and the couple are both zero. as stated by Mr Froude. It can also be shown. as well as the force. and the water being supposed at rest. Let p and q be the centres of gravity of the two areas daehgc and aefgcb respectively.aefgcb + d'cg'tie'd . by Through these points there are parallel forces acting as shown the arrows. and the two ends A A straight line. There rotate it is however a couple acting upon the bend tending to in a clockwise direction. therefore. becomes zero. instead of the fluid being at rest it has a uniform the pressure must remain constant. If.a'ef'g'c'b'}. 109. "the . couple. . and since there is no velocity. The total force acting in the direction AA is P = p {dcghea .
Let the pressures at the sections p2 pounds to 20 w 2g and ^ (1) + = S (P Vw ^+ ffA +( \/ a t ) (2)  Adding and (2) w (YiV) 2gr The whole pressure on the plate in the direction of motion is then 2# V 2 / A ^ . plate in a pipe filled with flowing water. c being some contraction. two ends of a tortuous pipe are in the same straight no tendency for the pipe to move. gd. on certain assumpcan be determined. be c(Aa). with plane perpendicular to the direction of flow. the coefficient of contraction is larger. pi and foot respectively. the plate will be contracted. it will probably be not far from the truth. there is The pressure on a its Pressure on a plate in a pipe filled with flowing water. be a thin plate of area a and let the sectional area of the pipe be A. The loss of head due to sudden enlargement from gd to ef is V a&.168 HYDRAULICS line. and when part of the orifice is fitted with sides so that the contraction is incomplete and the stream lines are in part directed perpendicular to the orifice. ef be p. Let PQ. It has coefficient of been shown on page 52 that for a sharpedged orifice the coefficient of contraction is about 0'625. 110. per square Bernoulli's equations for the three sections are then. If a coefficient in this case of 0'66 is assumed. Let Vi be the velocity through the section gd and the mean velocity in the pipe. Fig." 115. and the section of the stream on a plane gd will tions. The stream as it passes the edge of a & p.
Pressure on a cylinder. axis coincident with the axis of the pipe. from the section ef to the section gh. it contracts to the section at cd. there enlargements of the section of the water. If instead of with its are two As the stream passes the upstream edge of the cylinder. a thin plate a cylinder be placed in the pipe.FLOW THROUGH PIPES If 169 a = J A. Y 2 116. a. P = 4iiva 7p Y 2 nearly. <JU . 046. Ill. Fig. and then enlarges to the section It again enlarges at the downstream end of the cylinder ef.
c.170 HYDRAULICS c. ft. diameter is A pipe 12 (6) 24 ins. Head of water (3) above point of discharge =36 ft. equally well along (9) . Find the discharge (neglecting all losses the pressure except skin friction) and draw the hydraulic gradient. Draw.000. long and 6 ins. ft. main has a virtual slope of 1 in 900 and discharges 35 Find the diameter of the main. and a circular pipe of the (8) same section and slope. diameter. (5) A water per second. It connects (4) two reservoirs with a difference of level of 20 ft.a)/ J and the pressure on the cylinder =it EXAMPLES. the hydraulic gradient of the pipe. Find the discharge per minute in c. Find the loss of head in friction in each length. Find the loss of head in friction and the virtual slope. ~ A \ 2 ) ' (A . for much A pipe 2000 ft.A. The level of the water is 20 ft. above the inlet end. (2) What is the head lost per mile in a pipe 2 ft. Vi.000 gallons in 24 hours ? /= 007. A new castiron pipe is 2000 ft. per second. and then to is 100 feet long. and the coefficient of friction /= 0106. suddenly enlarged to 18 ins. Find by how the discharge would be increased if to the last 1000 ft. A pipe is 12 ins. in diameter and 3 miles in length. Length of pipe = 2^ miles. diameter. Each section of pipe (7) Find an expression for the relative discharge of a square. /A 71 (A ( r \ a) \ 2 and v s = "3 BMJWA Vi A Aa A  Y I a v ^i^ J + is / ( A (^ _ a ) . ft.. to scale. It is to (1) discharge 50 c. Mark in the pipe at each quarter mile. and 9 ft. discharging 6. Take C from Table XII. Use Darcy's coefficient for corroded pipes. and is laid for a quarter mile at a slope another quarter mile at a slope of 1 in 100. Find its diameter. ft.a. A pipe of 1 in 50. The discharge is 10 c. ins. A pipe is to supply 40. diameter.000 gallons in 24 hours. a second pipe of the same size were laid alongside the first and the water allowed to flow either pipe. If the coefficient of contraction at cd is the area at cd Aa c A mi Then Therefore (pi V2 = c v wvS p4 ) = g . and the loss due to shock at each enlargement. ft. above the outlet end. of water per minute. and for a third quarter mile is level. is 6 ins. per second. diameter. long discharges Q c. Coefficient / is 0'007.
per (18) second. 12. Find the head expended in giving velocity of entry. connecting reservoirs with a difference of level of 20 feet. A 6inch main 7 miles in length with a virtual slope of 1 in 100 (18) is replaced by 4 miles of 6inch main. the level of which is 50 ft. Find the discharge. and. and in friction. Find the discharge per second. write down the pressure at each of these points. to be 40. and . (12) Given the data if of the loss of head the pipe is Ex. 5000 ft. per second when dirty. Effective head 20 ft. (21) section 0'54 sq. fb. ft. in length find the discharge. Length 40 ft. Taking the coefficient / as O'Ol (l + ^Y find how much water two would be discharged through a 12inch pipe a mile long. if so. and c. 15. Also the value of / in the ordinary formula for flow in pipes. The head at the outlet is 5 ft. taking the levels of the pipe at the upper reservoir. Diameter of main 15 inches. sketch the position of the line of hydraulic gradient. Find the velocity of flow in a water main 10 miles long. taking into account not bellmouthed at either end. discharges (10) into a second reservoir 30 ft. Water flows through a 12inch pipe having a virtual slope of 3 feet (16) per 1000 feet at a velocity of 3 feet per second. long discharges \ c. of surface of pipe in Ibs. 25. Coefficient /=0'009. ft.FLOW THROUGH PIPES 171 A reservoir. through a 12 in. 11 find the discharge. per mile. above datum. per second. ft. pipe 2000 feet long and 8 inches diameter What must be the head of water ? is to discharge 85 c. ft. (22) Calculate the loss of head per mile in a 10inch pipe (area of cross ft.000 gallons in 12 hours? (24) A per minute. 10. What is the head lost in friction in a pipe 3 feet diameter (23) discharging 6. pipe consists of J a mile of 10 inch.000. of delivering water at a velocity of 3 ft. per second. if the pipe of the last question is replaced for (20) the first 5 miles by a pipe 20 inches diameter and the remainder by a pipe 12 inches diameter. Find the friction per sq. and at each successive 1000 ft. above datum. in overcoming mouthpiece resistance.) when the discharge is 2^ c. pipe. 12. A pipe 4 ins. (14) and capable (15) Kequired the diameter of a pipe having a fall of 10 ft. above datum. by how much ? (17) 1 in 400. ft. diameter and 100 ft. Find the relative discharge of a 6inch main with a slope of and a 4inch main with a slope of 1 in 50. Also. Would the discharge be altered. con(19) necting two reservoirs with a difference of level of 200 feet. Diameter of pipe 6 ins. . and 3 miles of 4inch main.. State from the answer to the previous question the loss of head in each section and sketch a hydraulic gradient. A and conveys 2 a mile of 5 inch pipe. It is required to draw off the water of a reservoir through a (11) pipe placed horizontally.
per sec. I _2000 (15 + 400/) tu  / \/ J. Find the /=0'006. using the formula (30) " . In time dt. in. per sq. 50 feet long. Integrating. (26) The tubes are 7 feet long and the number of tubes is 400. What horsepower can be conveyed through a 6in. d Find the inclination necessary to produce a velocity of 4 feet per second in a steel water main 31 inches diameter. Find the diameter of pipe and pressure required for an efficiency of '9 when the velocity is 5 ft. main if the (28) working pressure of the water supplied from the hydraulic power station is 700 Ibs. of If ft = the head over the exit of the pipe at any moment. The frictional loss is given by equation 20 Mi.? Assume that the velocity of the water is limited to 3 ft. is connected to the bottom (25) a tank 50 feet long by 40 feet wide. The original head over the open end of the pipe is 15 feet. 0005 v 1 94 dn* The following values of the slope i and the velocity v were (31) determined from an experiment on flow in a pipe '1296 ft. diam. when running full and discharging with free outlet. The number of head due gallons per minute flowing through the condenser is 400.*. loss of (27) Assuming fluid friction to vary as the square of the velocity. + 5v z 20 + 4fv*5W 20x05' the discharge is v In time dt 2827 T44 falls the surface an amount dh.172 HYDRAULICS A pipe 6 inches diameter.O _ 79000 (15 +400/) 7 0196 \/20 A/20 SGCS The internal diameter of the tubes of a condenser is 0*654 inches. Find the time of emptying the tank. find an expression for the work done in rotating a disc of diameter D at an angular velocity a in water. v^ "20 from which. per second. i 00022 205 00182 606 00650 1252 02389 2585 04348 3'593 12315 22408 8521 v 6310 . assuming the entrance to the pipe is sharpedged. (29) Eightytwo horsepower is to be transmitted by hydraulic pressure a distance of a mile. to friction as the water flows through the tubes.
of water per second. (32) .000 ft. above the is continued for a length of 5000 ft. of its length water is drawn off by A . at the datum. What percentage of work of the fall is lost in friction in the pipe ? A Coefficient (34) /= "007 ( 1 + each If of six nozzles. Assume the coefficient C to be constant and equal to 90. 1. find the velocity with which the water leaves the nozzle. the water supply is 1 miles away. and the pipe diameter is reduced to 39 inches is this a reasonable reduction in the dimension of the cross section ? Lond. (38) Two reservoirs are connected difference by a pipe surface diameter. gallons. Un. Un. 5 and The total length of the Coolgardie steel aqueduct is 307 miles and the diameter 30 inches. How much water will such a pipe supply in gallons per diem if the slope of the pipe is 4^ feet per mile ? At one point on the line of pipes the gradient is 6 feet per mile. The turbine works under a head of 25 feet and uses 10 c. 1905. the in the water 1 mile long and 10" levels being 25 ft. the length being 15. Eight thousand gallons an hour have to be discharged through and the jet has to reach a height of 80 ft. C for this pipe for velocities of *5. at what elevation above the nozzles would you place the required reservoir. the total work done per minute in raising the water. The head over the centre of the pipe at one tank is 12 feet. 1905. 300 ft. The discharge per day may be 5. Water under a head of 60 feet is discharged through a pipe (36) 6 inches diameter and 150 feet long. the head lost due to friction. Un. Two rectangular tanks each 50 feet long and 50 feet broad are (37) connected by a horizontal pipe 4 inches diameter. Determine the time taken for the water in the two tanks to come to the same level.600. and pipe 18" diameter leads from a reservoir. For the last 5000 ft. and what would you make the diameter of the supply main ? Give the dimensions of the reservoir you would provide to keep a constant supply for six hours. 1903. The pipes laid to connect the Vyrnwy (35) dam with Liverpool are 42 inches diameter. . a second pipe of 10" diameter is laid alongside the first. Neglecting all losses except friction. and over the other 4 feet when flow commences. 1000 feet long.000 The water (a) (6) Find is lifted a total height of 1499 feet. Lond. Lond. 8. ft. Determine the flow through the pipe in gallons per hour and find by the discharge would be increased if for the last 2000 ft. and then through a nozzle the area of which is onetenth the area of the pipe. pipe 2 feet diameter and 500 feet long without bends furnishes (33) water to a turbine. how much (39) datum.FLOW THROUGH Determine k and n in the formula PIPES 173 i=kv n Also determine values of 7 feet per sec.
Find the quantity discharged per minute into the reservoirs B and C. Lond. 1907.cubic feet to branch mains for each foot of its length. Un. The service reservoir is two miles from the town. Find the velocity and flow through the pipe. C. leads water from a (44) tank to a nozzle whose diameter is d. Half (47) the daily supply of 32 gallons per head is to be delivered in 8 hours. Describe a method of finding the "loss of head" in a pipe due to (43) the hydraulic resistances. and a 5 inch main of length 630 feet goes to 0. Un. The jet impinges on a fixed plane surface. when discharging full bore. ft. I feet long and D feet in diameter. per 500 the pressure at the end of the pipe. Take the coefficient of friction (/) as '01. The entrance to the 8inch main is bellmouthed. /='01. 1906. What must be the size of the pipe ? . Take v as 3 ft. pipe 9 inches diameter and one mile long slopes for the first half mile at 1 in 200 and for the second half mile at 1 in 100. per sec. (46) c=100. What (42) is the form of the hydraulic gradient ? reservoir A A The the difference of level supplies water to two other reservoirs between the surfaces of A and B is 75 B and feet. and whose centre is h feet below the level of water in the tank. Find 350 horsepower is to be transmitted by hydraulic pressure a (40) distance of 1^ miles. = 90. Find the number of 6 ins. A pipe. Find the loss of head due to friction in a water main L feet long. uniformly. (41) which receives Q cubic feet per second at the inlet end and delivers Q =.000 inhabitants is to be supplied with water. A 6inch main of length 1400 feet is then carried on in the same straight line to B. and a fall of 10 feet per mile can be allowed in the pipe. diameter pipes and the pressure required for an efficiency of 92 per cent. Draw the hydraulic gradient and find the pressure and 1000 feet from the higher end. A common 8inch castiron main supplies for 850 feet to a point D. and losses at pipe exits to the reservoirs and at the junction may be neglected. and having a fall of 3 feet per mile. and state how you would proceed to find the loss as a function of the velocity. service pipes at the rate of 10 c. and between first A and C 97*5 feet. The pressure head at the higher end is found to be 40 feet of water and at the lower A 20 feet. Assuming that the loss of head due to hydraulic resistance is given by show that the pressure on the surface is a maximum when Find the flow through a sewer consisting of a castiron pipe (45) 12 inches diameter. in feet at 500 feet A town of 250. per min.174 HYDRAULICS ft. Lond.
the water enters through a pipe (section A) at the lower water head. The average number of inhabitants of each house is 6. the total sectional area of flow of the tubes forming the lower nest is 0814 sq. passes through the lower nest of tubes. them and to convey 45. Un. In a condenser. The middle part of the pipe is 120 feet below the surface of the upper reservoir. Find the necessary diameter of the pipe. assuming /=0'01. the number of tubes being respectively 353 and 326. A pipe 3 miles long has a uniform slope of 20 feet per mile. hydraulic machines are served with water under pressure machines being 600 Ibs. The length of all the tubes is 6 feet 2 inches. and sketch the hydraulic gradient. per square inch. (51) Some by a pipe 1000 feet long. and the whole of the water flows through the first length. ft. 30 inches for the second and 21 inches for the third.. ft. The horsepower developed by the machine is 300 and the friction horse power in the pipes 120. Find the necessary diameter of the I v2 pipe. (50) The difference of level of to connect A pipe is required two reservoirs ten miles apart is 80 feet.000 gallons of water per hour from the higher to the lower reservoir. threefourths through the second. On the assumption that the pipe is laid that in four equal lengths of 200 yards and has a uniform slope of jfoj. and of the upper nest 0'75 sq.. the observed difference of pressure head (by gauges) at A and B was 6'5 feet. The A B When the volume of the circulating water was 121 c. ft. one half through the third and one quarter through the fourth. and the average consumption of water for each person is 30 gallons in 8 hrs.. Find the discharge through the pipe and determine the pressure heads at the commencement of the 30 inches diameter pipe. and that the value of C is 90 for the whole pipe. and is (49) 18 inches diameter for the first mile. Also determine the pressure at which the water is delivered by the pump. ft. Find the total actual head necessary to overcome frictional resistance. Lond. per sec. the pump pressure remaining the same ? Lond. the pressure at the 1906. What is the maximum horse power at which it would be possible to work the machines. The pressure heads at the higher and lower ends of the pipe are 100 feet and 40 feet respectively. then through the upper nest of tubes into the upper water head (section B).and "43 Ib. and also of the 21 inches diameter pipe. Un. describing the 1906. taking the loss of head in feet as 0*03 5 x ^. respectively . Discuss Reynolds' work on the critical velocity and on a general experimental apparatus. and . (53) bottom of the sectional areas at sections and are 0'196 and 0'95 sq. (52) law of resistance. find the diameters of the four parts of the pipe. and showing the connection with the experiments of Poiseuille and D'Arcy.FLOW THROUGH PIPES 175 A water pipe is to be laid in a street 800 yards long with houses (48) on both sides of the street of 24 feet frontage. Calculate the pressure head in the pipe at a point midway between the two reservoirs. per square a zg inch as equivalent to 1 foot head.
and the difference of pressure inch of water find at the two ends of the pipe is (57) feet of gas) in a . Un. per square (56) inch by gauge. A fire engine supplies water at a pressure of 40 Ibs. 1907.176 HYDRAULICS friction (4/) for the tubes is taken to resistance for the tubes alone. Calculate the magnitude and indicate the direction of mean velocity in each pipe. Weight 624 Ibs. Obtain expressions (a) for the head lost by friction (expressed in main of given diameter. weight of 1 cubic foot of water coefficient / (of friction) for the gas against the walls of the pipe Lond. the available head being 600 feet and the length of pipe 3 miles. when the main is horizontal. Lond. it then has a horizontal length of 100 feet. If the coefficient of be '015. ft.. what is the total loss of head in the tunnel due to the bends and to the friction ? C = 117. : (a) (fc) The head lost in feet of gas.) are connected by a pipe leading 450' above Three reservoirs A. Apply your results to the following example: The main is 16 inches diameter. in cubic feet. If the coefficient/ (of friction) in the pipe be '01. find the actual height to which the jet will rise. and at a velocity of 6 feet per second into a pipe 8 inches diameter. t . which is discharging 20 c. the length of the main is 300 yards. . 600' and 200' above levels of the still water surface in A. find the coefficient of hydraulic compare with the actual experiment. Un. and (b) for the discharge in cubic feet per second. and the coefficient of hydraulic resistance referred to A. issuing (55) It of a Hence find the minimum diameter of a pipe that will supply a Pelton Wheel of 70 per cent. The pipe is led a distance of 100 feet to a nozzle 25 feet above the pump. and again rises 12 feet. (Cr = head lost divided by vel head at A. the siphon descends vertically 12 feet. namely 15". B and (58) from each to a junction box P situated datum. 1906. and when the variations of pressure are not great enough to cause any important change of volume. An open second is jet has been shown on page 159 that when the kinetic energy from a nozzle on a long pipe line is a maximum. and the lengths of the pipes are respectively 10. of water per passed under a road by a siphon of smooth stoneware pipe. B and The datum.000'.) (54) stream. the density of the gas is 0'56 (that of air=l). Un. (See page 118 substitute for w the weight of cubic foot of gas. of 1 cubic foot of air=0'08 lb. 1905. Un. and the actual lift of the jet is f of that due to the velocity of efflux. 5000' and 6000' are 800'. 0005. When the stream enters this siphon. Lond. taking v = WQ\/ mi the pipes being all the same diameter. efficiency and 500 brake horsepower. and the diameter of the nozzle to satisfy the conditions of the problem. Lond. If all the bends are sharp rightangled bends. and 2 feet in diameter. The discharge of gas per hour . the section of the siphon being cylindrical. 1905.
For a given supply of water delivered to a pipe at a given (61) pressure. the total For P! to be a minimum. The annual capital charges P are. If W is year the weight of water proportional to is P=mld. Show that the energy transmitted by a long pipe is a (60) when onethird of the energy put into the pipe is lost in friction. proportional to Id. and of intensity 25 feet. d" divided by the area of the pipe. i. plus the cost of energy lost in the pipe line. is. That If 5 times the cost when the annual cost due to charges and repairs should be equal to due to loss of energy. head lost by friction =J . 12 . H. d = diameter of pipe. 49ftd 2 A R+l7* per unit length. the energy lost per or.e. L.  should be zero. the cost of upkeep of the pipe line may be considered as made up of the capital charges on initial cost. when the head of water in the pipe is 250 feet.  Therefore =ml5m 1 = 0. the bend is in equilibrium. The repairs will be practically proportional to the may be assumed The original cost of the pipe line to the capital charges. .FLOW THROUGH PIPES (59) 177 pipe 3' 6" diameter bends through 45 degrees on a radius of Determine the displacing force in the direction of the radial line bisecting the angle between the two limbs of the pipe. or original cost. is since v W 20. pumped per annum. foot at the inlet end of pipe. proportional to the diameter and to the length. radius of bend in feet. proportional to annual cost PI may be written. plus repairs. Show also that. if a uniformly distributed pressure be applied in the plane of the centre lines of the pipe. The energy transmitted along the pipe per second is 4 "fl) ^Z 7T 7T E= maximum p being the pressure per sq. therefore. the cost of pipes is assumed proportional to d 2 P x is a minimum the annual cost is \ of the cost of the energy lost. normally to the pipe on its outer surface. Differentiating and equating to zero dv or. h = head of water in the pipe.
and at any point probable that the condition of flow is continually changing. either in direction or magnitude. particles of water have a sinuous motion. of the distribution of velocities of The experimental study water flowing in open channels reveals the fact that. and is the same for all the it is The sections. because of tne infinite variety of the forms of the channels and of the different degrees of roughness of the wetted surfaces. so in this case the formulae for smooth regular shaped channels cannot with any degree of assurance be applied to the calculation to of the flow in the irregular natural streams. but as in the case of pipes. Steady motion in uniform channels. to the irregular beds of rivers and the rough. Variety of the forms of channels. since the same quantity of water passes each section. 118. . VI. pebble or rock strewn. varying.CHAPTER FLOW 117. as in the case of pipes. This mean velocity is purely an artificial quantity. the velocity of the particles of water as they pass the section. from channels lined with smooth boards or cement. In a channel of uniform section and slope. IN OPEN CHANNELS. and in which the total flow remains constant for an appreciable time. the mean velocity v in the direction of the stream is constant. the particles of water at different points in a cross section of the stream may have very different velocities. and does not represent. the logarithmic formulae vary with the roughness of the pipe. The study of the flow of water in open channels is much irore complicated than in the case of closed pipes. and is simply equal to the discharge divided by the area of the cross section. as they do. mountain stream. and the direction of flow is not always actually in the direction of the flow of the stream. Attempts have been made to find formulae which are applicable any one of these very variable conditions.
P the wetted perimeter. i. the length and w the weight of a cubic foot of water. Let p = m be is called the hydraulic fall of mean depth. Figs. that at any point in the cross section. therefore.dl. Let v be the mean velocity of the stream. i the fall per foot length of the surface of the water. The consideration of the motion is consequently simplified by assuming that the water moves in parallel fillets or stream lines. however. Fig. This is much more 119. 12 Since small dz = i. for the flow Formula when and the motion slope. the filament CD. complicated. the velocities in but the velocity in each stream line remains the assumption that is made in investigating socalled rational formulae for the velocity of flow in channels.e. show. is uniform in a channel of uniform section On points C and D this assumption. of a channel of uniform slope and section are exactly the same the velocities are equal. PC + w W = PD + V 5 2g is w 2g* and therefore. dl the length between and BB. the component of velocity in a direction parallel to the direction of flow remains practically constant. 112. to determine the distribution of velocity in channels. which are constant. EF + FGr + GrH. or the slope. and since C and D are at the same distance below the free surface the pressures are also equal. t w 2g is constant for the two sections. to the cross sectional area EFGrH of the AA stream. For . since the same true for any other filament. the conditions of flow at similarly situated in any two cross sections and BB. Let dz be the the slope the surface between A A and BB. 112 AA and 113. 2 . but it should not be overlooked that the actual motion may be different.FLOW IN OPEN CHANNELS 179 Experiments with current meters.
the work done by gravity must be equal to the work done by the frictional and other resistances opposing the motion of the water.f (v) f (m) The form of f(v) f(m) must be determined by experiment. Then. and may be written a numerical b being coefficient. 120. which is not correct. due to the cross currents or which are neglected in assuming stream line flow. Formula of Chezy. velocity. all the filaments have not the same velocity. eddy motions. Let F v be the work done per unit area of the sides of the channel. Energy is also lost. however.8Z.180 If HYDRAULICS Q it upon cubic feet per second by gravity will be : fall from AA to BB. F is often called the . first The attempts to determine the flow of water in channels . replaced by Tc and mi = Jc. not a perfect fluid some portion of the work done by gravity is utilised in overcoming the friction due to this relative motion. F w* . The principal cause of loss is. the frictional resistance of the sides of the channel. and it is assumed that the whole of so that there is relative is and since water work done by gravity is utilised in overcoming this resistance. w is constant may be . therefore or wwidl = J?vPdl. of the surface of the channel between AA and BB Then. CO . frictional resistance per unit area. the work done 2g is constant for the two sections. As remarked above. since 3 \w +  motion between consecutive filaments. P vni l== =F w F is also of the hydraulic found by experiment to be a function of the velocity and mean depth. Since for water therefore. but this velocity of the water and the sides of the assumes that the relative channel is equal to the mean The area isP. v being the mean velocity of flow. and some resistance is also offered to the flow by the air on the surface of the water.
. or v = 103 *Jmi. This formula may be written mi=(~) + b)v\ or v= 1 V/v coefficient C of the Chezy formula is then. Prony gave to a and b the values a = '000044. 233. If the first term containing v be neglected.Jmij which is known as the Chezy formula. 20 inches wide and less than 1 foot deep. a. * Principes d'hydraulique. See also pages 231 f Experiments by Funk. 6 = '00011 14. 18036. b = '000094. By an examination of the experiments of Chezy and those of Du Buat* made in 1782 on wooden channels. . and assumed that F was a function of v and also of va and therefore. a function of the velocity v. at Coupalet in 1775. 4= v= C . and has already been given in the chapter on pipes. 179092. The Eytelwein by a reexamination of the same experiments together with others on the flow in the rivers Rhine t and Weser +. Prony adopted the same formula for channels and for pipes. 121. according to Prony. Formulae of Prony and Eytelwein. and others on the Jard canal and the river Hayne. from which he concluded that and therefore Writing C for mi = kv~ (1). gave values to a and b of a = '000024.FLOW IN OPEN CHANNELS 181 with precision were probably those of Chezy made on an earthen canal. mi = av + bv*. Neglecting the term containing v = 95 \lrni. the formula is the same as that of Chezy. $ Experiments by Brauings.
Formula of Darcy and Bazin. Experimental channels of semicircular and rectangular section were constructed at Dijon. It will be seen that the influence of the second term increases very considerably with the roughness of the surface. and values of k are shown in Table XVIII. and lined with different materials. that the frictional resistances were independent of the nature of the wetted surface. The results of these experiments. Bazin proposed for the coefficient &. m/' \ a and being coefficients both of which depend upon the nature of the lining of the channel. After completing his classical experiments on flow in pipes series of experiments upon open channels afterwards completed by M. Darcy commenced a *=(+). from an examination of Bazin's . It is convenient to write the coefficient k as Taking the unit as 1 foot. mi = . ( a. Prony and Eytelwein incorrectly assumed that the constants a and 6 were independent of the nature of the bed of the channel. M. Bazin to determine.182 HYDRAULICS As in the case of pipes. earthen channels lined with stones. the form used by Darcy for pipes. Thus. Ganguillet and Kutter. From the results of these experiments M. Recherches HydrauliqueSj very clearly demonstrated the inaccuracy of the assumptions of the old writers. how the frictional resistances varied with the material with which the channels were lined and also with the form of the channel. + 1 3 \ mj ju in the Chezy formula is thus made to vary The coefficient with the hydraulic mean depth m. as well as with the roughness of the surface. 122. Experiments were also made upon the flow in small earthen channels (branches of the Burgoyne canal). Bazin's values for a and /?. section 120. and similar channels the beds of which were covered with mud and aquatic herbs. published in 1858 in the monumental work. 123.
found that the coefficient C in the Chezy formula could be written in the form 6 + vra/ . /?. XVIII. and Jc in Bazin's formula for . of a. in which a is a constant for all channels. TABLE Showing the values channels. and 6 is a coefficient of roughness.FLOW IN OPEN CHANNELS 183 experiments. together with some of their own.
. basket shaped sewer. washed with cement. wetted. diameter. '01 '012 to '013 015 '017 to 019 02 . washed with cement. covered with slime or tuberculated rubble masonry Hough ashlar or Very firm gravel or pitched with stones Earth. determined from recent experiments. one year old washed with cement. American and engineers.. 6'x6'8". Sudbury aqueduct Glasgow aqueduct..and is independent of the slope large. years old Brick. new 0116 circular sewer. . 9 ft. . are inconsistent with New York Aqueduct Commission.. and others on the flow of the Irrawaddi and various European rivers.. that when equals unity m C = . . washed with cement.. very smooth Wood pipe 6 ft. Brick. clean.. four 0133 015 '012 years old Old Croton aqueduct. in ordinary condition free from stones and weeds Earth.. . It is a peculiarity of the formula. 6'x6'8". not free from stones and weeds Gravel in bad condition Torrential streams with rough stony beds 009 to . . . 1897 (mean) Steel pipe... bricks.. nearly Brick. basket shaped sewer. Showing values of n in the formula of Ganguillet and Kutter. nearly 0098 0132 0130 0148 0152 new . n Rectangular wooden flume.. 01 0124 0144 0155 German This formula has found favour with English.. and also when m is It is also of importance to notice that later experiments upon the Mississippi by a special commission... . four Brick... then ... Smooth. circular sewer.. lined with cement Steel pipe. 1899 (mean) .. concrete Smooth. boards.184 HYDRAULICS TABLE XIX. cement and planed boards . washed with cement. lined with brick New Croton aqueduct* . C increases as the slope decreases. 6'x6'8". H Channel Very smooth. 025 030 '035 to '040 05 TABLE XIX A.. .. but French writers favour the simpler formula of Bazin. diameter. basket shaped sewer. Showing values of n in the formula of Ganguillet and Kutter. diameter Brick. 9 ft..
Vol. M. The values of y as found by Bazin for various kinds of channels are shown in Table XX. Bazin's later formula for the flow in channels. that the experimental determination of the flow in. large natural streams is beset with such great difficulties. the value of y in (2) being 1'Slly. excellent results. and the slope of. Bazin has recently (Annales des Pouts et Chaussees. 20). and does not appear to give results more accurate than a new and simpler formula suggested recently by Bazin and which is given in the next section. It is. Taking 1 metre as the unit a = '0115. and the later experiments show. which he writes or in which a is constant for all channels and {! is a coefficient of roughness of the channel. to which Ganguillet and Kutter attached very considerable importance in framing their formula. in formula (1). however. and providing the value of n is known. c=2Z_ or a)j when the unit is one foot. M. and The application of this formula to the calculation of uniform channels gives. and has proposed for the coefficient C in the Chezy formula a form originally proposed by Ganguillet and Kutter. very cumbersome.FLOW IN OPEN CHANNELS 185 the early experiments of Humphreys and Abbott. it can be used with confidence. (2). 1897. IV. as described later. 124. and writing y for . and in Table XXI are shown values of . p. made a careful examination of practically all the available experiments upon channels. vice versa. that any formula deduced for channels of uniform section and slope cannot with confidence be applied to natural streams. however.
. the wetted surface being covered with detritus. bricks. surfaces of boards. not very different from those given Bazin's formula when y is 0'29. and those for the first three less than 1. column 2. concrete Ashlar or rubble masonry Earthen channels. Values of y in the formula. experimental values for C are wanting for small values is greater of m. .186 C. by In Table XXI. to HYDRAULICS the nearest whole coefficients for values of m from '2 to 50. are obtained on the assumption. so that the values as given in the table when than 7*3 for the first four columns. m number. very regular or pitched with stones. and none for channels. Glazed earthenware pipes. that columns for within the limits of the Bazin's formula is true for all values of For the channels m m m m table. c 157 5  unit metre unit foot Very smooth surfaces of cement and planed boards . as deduced from Bazin's in the first four columns only a very few values for C have been obtained for values of experimental greater than 7'3. glazed earthenware pipes have been included with the linings given by Bazin. tunnels and canals in rock Earthen channels in ordinary condition Smooth 06 '16 '46 *85 1085 *29 '83 1/30 1/54 2'35 Earthern channels presenting an exceptional resistance. stones or weed. or very irregular rocky surface 1'7 3'17 125. For the earth greater than 3. Vellut* from experiments on the flow in earthenware pipes has given to C the value in which or This gives values of C. TABLE XX..
the unit of length being 1 foot.FLOW IN OPEN CHANNELS 187 TABLE XXI. C 1575 1 + . Values of in the formula v = C *Jmi calculated from Bazin's formula.
and the points figure. straight lines passing through a of y. . points have been lie close to four common point P on the axis The equation to each of these lines is y=a + fix.188 HYDRAULICS will As be seen on reference to the plotted for four classes of channels.
all passing through the point P. It is further of interest to notice. and the which y = '109 passes very nearly through the centre of the zone occupied by these points. for which a is '00635. Fig. In addition to the points shown on the diagram. or the ordinate when Jm of a.. For very smooth channels in cement and planed boards. which is variable. y. 114. the difference being probably due to the pointing of the sides and arch of the New York aqueduct not being so carefully executed as for the Boston aqueduct. latter By simply washing the walls of the with cement. and the values of . r= is zero. Bazin plotted a large line for number of points.FLOW or IN OPEN CHANNELS 189 . and found that the points lay about a series of lines. but for some of the points y may be as high as 0*4. . and /?. is the inclination of : these lines to the axis of x for when /= vm is zero. Fteley found that its discharge was increased 20 per cent. are as shown in Table XX. 114. \frni which is clearly the tangent of the angle of inclination of the line to the axis of x. The line for the values of the coefficient C differ by about 6 per cent.  v any one = and transposing the equation. or by inverting the scale. ct being the intercept on the axis of y.  = p . not shown in Fig. It should be noted. Bazin therefore concluded. Bazin plotted the results of some hundreds of experiments for all kinds of channels. i. that where the surfaces and sections of the channels are as nearly as possible of the same character. Fig. which y is 0*29 coincides well with the mean of the plotted points for smooth channels. that since .e.=a + v vm T . values Two scales for ordinates are thus shown. that for v the value of ft all channels vm depending upon the roughness of the channel. 114. the ordinates give actual experimental values of ~ of C. as for instance in the Boston and New York aqueducts.
190 y is HYDRAULICS also which approximate W greater for rectangularshaped channels. however. Civil by Gordon. On reference to Bazin's original paper it will be seen that. rising from '4 to '642 during 4 years' service. 114. Variations in the coefficient C. In the figure the author has also plotted the results of some recent experiments. and. but the values of C deduced from experiments on particular channels show similar discrepancies among themselves. or similar materials. when the depth of the water is large. but the 127. and also the circular and basketshaped sewers. as is seen by comparing the two channels in wood and P. m Humphreys and Abbott deduced from of their experiments values C as large as 254. which show clearly the effect of slime and tuberculations. The maximum value of the hydraulic mean depth recorded in series of experiments is 74*3. M. The value of y for the basketshaped sewer lined with brick. therefore. . some of the experimental points give values of C differing very considerably from those given by points on the line for which y is 0'83. For channels lined with rubble. An apparently more serious difficulty arises with respect to Bazin's formula in that C cannot be greater than 157*5. are even more inconsistent amongst themselves. the apparent velocities determined by such floats should be at least increased. and they are not confirmed by later experiments carried out at Carrollton by the Mississippi commission. 1893. washed with cement. and those given by the formula. Fig. there is a still greater variation between the experimental values of C. Bazin also found that y was slightly greater for a very smooth rectangular channel lined with cement than for one of semicircular section. than for those of circular form. Taking y as 2'35 the maximum value for C would then be 124.. Further the velocities at Carrollton were obtained by double floats. Bazin has applied * this correction to the velocities obtained Inst. The values of C obtained at Carrollton are. by ten per cent. obtained by Humphreys and any Abbott from measurements of the Mississippi at Carroll ton in 1851. for any given channel. inconsistent with those obtained by the same workers at Yicksburg. or those to the rectangular form. the experiments are reliable evidently gives inaccurate results for excepIf. in increasing the resistance of very smooth channels. the formula of Bazin tional values of m. for channels in earth. according to Gordon*. Proceedings Eng. experimental results in these cases.
that experiments at other parts of the Mississippi. The experimental evidence for these natural streams tends. only 122. probably. In the derivation of the formula. must be far from the truth in the case of rivers. The assumption that the motion is uniform over a length sufficiently great to be able to measure with precision the fall of the surface. seems certain from the fact. Further. These eddy motions must depend very much on local circumstances and will be much more serious in irregular channels and those strewn with weeds. in no case give values of C greater than 124. since the smallest slope. it seems probable that the velocity under such a fall would be less than some critical velocity similar to that obtained in pipes. That the values of C as deduced from the early experiments on the Mississippi are unreliable. which is less than j inch per mile. as the smallest ripple would mean a very large percentage error. in obtaining the formula. as measured. whereas the slope between two cross sections may vary considerably between bank and bank. as the conditions obtaining in a river bed are generally very far removed from those assumed. and it is further probable that the local variations in level would be greater than this measured difference for a mile length. is more than probable. which can with confidence be applied to the calculation of flow in channels of definite form. set up as the stream encounters obstructions in the bed of the river. whereas a considerable amount of the work done on the falling water by gravity is probably dissipated by eddy motions. is proportional That either the measured slope was unreliable. than in the regular channels.FLOW IN OPEN CHANNELS 191 Humphreys and Abbott at Vicksburg and also to those obtained the by the Mississippi Commission at Carrollton. however. that maximum value for C is then. and shows. as the irregularities in the cross section must cause a corresponding variation in the mean velocities in those sections. It is almost impossible to believe that such small differences of level could be measured with certainty. stones or other obstructions. Another and probably more serious difficulty is the assumption that the slope is uniform throughout the whole length over which it is measured. and upon the large rivers of Europe. or that the to i. assuming the slope is correct. that the formulae. cannot with assurance be used to determine the discharge of rivers. and that the velocity instead of being proportional to the square root of the slope i. upon the Irrawaddi by Gordon. was only '0000034. The reason for this is not far to seek. clearly to show. It is also doubtful whether locally . velocity was less than the critical velocity. frictional resistances only are taken into account.
Principes d'Hydr antique. it has been assumed that the f rictional resistance of the channel varies as the square of the velocity. in order to has been make the formulae fit the experiments. the hypotheses of uniform motion. that the slope i increased at a less rate than the square of the velocity. Vol. in which the beds are rocky or covered with weeds. Mr Santo Crimp has suggested the formula time and experiments show that for sewers that have been in use some The formula may be written it gives good results. or in which the stream has a very irregular shape. Logarithmic formula for the flow in channels. coefficient C As early as 1816. always equilibrium between the resisting and accelerating In those cases. slope. the made to vary with the velocity. Du Buat* pointed out. and n and p also vary with the nature of the surface. will not even be approximately realised. shows that in any uniform channel the slope . n Since varies between 1*75 m is constant._. 1810. the formula i = Jcv may be written i = fo n ^ . by logarithmic plotting. !34 . In the formulae discussed. . . and 128. . while p varies between 1 and 1'5. and half a century later St Tenant proposed the formula mi = '000401 lA To determine the discharge of bricklined sewers. therefore.192 there is HYDRAULICS forces. r._____ 2 T ' m 1 '^J. examination of the results of experiments. Therefore. p. in the formula. & ^ . An bo* *=^> k being a numerical coefficient which depends upon the roughness of the surface of the channel. b being equal to Therefore * log i = log b + n log v.000006*. 29. and section. and From what follows it will be seen that n 2'1.
the tangent of the inclination of which to the axis of v is 1'96 and the intercept on the axis of i through v = 1. = in" . 1897. 115 are shown plotted the logarithms of i and v obtained from an experiment by Bazin on the flow in a semicircular cementlined pipe. values of v and i are determined for a channel. or log v = 0. n can be found. is 0000808. H. iv. i = '00008085 v. The points lie about a straight line. Vol. therefore. Fig. and logv for and for which Therefore = 000283v9 . 115. et Annales des Fonts L. In the same figure are shown the plottings of logi m the siphonaqueduct* of St Elvo lined with brick In this case n is 2 and b is '000283. Logarithmic plottings of i and v to determine the index i n in the formula for channels. For this experimental channel. while m is kept constant. i If.FLOW IN OPEN OTTAXNELS 193 In Fig. 13 . is 278 feet. Chaussees. therefore.
116 are shown the logarithmic plottings of and v for a number of channels. while the slope i is By determining experimentally as ordinates and log v as kept constant. there are wanting experiments in which kept constant. or brick washed with cement. and of different slopes. from experiments in which m is kept constant. is Unfortunately. a considerable amount of experimental data m for channels similarly lined. the tangent of the inclination of m m which to the axis of v is equal to intercept on the axis of m n P . lined with pure cement. m The ratio . j or log m = log ( k\* J + . There is. n and p can be deduced from two sets of experiments.become equal and the values m and v for that case are of very doubtful accuracy. 1*54 for channels in unplaned wood. and plotting log abscissae.log v. and v. to 2. constant .can be *?? n can be determined. The formula. planed wood or cement mixed with very fine sand. and since by keeping i found. Only of in one case does the ratio . being about 1*40 for very smooth channels. For channels of greater roughness. of varying degrees of roughness. and 1*635 for channels lined with hard brick. the plottings lie about a straight line. 4? and for very regular channels increases with the roughness of the channel. so that.varies considerably. n cannot directly be determined.194 HYDRAULICS To determine the ratio  . and the is equal to '" In Fig. m may be written in the form.  is very variable and appears to become nearly equal to or even less than its value for smooth channels. but here . As shown above. however. except for a very few cases. smooth concrete.
Logarithmic plottings of m and v to determine the . 116.. plottings for which are 1. v. .FLOW IN OPEN CHANNELS 195 Log. 2.in the formula i= p mP TABLE XXII. 116. shown in Fig. ratio . Particulars of channels. Fig.
117. The plottings for these channels are again shown in The intercepts on the axis of m vary from 0'043 to 0'14. the roughness is in no two cases exactly the same. Taking. as will appear in the context. but for certain classes the ratio is fairly constant. I 10 09 08 07 06 05 Fig. Fig.196 HYDRAULICS again. 4 to 8). for example. a difficulty is encountered. 116.for smooth channels. the values of n  are all nearly equal to 1'54. Let the intercepts on the axis of m be denoted by y then. t . 117. and as shown by the plottings in Fig. no two channels of any class give exactly the same values n for  . as even with similarly lined channels. Lea v Logarithmic plottings to determine the ratio . the wooden channels of the group (Nos.
FLOW & IN 1 OPEN CHANNELS 1 197 p p and p are constant for these channels. or y is unity. 118 are shown the plottings of log i and log y for these channels. the tangent of the inclination of which to the If k axis of i. and log* and log y are plotted as abscissae and ordinates. n is approximately 1*76. In Fig. and when log y = 0. and k = '00023. and taking . the intercept on the axis of i is k.e. the plottings should lie about a straight line. i is . Therefore. from which p=l'14 approximately. the abscissa i = &.as 176 1'54 00023u 01 OU5 .
198 HYDRAULICS TABLE XXIII. for rectangular channels lined with wood. Values of v. as determined experimentally. and as calculated from the formula . = '00023 m ri4' Slope '00208 .
as 1'635. can be used with considerable confidence. and 4? therefore. are different. It will m be seen that the value of  is not so constant as for the is P two classes previously considered. It was assumed to be 1'15. 116. and brick washed with cement are shown in Fig. it is to be expected that the coefficient Jc will not be constant. that when . 115. shown For the New Croton aqueduct  as high as 1'74. it is fairly constant. this aqueduct is a  little rougher than the Sudbury. 114. the points. It will be seen. Nos. to '0001072 for the rectangular shaped section lined with carefully planed boards.for the exactly the value of is but the mean value M about Sudbury aqueduct._/b ~ ri > r88 m and also the value of Jc are given. that although the range of velocities is considerable. and logv Channels moderately smooth. n is 1*88. concrete. for the three large aqueducts which were built with care. there is a remarkable agreement between the calculated and observed values of v. On plotting logi logi. varied from '00006124 to '00007998 and in the other from time. Jc varies very considerably. as was done in Fig. which is . In the one case the value of k. so that for very smooth channels the values of n and p taken. as in the last case. taking . as in Fig. or both. 9 to 13. It will be seen that of the channel becoming dirty with very well seen in the case of the circular and basketshaped sewers. and. It is further of interest to note. for The variable values and of show that P any two of these channels either n> or p. 1'635. during four years' service. could not be said to lie about any particular straight line. is The effect of the sides '00008405 to '0001096. but. Since no two channels have the same value for P . The plottings of log for channels lined with brick. and the value of p is therefore uncertain.FLOW IN OPEN CHANNELS 199 Velocities as determined experimentally and as calculated for three of the channels are shown in Table XXIII from which it will be seen that k varies from '00006516 for the channel lined with pure cement. In the Tables XXIV to XXXIII the values of v as observed and as calculated from the formula .
Very smooth channels. Logarithmic formulae for various classes of channels. p. the results for one of Bazin's channels lined with small pebbles. as in the case of the dirty basketshaped sewer. or concrete. Smooth channels. t = w 1 96 ' '00015^4. lined with cement. large pebbles. The value of n. and appear to be unreliable. the ratio be determined in a very few cases. and when k is '0001096. Earthen channels. which agrees with that shown for this sewer on Fig. for these rough channels. In the n and p were determined by trial. as varies between '94 and 2*18. = '000065 to '00011 ~^. or small pebbles. The ratio  is quoted at the head of the tables where possible. approximates to 2. and k. A. and appears to have a mean value of about 1'96. t lined with brick well pointed. page 198.200 HYDRAULICS m and v are both unity and k is equal to '000067. Channels lined with rubble masonry. the value of y is '642. but the data is insufficient to give definite values. to the results given in Table XXXI for the two channels lined with hammered ashlar. the results are not satisfactory. 116. very large number of experiments have been made on the flow in canals and rivers. The values of n and p for these two channels were determined directly from the logarithmic plottings. or planed boards. and exceptionally smooth earth channels free from deposits. Hammered ashlar and rubble. as will be seen from the plottings in Fig. In addition to these two channels. when 7 is '29. and in these. Channels lined with ashlar masonry. 114 Channels in masonry.can only impracticable to keep either i or m constant. It seems probable that p is between 1 and 1*5 and n from 1*96 to 2' 15. to n. Attention has already been called. while p varies other cases from 1'36 to 1'5. i = ('000065 fl.V75 to '00011) ^ . and for other channels lined with rubble masonry and large pebbles are given. the value of i is the same as given by Bazin's formula. tm t = '00023 m . in general. rock. but as it is generally .
may. v ft. 1'575 wide. whereas the variation C in the ordinary Chezy formula is from 40 to 103. and p is nearly 1'5. observed per sec. be taken for earth channels. within 10 per cent. TABLE XXIV. C would vary from about 60 to 115. With this formula velocities can be readily calculated with the of ordinary slide rule. calculated 3'55 3'57 400 403 426 420 467 4'68 494 512 494 511 526 549 530 547 .. formula for the flow in earth The author has by trial found n and p for a number of and except for very rough channels. Planed wood. the calculated velocities agree with the observed. In Table XXXIII are shown values of v as observed and calculated from this formula. The approximate formula channels.FLOW IN OPEN CHANNELS Earth channels. n is not very different from 2. Approximate channels. i = 0001072 ^ ' 5 w 1  log & v ft. = 4'0300. in which The hydraulic mean depth varies from '958 to 14*1 and for all values between these external limits. Very smooth channels. v= C v m% i y C is about 50 for channels in ordinary condition. rectangular. m feet 2372 2811 3044 3468 3717 3930 4124 4311 per sec. and according to Bazin's formula. 201 k varies from '00033 to '00050 for channels in ordinary condition and from '00050 to '00085 for channels of exceptional resistance. therefore. 129.
Boston circular sewer. . log & = 58802. i CTHHT (Horton). m + '5319 log i + v per observed 221 270 303 348 373 418 ft. per sec. " (continued). washed with cement. m 503 682 750 915 1034 v observed 372 459 487 557 614 v calculated 366 455 487 562 614 Cement and very fine sand. diameter. semicircular. per sec. log v = '6118 log TO feet 2'2401. 75 ' ~m r23 00006516 ~ w 173 5i = log & 58141. sec. i = '00006124^5.202 HYDRAULICS TABLE XXIV Pure cement. = Brick. observed v ft. 9 ft. per sec. calculated 379 529 636 706 787 839 900 941 983 1006 102 104 287 344 387 430 451 480 494 520 538 548 555 566 274 849 398 430 459 484 510 526 543 553 558 566 TABLE XXY. 1 _ fa. v ire feet ft. v ft. semicircular. calculated 928 1208 1408 1830 1999 2309 234 276 303 356 375 410 .
m 1120 1606 1952 2130 v calculated 238 282 316 330 229 278 322 339 TABLE XXVI. logm + '5319 logi + v observed 2*1795. i Lined with concrete. New Croton aqueduct. logv = '6118 log m + '5319 log i+ 2'200. = log v = '6118 '00007998^. . = v 1 88 ' 000073^.FLOW IN OPEN CHANNELS 203 TABLE XXY The same sewer i (continued). after 4 years' service.
per sec. * = '000107^. observed m feet 1922 2838 3654 4235 4812 540 5823 6197 6682 6968 7388 7788 v ft. m11v ft. . Rectangular channel lined with brick (Bazin). Lined with concrete. i = '0000696 ^pa. = log v *6118 log m + '5319 log i + 2'2113. per sec. calculated 275 367 418 472 510 534 568 601 615 647 660 672 290 3'68 430 4'71 509 546 577 594 622 6'39 662 6'83 Glasgow aqueduct.204 HYDRAULICS TABLE XXVIII.
t = '00026 ^j. per sec.196 m v i m feet ft.. partly in solid i= i = 00022 m 1 v observed 1932 2172 2552 2696 3251 3438 3531 3718 . = 0001096 v 1 8* log v = '6118 log v m + *5319 log i + 21065. v m feet ft. observed ft. lined with rubble masonry (Cunningham). partly in rock. rectangular in section. calculated 000225 000206 000222 000207 000189? 643 681 721 7643 794 3'46 349 370 3'87 406 3'50 3'47 3'84 3'83 3'83 Right aqueduct. hammered '00104. per sec. per seo.FLOW IN OPEN CHANNELS (continued). . after 4 years' service.ITO ashlar. observed v ft. * i = '0002213 342 5'86 676 743 7'77 796 ^ m 1 v observed 243 3'61 3'73 387 393 406 v calculated 000195 000225 000205 000193 000193 000190 2'26 3'58 3'76 3'89 4'04 4'06 Torlonia tunnel. ' 205 TABLE XXIX The same sewer . Left aqueduct of the Solani canal. calculated 1342 1508 1645 266 286 304 268 288 304 TABLE XXX. per sec. 14 .
t'=101 ' .136.206 HYDRAULICS TABLE XXXI. P i = 000149 ^L log fc = 41740. 2. Channel lined with hammered ashlar.
Ganges Canal. per sec.FLOW IN OPEN CHANNELS 207 TABLE XXXII. v=C^mN. i = 000229^ 16 m ' log & v ft. v ft. v t m feet 540 869 782 934 450 ft. = 43605. Channel lined with large pebbles (Bazin). per sec. XXXIII. observed 000155 000229 000174 000227 000291 . and as calculated by the formula = 50. observed 179 243 290 327 356 385 403 423 443 460 478 490 291 417 510 587 656 712 772 823 867 909 946 987 184 244 290 318 345 367 391 433 453 469 484 500 TABLE Velocities as observed. calculated m feet per sec.
or Pi tot tubes t. For large channels this is impossible. the cross section can be plotted and divided into small areas. Some stones and a few herbs upon the surface. t See page 241. calculated 000957 000929 000993 000986 000792 000808 000858 000842 958 1210 1436 1558 1243 1702 1797 1958 1233 1666 1814 1998 130 166 194 206 125 156 179 208 130.i>. M. the discharge is found by adding the products of the areas and velocities. m feet 958 1181 1405 1538 per sec. and the mean velocity has to be determined by other means. with a thoroughness that has characterised his experiments in other branches of hydraulics. current meters*. usually by observing the velocity at a large number of points in the same transverse section by means of floats. as shown in Chapter VII.74 v observed 370 310 340 304 v calculated 380 292 314 291 00029 00029 00033 00033 Earth channel (branch of Burgoyne canal). and dividing the volume discharged per second by the cross section of the pipe. If the bed of the stream is carefully sounded. observed v ft. i m 732 515 563 4. Bazin. the observed of which the velocities have been observed. 119 and 120 respectively are shown the cross sections of an open and closed rectangular channel with curves of equal See page 238. 0*48. per sec. . Eecherches Hydraulique. The mean velocity of flow in channels and pipes of small cross sectional area can be determined by actually measuring the weight or the volume of the water discharged.208 II YDRAULICS Cavour Canal. v I ft. Distribution of the velocity in the cross section of open channels. Bazint. be assumed equal to the mean velocity over the small velocity area. at the centres If then. Or Q = 2a. In Figs. has investigated the distribution of velocities in experimental channels and also in natural streams.
i ' f /'' / / N \i i i  i [/ ! VeLodties orb Horizontal Sections. of velocities at different depths are also shown. on Vertical Sections. \. Curves showing the distribution on vertical and horizontal sections Curves of equal Velocity fbr Rectangular Channel/. 119. Fig.FLOW velocity IN OPEN CHANNELS 209 drawn on the section. 5 e < e> . NJ ! a.
on various verticals of the cross section of the velocity is determined. and energy is therefore utilised in giving motions to the water not in the direction of why translation. is very clearly shown by comparing the curves of equal velocity for the closed rectangular channel as shown in Fig. no doubt. the depth at which the velocity is equal to the mean velocity is about This depth varies with the roughness of 0'6 of the total depth. velocity. is the stream. therefore. the maximum velocity is still below the surface. Experiments on the Ganges Canal. if it falls very low there is generally a second point near the surface at which the velocity is also equal to the mean velocity. the distribution of velocity on the verticals of any cross section. that the water is less constrained at the surface. The air resistance. a stream If. It varies between *5 and '55 of the depth for rivers of small depth. by means of a current meter. the velocity obtained may be taken as the mean velocity upon the vertical. some error is introduced. at a depth of about *6 of the total depth from the surface. and that irregular movements of all kinds are set up. the point at which mean velocity occurs falls nearer still to the bed of the stream. April. to . and the but mean velocity at two points at depths of '08 to '13 and '68 to '74 of the total depth J. '* Hydrauliqne.feet deep and having strong bedst. and from *55 to '66 in large rivers from 1 to 3j. having beds of fine sand. That the air has not the same influence as if the water were in contact with a surface similar to that of the sides of the channel.HYDRAULICS assuming the wetted perimeter to be only the wetted surface of the channel. and is deeper the greater the ratio of the depth to the width of the stream. 1906. Flamant* suggests as the principal reason the maximum velocity does not occur at the surface. 119 with those of Fig. Analysis of a communication by Murphy the Hydrological section of the Institute of Geology of the United States. " t Le Genie Civil. the As the banks of the stream are approached. and it will be seen. in detail. that if u Depth on any Later vertical at is the mean velocity on any vertical section of the channel. M. which the velocity is equal to the mean discussed. 120." J Cunningham. accounts in some measure for the surface velocity not being the maximum velocity. or Pitot tube. but that it does not wholly account for it is shown by the fact that. When the river is covered with ice the maximum velocity of the current is at a depth of '35 to '45 of the total depth. whether the wind is blowing up or down stream.
120 a. if the stream is wide compared to its depth.FLOW IN OPEN CHANNELS The total 211 discharge can then be found. which has a nearly constant value of 36'2 when the unit of length is one foot. p. 131. Y. the relationship between v. h. Annales des Fonts et Chaussges. Let be the velocity measured at the centre of a current and as near the surface as possible. Bazin* and Cunningham have both taken the curve of upon a vertical section as a parabola. (1). 2nd Vol. velocities M. by dividing the cross section into a number of rectangles. and so on. Captain Cunningham has given several formulae. cu d Fig. ax k being a numerical coefficient. Bazin found that. the maximum velocity being at some distance hm below the free surface of the water. for the mean velocity u upon a vertical section. 228 1875. =vft()vm * Recherches Hydraulique. Let v be the velocity on the same vertical section at any depth h and H the depth of the stream. 120 a. 142 . Form of the curve of velocities on a vertical section.. (2). of which two are here quoted. such as abcdy Fig. . V being the velocity at the surface. The flow this of the Upper Nile has recently been determined in way. v v at one quarter of the depth. is expressed by or t the formula. and multiplying the area of the rectangle by the velocity measured on the median line at 0'6 of its depth. but it is supposed to be at the surface. the velocity at f of the depth. 3. This point will really be at 1 inch V more below the surface. approximately. and i the slope.
212 HYDRAULICS To determine the depth on any vertical at which the velocity is equal to the mean velocity. the flow at the centre is but slightly affected by the resistance of the sides. and the distribution of velocity is influenced to a greater degree. the effect of the resistance of the sides is increased. . 36'2 coefficient is then. the equation to the parabola can be written in terms maximum velocity. Bazin also found that the depth at the centre of the stream. the effect of the sides is felt even at the centre of the stream. of v m . and is hu is This depth. This effect of the sides. It will be seen from the curves of Fig. in a stream which is wide compared to its depth. but if the depth is large compared with the width.dh. and the law of variation of velocity also becomes more complicated. the Further. u and hu and equating to (2). the reason apparently being that. instead of V. The farther the vertical section considered is removed from the centre. which is only true for sections very near to the centre of streams which are wide compared with their depth. Bazin expressed by making the coefficient k to vary with the depth h m at which the maximum The velocity occurs. at which the velocity equal to the mean velocity. at which the maximum velocity occurs. The discharge through a vertical strip of rH width dl is v . determined on the assumption that Jc is constant. M. depends upon the ratio of the width to the depth. Let u be the mean velocity on any vertical section. 120 that the depth at which the maximum velocity occurs becomes greater as the sides of the channel are approached. o /H / i Therefore uTL and Substituting A = V<sH* in (1) (2). and h u the depth at which the velocity is equal to the mean velocity.
/I 362 hm hm*\ u h m \ 2 \3 HV* H Assuming h m from 1'12 to velocity is. u varies 1'09. 132. in them. except very near the sides. to vary from to "2 and C to be 100. a given velocity can be obtained by . M Ratio equation of (4). The mean upon the vertical section. probably not very different from 1*1. therefore. From /i_M V 2 V3 H m is fairly H/ In a wide stream in which the depth of a cross section constant the hydraulic mean depth does not differ very much from H. maximum v m =u + velocity to the mean velocity. The slopes of channels and the velocities allowed The discharge of a channel being the product of the area and the velocity. c J.FLOW IN OPEN CHANNELS Thu3. is then. The ratio of maximum velocity to mean therefore. it therefore. and since the mean velocity of flow through the section is C \/m? and is approximately equal to u. a given discharge can be obtained by making the area small and the velocity great. And since the velocity is equal to Cvwt. 213 ^_3627p velocity u. not very different from *6H. Ji = h u> \f W \ ~ fljn = fT/u ^'ibu'l'm o TJ xfa TTT~ H o 3 The depth hm at which the velocity is a maximum is generally less than *2H. therefore. or vice versa. as stated above. and hu is. = i [*vdh = m ~ 36'2 Therefore 36'2 TT2 1 / 1 When and i v = u. (3).
i water is to be conveyed long distances. be less than 1 in 10. experimentally. Assume. and especially desirable that the velocity shall not should. be almost proportional to its cross sectional area. but should not. than for the same proportional increase in i. In Table XXXIY are given the slopes and the maximum velocities in them. When The slopes of large natural streams are in some cases even less than 1 in 100. the discharge The maximum slope that can be given will be increased to 5'6Q. slopes of. including land.214 HYDRAULICS or i. Showing the . that the channel is "selfcleansing. as sufficient fall cannot be obtained to admit of the aqueduct or pipe line being laid in one continuous length. area. The area is proportional to d?. m m doubled. The slope may be as high as 1 in 1000. of a number of brick and masonry lined aqueducts and earthen channels. It is desirable that the smallest velocity in the channel shall be such. in many cases. from which it will be seen that the maximum velocities are between 2 and 5J feet per second. and from 1 in 300 to 1 in 20. for instance. will. But. In sewers. that the discharge is generally increased in a greater proportion. while the slopes vary from 1 in 2000 to 1 in 10. it is be too small. It should be noted.000 for the necessary to earth channels. and the slopes vary from 1 in 2000 to 1 in 7700 for the brick and masonry lined aqueducts. and maximum velocities. it is often have several pumping stations en route. will in many cases be determined by the diif erence in level of the two points connected by the channel. as determined in some existing channels. the discharge is increased being kept constant. will in general increase with the Since varying either the area will be a minimum when i is as large as possible. If the velocity is too small suspended matter is deposited and slimy growths adhere to the sides. only in exceptional circumstances. the channel to be semicircular. IfjZ_is i kept constant and if to \/2Q. and the velocity v to \/d i. for the first cost to be small it is desirable that i should be large.000.000. excavation and construction. but d is doubled. or channels conveying unfiltered waters." and as far as possible the growth of low forms of plant life prevented.000. as the cost of a channel. if possible. however. TABLE XXXIY. not be less than 2 ft. by an increase in A. Therefore Q oc d? *Jdi. per second. . The mean velocity in large aqueducts is about 3 feet per second.
FLOW IN OPEN CHANNELS 215 Smooth aqueducts .
such For sewers. in earth channels. whether the aqueduct In many is to be lined. and whether the excavation can best be accomplished by tunnelling. earthenware Rock. and as quoted by Rankine. 134. as the flow diminishes. except very small. is largely adopted because of the facilities it gives in this respect. frequently necessary for some part of an aqueduct constructed as a siphon. according to Du Buat. 126 and 127. cases the section of the channel is made deep and narrow.210 HYDRAULICS is Velocity of flow in. The nature of the strata through which the aqueduct is to be cut. per second Fine sand Coarse sand and gravel as large as peas Gravel 1 inch diameter Pebbles 1 inches diameter Heavy shingle Soft rock. This is important. Showing the velocities above which. various kinds and upwards 133. or by cut and cover. TABLE XXXVI. and the growth of aquatic plants. the sides and bed of the channel are eroded. and the velocity remains nearly constant for all. Soft clay 025 0'50 0*70 2'25 3'33 400 4'50 6*00 ft. while Belgrand allows a minimum of '8 foot per second. It is Siphons forming part of aqueducts. The forms of sections given to some aqueducts and sewers are shown in Figs. If the velocity high. the cross section also diminishes. consideration has to be given to problems other than the comparatively simple one of determining the size and slope to be given to the channel to convey a certain quantity of water. the oval section. or cut in solid rock. and slope of earth channels. discharges. In designing such aqueducts and sewers. Du Buat gives '5 foot per second as the minimum velocity that mud shall not be deposited. while on the other hand if it is too small. Sections of aqueducts and sewers. erosion of channels of various materials takes place. the capacity of the channel will be rapidly diminished by the deposition of sand and other suspended matter. as at small velocities sediment tends to collect at the bottom of the sewer. as when a to be has to be crossed or the valley . and it has the further advantage that. cases it is desirable that the aqueduct or sewer should have such a form that a man can conveniently walk along it. Figs. and also. although its In sectional area is not required to be exceptionally large. brick. must be considered. 121 to 131.
Fig. 129. As an example the New Croton aqueduct from Croton Lake to Jerome Park reservoir. therefore. 122. Fig. Fig. 130. 123. 131. Fig. Fig. Fig. 127. Fig. and the aqueduct must. 121. which is 33' 1 miles Fig. 128.FLOW IN OPEN CHANNELS 217 aqueduct taken under a stream or other obstruction. . be made capable of resisting considerable pressure.
therefore for a given discharge. is made of castiron pipes 33 inches diameter. of a rectangular channel . is 135. Since the i mean velocity in a channel of given slope is is propor tional to p and . 121. v. the siphon is frequently made of steel. 126 feet. The first is a masonry conduit of in Fig. 8A = /t 8L + L3ft = . required to find the ratio y ri that the area A and the wetted perimeter P may both be a minimum. For a given discharge. The best form of channel. PL+2&. the discharge A . when the differentials dA and dP are respectively equal to A zero. Therefore m = 2tf = h 2' ~4fa t the sides and bottom of the channel touch a circle Since h as radius and the centre of which is in the free surface having of the water. the best form of channel for a given area. the best forms for these Fig. that is. where it crosses the valleys. Rectangular channel. 7* r is the radius. mean depth is ~. which has the minimum wetted if peri meter for a given area a semicircle. therefore Substituting the dP = dL + 2dh = value of 3L from (2) ~L = 2h. is HYDRAULICS the section two parts. and P are a minimum . or castiron pipes. will give the maximum The best form discharge. and the difference in level of the two ends is In such cases. the maximum head in of made up shown which 6*19 feet. L = 2h . in (1). 12' 3" diameter. are those of the rectangular or trapezoidal section. 133. 23'9 miles long and having a slope of '0001326. ALfc. as in the case of the new Edinburgh aqueduct (see Fig. (1). is that which. the second consists almost entirely of a brick lined siphon 6'83 miles long. however. is that for which is The form the hydraulic of the channel P is a minimum. 132. 131) which.218 long. or channel of least resistance. of channel. More convenient forms. will be those for which both channels. (2). for channels to be excavated in rock or earth. for a given slope and area. Let L be the width and it is Fig. Ji the depth. for which.
FBCD area FBCD. then since from (8) + th = Wf + 1. Then (4). and is be t horizontal to one vertical. Z be the bottom width. in Fig. 133 CD = EG . Let Q be the discharge in cubic feet per second. then equal to th and tan CDGr = t. let the slopes of the sides CG H Fig. m h 2' l2ht Let be the centre of the water surface I FD. 133.OD. 132. + 2hJt 2 + l (7). In Fig. A.FLOW IN OPEN CHANNELS Earth channels of trapezoidal form. and For the channel zero. Therefore. both equal From From and (3) A = hl+th P= I and therefore (4) dA. 133 let 219 A the cross sectional P i the length of the slope. (3). dP = dl + 2<J& + ldh = l Substituting the value of dl from (7) in (6) = 2h>J^l2th (8). or the wetted perimeter. . = hdl + ldh + 2thdh = Q (6). Fig. therefore. to be of the best 2 . h the depth. form dP and dA.
.. v = For a given slope and roughness of the channel v is.220 HYDRAULICS Draw OF and OE perpendicular to CD and BC respectively.. or (1). as in the case of the rectangular channel. . is. For maximum discharge. Then. Depth of flow in a circular channel of given radius and slope. ( A... therefore. and therefore. That when the differential of ^ is zero. then n + p_S n ~2> and the equation becomes 3PdAAdP = . 134....v* ~^~ i P j and transposing.. and since OF = OD cos FOD... . Let r be the radius of the channel.. as in the Chezy formula.. P A A /A\". and DG = OE.is a maximum.(2).. ] Differentiating and equating to zero. (3).. Q. . It will generally be sufficiently accurate to assume n is 2 and p = 1. Taking the general formula l = k.V is a maximum.. and DG = CDcosCDG.... because the angle OFD is a right angle. 136... a circle with as centre will touch the sides of the channel... proportional to the hydraulic mean depth and will be a maximum when m is a maximum.. OFC are right angles.. when the velocity is a maximum. OE = and since OEC and OF. Depth of flow in a channel of given form that.. the angles CDG and FOD are equal . n n Affixing values to n and p this differential equation can be solved for special cases.. and 2< the angle subtended by the surface of the water at the centre of the channel.. (a) the velocity may be a maximum. Fig.. therefore. p . (b) the discharge may be a maximum.. 137.
d = T626r.2r 0d0 + r sin 20d0 = 0. = 154. and sin 20 20 a maximum. A = r 0r 2 2 sin0 cos 2 = dA. section 136. . A = 3'08r2 P = 5'30r. for than 360. is Then 20 = 257 27'. and may be taken by the student as useful mathematical exercises but they are not of much practical utility. The solution in this case is obtained directly as follows.'. and the depth of flow d= l'899r. in equation (3). which 20 is less solution to this equation. .r cos 20 d0. tan 20 = 2^. . = r*d<l>. The area and section 136. A = 2'73V. 134. in a circular channel for Depth of flow 6^0(^0  maximum discharge. Substituting for dP and dA cos in equation (3). is is 2+ }* This will be a maximum when negative. 2<f> /~ U ' and The 20 cos 20 sin 20 = 0.60 cos 20 + sin 20 = 40 0. Similar solutions can be obtained for other forms of channels. 6^0 from which and therefore Then 3 3 20d0 . of flow and the depth 138. tan 20 = 20. P = 4'494r. d /sin20\ d+\ . Substituting these values of dP and dA.FLOW IN OPEN CHANNELS Then the wetted perimeter and 221 dP = 2rd<f>. m = '608r. or when m A_r /P~2V 1 ~ sin 20\ sin 20 Fig.
as in the circular channel. the reason being that. or discharge. The depth of flow for maximum velocity. Fig. as the surface of the water approaches the top of the aqueduct the wetted perimeter increases much more rapidly than the area. can be determined very readily by drawing curves of velocity and discharge for different depths of flow in the channel. This method is useful and instructive. 135. 135. The maximum velocity is obtained when and equal to 3'87. HYDRAULICS Curves of velocity and discharge for a given channel. the profile of which is shown in Fig. of flow. As an example. especially to those students who are not familiar with the differential calculus. . but the maximum discharge depth of flow is m is is a maximum when the greater than that which gives the greatest given.222 139. The velocities were calculated by the formula v = C *Jmi. first deter using values of C from column 3. and that neither the velocity nor the discharge is a maximum when the aqueduct is full . velocities and discharges. Table XXI. Values of A and P for different depths of flow were mined and m calculated from them. The velocities and discharges are shown by the curves drawn in the figure. for different depths have been calculated for a large aqueduct. It will be seen that the velocity does not vary very much for all depths of flow greater than 3 feet. and the slope i of which is (V0001326.
using Bazin's 43 ft. (1) By the logarithmic formula. Q = 145 (2) By the Chezy formula. To find the flow in a channel of given section and slope. ' log v = log i + log m . Applications of tne formula. (2) By the Chczy formula. Q = 318 x 443 = 141 cubic . lined with smooth brick.v.FLOW IN OPEN CHANNELS velocity. ft. w= 7 Ll^ = 318 sq. and p by comparing the lining of the channel with those given in Tables XXIV to XXXIII. Determine the flow in a circular culvert 9 ft. v = 4'55 per sec. per sec. log 225   log '00007. and or Q = b)..ft. diameter. n. First assign some value to fc. This is the simplest problem and can be solved by the application of either the logarithmic formula or by Bazin's formula. the slope being 1 in 2000. 1. Problem Then since i = mP . Let w be the cross sectional area of the water.. and the channel half full. The student should draw similar curves for the eggshaped sewer or other form of channel. The only difficulty that presents itself. 223 A circle is shown on the figure which gives the same maximum discharge. k vn 140. n. Area _ d_ Wetted perimeter 4 (1) By the logarithmic formula Therefore. logQ = logw + logi+^logm log k.. per sec. coefficient. formula or taken from Table XXI. Then and Example. is to affix values to k. using Bazin's The coefficient for a given value of m must be first calculated from the coefficient. and p in the logarithmic formula or to y in Bazin's formula.log fe. cubic feet per sec. log = j log 0005 + ft.
v. and which shall have the same discharge. hut by assuming a value for it. the difference of level between the two ends of the siphon being 125 feet. then v=C and Q=A. The to D . from equation (5). or calculate C from m Bazin's formula. and the side slopes t of a trapezoidal earth channel. to calculate the discharge for a given depth. " 1 r  /O 2 \/^. . First calculate From Table XXI determine the corresponding value of C. then XXI for the brick culvert and 110 for the castiron Therefore TO . section 135. and the diameter D = 142 . the slope t. a third value for C will give a still nearer approximation to D.224 Problem 2. Having given the bottom width I. HYDRAULICS the A To find the diameter of a circular channel of given slope. The area A = 308^= 25 sq. coefficient C is unknown. maximum Then the and therefore velocity is v=757C*JrT. The value of m for the brick lined aqueduct of circular section when the discharge is a maximum is 573r = l64 feet. Taking C as 130 from Table pipe from Table XII. is convenient formula to remember earth channels A the approximate formula for ordinary For values of m greater than 2. feet. . * = 00037V rl 15 m 21 ' may also be used. Example.. A circular aqueduct lined with concrete has a diameter of 5' 9" and a slope of 1 foot per mile. d=400 feet. To find the diameter of two castiron siphon pipes 5 miles long. v as calculated from this formula equal to v obtained by using Bazin's formula. an approximation can be obtained a new value for C can then be taken and a nearer approximation to D determined . Problem 3. The hydraulic mean depth m for maximum discharge is '573r (section 138) and = 308r2 . Q = 237 Cr*^. is very nearly The formula . for which discharge is Q cubic feet per second. to be parallel with each other and in series with the aqueduct.
A =56 sq. having a slope of 1 in 10. Having given the flow in a canal. Q = 1053 From the logarithmic formula per cubic sec. Example.FLOW IN OPEN CHANNELS 225 Example.. per sec.. (1). ft. v = l'91 ft. per sec. from Table XXI corresponding to this approximate value of m. from which a mean A nearer approximation to h can then be determined by choosing a new value of C. 15 .. Q = 107 cubic per sec. r = l'9ft. H. ft. m = .. L.. and h calculated.. the canal the depth is is of the best form. Q = 106 find the 4 cubic feet per sec. and the side slopes... to find the dimensions of the chaunel . a depth d = 4i'eet. and a slope i = ^oVi7' Side slopes 1 to 1. .. (a) (6) When When . section 136 Therefore Substituting . the slope. ft. given. and side slopes 2 to 1... and recalculating h from equation (1).. C3 i = = 2 fc and 5  =  ... ft. An ordinary earth channel has a width 1= 10 feet.for m and But Therefore A2 = fc 4 (2 t? =j= A. To find Q. P = 21312 = 2628 ft. From the formula v=l8S ft.. (8) In the first case m=6 and from equations and (4) respectively. Problem 4. say 0=70.. per sec. is required to discharge 100 cubic feet per second . An earthen channel to be kept in very good condition. take C = 70.000.can be obtained. value for A value for C should be chosen. to dimensions of the profile and the mean velocity of flow.
=54 feet. Table XXI. and find from column 4. and d as determined by using this value of m . the approxibe found that m differs but little from in previously calculated mation has proceeded sufficiently far.000 ~ and Therefore to ft ft 20.000 49 x 61 = 6700.000 from which h = 5'22 ft. Problem 5. the corresponding value for C. On now again calculating m by substituting for d in formula (2). which will probably not be the correct value. . will agree The problem can be with the correct value sufficiently nearly for all practical purposes. since it depends upon the value C be assumed the equation cannot very readily be solved. and use these values of m and C. It is desirable. solved in a similar way by the logarithmic formula The indices u &nd p may be taken as 21. recalculate u. and m = 2'61. The approximation is now sufficiently near be taken as 5 feet. therefore. this equation a value of I can be obtained. for this value of m.. from the formula From For this value of m obtain a new value of G from the table. From Table XXI. m = 2l. it will generally if so. = 82 is now found from approximation 20. to find the bottom width I for a given discharge.000 10. Assume any value for m. and even a value for unknown. Then.000 S'J 20. for all practical purposes and may i. and 1'5 respectively. the slope the side slopes t. and by substitution in formula (1) obtain a second value for I. therefore a nearer .226 Then HYDRAULICS ft 5  20. and k as '00037. to solve by approximation. Having given the depth d of a trapezoidal channel. With this value of I calculate a new value for m. calculate v from the formula Since A. First using the Chezy formula. v and = C*Jmi and The mean Therefore velocity ^+^ C if of m which In this equation the coefficient is is unknown. T =V > and Therefore dl + td'2 =v (1).
From the logarithmic formula 2 1 log v = log i+ 15 log 45682 v = 1122 feet per sec. Find the bottom width of the channel. therefore. This problem is solved exactly as 5 above. Then and The A = 75 feet. Third values were found to be value of Zis.. of trapezoidal section.. to find the depth d for a given discharge. 135 a.. Having a natural stream BC... Flamant 152 .FLOW IN OPEN CHANNELS Example. 1 to 1.2.. shall be made to join the stream so that the cost of the canal is a minimum. Fig.. This value of A I is again too large. at which a canal. The approximation has been carried sufficiently far. and hence. (3).. A = 80. m=2935. a new value for m can be found. Problem 6.. it is required to determine the point C. v = l'455. m = 288 first feet. Thcn But A Substituting this value for I in equation (2) 6 Becalculating v from formula (3) v = 1556.. which is to deliver a definite quantity of water to a Riven point at a given level. and this second value is too small. A=792.. fourth calculation gave v = 1475. same as that given by M.. the side slopes the slope 1 in GOOO and the discharge is to be 7000 cubic feet per minute. Having given the bottom width I. and _a_value calculating an approximate value for v from the formula v = C^Jmi.. Assume a value for m. by substitution in equation (1) of the last problem and solving the quadratic. Using the logarithmic formula the procedure is exactly the same as for problem 5. of given slope. m=292. A * The solution here given is practically the in his excellent treatise Hydraulique. Problem 1 *.. as for such channels the coefficient of roughness k cannot be trusted to an accuracy corresponding to the email difference between the third and fourth values of I. the slope t and the side slopes of a trapezoidal channel. and so on.. say 2 feet.. 1 = 1605.. m ... too large. oy substituting this value for d in equation (2).... 227 The depth of an ordinary earth channel is 4 feet.. and even further than is necessary... by first assuming for m. J=15'8.. a second approximation to d. Then. 1= 1475 feet.
I dl + tcP Substituting 2m = 4/ A/ 2 + 1 . and equating to I^IKI. i i 2 2 . slope 1 ^. Let k be the price per cubic yard including buying of land. or m= . h the height above some of the surface of the water at A. The coefficient C Then and For t? in the formula v = G*Jrni may t? be assumed constant. is cut. The cross section is then dl + and _A_ ~~ for d.1. A This will be a minimum when ^=0. or to the cubical content of the excavation. L. therefore $ of the slope of the natural stream. the \s~* Let be also the length and !T> ~* sectional area of the canal. =C v 4 =C 4 2 2 w. and ft. is the. & fig loo a. A4 "^ and Therefore The cost of the canal will be approximately proportional to the product of the length L and the cross sectional area. of the water in the stream at B. h 7?i . Then * = &. side slopes of the canal will be fixed according to the nature of the strata through supposed to be known. and let it be ' *A assumed that the section of the canal is of the L A j j j most economical form. Let x be the total cost.223 HYDRAULICS datum Let I be the slope of the stream. Let I be the bottom width of the canal. at some distance L from C.4tm. = . excavation etc. di zero. and for w2 the above _ C 4 Ai 2 value. Differentiating therefore. substituting ~ . i of the canal. . and therefore 4m A/ t2 H from which tn 2 = . Then the level of the water at C is The which the canal and may be Therefore L= td?. and The most economical slope i = ?I. If instead of taking the channel of the best form the depth is fixed. and t the slope of the sides.
The mean velocity Find the value of G in the formula of flow was 6'12 feet per second.3 (1) wetted perimeter 1 '60 feet. neither of which rigidly true.000. channel is to be cut with side slopes of 1 to 1 depth of water.) (9) y=2*35. find the volume of discharge. the first being that the coefficient C is constant. (7) 3 feet. A canal in earth has a slope of 1 foot in 20. The drainage area of a certain district was 19*32 acres. Find the 1 in size of a circular glazed earthenware culvert having a slope of 50 suitable for carrying the storm water. and advisable that the slope should be less than 1 in 10. the diurnal volume of sewage being 75 gallons per head. the inclination 1 in 38*7. 9 inches per mile: discharge. area of irrigated land requires 2 cubic yards of water per hour Find dimensions of a channel 3 feet deep and with a side slope Fall.000 cubic feet per minute. and a bottom width of 200 feet. Give the diameter of a circular brick sewer to run half full for a (6) population of 80. 1 feet per mile. slope. To cheapen the junction with the main outfall it is thought advisable to make the last 100 feet of the sewer of a circular steel pipe (4) 3 feet diameter. E. Sewer. 1906. The maximum intensity of the rainfall was 0*360 ins. A trapezoidal . and the second that the price of the canal is proportional to its cross sectional area. 6000 acres. per hour and the maximum rate of discharge registered in the sewer was 96% of the total rainfall. and the available fall 1 in 1000. . side slopes of (5) 2 horizontal to 1 vertical. draw out a curve of velocity and discharge. Find the discharge when the slope is 18 inches per mile. 6 feet high by 4 feet greatest width slope 1 in 1200.000. Bazin's coefficient y=2*35.000.FLOW IN OPEN CHANNELS 229 is There have been two assumptions made in the calculation. using Bazin's coefficient. An per acre. it is not EXAMPLES. Draw a curve of mean velocities and a curve of discharge for an (3) eggshaped brick sewer. channel in earth of the most economical form has a depth of 10 feet and side slopes of 1 to 1. The area of flow in a sewer was found to be 0*28 sq. 6. (Solve by approximation. of 1 to 1. the whole (2) area being impermeable to rain water. Find what fall the circular pipe should have so that its maximum discharge shall be equal to the maximum discharge of the sewer. tb. Area to be irrigated. as the mean velocity must be maintained within the limits given on page 216. Having found the slope. A Find by approximation dimensions (8) of channel. the period of maximum flow 6 hours. the junction between the oval sewer and the pipe being carefully shaped so that there is no impediment to the flow. . It will not always be possible to adopt the slope thus found. a depth of 22 feet. y=2*35. C. The sewer of the previous question is required to join into a main outfall sewer. Inst. feet.
and side slopes. . has vertical sides. and of the pipes 2 feet to the mile. y=2'35. A length of the canal referred to in question (14) is in earth. find the value of C and the (17) and its . Find the discharge. Design a suitable channel of 3 feet depth and determine its dimensions and slope. (11) A . . A canal. . It has side slopes of 2 horizontal to 1 vertical. with a fall of 2 feet per mile. of the most economical form. 800 feet depth of (10) water. (12) be constructed for a discharge of 2000 cubic feet 1^ feet per mile side slopes. a depth of 22 feet. its width at the water line is 290 feet and its depth 22 feet. 1 to 1. Find the slope this portion of the canal should have. Find the discharge.230 HYDRAULICS : A river has the following section top width. excavated in rock. (15) y = 1*54. 1 to 1 bottom width.) An irrigation channel. when the pipes are giving their maximum discharge. Find the dimensions of a rectangular culvert lined with well pointed brick. using Bazih's coefficient for earth channels._ 000061 yw ' m and for the pipes the formula . 1 foot per mile. taking y as 2'35. 00050. channel is to is per second the fall 10 times the depth. 229 381 533 686 838 991 1143 1170 00001326 '336 '484 '596 "691 '769 '848 913 922 . formula. v= Find the dimensions of a trapezoidal earth channel. and the slope is 1 foot in 20. to convey 800 cubic feet per second. receives 600 (13) cubic feet per second. Find dimensions of channel. Take for the culvert the formula . The mean velocity is not to exceed 2 feet per second. An aqueduct 95 miles long is made up of a culvert 50 miles (16) long and two steel pipes 3 feet diameter and 45 miles long laid side by side. so that the depth of flow shall be equal to the width of the culvert. (Approximate formula. with side slopes of l to 1. a bottom width of (14) 160 feet.000 feet. value of y in Bazin's equation. Use the approximate . v 2 The Ganges canal at Taoli was found to have a slope of 0*000146 hydraulic mean depth m was 7'0 feet the velocity as determined by vertical floats was 2'80 feet per second. 20 feet side slopes 1 to 1 fall. The following data were obtained from an aqueduct lined with (18) brick carefully pointed : m in metres i v in metres per sec. . The gradient of the culvert is 20 inches to the mile.
v as abscissae . of the siphons. seems remarkable that. per day of 24 hours. Determine the discharge. and also explains that the motion of the liquid in the pipes is diminished by friction. It seems difficult to realise how the gigantic schemes of water distribution of the ancient cities could have been executed without such knowledge.FLOW Plot j= IN OPEN CHANNELS find values of a 231 Vm as ordinates. Lond.e. it was lost during the middle ages. Find the diameter of the circular brick outfall sewer which will carry off the combined flow when running half full. Un. 1905. 141. An aqueduct 107 miles long consists of 13 miles of siphon. when crossing valleys) of 33 inches diameter castiron pipe siphons. and indicate how the general equations may be solved when the discharge is given. and the value of (v=cvW). and the slope of the masonry aqueduct so that the water shall not be more than 4 feet 6 inches deep in Determine the minimum slope may the aqueduct. 1 inches diameter. and thus deduce a value of y for this aqueduct. diameter having a slope of 1 in 500.000 gallons per day. Find a general expression for the angle subtended at the centre by the water line. and is then trebled by rainfall. It Short account of the historical development of the pipe and channel formulae. Lond. (23) A 9inch drain pipe is laid at a slope of 1 in 150. (21) Calculate the quantity delivered by the water main in question (30) . Stephen Schwetzer in his interesting treatise on hydrostatics and hydraulics published in 1729 quotes experiments by Marriott showing that. An aqueduct consists partly of the section shown in Fig. Determine for a smooth cylindrical castiron pipe the angle subtended at the centre by the wetted perimeter. is discharged into the sewers at the rate of onehalf the total daily volume in 6 hours.000. This amount. and the velocity of flow. Un. It is of peculiar interest to note the trouble taken by the Roman engineers in the construction of their aqueducts. (22) Use Bazin's coefficient for brick channels. c is 107 1906. these conditions. representing the water supply of a city. so that the aqueduct discharge 15. page 172. and (19) the remainder of a masonry culvert 6 feet 10 ^ inches diameter with a gradient The siphons consist of two lines of castiron pipes 43 inches of 1 in 8000. (20) page 217. the available fall being 1 in 1500. The Claudian aqueduct was 38 miles long and had a constant slope of five feet per mile. although the practice of conducting water along pipes and channels for domestic and other purposes has been carried on for many centuries. In order to keep the slope constant they tunnelled through hills and carried their aqueducts on magnificent arches. or else they wished the water at all parts of the aqueducts to be at atmospheric pressure. and /3 in Bazin's formula. no serious attempt to discover the laws regulating the flow seems to have been attempted until the eighteenth century. 131. a pipe 1400 yards long. only gave of the discharge which a hole If inches diameter in the side of a tank would give under the same head. but certain it is. that whatever information they possessed. but he is entirely ignorant of the laws regulating the flow of fluids through pipes. when the velocity of flow Determine the hydraulic mean depth of the pipe under is a maximum. and partly (i. Even as late as . Apparently they were unaware of the simple fact that it is not necessary for a pipe or aqueduct connecting two reservoirs to be laid perfectly straight.
above 2 feet per second. these being followed by the experiments of Du Buat. In 1771 Abb Bossut made experiments on famous flow in pipes and channels. H including." That such a film encloses the moving water receives support from the experiments of Professor Hele Shaw. not only the loss of head due to friction but. was equal to the product of the length of the wetted surface measured on the cross section. and some constant. P the wetted perimeter. /S= 00010614. and a a coefficient. and this film may be regarded as enclosing the mass of fluid in motion J. it also included the head necessary to give velocity to the water and to overcome resistances at the entrance to the pipe. t See also Girard's Movement des fluids dans Ics tubes capillaires.232 HYDRAULICS absolute 1786 Du Buat* wrote. who erroneously argued that the loss of head due to friction in a pipe was independent of the internal surface of the pipe. By an examination of the experiments of Couplet. Aug. Prony neglected the term containing the power of the velocity and deduced the formula He continued the mistake of Du Buat and assumed that the friction was independent of the condition of the internal surface of the pipe and gave the following " When the fluid flows in a : or a wetted surface a film of upon explanation pipe fluid adheres to the surface. as measured by Couplet." The earliest recorded experiments iterance of the laws to which the of any valne on long pipes are those of Couplet. (  + /3 being equal to ^. the velocity squared. and if the film exists it does not seem to act in the way argued by Prony. Du are. and gave a complicated formula for the velocity of flow when the head and the length of the pipe were known. from which Coulomb had deduced the law that 2 fluid friction was proportional to av + bv . and gave values to a and which when transformed into British units a = 00001733. applying to the flow of water in pipes the results of the classical experiments of Coulomb on fluid friction. first Buat. TT The value of t in Prony's formula was equal to . The experiments were made upon such a smafl scale that it is difficult to say how far the results obtained are indicative of the conditions of flow in large pipes. being the slope of the bed of the channel. Prony For velocities. Chezy from experiments upon the flow in an open canal. Engineer. or iA=Pat> 2 t (1). in which he measured the flow through the pipes which supplied the fountains of Versailles in 1732. both made allowances for these losses. 1897 and May 18U8. and then determined new values for a and b in the formula Le Discours prgliminaire de ses Principes d'hydraiiJique. Bossut. . Bossut and Du Buat. came to the conclusion that the fluid friction was proportional to the velocity squared. From this is deduced the wellknown Chezy formula Prony f. arrived at the formula v j \ This is similar to the Chezy formula. J Traite d'hydraulique. A the cross sectional area of the stream. by sub tracting from Ha quantity ^ . and that the slope of the channel multiplied by the cross sectional area of the stream. "We are yet in movement of water is subjected. 1817. Eytelwein and also Aubisson. In 1775 M.
as explained in Chapter V. in the Encyclopaedia Britannica. Dr Lampe from experiments on the DanUig mains and other pipes proposed the formula thus modifying St Tenant's formula and anticipating the formulae of Beynoldi. which were considerably used for calculations relating to flow of water in pipes.FLOW They gave to IN OPEN CHANNELS a 233 a and 6 the following values. Lis formula then became m* = i The formulae of Ganguillet and Kutter and of Basin have been given in Chapters V and VI. Darcy. Gueynard gave to the coefficient a in the formula the value h= that is. Flamant and Unwin. for velocities such as are generally met with in practice. made the coefficient a to vary with the diameter. St Tenant to made a decided departure by making . * Iruite . 6= 000104392. and in England by Hawkesley. gave a complicated formula for v when and d were known. he made it to vary with the velocity. When expressed "in English as units. and Hagen proposed to make it vary with both the velocity and the diameter. 7** *~*> 9 u and f being variable coefficients. first neglecting the term containing v to the terms. From this formula tables 0=001716. Then. and transforming the FT Young. Eytelwein = 000023534. Aubisson's formula reduces to By power. Weisbach by an examination of the early experiments together with ten others by himself and one by M. the values of a and mi being a =0*0144. were drawn up by Weisbach. his formula becomes v= 206 (mi) A.proportional feet to V instead of r2 as in the Chezy formula. but gave the simplified formula. Anbisson* o =000018837. 6= 000085434. in which.
determining the quantity by direct weighing has the distinct advantage that the results are not materially affected by changes of temperature. As the tank turns into the dotted position 1 A or A 2 * See Appendix 10. The tanks have weights D at one end. In pump trials or in measuring the supply of water to boilers. In the laboratory or workshop a flow of water can generally be measured by collecting the water in tanks. 136 and 137. the weights D cause the tank to come back to its original position. *GAUGING THE FLOW OF WATER 142. 136. When the level of the liquid in the tank has fallen sufficiently. The liquid which swivels about the centre either 2 each of which can swing allowed to fall into a shoot F.CHAPTER VII. one of which is filling while the other is being weighed and emptied. the discharge in a given time can be This is the most accurate method of measuring determined. For facility in weighing the tanks should stand on the tables of weighing machines. . Meters. An ingenious gauging practically any kind of Figs. It is generally necessary to have two tanks. A J. and either by direct weighing. . Linert meter. Measuring the flow of water by weighing. and flow commences through a siphon pipe 0. is constructed as shown in A 1 and is on knife edges BB. and from which it falls into according to the position of the shoot. water and should be adopted where possible in experimental work. Fig. but the siphon continues in action until the tank is empty. 143. or by measuring the volume from the known capacity of the tank. it swings over into the dotted position. which are so adjusted that when a certain weight of water has run into a tank. It consists of two tanks direct weighing meter suitable for liquid.
144. H Fig. sharpedged orifices can be with considerable precision. or the coefficient for any given orifice can be determined for various heads by direct measurement of the flow in a given time. 138. the indicator can be marked off in pounds or in any other unit. The area of this curve between any two ordinates AB . Measuring the flow by means of an coefficient of discharge of orifice. and the orifice can then be used to measure a continuous flow of water. obtained. as described above. or some other arrangement. suddenly tilts into the other tank. 137. as in Fig. 139 plotted.GAUGING THE FLOW OF WATER it 235 over the shoot F. From the headdischarge curve of Fig. The The head over the coefficient of discharge is otherwise indefinite. Then. The tank should be provided with baffle plates. and the liquid is discharged An indicator registers the number of times the tanks are filled. 138 the rate of discharge can be found for any head h. and the curve of Fig. Linert direct weighing meter. If in the side of the tank the lower edge should be at least one and a half to twice its depth above the bottom of the tank. and the sides of the orifice whether horizontal or vertical should be at least one and a half to twice the width from the sides of the tank. knowing the coefficient of discharge at The various heads a curve of rate of discharge for the orifice. for destroying the velocity of the incoming water and ensuring quiet water in the neighbourhood of the orifice. headtime curve should be observed at stated intervals. from the tables of Chapter IV. 13C. and as at each tippling a definite weight of fluid is emptied from the tank. and CD. head as ordinates and time as abscissae can then be plotted having orifice A as in Fig. Fig. 139. The orifice should be made in the side or bottom of a tank. may be drawn.
having its zero behind a tube on the side if^L Fig. orifice. 139. gives the mean AB by the The head h can be measured by coinciding with the centre of the of the tank. . B Tbne Fig. 138.236 HYDRAULICS is which time ty ordinate between and CD multiplied the discharge from the orifice in time t. fixing a scale.
. weighted so as to just project above the water surface. the observer at A signals. to obtain the mean velocity on a number of vertical planes. if both are provided with watches. C. 146. Surface floats. or theodolites. the observer may walk along the bank while the float is moving from one cord to the other. so as to reduce friction. and the observer at B measures the angle ABD and. They consist of two bodies connected by means of a fine wire or cord. A better method. The distance DE can then be accurately determined by calculation or by a scale drawing. Gordon*. If the velocity is slow. t 1&93. E. therefore. as possible so as to reduce its resistance. To measure the velocity at points below the surface double floats are employed. used two wooden floats connected by a fine fisning line. As the float passes the line AA at D. and the portion of the float above the surface of the water should be very small to diminish the effect of the wind. and one which enables any deviation of the float from a path perpendicular to the lines to be determined. that it is better to obtain the velocity a short distance below the surface. each notes the time. inst. the distribution of velocity in any transverse section is not by any means uniform and it is necessary. When the float passes the line BB at E. or wood. on the Irrawaddi. Surface floats may consist of washers of cork. and both observers again note the time. which are in the planes of the two lines. so likely to be affected by wind. for two observers provided with box sextants. the observer at B signals. but also the velocity at various depths on each vertical. The surface velocity is. and the to mean velocity of the float obtained. Double floats. the * lower float being a cylinder 1 foot long. one at each line. but if it is greater than 200 feet per minute two observers will generally be required. by finding not only the surface velocity. or other small floating bodies. to be stationed at the points A and B. however. by dividing by the time. the upper one being made as small 147. As pointed out in section 130. To ensure the mean velocities of the floats being nearly equal the mean velocity of the particles of water in contact with them. their horizontal dimensions should be as small as possible.GAUGING THE FLOW OF WATER 237 the time carefully noted by means of a chronometer at which it passes both the first and second line. and the observer at A measures the angle BAE. Proc. is.
238 HYDRAULICS and 6 inches diameter. different from the surface velocity and the motion the velocity at this depth being not very of the float more independent of the effect of the wind. . Gurley's current meter. 141. of Subsurface velocities were measured by increasing the depths the lower float by lengths of 3$ feet until the bottom was reached. Fig. which swam on the surface. hollow underneath and loaded with clay to sink it to any required depth the upper float. and carried a small flag. The surface velocity was obtained by sinking the lower float . was of light wood 1 inch thick. to a depth of 3J feet.
the Its velocity is approximately mean 149. at the end of which is a pawl carrying forward a ratchet wheel one tooth for each revolution of the spindle. The number of revolutions of the wheel is recorded by an electric register. so near to the bed of the stream. velocity. For small depths and low velocities the results obtained by double floats are fairly accurate. from which all water is excluded. on any vertical. but at high velocities and great depths.GAUGING THE FLOW OF WATER 239 Gordon has compared the results obtained by floats with those obtained by means of a current meter (see section 149). is pivoted to a hollow cylinder which can be clamped in any desired position to a vertical rod. which is made of bronze. may be obtained approximately by means of a rod float. The mean The rod that its is made is lower end sufficiently long. and A is light spring presses against shaped to form an eccentric. of the same dimensions. The current meter. The frame of the meter. The error is from per cent. The spindle revolves in bearings. 148. The upper end of the spindle extends above its bearing. The velocity of the float is then the mean of the surface velocity and the velocity at the depth of the lower float. 141 is a meter of the anemometer type. and successively makes and breaks an electric circuit as the wheel revolves. and its upper end proj ects slightly above the water. to 10 the velocities obtained are too high. which consists of a long rod having at the lower end a small hollow cylinder. an electromagnet in the register moves a lever. The discharge of large channels or rivers can be obtained most conveniently and accurately by determining the velocity of flow at a number of points in a transverse section by means of a current meter. into an airtight chamber. which can be arranged at A any convenient distance from the wheel. The arrangement shown in Fig. the eccentric. . and which are carefully made so that the friction shall remain constant. Rod floats. and the ballast adjusted. which may be filled with lead or other ballast so as to keep the rod nearly vertical. one of which is ballasted so as to float at any required depth and the other floats just below the surface. wheel is mounted on a vertical spindle and has five conical buckets. Double floats are sometimes made with two similar floats. velocity in the vertical plane in which it floats. At the right . When the circuit is made.
142.. Murphy on current Meter and Weir xxvii. discharges. 779. The Haskell meter has a wheel of the screw propeller type revolving upon a horizontal axis. in no case differed by more than 5 per cent. With each meter a reduction table is supplied from which the velocity of the stream in feet per second can be at once determined from the number of revolutions recorded per second of the wheel. lines at The boat should then be hauled between the two varying speeds. and immersed in still water not than two feet deep. as shown in Fig. thin rope should be attached to the boat. and the agreement was generally * much closer*. which during each passage should ranging be as uniform as possible.. 142. Its mode of action is very similar to the one described. Comparative tests of the discharges along a rectangular canal as measured by these two meters and by a sharpedged weir which had been carefully calibrated. The boat should be without a rudder.240 HYDRAULICS hand side is a rudder having four light metal wings. and to the lower end of the rod is fixed a lead weight.S. and passed round a pulley in line with the course in which the boat is to move. and also about a vertical axis. but in the boat with the observer should be a boatman to keep the boat from running of less A Fig. When placed in a current the meter is free to move about the horizontal axis. Proceedings VoL . Am. so that it adjusts itself to the direction of the current. When the meter is being used in deep waters it is suspended by means of a fine cable. which balances the wheel and its frame. p. The meter should be attached to the bow a boat. into the shore.E. The electric circuit wires are passed through the trunnion and so have no tendency to pull the meter out of the line of current. Two parallel lines about 200 feet apart should be staked on shore and at right angles to the course of the boat.C. The meters are rated by experiment and the makers recommend the following method.
The water in the tube rises to a height h above the free surface of the water. if the tube.GAUGING THE FLOW OF WATER 150. L. 143. 143. head of water in the tube. as originally proposed a glass tube. the tube. H. ft. is called a Pitot tube. of water striking the orifice per second is wav The momentum is therefore . v* pounds feet. as EF. Theory of the Pitot orifice in sq. is . per sec. is turned so that the orifice faces down stream. 9 this theory. at the orifice of the tube in Let v be the velocity of the stream ft. the value of h depending upon the velocity v at the orifice of Pitot tube. and ' * See page 526. caused probably by the stream lines having their directions changed at the mouth of the tube. is P= and the pressure per unit area wav is wv 2 9 The equivalent head &=. consists of be turned to receive the impact of the stream as shown in Fig. it simplest form. 241 *Pitot tube. the fall hi being due to a slight diminution in pressure at the mouth of the tube.a . with a small orifice at one end which may its In by Pitot in 1732. 16 . . as for example a small pipe. tube. Another apparatus which can be used for determining the velocity at a point in a flowing stream. A further depression of the free surface in the tube takes place. according to Newton's second law of motion is equal to the rate of change of momentum. Fig. the water will rise in this tube nearly to the level of the free surface. the pressure on the orifice which. even when the stream is of small dimensions.the head due to the velocity v. If a second tube is placed beside the first with an orifice parallel to the direction of flow.=wg According to the impact. y If the momentum of this water is entirely destroyed. and a the area of the The quantity pounds. due to therefore twice ~. the .
242 HYDRAULICS the water should rise in the tube to a height above the surface equal to h. 1857. sisted of two tubes placed side by side as in Fig. Darcy* was the first to use the Pitot tube as an instrument of His improved apparatus as used in open channels conprecision. not destroyed by the pressure on the area of the tube. The Recherche* Hydrauliques. 145. respectively. Experiment shows however that the actual height the water rises in the tube is practically equal to the velocity head and. Fig. The cv* being a coefficient for the tube. . the velocity v of a mass of water w a v Ibs. 144. . B Fig. which experiment shows for a properly formed tube is constant and practically equal to c unity.. or by attaching them to some body which moves through still water with a known velocity. . therefore. =~. head h is thus generally taken (see Appendix 4) as is . and carefully measuring h for different velocities.and Similarly for given tubes hi f* '?*^ 7& 2 = ST C 75 The coefficients are determined by placing the tubes in streams the velocities of which are known. the orifices in the tubes facing upstream * and downstream etc. 144.
S. as experimented upon by Professor Gardner Williams*. The difference of level will be the same. h = hi + hq.. Cole others. OS and QE were connected to a differential gauge. As shown in the sketch. the impact orifice being at one end and communicating with the tube OS. Fig. the cocks C and C being open. 145 has a cigarshaped bulb. the small orifice receives the impact of the stream and two small holes Q are drilled in the tube T in a direction perpendicular to the flow. Vol..C. At the lower end both tubes could be closed at the same time by means of cock C. xxvn. Vol. E. whatever the pressure in the upper part of the tubes. and used to determine the distribution of velocities of the water flowing in circular pipes. air can be aspirated from the tubes and the columns made to rise to convenient levels for observation.E. If desired. The pressures are transmitted through the tubes OS and TR to a differential gauge as in the case above. 146. xxi.C. or head. The pressure at the orifice transmitted through the tube OS. in the two tubes. see Proceedings of the Am. The arrangement shown in Fig. the free surface rises in the hi. so that any variations of pressure outside are equalised in the bulb. To measure the difference of pressure. is a modified form of the apparatus used by Freeman t to determine the distribution of velocities in a jet of water issuing from a fire hose under considerable pressure. as shown in the sectional plan. f Transactions of the Am. 147 is shown a special stuffingbox used by Professor Williams. and 162 . without moving the apparatus. In Fig. The tube shown in Fig. similar to that described in section 13 and very small differences of head could thus be obtained with great accuracy. There are four small openings in the side of the bulb. to allow the tube to be moved to the various positions in * For other forms of Pitot tubes as used by Professor Williams.GAUGING THE FLOW OF WATER two tubes were connected at the 1 243 top. measured with considerable accuracy.S. When the apparatus is put into 1 flowing water.E. 1 tube B a height hi and is depressed in D an amount The cock C is then closed. The lower part of the apparatus OY.S. a cock C being placed in the common tube to allow the tubes to be opened or closed to the atmosphere. 145 shows one of the forms of Pitot tubes. is made boatshaped so as to prevent the formation of eddies in the is neighbourhood of the orifices. and the apparatus can be taken from the water and the difference in the level of the two columns. and the pressure at Q through the tube QR.
147. Fig. t Proc. were used by Bazin to determine the distribution of velocity in the interior of jets issuing See page 144. 148.. The tubes were connected to a U tube containing a mixture of carbon tetrachloride and gasoline of specific gravity 1*25. the arrangement being shown in Fig.E. Gauge Fig. Fig. Colet has used the Pitot tube as a continuous meter.244 HYDRAULICS the cross section of a pipe. Vol. A.C. The difference of level of the two columns was registered continuously by photography. 149 150.S. S. in * See also experiments by Murphy and Torranee . 146. The tubes shown in Figs. 148. same volume. xxvii.M. Mr E. at which it was desired to determine the velocity of translation of the water*.
151. soldered along the other edge. but.GAUGING THE FLOW OF WATER 245 from orifices. the total flow Q through which was carefully measured by means of a weir. calibrate the tubes used in the determination of the distri bution of velocities in open channels. 150. by 1181 inch thick. the Whatever the form expressed as head h can be cv or k being called the coefficient of the tube. 0'394 inch apart. The coefficient was still water at different velocities. and in the interior of the nappes of weirs. and having orifices "059 inch diameter. for tubes carefully made and having an impinging surface which To is a surface of revolution it is unity. Each tube consisted of a copper plate 1*89 inches wide. A Fig. Readings were taken at different points in the cross (c) section of a channel. The opening in tube was arranged perpendicular to the stream. sharpened on the upper edge and having two brass tubes '0787 inch diameter. Fig. Calibration of Pitot tubes. The coefficient was 1*006. The water section was divided . The tube was placed in a stream. as it moved through the water. and in B on the face of the plate parallel to the stream. as remarked above. the velocity of which (6) was determined by floats. of the Pitot tube. 149. thus tilting the tube so that the orifice was not exactly vertical. This was considered too large as the bow of the boat probably tilted a little. The tube was placed in front of a boat which was drawn (a) through T034. This coefficient k in special cases may have to be determined by experiment. Darcy* and Bazin used three distinct methods.
9 inches wide and 8 inches deep was built of galvanised iron. which was made the path of the tube. rectangular in section.246 into areas. or near. Previous experiments on a castiron pipe line at Detroit having shown that the ratio Jt 2 Vm was practically constant for all velocities. and h the Calling reading of the tube. Calling this maximum velocity V c. . was 11 feet 10 inches. The first method was to move the tubes through still water at known velocities. tained as nearly constant as possible for at least a period of 5 minutes. HYDRAULICS and about the centre of each a reading of the tube a the area of one of these sections. was taken. Hubbell and Fenkell used two methods of calibration which gave very different results. Darcy* and Bazin also found that by changing the position of the orifice in the pressure tube the coefficients changed considerably. the coefficient and was found to be "993. It was found that. For this purpose a circumferential trough. could then be calculated. and the mean value m of them obtained. the discharge through which was obtained by weighing. The values of \/2gh which may be called the tube velocities. in the cases in which the form of the tube was such that the volume occupied by it in the pipe was not sufficient to modify the flow. The diameter of its centre line. In the second method adopted by these workers. at as uniform a rate as possible. The arm carrying the tube was revolved by a man walking behind it. Williams. a similar condition was assumed to obtain in the case of the brass Recherches Hydrauli^ues. The value of k as determined by this method was '926 for the tube shown in Fig. the centre of the pipe. The tube to be rated was supported upon an arm attached to a central shaft which was free to revolve in bearings on the floor and ceiling. The gauge was connected with the tube by rubber hose. the ratio W Vc 2 for a given set of readings was found to be '81. Readings were taken at various positions on a diameter of the pipe. 145. and which also supported the gauge and a seat for the observer. while the flow in the pipe was kept constant. the velocity was a maximum t V at. the tube was inserted into a brass pipe 2 inches in diameter. the time of the revolution being taken by means The velocity was mainof a watch reading to ^ of a second.
be used with confidence to measure velocities of flow. show that the Professor Gregory* using a coefficient is unity in both cases. With tubes having impact openings of the form shown in Fig. it was found that was practically constant. 247 The tube was then fixed at the centre of the pipe. 144. Appendix 4). 1904. therefore. Gauging by a weir. some of the values of Tc ae determined by the two methods differed very considerably. p. and a properly designed Pitot tube can with care. It will be seen that the value of k determined by moving the tube through still water. constructed across or when a * See Appendix 4. This ratio was '729 for the tube shown of the tube. S. the velocity v is Then since for any reading h the actual r mean velocity But Therefore 7 ""'" _ ratio of U to Y c _'729_ Q0 For the tube shown in Fig. 145. 4m. Trans.GAUGING THE FLOW OF WATER pipe. For the values of h thus determined. however. the flow can be determined by means of a notch or weir. found that the coefficient was unity when moved through still water.M. or in Figs. tube (Fig. differs from that obtained from the running water in a pipe. in Fig. on tubes the coefficients for which were obtained by moving through still water and by being placed in jets of water issuing from sharpedged orifices. or when it was placed in flowing water in a pipe.E. 373. 371 and 372. 152. the mean velocity U. and the pressure openings well removed from the influence of eddy motions it may be taken that the coefficient is unity. varying from J to 6 feet per second. 146. Other experiments. 528 . . according to the above results. When so small that a barrier or dam can be easily large quantity of water is required to be gauged in the laboratory. a stream is it. consisting of an impact tube i inch diameter surrounded by a tapering tube of larger diameter in which were drilled the static openings at a mean distance of 12'5 inches from the impact opening. as determined by weight. and readings taken for various rates of discharge.
should be accurately measured. that the sides of the channel be made vertical. 153. similar to a level staff. and as high as possible above the bed of the stream. coincident with the zero of the scale. By means of the screw. either up or down. before it begins to slope towards the weir. until. 151. by piercing See section 82. In a rectangular groove formed in a frame of wood. and it is desirable for accurate gauging*. connected to a second sliding piece L. feet upstream from the weir*. The vernier can be adjusted so that its zero is crest. The difference in level of the sill and the surface of the water. the hook * is raised slowly. the frame can be fixed to a post. and the final adjustment made by means of the screw T. by means of the milled is fixed to the frame by two small nut. The scale can then be moved. and the width equal to the width of the weir. or better still to the side of a box from which a pipe runs into the stream. three or four feet long. vernier screws passing through slot holes. This sliding piece can be clamped to the frame in any position by means of a nut. not shown. so that the hook point is nearly coincident with the mark. hook gauge as made by Gurley shown in Fig. is The hook gauge.m line marked on the box at the same height as the The slider L can be moved. The sill should be sharpedged. To the lower end of the scale is connected a hook H. and the downstream channel should be wider than the weir to ensure atmospheric pressure under the nappe. which allow for a At some point a few slight adjustment of the zero. which has a sharp point. The level of the water in the box will thus be the same as the level in the stream. At the upper end of the scale is a screw T which passes through a lug. slides another piece of wood S to which is attached a scale graduated in feet and hundredths. and perfectly horizontal. The exact level of the crest of the weir must be obtained by means of a level and a A simple form of A V v. and the slider again raised until the hook approaches the surface of the water.248 HYDRAULICS it The channel as approaches the weir should be as far as possible uniform in section. . This is best done by a Boyden hook gauge.
152.GAUGING THE FLOW OF WATER 249 Fig. Bazin's Hook Gauge. .
The height of the water surface Fig.250 the surface of the water. For rough gaugings a post can be driven into the bed of the channel. disappears.Recording Apparatus Kent Venturi Meter. a few feet above the weir. 152. . . the exact surface will be indicated when the distortion experi A more elaborate hook gauge. as used by Bazin for his is mental work. until the top of the post is level with the sill of the weir. 154. shown in Fig. On moving slightly. it HYDRAULICS causes a distortion of the light reflected the hook downwards again very from the surface.
Gauging the flow in pipes. For measuring the pressure heads at the two ends of the cone. the Venturi meter. or being a coefficient. 154. * See page 46. For large pipes. Kent uses the arrangement shown in Fig. 153. 155. Jc* JFig. 44). and it was shown that the discharge is proportional to the square root of the difference H of the head at the throat and the head in 154. in which it is necessary that there shall be no discontinuity in the flow. is largely used in America. and is coming into favour in this country. G. Such methods as already described are inapplicable to the measurement of the flow in pipes. Recording drum of the Kent Venturi Meter. Mr W. Fig. and special meters have accordingly been devised. . Venturi meter. the pipe.GAUGING THE FLOW OF WATER 251 above the top of the post can then be measured by any convenient scale. The theory of the meter has already been discussed (p.
156.252 HYDRAULICS The two pressure tubes from the meter are connected to a U tube consisting of two iron cylinders containing mercury. Upon the surface of the mercury in each cylinder is a float made of iron and vulcanite. and that in the right cylinder is depressed until the difference of level of the surfaces . the mercury in the two cylinders stands at the same level. Fig. When no water is passing through the meter. Integrating drum of the Kent Venturi Meter. When flow takes place the mercury in the left cylinder rises. these floats rise or fall with the surfaces of the mercury.
makes a continuous record on the diagram drum shown Fig. gearing with small pinions. inside the cylinders. is a second drum. The rack outside the left cylinder has connected to it a light pen carriage. The surface of the drum below the parabolic curve FEGr is recessed. Kent Venturi Meter. shown in Fig. Outside the mercury cylinders are two other racks. Concentric with the diagram drum shown in Fig. and the moveexactly equal proportional to H. 155. Development of Integrating drum. in the one is The two tubes are equal is the difference of pressure head in the two in diameter. and on suitably prepared paper a curve showing the rate of discharge at any instant is thus recorded. and arrangements are made in the recording apparatus to make the revolutions of the counter proportional to \/H. 157 shows this internal drum developed. s being the specific gravity of the mercury and cylinders. 157. in This drum is rotated at a uniform rate by clockwork. are connected racks. 156. which also rotates at a uniform rate. H ment of either rack The discharge is proportional to \/H. and within it. Fig.GAUGING THE FLOW OF WATER TT 253 of the mercury is equal to j^j. the pen of which Ci Fig. To the floats. as shown in Fig. If the righthand carriage is touching the drum on the recessed . 155. The rack outside the right cylinder is connected to a carriage. 154. the function of which is to regulate the rotations of the counter which records the total flow. to each of which vertical motion is given by a pinion fixed to the same spindle as the pinion gearing with the rack in the cylinder. so that the rise to the fall in the other.
the other end wire. 158. and flow is registered during the whole of a revolution. ra being a constant. and in contact with the raised portion for the whole of a revolution and no flow is When the right float is in its lowest position the carriage is at the bottom of the drum.water meter. the counter gearing when is in action. A disc D of the same diameter as the upper a fine end of the cone is suspended in this cone by means of not shown. Deacon's waste. Deacon principally for detecting the leakage of water from pipes is An as shown in Fig. along the line CD. be placed at any convenient distance the meter. F. less than 1000 feet from larger as the distance made 155. Suppose the mercury in the right cylinder to fall a height proportional to H. is The body into it of the meter which made of castiron. 158. which passes over a pulley a balance weight. for any displacement H of the floats the counter for \/H. then the carriage will be in contact with the drum. the carriage is at the top of the drum. each revolution of the drum will be in action for a period propor When the float is at the top of the right cylinder. The recording apparatus can registered. but is put out of action the carriage touches the cylinder on the raised portion above FGr.254 HYDRAULICS portion. the connecting tubes being is increased. Fig. as the drum rotates. ingenious and very simple meter designed by Mr Gr. Deacoii wastewater meter. but the recorder will only be in operation while the carriage is in contact along the length CE. and therefore tional to \/H. has fitted a hollow cone C made of brass. of the wire carries . Since FGr is a parabolic curve the fraction of the circumference CE = ra .
When no water passes through the meter the disc is drawn to the top of the cone. but when water is drawn through. and the motion of the disc can then be recorded upon a drum made to revolve by clockwork. 159. as shown diagrammatically in Fig. A pencil is attached to the wire.OW OF WATER 255 water passing. The position of the pencil indicates the rate of flow passing through the meter at any instant. the disc is pressed downwards to a position depending upon the quantity of "tBr B r . When used as a wastewater meter.GAUGING THE FI. it is placed in a bypass leading from the main.
and in its motion moves the lever L. Fig. ico. into a position at right angles to that Rubber Seating Rubber Rclting Pcuckmg Robber Seating rig. . which turns the cock. when it suddenly falls on to a buffer.256 HYDRA LTL1CS centre of gravity passes the vertical position. 161 6.
161o.GAUGING THE FLOW OF WATER shown. L. A and thus through the passage C. II. . 257 The water now passes from to the top of the cylinder. and as the piston descends' Fig.
162. bringing the W cock C into the position shown in the figure. moves. and another up Fig.E. and " " by Collet. 1896. stroke is commenced. 162 f Iv S Fig. Gauging the flow of streams by chemical means. The motion of lifted until it the pinion S is now reversed.258 the water that HYDRAULICS is below it passes to the outlet B. 161 a. Stromeyer* has very successfully gauged the quantity of water supplied to boilers. a known quantity of a concentrated solution of some chemical. The counter is thus rotated in the same direction whichever way the piston . in each of which is a ratchet and pawl. even in very small quantities. Suppose for instance water is flowing along a small stream. sulphuric acid. . 161 c. and also the flow of streams by mixing 157. Swiss Bureau of Jaugeages par Titrations Hydrography. can be easily detected by some sensitive reagent.. when it falls. Two stations at a known distance apart are taken. CLX. by means of a special apparatus Mr Stromeyer uses the arrangement shown in Fig. and the weight again reaches the vertical position. and the time determined which it takes the water to traverse the distance between them. C. is run into the stream at a known * Transactions of Naval Architects. ferred to the counter The oscillations of the pinion p are transmechanism through the pinions p t and p2 Fig. or a strong salt solution. the presence of which in water. of known strength. Mellet and Liitschg. At a stated time. Mr with the stream during a definite time and at a uniform rate. Vol. Proceedings Inst. say.
is the same as the ratio of the volume of the sample tested to the difference of the volume of the acid in the samples at the two stations. The quantity of acid in a known volume of the samples taken at the upper and lower station is then determined by analysis. the ratio of the quantity of water flowing down the stream Y Y to the quantity of acid put into the stream. if the acid has mixed uniformly with the water. whatever the level of the surface of the solution in the An shown tank. let the difference in the amount of In a volume sulphuric acid be equivalent to a volume v & of pure sulphuric of water. 172 . While the acid is being put into the stream. a volume and there has been mixed with this a volume v of pure stream. then. station sampling is commenced. rate. a small distance upstream from where the acid is introduced At the lower samples of water are taken at definite intervals. The chemical solution is delivered into a cylindrical tank by means of a pipe I. has flowed down the acid. On the surface of the solution floats a cork which carries a siphon pipe SS. of the samples. the head h above the orifice is clearly maintained constant. and a balance weight to keep the cork horizontal. or Mr Stromeyer considers that the flow in the largest rivers can be determined by this method within one per cent. In large streams special precautions have to be taken in putting the chemical solution into the water. at the same intervals. at a time. to ensure a uniform mixture. is apparatus for accurately gauging the flow of the solution in Fig. after the insertion of the acid at the upper station is started. If in a time t. at the 259 upper station. sulphuric acid. as at the upper station. equal to that required by the water to traverse the distance between the stations. and samples are then taken. After the flow has been commenced.GAUGING THE FLOW OF WATEB. and also special precautions must be adopted in taking samples. For other important information upon this interesting method of measuring the flow of water the reader is referred to the papers cited above. of its true value. 162.
. per foot width Assuming the law connecting the head h with the discharge Q as find ra and n. of meter per min. Revs. (1) Some observations are : made by towing a current meter. the tube being fixed to an arm which was made to revolve at constant speed about a fixed centre. The following values of Q and h were obtained for a sharpedge (4) weir 6'53 feet long.7in (Plot logarithms of Q and h. Velocities ft. (8) the cross section of a river is known.260 HYDKAULICS EXAMPLES.. and state the nature of the results obtained. per sec. Head in feet '35 36 '37 '37 '38 39 '40 41 42 40 '39 41 Taking the coefficient of discharge one hour. per sec. 20 25 30 35 40 Discharge in cubic feet per 017 12 335 61 932 1303 1703 2154 264 sec. without lateral contraction. Find the coefficient of discharge at various heads.. Head in inches of 1*432 '448 1738 2275 2713 169 3235 207 3873 288 4983 540 5584 697 6142 1851 water 663 102 Determine the coefficient of the tube.. For examples on Venturi meters see Chapter II. 17 156 237 335 1303 1703 2154 264 3162 3709 4281 The following values of the head over a weir 10 feet long were (5) obtained at 5 minutes intervals. . If discharge alone..) . Find an equation (2) in vertical Describe two methods of gauging a large river. with the following results Speed in ft. Head h . C as 3'36. explain how the approximate may be estimated by observation of the midsurface velocity The in feet following observations of head O'l 05 and the corresponding discharge 15 were made in connection with a weir 6'53 feet wide. Q=mL. from observations and horizontal planes. 10 20 932 25 I 30 35 40 45 50 55 Q per footlength . 1 5 80 560 for the meter. .. find the discharge in A Pitot tube was calibrated by moving it through still water in a (6) tank.. The following were the velocities of the tube and the heads measured in inches of water. 10 Head ..
as on AB. from any point A. but they are of opposite sign or. then the direction of the line is either from south to north or north to to B. and on some scale equal in * Sir W. Any quantity which has magnitude. 163. 163. south. Then a line AB drawn parallel to the direction of motion. Definition of a vector. right line AB. IMPACT OF WATER ON VANES. direction. is said to be having is said to be the origin. The initial point 158. sense being now implied. of the vector is indicated by an arrow. be represented by a vector. a body is moving with a given velocity in a given direction. a line AB of definite length is drawn in a northerly direction. but also direction. may c . For example. A AB = BA. . A A It is important that the difference between sense and direction should be clearly recognised. and sense. The sense Fig. The vector AB is equal in magnitude to the vector BA. Suppose for example. but the sense of the vector is definite. Hamilton. D Fig. and is from that is from south to north.CHAPTER VIII. considered as not only length. a vector*. and sense. Quaternions.
Example. If the vane is made to move in the direction EF with a velocity v. and 160. or ft . Thus y is the vector sum of a and ft. or is equal to u. If the vane is at rest. of Vr and v. 165.a. * the velocity vector . two vectors a and ft is found by drawing both vectors from a common origin A. . Absolute velocity. 161. adjective. and joining the beginning of a to the end of ft. and the particle has still a velocity V r relative to the vane. 164. " By the terms Ilenrici and Turner. " " " absolute velocity or velocity without the as used in this chapter. as follows. Thus. Fig. If a A to B. Fig. and a second velocity is impressed upon the body. Suppose a particle of water to be moving along a vane DA. a body has impressed upon is it at any in velocities. by drawing the vectors.262 HYDRAULICS is length to the velocity of the body is from 159. are two vectors the is found. the sense Sum of two vectors. the resultant velocity of the body instant two magnitude and the vector may be stated in a sum of the two impressed velocities. is the difference of the two vectors a and ft or y = a /3. is meant the velocity of the moving water relative to the earth. and BC is equal to ft . If a body is moving with a given velocity in a given direction. with a velocity V r relative to the vane. the resultant velocity is the vector sum of the initial and impressed velocities.e. will be the vector sum 7 of a and p. so that the beginning of ft is at the end of a. Difference of difference of two vectors. the velocity of the water as it leaves the vane at A. Fig. Vectors and Rotors. 163. and remains in contact with the vane until the point A is reached. or to the fixed part of any machine in which the water is moving. sum of these vectors /?. This way that is more definitely applicable to the problems to be hereafter dealt with. the particle will leave it at A with this velocity. i. The 162. When direction Resultant of two velocities. and joining the end of ft to the end of a. it should be clearly understood.y. . CB.a = .
foot Ibs. and if is the weight of the body in pounds and t is the time taken to change the velocity. the impressed velocity is BC. may be stated rate of change of momentum. or the is is impressed on the body. it is generally only necessary change of momentum of the mass of water that acts upon the machine per second. When any direction. and t being one second. Ibs. is equal to P= r> W . 166. or The more generally as follows. any direction. of velocity in the of direction AC is. 164. Impulse of water on vanes. U'.U . to consider the W W (change P= y strikes of velocity). In hydraulic machine problems. and leave at D in a direction at right angles to its original direction of motion. 163. the magnitude of the impressed force is W P= This W (change Qt of velocity) Ibs. velocity changed. pressure is As an example. in the above equation then becomes the weight of water per second. and AC. The velocity of the water is altered in direction but not in magnitude. the final and the initial velocities. 167. Fig. is either moving or at rest. tude or direction. is and the change momentum per second . By Newton's second law of motion. and moving with a velocity feet per second. the original velocity being changed to a velocity at right angles to it by the impressed force the vane exerts upon the water. and let it glide upon the vane at A. therefore. a body is moving with a velocity U. the resultant impressed force is in the direction of the change of velocity. the change in velocity. If velocity that AB the vector difference of is U. in and has its velocity changed to U' in any other by an impressed force. either in magniexerted on the vane. in the impressed force in that direction. W U The change equal to U.37 g dt <fc>u. the adjective " " frequently dropped and velocity only is used.IMPACT OP WATER ON VANES 263 is To avoid repetition of the word absolute. strikes a fixed vane AD. direction. suppose in one second a mass of water. that It follows when water and has its a vane which . Fig. weighing Ibs.
168. Again. Fig. therefore. E. velocity. The impressed velocity cd impressed force is is V = \/U + U 2 2 . required to hold the vane in position therefore. acting in the direction is. . the resultant of This resultant force could P and PI. and the total ^To N/2W . U in W DF The is. Set out ac. Fig. or cd is the velocity that must be impressed on a particle of water to change its velocity from ac to ad. the vane has impressed upon the water a velocity the direction DF which it originally did not possess. of P. therefore. the pressure CA. Fig. The pressure PI in the direction is. resultant reaction of the vane in magnitude and direction have been found at once by finding the resultant change in velocity. and ad equal to the final . 167. equal to the initial velocity in magnitude and direction.264. water strike the vane per second. HYDRAULICS Since W Ibs. The change in velocity is the vector difference cd. 168.
Relative velocity. resultant x . and perpendicular to AB.624 cd= Q0 O4'4 . one at sixty and the other at forty miles an hour. AC is the original direction of the jet and DF the final direction. ac and ad being equal. PBA= "o o Oif*9) x 13 65 ' = 264 Ibs. they have a relative velocity to each other of 20 miles an hour. 100 J2.. In Fig. 169. The vane simply changes the direction of the water. ^ . they have a relative velocity of 100 miles an hour. with a velocity U. ( 165. The pressure normal to AB is The . and it be supposed that the lines on which they are travelling cross each other at A. the vector difference of ad and ac . if it . 167. A stream of water 1 sq. velocity parallel to AB. The change of velocity in magnitude and direction is cd.10 ce = cdcosl5 J2. 10 sin 15 =72 Ibs. continued in a straight line at a constant velocity for one hour. If one of the trains T is travelling in the direction AB. resolving cd parallel to. What is meant is that the train is moving at sixty miles an hour relative to the earth. If two trains run on parallel lines in the same direction. Scaling off ce and calling vane at rest is. 168. is is Before going on to the consideration of moving vanes it important that the student should have clear ideas as to what meant by A relative velocity. 09659. Find the pressure on the vane in the direction parallel to AB and the resultant pressure on the vane. ce is the change of it v lt the force to be applied along BA to keep the But and cd=j2. the normal pressure on the plane is w U. Fig. If they move in opposite directions. therefore. the final velocity being equal to the initial velocity. train is said to have a velocity of sixty miles an hour when. .IMPACT OF WATER ON VANES It at 265 once follows. and the other Ti in the direction AC. it would travel sixty miles. that if a jet of water strikes a fixed plane perpendicularly. is B= 10. The vane turns the jet through an angle of 90 degrees. foot in section and having a velocity of 10 feet per second glides on to a fixed vane in a direction making an angle of 30 degrees with a given direction AB. 10. Fig. The vector triangle is acd. and glides along the plane. Example. 624 ^r O&'a = 274 Ibs.
Relatively to the train T and the of moving along AB. 167. the along to train TI moving AC has. and B are moving with given velocities v and If two bodies to B is the vector in given directions. that is. Fig. . relative to T is the Definition of relative velocity as a vector. To find the pressure rate of doing work. therefore.v. a velocity equal direction. at the end one minute the two trains will be at B and C respectively. on a moving vane. velocities. 170. But BC. Fig. the velocity of vector difference of AC and AB. 170. in magnitude and AB AC may be taken as the vectors of the two T. the relative velocity of i difference of the velocities v and Vi Thus when a stream of water strikes a moving vane the magnitude and direction of the relative velocity of the water and the vane is the vector difference of the velocity of the water and the edge of the vane where the water meets it. 169. and the A which jet of is plane of which strikes a flat vane. it will do U U . 171. and to the train TI the train T has relatively and a velocity equal to CB. tho The relative velocity of the water and the vane is and v. A A . and moving in the same direction as the jet with a velocity v. at distances of one mile and twothirds of a mile from A. 171. and BC is the vector difference of AC and AB. water having a velocity is U Fig. 166. the perpendicular to the direction of the jet. Fig. If the water as it strikes vector difference of the vane is supposed to glide along it as in Fig.266 HYDRAULICS trains are at any instant over each other at A.
The work done per second per pound is 9 The striking original kinetic energy of the jet per pound is. and as it moves with the vane have a velocity v in the direction of motion of the vane. per pound of water striking the vane. and the efficiency of the vane U which a such vanes is 2 ' maximum when is v is TJ.U. the horizontal  . Let the vane at a given instant be supposed at A. Nozzle and single vane. 172. The change in velocity in the direction of motion is. U  ! V~  H! i T . of is For every pound change in momentum water striking the vane. 185. Let the water striking a vane issue from a nozzle of area a.a. An application of illustrated in Fig. 170. Fig. but the water will still have a velocity v in the direction of the vane. U the vane is ~ 2 . and e = J. page 292. therefore. therefore. only the quantity BC will have hit the vane. H j<_ The discharge from the nozzle is = 62'4. and suppose that there is only one vane. Of the water that has issued from the jet.QJ'u) U The change of momentum per second is . of water therefore. if perfectly free to move.IMPACT OF WATER ON VANES so with 267 a velocity equal to (U v). At the end of one second the front of the jet. the relative it will still velocity Uv. 172. the velocity Uv may be destroyed by eddy motions. would have arrived at B and the vane at C. this equals the normal pressure P on the vane. W and the weight that hits the vane per second is W. Fig.and . C[ JJ Fig. Instead of the water gliding along the vane.
with radial blades.g Or the work done per Ib. From the triangle it is seen that. the whole of the water issuing from the nozzle hits the vanes. Let U be the velocity of a jet of water and AB its direction. If there are a number of vanes closely following each other. Fig. for clearly is the vector sum of v and P .g This is purely hypothetical case and has no practical importance. U. Let the edge of the vane AC be moving with a velocity v . 173. Impact of water on a vane when the directions of motion of the vane and jet are not parallel. 185. the vector sum of the A V A DAB velocity of the vane and the relative velocity of the jet and the vane is equal to the velocity of the jet. Fig. as have an efficiency of more than 50 per cent. Nozzle and a number of vanes. cannot an impulse water wheel. and the work done is W(Uv)v The efficiency is 2v (U . 173. A. U V DB If the direction of the tip of the vane at is made parallel to the water will glide on to the vane in exactly the same way A . the relative velocity r of the water and the vane at is DB. and the work done therefore. 168. of water issuing from the nozzle is U.268 HYDRAULICS is.v) IP and the maximum It follows that efficiency is in Fig.
the relative velocity of the water and the vane must be parallel to the direction of the tangent to the vane at the point where it leaves. The water leaves the wheel in such a direction and with such a velocity that the radial component is 13 feet per second. and the vane. Draw EC parallel to AB.13 cot 15) 2 + 13 2 = 386* + 13 8 and AC = 367 sin ft. and the direction in which the water leaves the vane is given. and the velocity with which the water leaves the vane is equal to OF. Example. BC is then parallel to the tip of the vane. Let DB. and make the angle ABC equal to 15 degrees. and let CF be the absolute velocity Ui with which the water leaves the vane. 45'. the relative velocity of the water and the vane is the vector difference of the velocity of the water and the vane. Then AC is the vector sum of AB and BC. CE be Vij the velocity of C in magnitude and direction. and OF determined. the direction of the tangent to the vane is then. and the actual velocity of the water as it leaves the vane is the vector sum of the velocity of the vane and the relative velocity of the water and the vane. then the relative velocity of the water and the vane is EF. and at a distance from it equal to 13 feet and intersecting BG in C. makes an angle of 165 degrees with the direction of motion of the tip of the vane. To draw the triangle of velocities. and it is equal to the vector difference of the absolute velocity of the water. the triangle CEF can be drawn. The velocity of the tip at the outer circumference is 82 feet per second. and the relative velocity vr is given in magnitude and direction. If Vi and the direction CGr are given. If Vi and Ui are given. Draw EF parallel to CGr to meet the direction OF in F. set out AB equal to 82 feet. and is the absolute velocity of the water in direction and magnitude. The direction of the tip of the vane at the outer circumference of a wheel fitted with vanes.IMPACT OF WATER ON VANES as if it 269 were at rest. the vector difference of Ui and VL It will be seen that when the water either strikes or leaves the vane. and the water were moving in the direction This is the condition that no energy shall be lost by shock. per sec. Therefore BAG = 20 . as at inlet. CF can be found by measuring off along EF the known relative velocity vr and joining CF. If on the other hand Vi is given. Or the absolute velocity with which the water leaves the vane is the vector sum of the velocity of the tip of the vane and the relative velocity of the water to the vane. Expressed trigonometrically AC 2 = (82 . When the water leaves the vane. Let CGr be the direction of the tangent to the vane at C. Find the absolute velocity of the water in direction and magnitude and the relative velocity of the water and the wheel. BAG =^ AC/ = 354.
per second and the vane of 15 ft. ofmotiori. Conditions which the vanes of hydraulic machines should satisfy. is. the water breaks into eddies as it moves on to the vanes and energy is lost. To find (a) the direction of the vane at A so that the water may enter without shock. and therefore. Fig. The relative velocity Vr of the water and the vane at A is CB. per second. (6) the direction of the tangent to the vane where the water leaves it. and the efficiency. Ibs. Again. if in such machines the water is required to leave the vanes with a given velocity in magnitude and direction. ft. and centrifugal pumps. vane in the direction of Calling this velocity V. water wheels. the triangle of velocities at exit is ACD or FAjCj The point D is found. such as turbines. therefore. Fig. the relative velocity of the water and the vanes should be parallel to the direction of the vanes at the point of contact. and for no shock the vane at A must be parallel to CB. irv the direction. The jet has a velocity of 30 ft. so that the absolute velocity of the water when it leaves the vane is in a direction perpendicular to AC . since there is by friction. moves in a direction AB making an angle 30 degrees with the direction of motion AC of a vane moving in the atmosphere. Change orV&oribf 'U. Example (1). or shock. (c) the pressure on the vane and the work done per second per pound of water of striking the vane. 174. of water striking the vane. and the change of velocity in the direction of motion is BE. In all properly designed hydraulic machines. K o.270 HYDRAULICS 169. If not. The total change of velocity of the jet is the vector difference DB of the initial and final velocities. per Ib. 9 The work done per no loss Ib. Since there is no friction. Friction is neglected. it is only necessary to make the tip of the vane parallel to the vector difference of the given velocity with which the water is to leave the vane and the velocity of the tip of the vane. the relative velocity Vr of the water and the vane cannot alter. A jet of water. in which water flowing in a definite direction impinges on moving vanes. the pressure exerted upon the . 174. motion is Ibs. by taking C as centre and CB as radius and striking the arc BD to cut the known direction AD in D. is Hgr .
so that the water moves on to the vanes without shock and leaves the wheel with a given velocity U. As before.AD 2 = 2 AC (AC + CG) But A. of the original jet ' and the final kinetic energy is iy 2<7 The work done is. at a definite inclination 6 with the tangent to the wheel. set out BGr equal to vj and perpen The tangent *S+3?S. 9 20 the vane per pound of water for therefore. is The kinetic energy per Ib. . r. Example (2). leaves with a velocity Uj having a component V x parallel to v t the work done on the vane per pound of water is it If Uj be drawn on the motion is. are fixed to a (turbine) wheel which revolves about a fixed centre C. If the water instead of leaving the vane in a direction perpendicular to v. The air is supposed to have free access to the wheel.IMPACT OF WATER ON VANES The change in 271 the kinetic energy of the jet is equal to the ivork done by the jet. jet. The work done on U any given value of Uj . is.an AH vane A makes to the at CD makes angle <f> with the tangent AD to the . independent of the direction of 1. The radius of B is R and of A.. A series of vanes such as AB. Friction neglected. Within the wheel are a number of guide passages. figure it will be seen that the change of velocity in the direction of is now (V. The triangle of velocities ACD at inlet is. It will be shown later that the head impressed  wheel. AB 2 =AC 2 +CB 2 + 2AC. Ibs. as shown in the figure and does not need explanation. Fig. and the work done V V \ * ) therefore.VJ. the work done on the vane is the loss of kinetic energy of the and therefore. Ibs. To draw the triangle of velocities at exit. through which water is directed with a velocity U. at inlet and outlet. In this case the velocity relative to the vanes is altered by the whirling of the water as it moves over the vanes. so that an angle with AD. therefore. therefore. per pound. CD = CB and AB 2 . and the efficiency is It can at once be seen from the geometry of the figure that Vv g 2 _U Uj 2 ~2g"2g' For and since therefore. and to find the directions of the tips of the vanes.V pound is  1  . ( ^ ft. = ~ ft. To draw the triangles of velocity. / the impressed force per V. with an angular velocity u.CG. therefore. 175.
the notation that has been used is summarised and several important principles considered. (See Impulse turhines. being equal to the atmospheric pressure. and v the velocity. is the loss of kinetic energy of the water. AC. Fig. Neglecting friction etc. the relative velocity of the water and vane at A. and is The work done on the wheel can also be found from the consideration of the change of the angular momentum of the water passing through the wheel. intersecting in B. of the edge in the direction of v. Then GE is parallel to the tangent to the vane at B. the work done per pound of water passing through the wheel. Before going on however to determine the work per pound by this method. of the edge B of the vane at which water leaves the wheel. be the component of Let A Y u the component of U U perpendicular to v. describe circles with U x and v r as radii respectively. Notation used in connection with vanes. and with B and G as centres. Yi the component of Ui in the direction of vit r Y Vi . the velocity. 175. since the pressure is constant. perpendicular to the radius of the vane at which water enters the wheel.272 HYDRAULICS dicular to the radius BO.) Work done on the wheel. Ui the velocity with which the water leaves the wheel. pumps. perpendicular to BC. turbines and centrifugal be the velocity with which the water approaches Let U the vane.
the rate of doing work is To> foot pounds per second. 170. Work done by a is work done is Ta foot pounds. or couple. 177. of T pounds feet. a small time t the mass is moving with a velocity Ui in a direction. The component velocities V and Vi are called the velocities of whirl at inlet and outlet respectively. is =^ . the If after angular momentum in time is now W UiSij the change of angular momentum t is W is and the rate of change of angular momentum Fig. or along BC. Figs. S pounds feet. This term will frequently be used in the following chapters. 176. the angular momentum of is is W pounds W 9 . (1) Two important principles. If a Definition of angular momentum. vr the relative velocity of the water and the vane at B. If the and the horsepower L. feet from a fixed centre C. 18 .IMPACT OF WATER ON VANES U] the component of Ui perpendicular to Vi. body the When a couple. and is S weight of moving with a velocity U. Change of angular momentum. or turning moment. 171. 172. body is rotating with an angular velocity w radians per second. 175 in a given direction. under the action of a constant turning moment. which is at a perpendicular distance Si from C. 273 Velocities of whirl. the perpendicular distance of which 176. H. W U . Fig. turned through an angle a measured in radians.
Fig. the perpendicular distance of which from a fixed centre C is S. 177. 175.HYDRAULICS Suppose a body rotates about a fixed centre C. P<oS=To>. and therefore if the body has been acting on a wheel. the perpendicular distance from C to the direction of P being S. the S. Suppose now at the point A the velocity 'U is destroyed in a time oti then a force will be exerted at the point A equal to U ~ P_W 'tt' g and the moment of this force about C is P S. as in water wheels and turbines. W _WU P'~ g 1 dt acting at the radius Si.000 foot pounds per minute or 550 foot pounds per second the horsepower is And HP = T rate of change of angular momentum of a "body about a fixed centre is equal to the couple acting upon rotating (2) The the body. change its velocity from U W to Ui in magnitude and The reader may be helped by assuming the velocity U is changed to Ui by a wheel such as that shown in Fig. the couple acting on the wheel is (1). the body has done work on the wheel. Suppose a weight of pounds is moving at any instant with a velocity U. When UiSi is greater than US. When US is greater than UiSi. body turns through an angle distance moved through by the force P done by P in foot pounds is If the <o is o> in one second. Fig. and the work . the reaction of the wheel causing the velocity of W to change. The moment of P about C is T = P. 176. During this time dt the velocity Ui might have been given to the moving body by a force . The moment of Pi is PI Si . . Fig. Let the wheel of Fig. and that forces are exerted upon W so as to direction. let the weight with a velocity Ui. the wheel does work on the body as in centrifugal pumps. 175. and a force P Ibs. 175 have an angular velocity w. acts on the body. leave the wheel At the end of the time dt. since one horsepower is equivalent to 33.S.
. the velocities 182 . the angle moved through by the couple and therefore the work done T. is entirely independent of the change of pressure as the water passes through the wheel. and leaves at the inner circumference with a velocity of whirl Vi. and S to U. 175. therefore s~v and for a similar reason r_TJ R Again the angular velocity Ux wheel STV/ of the therefore the work done per second is and the work done per pound y of flow is Yt? Inward flow turbine.IMPACT OF WATER ON VANES In a time 3t 275 is wdt. Work done on a On to reference to the figure it is seen that since r is perpendicular V.. as will be seen later (page 337). or of the direction in which the water passes... If water enters a wheel at the inner circumference. series of vanes fixed to a wheel expressed in terms of the velocities of whirl of the water entering and leaving the wheel. and this water has its velocity changed from U to Ui. If the 9 water enters at the outer cir cumference of a wheel with a velocity of whirl V. the flow is said to be outward... as in Fig.. is the weight of water in pounds per second Suppose now which strikes the vanes of a moving wheel of any form.... (2)..oO* = W eodJSTLSO in time dt is . then by making dt in either equation (1) or (2) equal to unity..... 173.. Outward flow turbine.. the work done per W second is and the work done per second per pound wheel is of water entering the This result.
Parallel flow or axial flow turbine. 178 and 179. Pelton wheel. Curved vanes. similar to Figs. therefore. be moving in the with a velocity v. are fixed to a wheel. Y r will remain conNeglecting friction. makes an angle with the direction of v. Fig. the flow is parallel to the axis of the wheel. with a velocity. r . and a stream with a greater velocity 174. leave the cup at the point B stant. Y The work done on the cups is then . the absolute velocity with which the water leaves the cup will be the vector sum of v and r . and is therefore Ui. and is said to be axial. the relative velocity and the water will. Vi is equal to v. relative to the cup. If the tip of the cup at B.276 HYDRAULICS respectively of the inlet and outlet tips of the vanes being v and the work done on the wheel is still Yt> 9 9 The flow shown in this case is said to be inward. The relative velocity is Vr =(U). 178. Y Fig. For any given radius of the wheel. 174. Fig. 179. If vanes. U same direction. such as those in Fig. 178. and the work done per pound is which agrees with the result already found on page 271. Let a series of cups.
the value H! = v. the When . and the change vanes is. and the water to v. under the action of gravity. in which the surface of the water is maintained at a height h feet above the centre of the orifice. without possessing velocity in the direction of motion. >J{v .f>) cos BY + (U . in the direction of U U motion. in the side of a vessel at rest. feet. The work done determined from consideration of the change of momentum. and the efficiency thus determined in terms of U and 0. and Pelton wheel cups. water issues from a vertical orifice of area a sq. is Force tending to move a vessel from which water issuing through an orifice. as in Fig. Ui clearly becomes zero.(U . is and the efficiency is U When is 0. The component of Ui. 277 of water. The whole of the kinetic energy of the jet is thus absorbed and the theoretical efficiency of the cups is unity. If v is is twice v. 178. 9 The work done per Ib. momentum per pound of water striking the therefore. 175. 2 cos is unity. is zero. 178. Fig.v) 2 sin & can be substituted. or equal drops away from the cup. when v is ^ .IMPACT OF WATER ON VANES per Ib. is v(U of v) cos 0. and equal to unity. and the efficiency is 2 U Ui 2 For Ui. and which is a maximum.
When a fireman holds the nozzle of a hosepipe through which water is issuing with a velocity v t there hand equal to is. xr V) ' .. HYDRAULICS or the force tending to move the vessel movement of the water.. is in the opposite direction to the F=2w. neglecting friction.fclbs. w being the weight of a cubic foot of water in pounds. e The efficiency is = V (v .278 pressure on the orifice. of " V) foot Ibs. v* 9 But the momentum given to the water per second is equal to the impressed force. _w a . .a. a pressure on his 2wav'2 _ wav* or is If the vessel 20 has a velocity is g V backwards. and therefore the force tending to move the vessel is equal to twice the pressure that would be exerted upon a plate covering the orifice.. foot Ibs. The vessel being at rest. the velocity U of the vessel is water relative to the earth and the pressure exerted upon the 9 The work done per second is ^ = wav V (v F V . 9 per flow from the nozzle. . when v = 2Y and =i . therefore. or = Y(t? Ib. is and the quantity discharged per second in cubic feet is The momentum given to the water per second is .. P . the velocity with which the water leaves the orifice.V) ~^~~ 2YQV) tf which is a maximum.
and Y the velocity of the ship. the velocity of the water issuing to the water behind the ship is v Y.. however. v Y 2 As from the nozzles relative in the previous example. The water in front of the ship being at rest. and having a kinetic energy ~ Y 2 per pound. Then ~ is the head h forcing water from the ship. clearly. has been used with some employed to a very limited extent. Let v be the velocity of the water issuing from the orifice relative to the ship. and is forced through the orifices. and the available energy per pound of water leaving the ship is h foot pounds. The whole of this energy need not. If friction and other losses are neglected. therefore. the work that the pumps will have to do upon each pound of water to eject it at the back with a velocity v is. for the propulsion of lifeboats. If a the area of the nozzles the propelling force on the ship y and the work done is 9 The  efficiency is the work done on the ship divided by the work done by the . Water is taken by pumps carried by the ship from that surrounding the vessel. is . therefore. of and the change is momentum per pound is. method of propelling ships by means of jets of water issuing back orifices at the success. Imagine the ship to be moving through the water and having a pipe with an open end at the front of the ship. _2YQY) 2Y . water will enter the pipe with a velocity V relative to the ship. and is still of the ship.IMPACT OF WATEE ON VANES 176. 279 A from The propulsion of ships by water jets. which equals wav(~~^\ \47 ty' and. be given to the water by the pumps. engines.
(7) Let AB find the effort of the jet on the vanes. EXAMPLES.. Water issues horizontally from a fixed thinedged orifice. and a series of vanes move in the direction CB with a velocity of 10 feet per second.. find the pressure. and velocity v. Find the pressure on the plane in Ibs. moving in the direction of the jet with a velocity of 2 feet per second. with velocities of 30 feet and 10 feet per second respectively. The jet impinges normally on a plane moving in the same direction at 10 feet per second. discharges water at a velocity of (4) 100 feet per second. and leave it in the direction BD. A fireengine hose. A jet delivers 160 cubic feet of water per minute at a velocity of (3) 20 feet per second and strikes a plane perpendicularly. Find the pressure on the plane (1) when it is at rest (2) when it is moving at 5 feet per second in the direction of the jet. The water impinges normally on a flat surface. Ten cubic feet of water per second are discharged from a stationary the sectional area of which is 1 square foot. A jet of water moves AB. and the work done in horsepower. . 6 inches (5) square. and the size of ship that can be driven at a given velocity V for the given area a of the orifices diminishes. . under a head of 25 feet. e = . What is the relative velocity of the jet and surface ? A in the direction and BC be two lines inclined at 30. 3 inches bore. perpendicular to CB. Find the pressure on the wall. Take the coefficient of discharge as "64 and the coefficient of velocity as '97. Find the pressure on the plane in Ibs. If vis 2V. (1) jet. and the work done on the plane in horsepower. (6) jet and a plane surface move in directions inclined at 30.280 HYDRAULICS which can be made as near unity as is desired by making v and V approximate to equality. Find the form of the vane so that the water may come on to it tangentially. the nearer v approximates to V the less the propelling force F becomes. But for a given area a of the orifices. A jet of water delivering 100 gallons per second with a velocity of (2) 20 feet per second impinges perpendicularly on a wall. Supposing that the jet is 1 foot wide and 1 inch thick before impinging. Supposing the jet directed normally to the side of a building. In the latter case find the work done per second in driving the plane. with a velocity of 20 feet per second.
and the number of tons lifted in a trench 500 yards long. and the jet leaves the plate at an angle with the same normal. determine the pressure on a fixed plate placed in front of the nozzle. tender train carrying a Ramsbottom's scoop for taking water into the running at 24 miles an hour. the horizontal force required to keep the vessel in place. What. is 3'6 Ibs. is suspended in such a way that any displacing force can be accurately measured. 1906. (14) A trough. On the removal of the plug. Un. the water will . which at first is plugged up. the (11) axis coinciding with that of the jet. per second at a velocity of 30 feet per second. per minute with a velocity of 35 feet per second. is the increased resistance and what is the minimum speed of train at which the tank can be filled ? Lond. (12) A vessel containing water orifice a circular 1 traction (13) and discharge.. By the use of a measuring tank the discharge is found to be 31 gallons per minute. conof 9 feet above the orifice. If half the available head is wasted at entrance. at a velocity of 10 feet per second. is mounted on a slide so that the plate is free to move along the normal of 120 It receives a jet of water at an angle of 30 with a to the direction of sliding. 179 A. and having in one of its vertical sides inch diameter.IMPACT OF WATER ON VANES (8) 281 A curved plate slide. Water under a head of 60 feet is discharged through a pipe 6 inches (10) diameter and 150 feet long. If air is freely admitted into the tube. and the delivery pipe has an area of 50 square inches. (9) A fixed vane receives a jet of water at direction AB. Find the pressure tending to move the cone in the direction of its axis. What is the greatest height at which the scoop will deliver the water ? is A locomotive going at 40 miles an hour scoops up water from a is 8 feet above the mouth of the scoop. The tank . A jet of water 4 inches diameter impinges on a fixed cone. and the apex angle being 30 degrees. the level of the water in the vessel being maintained at a constant height Determine the coefficients of velocity. Quantity of water flowing is 500 Ibs. and also the normal pressure on the slide. and then through a nozzle. when the flow of water is 45 Ibs. find the velocity at which the water is delivered into the tank. Find the force which must be applied to the plate in the direction of sliding to hold it at rest. as in Fig. under these conditions. the area of which is onetenth the area of the pipe. applied opposite to the orifice. an angle of 120 with a Find what angle the jet must be turned through in order that the pressure on the vane in the direction AB may be 40 Ibs. Neglecting all losses but the friction of the pipe.
. per sec. The speed of the ship is 15 feet per second. (Compare with The water will rise in the tube with a Fig. (19) equivalent to that of a jet on a when the speed of the and the If in the last question the jet velocity is 50 feet per second. In hydraulic mining. Find the pressure on the face. 167. discharged under (17) a head of 400 feet. The velocity of the train being 58'66 ft. Determine the (a) maximum work done on plates in the following cases and the respective When the water impinges on a single flat plate at right angles and leaves tangentially. A stream delivering 3000 gallons of water per minute with a (15) velocity of 40 feet per second. Determine the velocity impressed on the water and the pressure on the vanes due to impact. neglecting friction. Similar to (a) but a large (5) interposed in the path of the jet. Find the propelling force of the jets. If the tube is full of (16) Water flows from a 2inch pipe. without contraction. a jet 6 inches in diameter. and. the velocity at inlet is move The 179i ' velocity at a height 348 h feet is W4TP^78 = ft. the horsepower of the engines.282 HYDRAULICS into the tube with a velocity v relative to the tube equal to that of the train. find the horsepower of the wheel. the efficiency of the propeller. jet area 0*15 square foot. per sec.) diminishing velocity. What is the horsepower delivered by the jet? (18) If the action on a Pelton wheel is series of hemispherical cups. is delivered horizontally against a vertical cliff face. and dis(20) charges through the jets 100 cubic feet of water per second. A ship has jet orifices 3 square feet in aggregate area. by impinging on vanes is caused freely to deviate through an angle of 10. and half the available head being lost. (c) number of equidistant flat plates are (d) When the water glides on and off a single When a large number of cups are used as semicylindrical cup. . at 45 feet per a machine carrying moving efficiencies : second. in a Pelton wheel. water the velocity at inlet is 34'8 ft. per sec. the velocity being diminished to 35 feet per second. find the efficiency wheel is fiveeighths of the speed of the jet.
Wheels on which the water acts by impulse as when (6) the wheel utilises the kinetic energy of a stream. 182. It will be seen that in principle. Figs. which are generally of the form shown in the figures. Wheels upon which the water does work partly by impulse but almost entirely by weight. 180 and 181 show two arrangements of the wheel. 180. 180 and 181. Figs. are connected to a rim coupled to the central hub of the wheel by M . the top of the wheel is some distance below the surface of the water in the upstream channel or penstock. and the size and weight of the wheel is consequently diminished. so that the velocity v with which the water reaches the wheel is larger than in Fig. This type of wheel is not suitable for very low or very high heads as the diameter of the wheel cannot be made greater than the head. In most impulse wheels the water is made to flow under the wheel and hence they are called Undershot Wheels. and Breast Wheels. or are curved similar to those of Fig. (a) Water wheels can be 177. Overshot Wheels. WATER WHEELS AND TURBINES. 182 and 184. or if a head h is available the whole of the head is converted into velocity before the water comes in contact with the wheel. This has the advantage of allowing the periphery of the wheel to have a higher velocity. the latter only differing from the former in constructional detail. there is no line of demarcation between impulse water wheels and impulse turbines. Overshot water wheels. the velocity of the water when it strikes the wheel being small. There are two types of this class of wheel. The buckets. 181. Figs. divided into two classes as follows.CHAPTER IX. neither can it conveniently be made much less. the only difference in the two cases being that in Fig.
Fig. and can be run at a much greater number of revolutions per unit time. of the water.284 HYDRAULICS suitable spokes or framework. This class of wheel has been considerably used for heads varying from 6 to 70 feet. but is now becoming obsolete. The velocity of the periphery of the wheel is v and the velocity of the water U. Overshot Water Wheel. 180. being replaced by the modern turbine. E D K Fig. which for the same head and power can be made much more compact. 181. . as it enters the wheel to V r . Overshot Water Wheel. The direction of the tangent to the blade at inlet for no shock can be found by drawing the triangle of velocities as in Figs. 180 and 181. The tip of the blade should be parallel The mean velocity U.
2^ below the water in the penstock. will be v + k \/2(/H. frequently much greater velocity v of the periphery water. Wisconsin. The water is generally brought to the and the wheel along a wooden flume. therefore. therefore. 1913. . v being the velocity of approach the fall of the free surface and k of the water in the channel. however. If the total fall to the level of the water in the tail race the diameter of the wheel may. H a coefficient of velocity. be the diameter of the The horsepower of the wheel. a loss in efficiency will not be important. With the type of wheel and penstock shown in Fig. . and thus the velocity supply to the wheel can be maintained fairly constant by a simple U sluice placed in the flume. and n the number of revolutions per sec. theoretically equal to U cos 0. Let <o be the angular velocity of the wheel in radians. D N generally from 2J to 3D. the larger the wheel is made the greater must be the angular distance from the top of the wheel at which the water enters.TI be the depth of the shroud. Let b be the width of the wheel. be If. the wheel is designed for the required power when the head increases. for given values of U and of h. which in actual wheels is minimum flow. Let d. which on actual wheels is from 10" to 20". Let wheel in feet which in actual wheels is from 10 to 70 feet. Let Q be the volume of water in cubic feet of water supplied per second. and there is a greater quantity of water available. * Theory and test of an Overshot Water Wheel. constant. as shown below. 181. E. Weidner. Let be the number of buckets. The best velocity v for the periphery is.WATER WHEELS 285 in Fig. which equals ra . by C. be between h and i fls l'2v* ~ Ct * 20 Since U is equal to v 2^H. but in practice the velocity v is and * shows that the best is experiment about 0'9 of the velocity U of the is to be about 1'lv the water must enter the wheel at If a depth not less than U U 2 = r2^ 2g is h. 181. the head at H is likely to vary and the velocity U will not.
If h is tail race and & 550 ' and the width b for a given horsepower. is 6 = 1100HP = 17'6 HP of centrifugal forces. Consider any particle of water of mass w Ibs. due to centrifugal forces. is The number of buckets which pass the stream per second If a fraction k of each bucket is filled with water or Jc in actual wheels is from ^ to the fall of the water to the level of the the efficiency of the wheel. As the wheel revolves. nearly. the water.286 HYDRAULICS of the buckets the capacity of each bucket is Whatever the form bd . 181 a. the surface of the water in the buckets. The forces acting the centrifugal force w w2 . ^ . The resultant BGr (Fig.r upon it are w due to gravity and being the acting in the direction CB. 181 a) of . at a radius r equal to CB from the centre of the wheel and in the surface of F Fig. takes up a curved form. HP. angular velocity of the wheel. the horsepower is llie fraction .
That is the normal AB always cuts the vertical through C in a fixed point A. meet the vertical through the centre in A. a head equal to h m is lost. and the velocity thus given be practically all lost by eddies. (1) the head h equal to the height of the water above the bottom of the wheel. Again. This increased by the centrifugal forces. (2) the impact of the tail water stream on the buckets. and the surface of the water in any bucket lies as centre. as the water falls in the bucket vertical distance EM. The water leaves the buckets with a velocity of whirl (c) to the velocity of the periphery of the wheel and a further equal head ~ is If the level of the tail water rises above the bottom of (d) the wheel there will be a further loss due to.WATER WHEELS 287 to Let BG. In addition. and (3) the tendency for the buckets to lift the water on the ascending side of the wheel. Then AC AC CB r w w (D 2 T g AC = 5. the water will leave the buckets earlier than it otherwise would do. . will written or hi hi + U h  2 . as clearly.be produced these forces must be normal to the surface. k and (6) being coefficients and hi the vertical distance is EM. If h m is the mean height above the tail level at which the water leaves the buckets. By fitting an apron GrH in front of the wheel the water can be prevented from leaving the wheel until it is very near the tail race. and a further head will be The total loss by eddies and shock may. (a) The whole of the velocity head  is lost in eddies in the buckets. The water begins is to leave the buckets before the level of the tail race reached. if the direction of the tip of the bucket is not parallel to Vr the water will enter with shock. its velocity will be increased through the by gravity. therefore. be lost. due to these forces. on a circle with A Losses of energy in overshot wheels.
and therefore the efficiency. just when it is desirable that no energy shall be wasted. . the maximum hydraulic efficiency possible is . as designed by Fairbairn. The water is retained * Theory and test of Overshot Water Wheel. 2 Yr + v* = IP cos2 6 . for value of h m ... i efficiency will be m g 5 Sf any given coefficients.. 178. . a minimum. when which is a v . adding v to both sides of the equation. is seen to be a maximum.. Fig. This type of wheel. fa and Jc being The efficiency is .ff cos ft 0..2Uv cos 6 + 2v z + U2 sin2 cos 0. . . If on the other hand the wheel is raised to such a height above the tail water that the bottom of the wheel may be always clear. The directions of these passages may be made so that the water enters the wheel without shock.. 180.. 182 shows the form of the wheel. a maximum when Y ~ 2 r H v* . e= k..v) a + (U sin 0)* = Yr2 (U 2 Therefore. Breast wheel... The actual efficiencies obtained from overshot wheels vary from 60 to 89* per cent. as calculated from equation (1)... which may be opened or closed by a sluice as shown in the figure. and the greatest possible amount of energy will not be obtained from the water...is .. The water is admitted to the wheel through a number of passages.. like the overshot wheel. is becoming obsolete.. the head h m will be considerable during dry weather now. and h may then be a large fraction of h. Differentiating and equating to zero this. minimum for a given value of U... If h is the difference in level between the up and downstream surfaces.288 HYDRAULICS In times of flood there may be a considerable rise of the downstream. Bulletin No.. .'(".. From the triangles EKF and KDF.. Fig. 529 University of Wisconsin. when 2Uv cos 6 2i> 2 is a maximum.?*) and the actual hydraulic h  .
WATER WHEELS in the bucket. Then. until the bucket reaches the tail race. In order that the air may enter and leave the buckets freely. should be from 4J to 8 feet per second. velocity The depth of the shroud which is equal to r2 . and in addition. tail losses of head will be the same as for the overshot wheel that hm will be practically zero. 182. of the head is therefore utilised than in the overshot wheel. Since the water in the tail race runs in the direction of the motion of the bottom of the wheel there is no serious objection to the race level being 6 inches above the bottom of the wheel. and the should be about 2v. Let H be the total fall and let be assumed that the efficiency of the wheel is 65 per cent. there will except be loss by friction in the guide passages. they are partly open at the inner rim. loss due to leakage Fig. by friction of the water The as it moves over the breast.n is from 1 to U If feet. L. it Let it be denoted by d. 19 . According to Rankine the velocity of the rim for overshot and breast wheels. Breast Wheel. 289 by the and a greater fraction breast. H. and further between the breast and the wheel.
have straight buckets inclined to the radius at an angle of from 30 to 45 degrees. and an arc AB. 179. so that the loss due to the water leaving the wheel with this velocity and due to leakage between the wheel arid breast is small. A breast wheel 20 feet diameter and 6 feet wide.290 HYDRAULICS the quantity of water required per second in cubic feet for a given horsepower N is " N.fe. Equating this value of Q to the above value. Example. Breast wheels are used for falls of from 5 to 15 feet and the diameter should be from 12 to 25 feet. Find the horsepower of the wheel. the quantity of water carried down per second is JABCD. Therefore /~ i ~ \ 2r2 vdb. The dimensions Sagebien wheels. D being the outer diameter = 261.equal to v. These wheels. has its buckets The mean full velocity of the buckets is 5 feet per second. Fig. The velocity of the periphery of the wheel is very small. working on a fall of 14 feet and having a depth of shroud of 1' 3". or of the buckets on the is filled from  to of the loaded part of the wheel water. . 183. assuming the efficiency 70 per cent. now v is the velocity of the rim. The width may be as great as 10 feet. See page 339. of this wheel should be compared with those calculated for an inward flow turbine working under the same head and developing the same horsepower. and each bucket half full. 184. Fig. is set off on the If is outer rim . with Let 6 be the breadth of the buckets.550 624xHxO'G5 H From  total volume to  of the volume of each bucket. never exceeding 2^ to 3 feet per second. the width 6 is 27ND of the wheel.
192 . has been obtained with these wheels. or in other words. and the triangle of therefore ABC. while at the same time there is no loss of head due to friction of guide passages. inclined straight bucket has one disadvantage . when the lower part of the wheel is drowned. If the bucket is made parallel to r the water enters without shock. In Overshot and Breast wheels the work is done principally by the weight of the water. very 180. by changing the kinetic energy of the water.WATER WHEELS 291 An efficiency of over 80 per cent. and the work is done on the wheel by changing the momentum of the mass of moving water. 184. the buckets as they ascend are The more nearly perpendicular to the surface of the tail water than when the blades are low radial. or to contraction as the water enters or Y leaves them . but as the peripheral speed is the resistance due to this cause is not considerable. Fig. In the wheels now to be considered the whole of the head available is converted into velocity before the water strikes the wheel. Sagebien Wheel. The water a velocity U velocities is enters the wheel in a horizontal direction with equal to that in the penstock. Impulse wheels. moreover the direction of the stream has not to be changed.
The conditions are now somewhat different to those assumed for the large of flat vanes. the best theoretical value for the and the maximum possible velocity v of such blades is efficiency of the wheel is 0'5. Impulse Wheel. and the width of the wheel equal to that of the channel. 185. is into a running stream. similar to that shown in Fig.292 HYDRAULICS Undershot wheel with flat blades. d the depth of the stream under the wheel. The mean velocity with which the water = k v 2a/&.. and loss by leakage is reduced to a minimum. and the maximum possible efficiency is determined as follows. . If b is the width of the wheel. and the energy available per second is U . 185. d . the weight of water that will strike the wheel per second is b d w U Ibs. By placing a gate across the channel and making the bed near the wheel circular as in Fig. As shown on page 268. Let the depth of the leaves the penstock at ab is U . U 3 Let v be the mean velocity of the blades. the supply is more under control. Let Q be the number of cubic feet of water passing through number the wheel per second. 185. The radius of the wheel being large the blades are similar to a series of flat blades moving parallel to the stream and the water leaves them with a velocity v in the direction of motion. and the velocity in feet per second. U f Fig. w 2~ foot Ibs. The simplest case is when wheel with radial blades. b .
Since IT the figure. difference on the wheel between the hydrostatic pressures acting on the wheel is therefore. Substituting for Ji . the work done per second is Or. The best velocity..WATER WHEELS 293 stream at rib be t. t . and the diameters of the wheel are generally from 10 to 23 feet. lowering of the waters of a stream. the velocity of the blades. The velocity with which the water leaves the wheel at the section cd is v. and the on cd and ab. If the width of the stream at cd is the same as at ab and the depth is h0y then.4y 2 3 U + ^^U 2 + gtv* = 0. since Q= b . U. v. These impressed forces are P the driving pressure blades. To adapt the wheel to the rising and Floating wheels. then.. h greater than is t. has been found in practice to be about 0'4U. as shown in The hydrostatic pressure on the section cd the section ab it is %t* bw. the wheel may be mounted on . ^hfbw and on The change in momentum per second is and this must be equal to the impressed forces acting on the mass of water flowing per second through ab or cd. is greater than v. for the mean velocity of the blades. the actual efficiency is from 30 to 35 per cent. .& bw = 2^ (U . the driving force acting 2 P Ibs. t?(UtQ _ tQ /U _ v\ 2\v t_ _ IP 29 which is a maximum when 2u U a . JiQ x v = t x Uj i h = W is . P + Ihfbw .i>). If. The efficiency is then.
or the axle carried upon pontoons so that the wheel rises automatically with the stream. that the direction of the blade at entrance is parallel to the relative velocity of the water and the blade. Poncelet wheel. Then if the direction of motion of the water is in the direction is AC. efficiency of the straight blade impulse wheels is very due to the large amount of energy lost by shock. tangle of Velocities atEcut. and ii deep that the water does not overflow the upper edge and there is no loss by shock and by friction. The efficiency of the wheel is doubled. the triangle of velocities for entrance is ABC. and to the velocity with which the water leaves the wheel in the direction of The small. Undershot Wheel. motion. 186 shows a Poncelet wheel. as first suggested by Poncelet.294 HYDRAULICS a frame which may be raised or lowered as the stream rises. a particle of water will rise up the blade a vertical height sufficiently made h1 _yj ' 20 . if the blades are of such a form. Fig. E Fig. 186. and the water is made to leave the wheel with no component in the direction of motion of the periphery of the wheel. 181. The relative velocity of the water and the wheel the blade is V r. velocity Suppose the water to approach the edge A of a blade with a U making an angle with the tangent to the wheel at A.
For maximum can be utilised by any hydraulic machine supplied with water under a head H. The velocity Ui will have its minimum value.WATER WHEELS It 295 then begins to velocity V r fall and arrives at the tip of the blade with the relative to the blade in the inverse direction BE. BE being is equal to BC. and therefore FE is constant. the terms theoretical hydraulic efficiency The maximum work per Ib. when AE is equal to FE or Ui is perpendicular to v. is the ratio of the external work done per Ib. has been assumed that no energy is lost by friction or by and therefore the work done on the wheel is and the theoretical hydraulic efficiency* is IP W " 20 1 This will be a since ' Ul is a minimum. And since AC and the angle 6 are constant. ABE. AB Ui. velocity with which the water leaves the wheel then shock. that efficiency will be frequently used. to AB is always greater than FE except when AE is perpendicular AD. therefore. If there are other hydraulic losses in the to a head h/ per Ib. therefore. CD is constant for all values of v. the point B AD. The The It triangle of velocities for exit therefore. and efficiency. 187. that is maximum when Ui Now BE = BC. the perpendiculars EF and CD. are equal. . from the points E and C respectively. is. of flow. the hydraulic efficiency is The of actual efficiency of the machine water by the machine to H. The ratio is machine equivalent the theoretical hydraulic efficiency. and hydraulic H it? . The bisects triangles of velocities are then as in Fig. and from which the water exhausts with a velocity u is * In what follows. But AE. on to and produced.
blade will be perpendicular to the radius of the wheel. The velocity Uj with which the water leaves the wheel..... The total change of velocity impressed on the water is CE. however. the maximum (1).. then... and v are parallel and the tip of the If. and is Ui = Usin0. Fig.296 HYDRAULICS The efficiency can also be found by considering the change of momentum. actual efficiency of Poncelet wheels is from 55 to 65 per ... v = U cos 0.=0. necessary modification is shown in the Pelton wheel described on A U page 377. The maximum efficiency is then by substituting is 15 degrees. 2(Ut.. or Ucos02i.. Ib.. is... 186.. and would become unity if could be made zero. *r Differentiating with respect to v and equating to zero. and the change in the direction of motion therefore FD. FD = 2(Ucos0t>). without modifying the construction of the wheel. cos TT  v* U 2 . efficiency is The same result is obtained from equation forU^Usinfl. which practically is not The realisable. and therefore.. This is clearly the limiting case. value its JU cos in (2).. is then perpendicular to v Substituting for v 2 cos 0.. and the theoretical common value for hydraulic efficiency is then 0*933. is FB is equal to BD. The cent.. This increases as diminishes. is zero... And since BE is equal to BC. The work done per 2(Ucosfli?) V' 9 ' and the efficiency is & TJ...
Due to resistances. so that taking a mean value for Jcv of 0'925. be expected that the velocity relative to the wheel at exit be less than Yr due to friction and interference of the rising Y to will . Take several makes the given angle other points on the circumference of the wheel between R and If then a curve Q. U = 0'925 V2<7H. and draw tangents to the circle STY. and if it enters without shock at A. it would rise to a certain height. the height to which it rises will be less than hi. Water enters the wheel at all points between R. If it is r is the relative velocity of the water and wheel at entrance. it will do so at all The actual velocity of the water U. where it between R and Q. will be less than \/2grH. PQ is drawn normal to these several tangents. and then descend. and the stream lines are parallel to PQ. draw a circle touching the line AS which With with the radius AO. race PQ. If there were no resistance to its motion. Fig. n being a fraction less than unity. In determining the best velocity for the periphery of the wheel no allowance has been made for the loss of energy due to friction in the wheel. due to friction. as centre. and when it again reached the earth it would have a velocity equal to its initial velocity v. as it moves along the points. The triangle of velocities at exit will then be ABB. The coefficient of velocity Jcv in most cases will probably be between 0'90 and 0'95. The change of velocity in the direction of motion is GrH. The case is somewhat analogous to that of a stone thrown vertically up in the atmosphere with a velocity v.WATER WHEELS 297 Form of the bed. which equals (Ucos0t>). 188. and for no shock the bed of the channel PQ should be made of such a form that the direction of the stream. Let the velocity relative to the wheel at exit be riVr. and falling particles of water. . will make a constant angle Q and A radius. The best value for the velocity v taking friction into account. the water entering any part of the with the wheel between R and Q. and the velocity with which it reaches the ground will be even less than that due to falling freely through this diminished height. etc. should make enters the wheel at any point a constant angle 6 with the radius of the wheel at A.
and not less than 15 feet for a straight bed. etc.vY + U 2 sin 2 0. then since Vr2 = BH2 + CH2 = (U cos B . The water will rise on the buckets to a height . Fig. v .0'6U cos 0. there lost by friction etc. 188. If /is taken as 0*75. the head lost by friction. due to the variation of the which the stream lines make with the blades between R angle and Q. a head equal to The work done on the wheel per p)} Ib.w2 ) be denoted by /. the efficiency I Differentiating with respect to v and equating to zero. therefore.. Dimensions of Poncelet wheels. of water P is. Let (1 . otherwise there will be considerable loss by shock at entrance. t 2 (1 +ri) Ucos^ 4 _ (1 + ri) v + 2U/cos 02vf=0 from which /+ If /is is now supposed n is 0'71 to be 0'5. ^^ . i. 186. V 2jVtr n >' c H Fig.e. The diameter of the wheel should not be less than 10 feet when the bed is curved.298 HYDRAULICS must have been If the velocity at exit relative to tlie wheel is only riVr . and v = 56U cos 0.
. therefore. to 1 if it is carefully rounded. Turbines. or the water will overflow at the upper edge. and the great disadvantage attaching to them of having a small angular velocity was not felt.D f^ . Then the number of revolutions per minute is t n The if it is 05X/205  7T. If the efficiency is taken as 60 per second is 0'6 x 62'4QH ft. Ibs.. The clearance between the bed and the bottom of the wheel should not be less than f ". Such slow moving wheels are however entirely unsuited to the driving of modern machinery. Let D be the diameter of the wheel. and since the water 299 first V 2 r enters at a point R. Turbine wheels on the other hand can be made to run at either low or very high speeds. sharpedged. and let be the depth of the orifice RP. The horsepower N is then cent.WATER WHEELS nearly equal to ^. If surface of water in the penstock above the bottom of the wheel. The quantity of water striking the wheel per second is. and to work under any head varying . obtained. is the height of the Horsepower of Poncelet wheels. be greater than this. The old water wheels were required to drive slow moving machinery. efficiencies of nearly 90 per cent. the blade depth d must. to a considerable Although the water wheel has been developed it is degree of perfection. having been being almost entirely superseded by the turbine. coefficient of contraction c for the orifice may be from 0'6. and they are further quite unsuited for the high heads which are now utilised for the generation of power. and especially for the driving of dynamos. the work done per 550 182. and b the breadth. and may be taken as 0'8 if the orifice is formed by a flatedged sluice. the velocity will be about H U and v may be taken as 0'55 x 092 V2^H = 0'5 JZgK. The peripheral distance between the consecutive blades is taken from 8 inches to 18 inches. then.
and the space between two consecutive vanes must not be full of water. must be so formed that the air has free access between the vanes. and reaction or pressure turbines. impulse. In the first class. Work is done upon the vanes. the maximum being about 100 horsepower. as in Fig. under an head H. and the pressure in the driving fluid as it moves over the vanes remains constant. In both kinds of turbines an attempt is made to shape the vanes so that the water enters the wheel without shock . or free deviation turbines. only part of the available head is converted into velocity before the water enters the wheel. that the direction of the relative velocity of the water and the vane is is parallel to the tip of the vane. therefore. turbines of 10. Due to the slow speeds. Suppose water supplied to a turbine. Turbines are generally divided into two classes. and equal to the atmospheric pressure. and the speed can be regulated with much greater precision. The effective water issues from the nozzle with a velocity available energy per pound is U = j2gH i and the Work is done on the wheel by the absorption of the whole.000 horsepower have recently been installed.300 from 1 foot to HYDRAULICS 2000 feet. the old water wheels could not develope large power. and the . The wheel and vanes. in virtue of the change of momentum or kinetic energy of the moving water. or part. In the second class. in the wheel. of this kinetic energy. Types of Turbines. and the direction of the leaving edge of the vane is made so that the water leaves in a specified direction. upon the turbine wheel to which they are fixed. 258. as in examples on pages 270 2. the whole of the available head is converted into velocity before the water strikes the turbine wheel. is the energy lost by the water per pound and this is equal to the work done on the wheel together with energy lost by friction etc. which may be supposed equal to the total head minus losses of head in the supply pipe and at the nozzle. If Ui is the velocity with which the water leaves the wheel. whereas at Niagara Falls. or in other words.
is only some fraction of v/2^H. 189. it when H U the wheel. that the wheel shall always be full of water. as on page 335. kept It is therefore essential. form of turbine is the simple reaction. lift. is done upon the wheel. or freedeviation turbine. under the effective head the velocity with which the water enters . as will be seen Work in the sequence. p and the turbine becomes an impulse. and the amount of reaction is measured by the ratio PPl w w_ if is ~H~ to pi. If the pressure head at inlet is w and at outlet is w . the work i ~ + 2^ ~ w per pound of water > or work is done on the wheel. which in its simplest form is illustrated in Fig. the limiting case is reached. in the sense in which work is done by the pressure on the piston of a made equal steam engine or the ram of a hydraulic 183. partly by changing the kinetic energy the water possesses enters the wheel. the outer ends of which are bent round at right angles to the direction The oldest * fciee page 334 . pressure Suppose water is supplied to the turbine of Fig. The turbine wheel always being full of water. Clearly. and the pressure head at the inlet to the wheel will depend upon the magnitude of U and upon the position of the wheel relative to the head and tail water surfaces. and pressure both vary as the water passes through the wheel. the equations of Bernoulli * can be used to determine in any given case the difference of pressure head at the inlet and outlet of the wheel. ' and the velocity with which the water leaves the wheel done on the wheel (see page 338) is Ui. 191. there is continuity of flow through the wheel. Reaction turbines. and partly by changing its or potential energy. partly by changing the velocity head and partly by changing the pressure head. Such a turbine is called a reaction turbine. A vertical tube T has two horizontal tubes connected to it. and if the head impressed upon the water by centrifugal action is determined. or Scotch turbine.TURBINES velocity 801 . It should be clearly understood that in a reaction turbine no work is done on the wheel merely by hydrostatic pressure.
302 of length of the tube. known as the Whitelaw turbine. Whitelaw Turbine. HYDRAULICS two holes and Oi are drilled as in the Water is supplied to the central tube at such a rate as to keep the level of the water in the tube constant. 189. 190. Fig. Scotch Turbine. Tur bines of this class are frequently used to act as sprinklers for distri buting liquids. in Fig. or figure. is Fig. Water escapes and Oi and through the orifices the wheel rotates in a direction opposite to the direction of flow of the water from the orifices. and at a height h above the horizontal tubes. 190. as for example for distributing sewage on to bacteria beds. A shown better practical form. To understand the action of the turbine it is first necessary to consider the effect of the whirling of the water in the arm upon .
There will now be a pressure head at the orifice equal to h plus the head impressed on the water due to the whirling of each particle of suppose the wheel is filled Now at water in the arm. head causing velocity of flow relative to the wheel is now Let r be the velocity relative to the wheel with which the water leaves the orifice. therefore. Let v be the velocity of rotation of the orifices. having a cross At any radius r take an element of thickness dr.TURBINES 303 the discharge from the wheel. a . Let v be the velocity of the then v = o>R. the orifices being closed. the vector sum of V V which the water r and v. and h the head of water above the orifices. sectional area a. o>V3r . R f Jo g and the head impressed on the water is w p= o> 2 R 2 2g' orifice. Y The velocity relative to the ground. the opened. . Fig. then the head causing velocity of flow relative to the arm is simply h. 9 The pressure per unit area at the outer periphery 1 p=a is. with water and made to rotate an angular velocity w. with leaves the wheel. Imagine the wheel to be held at rest and the orifices opened . Assume the arm to be a straight tube. is r v. The centrifugal force due to this element is s = dr w . and neglecting friction the water will leave the nozzle with a velocity t? = \/2gh. 189. and therefore p _ If v* w~2g' the wheel be assumed frictionless and the orifices are and the wheel rotates with the angular velocity <o.
the 2 r t. therefore. increases with v. The efficiency of the reaction wheel when friction As before. Assuming the head must be equal to lost by friction to be  1. with a velocity relative of /* = r v. is considered. . therefore. . theoretical hydraulic efficiency is then. f (l+Aj)w l' and equating to zero. 20 20* and the hydraulic efficiency is 2g Substituting for h from (4) and for /*. 2 2v Vr + V* (2). V r energy lost becomes more nearly equal to v as v per pound diminishes as v increases.304 HYDRAULICS leaves the wheel. the total head *9 The work done on the wheel. and the efficiency E. is now r /x . (l + ^Vr ^ r 2 2 Let then Differentiating V 6= = nv. and the kinetic energy lost is to the The water ground V ^ The 7 fl per pound of water. V r v. ~' V Since from increases. per pound.
TURBINES 305 From which Or the efficiency is a ft k' maximum when and Fig. H. Outward Flow Turbine. 191. 20 . L.
This difficulty is partly overcome by dividing the wheel into several distinct compartments by horizontal diaphragms. and may be put either above. A cylindrical wheel W. the The "suction tube" " exhaust must take place down a suction pipe. was invented in 1828 by Four191. or below. having Fig. The outward flow turbine neyron. *. The efficiency at "part gate" is consequently very much less than when the flow is unchecked. a number of suitably shaped vanes. and is directed to the wheel by suitable fixed guide blades Gr. there must be a sudden enlargement as the water enters the wheel. If hi is the height of the centre of the discharge periphery of the wheel above the tail water level. The wheels of outward flow turbines may have their axes. The water enters a cylindrical chamber at the centre of the turbine. and 201.306 184. and flows through the wheel in a radial direction outwards." as in Fig. and the pipe airtight. so that when working at part load. only the efficiency of one compartment is affected. Between the guide blades and the wheel is a cylindrical sluice R which is used to control the flow of water through the wheel. 191 a. and a loss of head ensues. the tail water level. as shown in Fig. 192. Figs. . 201. If placed above the tail water. and p a is the atmospheric pressure in pounds per square foot. 192. HYDRAULICS Outward flow turbines. the pressure head at the discharge circumference is fcfc84fc. the end of which must be kept drowned. as when the gate partially closes the passages. page 317. either horizontal or vertical. is fixed to a vertical axis. so that at the outlet of the wheel a pressure less than the atmospheric pressure may be maintained. This method of regulating the flow is very imperfect.
or the pressure at the outlet of the wheel will be negative. or placed in a suction tube. It is shown later that the effective head. and its final 202 . 192. By making the suction tube to enlarge as it descends. it cannot be greater than 25 feet. Fourneyron Outward Flow Turbine. The use of the suction tube has the advantage of allowing the turbine wheel to be placed at some distance above the tail water level. under which the turbine works. the total fall of the water to the level of the tail race. is H. the velocity of exit can be diminished very gradually. and repairs can be more easily executed.TURBINES 307 The wheel cannot be more than 84 feet above the level of the tail water. so that the bearings can be readily got at. whether it is drowned. Fig. and practically.
193. be the velocity water as it flows out of the guide passages. d is Let D = (nd n. 192. W or. For the water to enter the wheel without shock. 193 and 194 V .T> .* Fig. and n the number of vanes. the mean head available head of water above the centre of the wheel. Then DC is r the relative velocity of the water and vane. and the receiving edge of the vane must be parallel to DC.b. in direction and magnitude Let AC.308 value kept small. the relative velocity of the water and the wheel at inlet must be parallel to the inner tips of the vanes. determines the quantity of water entering the wheel per unit area of the inlet circumference.u. Fig. The peripheral velocity v t at the outlet circumference v. Then if face of the wheel. if t . is the diameter and b the depth of the wheel at inlet. Let this radial velocity is the peripheral area of the inlet be denoted by u. into the air. be the diameter. and let AD be the velocity v of the receiving edge of the wheel.i). The triangles of velocities at inlet and outlet are shown in Figs. The radial component GC. the Triangles of velocities at inlet and outlet. of AC. as in Fig. 194. the number of cubic feet Q per second entering the wheel is of the U V A Q = A. of the discharge periis phery of the wheel. and the thickness of the vanes. and AI the area Q. HYDRAULICS If the exhaust takes place direct from the is wheel.
. If the and is direction of Ui.. Let this velocity be denoted by Ui. the triangle of velocity at exit can be drawn by setting out BE and BF equal to Vi and Ui respectively. Ui will be least when it is radial and equal to t*i. the greatest amount of work will be obtained for the given flow. Then the tip of the blade must be made parallel toEF. The smaller Ui. the velocity TJi is given in direction and magnitude. the greater the theoretical hydraulic efficiency. Work done on energy the wheel neglecting friction. and BK radial and equal to UL Let it now be supposed that the direction EF of the tip of the vane at discharge is known. when the water leaves the wheel radially. or the efficiency will be a maximum. Draw EF parallel to the tip of the vane at D. relative to the ground. If. and since for a given flow through the wheel. then whatever the direction with which the water leaves the wheel the radial component of velocity for a given discharge is constant. actual efficiency. instead of the direction EF being given. of necessity lost. and through K draw KF parallel to BE to meet EF : in F. Fig. The triangle of velocity can now be drawn as follows Set off BE equal to Vi. For any given value through the wheel is of Ui the quantity of water flowing Q = AiUi cos ft = AiWi. it The is kinetic of the water as leaves the turbine wheel per pound. and the theoretical hydraulic efficiency is constant for any given value of Ui. Neglecting friction the available energy per pound of water is then energy and other H^Lfootlbs. 2^ and if the discharge is is into the air or into the tail water this losses. 194. Then BF is the velocity in direction and magnitude with which the water leaves the wheel. and joining EF. or to the fixed casing of the turbine. and independent of the This efficiency must not be confused with the which is much less than E. etc.TURBINES 309 Let 1*1 be the radial component of velocity of exit.
. and the component Let of Ui. If the discharge takes place down a suction tube.... then and Vi = Ui sin /? = u tan ft. re>\ ( u) ... It has already been shown.... t Work done on the wheel. vU cos ^^ g If ^Mjtanff _ TT _ _Li 9 UL _..... Fig....  H' TJ =H ^ i <* .. 193... V and Vi be the and outlet respectively.. .. the velocity head. and there is no loss between the wheel and the outlet from the tube.. (3)... and is independent of the velocity or direction with which the water leaves the wheel. lost then depends upon the velocity Ui with which the water leaves the tube. (6). with a velocity U...... and leaves it with velocity Ui...310 HYDRAULICS water leaves with a velocity Ui in any other direction...... Expressed trigonometrically... .... 194. rotating about a fixed centre. ....... (4).. ... When Ui is radial...... but the power of the wheel will be diminished... section 173... Fig... neglecting friction... in the direction of v i9 is the velocities of whirl at inlet velocity of whirl at exit. page 275.. the component Vi of which is in the same direction as Vi.... since the radial flow at inlet must equal the radial flow Again. The velocity of whirl at inlet and outlet. .. V! is negative.. %g BK.. ...... from which . at outlet.. the work done on the wheel 9 is 9 per pound. .. in the direction of v is the velocity of whirl at inlet.. the efficiency will be the same. and therefore....... _TT " This is W a general formula for all classes of turbines and should be carefully considered by the student. therefore is F to the left of AUsin0 = AiTJiCos0 Vi is zero. that when water enters a wheel. and Ui equals v l tan a... The component of U. ( 5 )> andfrom(3) AU sin 6 = Aj^ tan .
In actual turbines is from '02H to '07H. The head is 141*5 feet above the centre of the wheel and the exhaust takes place into the atmosphere. ^=423 ft. 195. which may be taken as f inch thick at inlet and 1 inches thick at outlet. 195. Therefore. per seo. Fig. The quantity of water supplied per second is 215 cubic feet. and an external diameter of 625 feet. The effective width of the wheel face at inlet and outlet is 10 inches. and . An outward flow turbine wheel. Example. a V r is radial. V v* (8). vane is radial at inlet. ft per see.. 215 = 165 ft. Fig. has an internal diameter of 6249 feet.TURBINES If the tip of the 311 i. Neglecting all frictional losses. . The radial velocity of flow at exit is per sec. determine the angles of the tips of the vanes at inlet and outlet so that the water shall leave radially.e. The wheel has 32 vanes. The radial velocity of flow at inlet is 215 TT x 5249 x H .if = 1835 ft. and it makes 250 revolutions per minute. at outlet = TT x 625 x 3f = 82 ft. The and peripheral velocity at inlet is v = TT x 5249 x Ytf1 = 69 v.
while the wheel turns through tbe arc A. The angles 0. for tan 0= .fb. To draw the triangle of velocities at inlet set out v and u at right angles. 197. the direction and magnitude By joining B and C the relative velocity V r tip of the vane. triangle of velocities at exit is DEF. Then since V is 64. 198. and the tip of the vane must be parallel Fig. the wheel in this time is 039 radians. The path of the water through the wheel. and n is the component of U. 196. per sec. and a can be calculated. radial of is determined. and draw circles through A 1 A 2 and A v Divide Suppose a particle of water to enter the wheel at A in contact with a vane and suppose it to remain in contact with the vane during its passage through the wheel.312 Then 9 HYDRAULICS = 1415 423 = 13727 ft. 198 shows the form the guide blades and vaues of the wheel would probably take. and V= 13727 69~ T7 x 322 : 64 ft. obtained. therefore. Set off the arc AB.3670 and and. and divide it into four equal parts. Pig. AD also into four equal parts. Then. equal to 39 radian. how these angles are modified when friction is considered. and is the tangential component of U. Fig. and BC is U is parallel to the The toEF. The average radial velocity through the wheel may be taken as 1735 feet. The angle turned through by . = 105 a = 11 It will be seen later 14'. . 23'. assuming the radial velocity is constant.e the water will move radially a distance AA A and a particle that came on to . and draw the radii ea. <f>. therefore. The time taken for a particle of water to get through the wheel is. gc and Ed. Fig.
* Bee page 119. 62 being equal to win. be in contact with the A will. therefore. ha = ~ 2gm the water enters and moves through the guide (6) passages there will be a loss due to friction and by sudden changes in the velocity of flow.penstock or is supply pipe. The vane initially Fig. vane on the arc through A t passing through A will be now in the position el. As This head may be expressed as being a coefficient. If v the velocity. gives the be at 2. 185. When the particle arrives on the arc through Ag the vane will pass through /. Losses of head due to frictional in outward flow turbines. .TURBINES the vane at 313 . al being equal to hJ and the particle will therefore be at 1. and ha the head lost by friction in the pipe. path of the water relative to the fixed casing. and other resistances : The (a) losses of head may be enumerated as follows Loss by friction at the sluice and in the . 198. and the particle will consequently The curve A4 drawn through Al 2 etc.
length. and the tip of the vane. that as the velocity of whirl YI is diminished the relative velocity of flow vr at exit increases. (d) which depends upon the relative velocity of the water and the wheol. any sudden change The whole loss of head in the penstock and guide passages may Then if U is the be called H/ and the loss in the wheel h/. then. 199. It will be seen on reference to Figs. &2 being a third If there is coefficient. and b is the width of the vane. Boyden MSfuser Rotor fixed Fig. and 'dl an element of is V equal to v. as the relative velocity diminishes. and on any small element of surface of the wheel the head lost will diminish.314 HYDRAULICS There is a loss of head at entrance due to shock as (c) the direction of the vane at entrance cannot be determined with precision. it is made to depend upon V r the relative velocity of the water. This relative velocity may be changing. and if the turbine through has a suction tube there may be also a small loss as the water enters the tube from the wheel. . but the relative velocity r at inlet passes through V a If minimum when V is the relative velocity of the water and the vane at any radius. In the wheel there is a loss of head h d) due to friction. or the tip of the vane is radial. This may be written he = Jcil 2^> that is. of velocity as the water passes the wheel there will be a further loss. 193 and 194.
The general arrangement of an outward flow turbine as installed at Chevres is shown in Fig. section 184. two of which receive the water from below. in the concrete passages leading to the tail race. The workmanship was of the highest quality and great care was taken to reduce all losses by friction and shock. Outward flow turbines were made by Boy den* about 1848 for which he claimed an efficiency of 88 per cent. 1855. and the loss of head due to the velocity with which the water enters the * JLoivell Hydraulic Experiments. the water radially with a continuously entered the tail race with a diminishing velocity. The fall varies from 27 feet in dry weather to 14 feet in time of flood. The efficiency of inward and outward flow turbines including mechanical losses is from 75 to 88 per cent. may now be written varies 9 9 = '78to'9H. 2 In well designed inward and outward flow turbines from O'lOH to '22H and the hydraulic efficiency is. There are four wheels fixed to a vertical shaft. The loss by velocity head was thus diminished. 200. the cylindrical sluices which surround the upper wheels being set in such a position as to cover completely the exit to the wheel. . the general formula (1). The section of the crowns of the wheel of the Boyden turbine is shown in Fig. after leaving the wheel.U 2T&/H/. from 90 to 78 per cent. Outside of the turbine wheel was fitted a "diffuser" through which. J. Francis. and two from above. moved and 186. and Boyden claimed that the diffuser increased the efficiency by 3 per cent. B. diminishes gradually in velocity. therefore.TURBINES velocity with 315 effective which the water leaves the turbine the head is H. while at other times the full power is developed by the lower wheels alone. The upper wheels only work in time of flood. Some actual outward flow turbines. Double outward flow turbines. Calling the hydraulic efficiency e. The water after leaving the wheels. finally velocity much less. 199. than if it had done so direct from the wheel.
These passages serve the same purpose as Boyden's diffuser. The supply of water to the wheel is regulated by a horizontal cylindrical gate S. (Escher Wyss and Co. The pressure of the water in the supply pipe is prevented from causing end thrust on the shaft by the partition T. having a horizontal axis and exhausting down a " suction pipe. Double Outward Flow Turbine.) Outward flow turbine with horizontal axis. Outward flow turbines at Niagara Falls. 200. Fig.316 tail HYDRAULICS race is consequently small. and the supply and exhaust pipes. Fig. in that they allow the velocity of exit to diminish gradually. which slides on guides. and then passes down the exhaust pipe. and between T and the wheel the exhaust water has free access. and as the enlarging suction tube. The first turbines installed at Niagara Falls for the generation of electric power. . between the guide blades Gr and the wheel. The gate is connected to the ring R. 201 shows a section through the wheel." The water after leaving the wheel enters a large chamber. of an outward flow turbine. the lower end of which is below the tail race. outside the supply pipe P. and is under the control of the governor.
the upper partition having holes in it to allow the water free access underneath the wheel. Outward Flow Turbine with Suction Tube. by the water pressure itself. The weight of the vertical shaft. 202 and 203. The water passes upwards to one wheel and downwards to the other. There are two wheels on the same vertical shaft. The lower wheel is fixed to a solid shaft.TURBINES 317 were outward flow turbines of the type shown in Figs. 202. but is allowed to act on the lower side of the upper wheel. the water being brought to the chamber between the wheels by a vertical penstock 7' 6" diameter. 202 the water pressure in the chamber is prevented from acting on the lower wheel by the partition MN. the vertical shaft is formed of a hollow HK . is thus balanced. Fig. and of the wheels. As shown in Fig. Above this connection. 201. which passes through the centre of the upper wheel. and is connected to the hollow shaft of the upper wheel as shown diagrammatically in Fig.
.318 HYDRAULICS tube 38 inches diameter. the wheel is divided into three separate compartments as in Fourneyron's wheel. The regulating sluice is external to the wheel. In an inward flow turbine the water suction tube. 202. uruler th& upper wheel to support eight of the. The water only movement. A 203. where it is solid. vertical section through the lower wheel and a part sectional plan of the wheel is shown in Fig. To maintain a high efficiency at part gate. Like the outward flow turbine it may work drowned or with a 187. Gonrvee&on. is directed to the wheel passages external to the wheel. and 11 inches diameter. 195. Inward flow turbines. for HoUUvw and Solid Shaft Water adsrvilted. (Further particulars of these turbines and a description of the governor will be found in Cassier's Magazinej Yol. the blades during the radial . except where it passes through the bearings. and in Turbines Actuelle) Buchetti. and after flowing through guide radially finally leaves the wheel in a direction parallel to the axis. acts upon. Paris 1901. Diagrammatic section of Outward Flow Turbine at Niagara Falls.shaft Fig. III. and guide blades in Fig. thrust block is also provided to carry the unbalanced A weight.
B. 1855. the wheel was of the form shown in Fig. resting on a footstep. Francis.TURBINES 319 As improved by Francis*. and supported by a collar bearing placed above the staging S. in 1849. . 204 and was called by its inventor a "central vent wheel. * Lowell Hydraulic Experiments." I fc s The wheel is carried on a vertical shaft. F.
Y . the only difference r and u refer to the outer being that the velocities v. supported by bolts from the staging S. are drawn. Fig. which acts as a guide for the cylindrical sluice F. and carries the bearing B for the shaft. Fig. V. Francis' Inward flow or Central vent Turbine. There are 40 vanes in the wheel shown.320 HYDRAULICS Above tlie wheel is a heavy casting C. U. The triangles of velocities at inlet and outlet. exactly as for the outward flow turbine. 205. and 40 fixed guide blades. 204. the former being made of iron one quarter of an inch thick and the latter threesixteenths of an inch.
An inward and discharges L. and find the directions of the tips of the vanes at inlet and outlet so that there may be no shock and the water may leave radially. For maximum Fig. V : . flow turbine working under a head of 80 feet has The angle the tip of the vane radially. of the inlet circumference of the wheel Neglect friction.. The value Example (1). 21 . the wheel makes 55 revolutions per minute. 321 inner periphery of the Ui. and neglecting friction. of e varying as before between 078 and 0*90. the velocity at inlet is 25 feet per sec. H. . and wheel. draw the triangles of velocities at inlet and outlet.TURBINES periphery. y per lb.. and the radial velocity may be assumed constant and equal to 7*5 feet. y iVi  . and the inner diameter 63 feet.. Ibs. similar to those for When the flow is radial at exit. for a given flow through the wheel. Neglecting friction. The student should work the following example. y r and %! to the The work done on the wheel is . makes with the tangent to the wheel at exit is 30 degrees and the radial velocity Find the velocity radii at inlet and outlet is 175. g 9 2g' efficiency.. The head is 148 feet. The ratio of the is constant. outer diameter of an inward flow turbine wheel is 7*70 feet. The The losses of head by friction are an outward flow turbine (see page 313) and the general formula becomes Loss of head by friction. Ui should be radial exactly as for the outward flow turbine. radial blades at inlet. 205. ft.. v.
HYDRAULICS the velocity at exit la = Then and pjg tan 30. 200x550 395x59x625 Theoretical hydraulic efficiency The radial velocity of flow at inlet. Trijcungle cfPelociti^y Fig. Example (2) The outer diameter of the wheel of an inward flow turbine of 200 horsepower is 246 feet.49'3 per see. 206. velocity with which the water leaves the wheel may be taken as 10 feet per Determine the theoretical hydraulic efficiency E and the actual efficiency el of the turbine. V is equal to v r. The wheel makes 300 revolutions per minute. the inner diameter is 1968 feet. vz tan a 30 since the blades are radial at inlet . and design suitable vanes. The effective width of the wheel at inlet = 115 feet. The head is 39 '5 feet and 59 cubic feet of water per second are supplied. . The radial second.322 Since the discharge is radial. = 67 feet per sec. therefore v*=g 80 175 2 ^22! 2 ' from which V 32x80 10543 ft. ' .
and one of the guide blades Gr. and V = 28'0 ft. and The a = 18 nearly. Figs. tan = ^=0239. worm. so that the area of the wheel at the discharge is equal to the peripheral The radial velocities of flow at inlet peripheral area at inlet. and connected together by levers as shown The water is distributed to the wheel by these guide in Fig. sides or The and outlet are. can be varied. In 1851 Professor James Thomson's inward flow turbine. The advantage of this method of regulating the flow. Between the wheel and the chamber is a parallel passage. from the formula v _ 395 x 322 x 386 85 = 280 The angle 9. therefore.= 386 feet. feet per sec. and thus the power of the turbine. external to the casing. Assuming a hydraulic efficiency of 85 %. and the efficiency at part load is not much less than at full load. and For the water = 152. <j> Example Find the values and a on the assumption that e is 080.TURBINES The peripheral The velocity 323 velocity v = 246 . is that there is no sudden enlargement from the guide passages to the wheel. per sec. 207 to 210. the wheel of which was surrounded by a large chamber set eccentrically to the wheel. details of the wheel and casing are made slightly different from those shown in Figs. is Since V is less than v. equal. theoretical vanes are (3). and by turning the worm quadrant Q by means of the blades. Jo = 13 The angle <f>* 27'. of whirl V. 207. <f> greater than 90. crowns of the wheel are tapered. per sec. as shown in Figs. shown of in Fig. to discharge radially with a velocity of 10 feet per seo. Since w = 6'7 ft. 212 . 209 and 210 show an enlarged section and part sectional elevation of the turbine wheel. the supply of water to the wheel. pivoted on fixed centres C and which can be moved about the centres C by bell crank levers. Thomson invented an inward flow turbine. in which are four guide blades Gr. TT x 8^}. 206. 207 and 208 to illustrate alternative The methods.
equal to onehalf Fig. The exhaust for the turbine shown takes place down two suction tubes. As will be seen from the drawing the vanes of the wheel are made alternately long and short. every other one only continuing from the outer to the inner periphery. Guide blades and casing of Thomson Inward Flow Turbine. 207. but the turbine can easily be adapted to work below the tail water level. The inner radius r turbines of this class the external radius E. and generally is in made by English makers.324 HYDRAULICS in Thomson's turbine. .
233. 211. . page 352). Pictet Some actual inward flow turbines. have a much greater number of guide blades (see Fig. Section through wheel and casing of Thomson Inward Flow Turbine. and having a horizontal shaft. is shown in Fig. After leaving the wheel. Inward flow turbines with adjustable guide blades.. The regulating sluice F consists of a steel cylinder. as made by the continental makers. The path of the water through the wheel. The wheel is double and is surrounded by a large chamber from which water flows through the guides G to the wheel W. relative to the fixed casing. thus allowing the turbine to be placed well above the tail water while utilising the full head. is also shown and was obtained by the method described on page 312. exhaust takes place down the two suction tubes S. 188. which slides in a direction parallel to the axis between the wheel and guides. A later form of the Francis inward flow turbine as designed by and Co. Fig. the water leaving the wheel radially.TURBINES 325 The triangles of velocities for the inlet and outlet are shown in Pig. 212. 208.
Detail of wheel and guide blade of Thomson Inward Flow Turbine. 209. Fig. Fig. 211.   v .326 HYDKAULICS irvGwi/cLe. .210.
. so that any time only one can be partially closed. and loss of head by contraction and sudden enlargement of the stream.TURBINES 327 at The wheel is divided into five separate compartments. only takes place in this one compartment.
(Pictet and Co. and which can be controlled by hand or by the governor B. Inward Flow Turbine for a low and variable fall.) . 213 is an example of an inward flow turbine suitable to low falls and variable head. 213. It has a vertical axis and works drowned. and all of which stages can Fig. the two upper stages being shallower than the three lower ones. The wheel and the distributor surrounding the wheel are divided into five stages. The turbine shown in Fig.328 HYDRAULICS sluice stuffing F is moved by two screws T. which slide through boxes B. The Inward flow turbine for low falls and variable head.
The efficiency is less than when the three stages only are working.. and a head of about 6*25 feet. For an outward flow turbine... Gearing with these racks. With this construction a high efficiency With normal flows.. Fig. When one of the stages is only partially closed by the sluice. but as there is plenty of water available.. or by hand. When page 315.. and thus the same power may be obtained under a less head. the three lower stages only are necessary to give full power. If the blades are radial at inlet. and the efficiency is then a maximum. the two upper stages can then be brought into operation to accommodate a larger flow. having racks R fixed to their upper ends. but the efficiency of this one stage only is diminished.TURBINES 329 be opened or closed as required by the steel cylindrical sluice CO surrounding the distributor.. are pinions p. A gears with a second bevel wheel on a horizontal shaft.. the loss of efficiency is not serious. 213. of the turbine is maintained for partial flow. the stages that are still open working with their full efficiency. all of which are worked simultaneously by the bevel wheel fixed to the vertical shaft regulator.. v should be equal to Y.. Francis* found that when v was 0'626 Lowell.. the velocity ratio being 3 to 1. 189. . sometimes called the best velocity for v.. for no shock.. the discharge is is radial.. The cylinder C is carried by four vertical spindles S. and v = This is or V = G'624 to clearly understood that inlet. .. but the tail water rises so that the head is only about 4'9 feet... In times of flood there is a large volume of water available. The best peripheral velocity for inward and outward flow turbines. but it should be it is only so when the blades are radial at 190. Experimental determination of the best peripheral velocity for inward and outward flow turbines. a loss of efficiency must take place. the general formula. working under a head of 14 feet. as shown on = eH>078toO'90H .. (1). Hydraulic Experiments. with blades radial at inlet..
v was 20'8 feet per sec. when v was 0'708 v2#H and again when v was 637 be seen from Fig. so that the result of the experiment agrees well with the formula. which is also useful as being taken from a turbine of very high efficiency. Width between the crowns at inlet 0'999 foot. The value of Y was deduced from the following data. and If it is assumed that the water leaves the wheel radially. the general direction of the vane at inlet is inclined at an angle greater than 90 degrees to the direction of motion. If 3 per cent.. The radial velocity of flow u was. The velocity through the minimum section of the guide passage was 19 feet per second. Fig. and therefore for no shock Y should be less than v. and the total fall of the water was 13'4 feet. There were 40 vanes in the wheel and an equal number oi It will at the fixed guides external to the wheel. The minimum width of each guide passage was 0'1467 foot and the depth T0066 feet. which is 9 per cent. the total efficiency was over 79 per cent. 205. The quantity of water supplied to the wheel per second was 112*525 cubic feet. then When U Y eH= 9 1 = H'85 1*85 feet. 205. V equal to v. . therefore. was less than v. V. The however was over 78 per cent. the triangle is 18'4 feet per sec. and being taken as 19 feet per second. 205.3 30 the efficiency efficiency HYDRAULICS was a maximum and equal to 79'87 per cent. higher than the actual efficiency. From the formula ~Vv = *S24H. and taking v = '64 V2^H. Fig. 3*86 feet per second. of velocities at inlet is ABC. Diameter of wheel 9'338 feet. Then the the efficiency was a maximum. for values of v between 0624 \/2#H and 0'708 \/2#H. radial velocity of flow at inlet to the wheel being 3'86 feet. The efficiency e should be =88'5 per cent. For an inward flow turbine having vanes as shown in Fig. 205 that although the tip of the vane convex side is nearly radial. the greatest efficiency being 79'7 per cent. When v was '708 N/20H. be allowed for the mechanical losses the hydraulic efficiency may be taken as 82'4 per cent. for all values of v between 0'545 *j2gK and '671 \/2#H.
this value inward flow turbines. and assuming an Taking the data as given in the example of section 184.  18 ' 35  . in making calculations the difference between the actual and the hydraulic efficiency be taken as. may be used with confidence. By revolving the turbine without load by means of an electric motor. in using the formula = eH.. as a variation of 5 per cent. suppose the turbine to be still generating 2600 horsepower.H^O8. 5 per cent. efficiency for the turbine of 75 per cent. it is though difficult to say exactly how much of the energy is lost mechanically and how much hydraulically. and the mechanical losses for a given class of turbines.32. and these would probably be from 2 to 8 per cent. from no load to full load. Now .TURBINES 331 fluid losses The actual efficiency however includes not only the but also the mechanical losses. the horsepower is 215 x 624 x 1415 x 75 x 60 33. If whirl V the hydraulic efficiency should be is supposed to be 80 per cent. the frictional resistances of machines are fairly constant. is probably 0'80. and to have an efficiency of 80 per cent. the value of e to be used in A trial of a turbine without load. however. the error cannot be very great. may be said that. any given case is doubtful. and the actual work done by the turbine on the shaft is probably between 80 and 86*5 per cent. as the hydraulic losses in such a trial would be very much larger than when the turbine is working at full load.. and a hydraulic efficiency of 85 per cent. In general.000 =2600 horsepower.. 191. The best value for e. for and experience shows that Example. the work to overcome friction of bearings and other mechanical losses could be found. in the value assumed for the hydraulic efficiency e will only make a difference of a few degrees in the calculated value of t the angle <. At all loads.1835 0=132 47'. the velocity of Sg. of the work done by the water. could thus approximately be obtained. at the normal load for which the vane angles are calculated. would be useless to determine the mechanical efficiency. say.1415 v 69 =52 Then and tan feet per sec.. Value of e to be used in the formula it Vv = g eH.. If. or through the medium of a dynamometer. as even the efficiency of the class of turbines may be known.
332 Then HYDRAULICS the quantity of water required per second. and also corresponding values Fig. 192.1415 :55 4 69  ft. the ratio Vu satisfying the general ^ may vary between very wide limits without considerably altering the efficiency of the turbine. per sec. . 24'. The ratio of the velocity of whirl of the inlet periphery v. and the radial velocity of flow at inlet will be u= . Table XXXVII shows actual values of the ratio . is 215 x 075 : 200 cubic feet 08 per sec.32. per sec. 85.69 = 128. 1835x200 . =17'1 ft. consistent with formula. 214. V to the velocity Experience shows that. Then tan 171 : 171 136 "554. taken from a number of existing turbines.
For a given head. and mixed flow turbines. and the velocity of the receiving circumference v for some existing inward and outward. v may therefore vary within wide limits. . Fig. The corresponding variation in the angle <.TURBINES 833 of /s = ff > V being calculated from v = 0'8H. TABLE XXXVII. is from 20 to 150 degrees. Showing the heads. which allows a very large variation in the angular velocity of the wheel to suit particular circumstances. 214.
the wheel being full of water and surrounded by water at being sufficient to rest. varies 194. be the internal radius of a wheel. external radius. Fig. Consider any element of a ring of radius r and thickness dr.334 HYDRAULICS given and d Suppose then. page 303. In actual turbines the head lost due to this velocity head If a turbine is fitted with a from 2 to 8 per cent. It should however be noted that if the water leaves the wheel with a high velocity it is more than probable that there will be some loss of head due to shock. . In a welldesigned turbine the velocity with which the water leaves the turbine should be as small as possible. Let r. Fig. 216. 214 is drawn to illustrate three cases for which Yv is constant. Bernouilli's equations applied to friction. Let d be the depth of the wheel between the crowns. and R the . 216. it is necessary to consider the centrifugal head " impressed on the water by the wheel. consistent with keeping the turbine wheel and the downtake within reasonable dimensions. At the internal circumference let the wheel be covered with a cylinder c so that there can be no flow through the wheel. and V must be to satisfy the equation made Vv 9 =eH. 193. the pressure outside the wheel prevent the water being whirled out of the wheel. The velocity with which water leaves a turbine. inward and out ward flow turbines neglecting Centrifugal head impressed on the water by the wheel. This head has already been considered in connection with the Scotch turbine. as it is difficult to ensure that water so discharged shall have its velocity changed gradually. The angles of the vanes at outlet are the same for all and the vane angle </> at inlet vary three. Fig. the number of revolutions of the wheel to be is fixed. suction pipe the water may be allowed to leave the wheel itself with a fairly high velocity and the discharge pipe can be made conical so as to allow the actual discharge velocity to be as small as desired. The theory of the reaction turbines is best considered from the point of view of Bernoulli's equations but before proceeding to discuss " them in detail. but the guide angle considerably. and subtending a small angle 6 at the centre 0. and let it be supposed that the wheel is made to revolve at the angular velocity w which it has as a turbine. then v has a definite value.
e. therefore. 216. due to centrifugal forces. . Ibs. either inwards or outwards. therefore. and then read them through again. g Let p be the pressure per unit area on the inner face of the element and p + dp on the outer. Then wr . 191. .dr.d Fig. confining his attention to the outward flow turbine. .d. The student on first reading these Bernoulli's equations. pressure. Fig. this centrifugal head will always be impressed upon the water. 215. Fig. r The increase in the and B. the pressure in the water surrounding the wheel must be pc If now the cylinder c be removed and water is allowed to flow . or by some external agency.TURBINES 335 The weight of the element is . Fig.r.d. is. wV g. and acts as a pump. between w t PC _ U) /T>2 2\ _V Vl For equilibrium. whether the wheel is driven by the water as a turbine. equations will do well to confine his attention to the inward flow turbine. wr dr .. through the wheel. 217. . is and the centrifugal force acting on the element wrQ dr d wV .
Fig. in pounds be the total head. and the statical per square foot. Fig. or in the clearance between the wheel and the guides. H H Then at A w (i). If no head were impressed on the water as it flows through the wheel. and p a the atmospheric pressure. and therefore. the pressure head plus the velocity head at and B would be equal to each other. Between B and A the wheel impresses upon the water the centrifugal head _ 2g v being greater than for 2g> less for an inward flow turbine and the outward flow. pi the pressure at the outlet B. the inlet to the wheel. The triangles of velocities are as shown in Figs.w 2g 2g . 218 and 219. But between and B there is impressed on the water the centrifugal head. is .336 HYDRAULICS Let p be the pressure at A. The at velocity head at A is  and the pressure head  and B the velocity and pressure heads are and respectively. 217. 217. A A w 2g 2g _. Consider now the total head relative to the wheel at A and B. Let head at the centre of the wheel.
by substitution in (2). w w 2g . v* _t?i a . Fig. faYi)' + u? = P (VvY i { u* 2(7 2g From which U w and g g 2g g w ' 2g 2g g .Yi) 2 + U? and Yi2 + u* = Ui2 Vr = (vi Therefore Pi .+ ~from (1) Substituting for JT2 Fig. Fig 219.Hi+fis***.^ w w zg g g = L. Y!?_!^ = ^. 218. 9 . 23 U. Wheel in suction tube.. then w Substituting f or ^+ i in (6). and Uo is the velocity with which the water leaves the downpipe. From the triangles Y 2 r and ADE. HP.(3). 2 2 2 =(Y<y) + ^ andY + ^ = IP. . ODE and from the triangle BFGr. SI.TURBINES 337 This equation can be used to deduce the fundamental equation. 2 . .ftSl..(5). 218. If the centre of the wheel is 7i above the surface of the tail water.
or h . fcn. 2 and if at exit vr is is isosceles. .' = ^ 20' is 20 and the triangle of velocities at entrance The pressure head at entrance'is also isosceles. and at exit is either + fei . A special case arises when p considerable clearance may In this case a is equal to p. Drowned or the wheel wheel. =h ' From equation vV 9 = p Pi H* . for this case.+*. Equation (2). Fig. Hi 3 ' 9 w w 2g 2g so that the work done on the wheel per pound is the difference between the pressure head plus the velocity head at entrance and the pressure head plus velocity head at exit. the depth of the centre of the wheel below the race level. becomes lL = ^L + ^_^L 20 2g 20 2g' Vi. V. Fig. ^H^U. 99 t?iYi ViV! = JbL _ W= s~~ of water is again . 9 20 The wheel can therefore take full advantage of the head even though it is placed at some distance above the level of the tail H water. 20 vV g (5). and the work done is then the change in the kinetic energy of the jet when it strikes and when it leaves the wheel.338 HYDRAULICS IfVisO. be allowed between the wheel and the fixed guide without danger of leakage. In an impulse turbine p and pi are equal. and tail CD. is If the level of the tail water is Jh is drowned. fi. 219. 217. made equal to or the triangle BFG. w w ' and the work done on the wheel per pound vV IfVjisO.
. 195. ht the loss at exit from the wheel hf and in the suction pipe. (3).. Let Q be the number of cubic feet of water per second required by the turbine.. can be expressed as a fraction of H. then (lK)H=eH to 090II*.... or equal to KH.....TURBINES Therefore. Let H be the total head in feet under which the turbine works... Let E be the theoretical hydraulic efficiency. (4).. and Ui the velocity of exhaust.... Let e be the hydraulic efficiency... D N * See page 315. Let Ui be the radial velocity with which the water leaves the wheel.... Let 61 be the actual efficiency including mechanical losses. 2 7io The water then enters the wheel with a velocity equal to that due to the total head H.... or else U =H ^ = H. Let be the horsepower of the turbine. H(^ + hf + H/+k) = ...... +*+** and from which If the losses .. 2^ H + = H....... and the turbine becomes a freedeviation or impulse turbine.. and b be the width between the crowns at the outlet circumference.... Let B be the width of the wheel in feet between the crowns at the inlet circumference.... Let e m be the mechanical efficiency.... Let be the diameter of the wheel in feet at the inlet circumference and d the diameter at the outlet circumference.... a).... Bernoulli's equations for the inward and outward flow turbines including friction.. 222 . = 0'78H 196.. the loss of head in the wheel...... Turbine to develop a given horsepower... If H/ is the loss of head in the penstock and guide passages..... Let n be the number of revolutions of the wheel per minute.. since the pressures at entrance 339 and exit are equal. w = = w + fc e fci .
..... The diameter d can generally be given an arbitrary value.. (4). (2)....... _ m U 2 per sec ......... or a first approximation to d it may be neglected.340 HYDRAULICS of cubic feet per second required is The number * e\ N. From and and (4) and (5) b and d can now be determined... possible. then...... If the water leaves at both sides of the wheel as in Fig.. it ffc\ \oj. Then for A/^ /^Q> fi.. .. if t is the peripheral thickness of the the number of vanes.. vanes at outlet and m If Uo is not equal to Ui. 9 be assumed that this is equal to u\ which would of necessity be the case when the turbine works drowned.... 62'4. 208.33 000 eiH. since is U If it =\/20(lE)Hft..  v^ / j Ui V* m /\ 7 /^5\ ..... (3)..... then (irdmt) 1^1 = 0...... As a becomes first approximation mt may be taken as zero and (3) wd6wi = Q . is the radial velocity at inlet is to be the same as at outlet....... A ratio for T having d if i D can be calculated.... and the thickness t are somewhat vanes The number of but in welldesigned turbines t is made as small as arbitrary. (TT m ... and u may be taken as equal to %....... 60 ? ' A reasonable value for is 75 per cent. the axial velocity is UQ  j j a= ft... been decided upon. the thickness of the vanes at inlet. or exhausts into the air. The velocity U with which the water leaves the turbine. per sec. For an inward flow turbine the diameter d is fixed from consideration of the velocity with which the water leaves the wheel in an axial direction. and the diameter of the shaft is d .
... (10). y . the triangle of velocities at inlet can be drawn and the direction of flow and of the tip of vanes and <. Vv = V= ^ ft. to is practically zero. c^ Assuming to be 75 per cent. the triangle of velocities can be drawn. is At exit t?i = irn gQ f . Fig.. and v are known.. Ho is the head of water at the centre of the wheel and H/ the by friction in the supply pipe and guide passages.. An inward and to flow turbine is required to develop 300 horsepower under run at 250 revolutions per minute. Since u.TURBINES 341 For rolled brass or wrought steel blades. ^~ 75x60x624x60 = 587 cubic feet per sec.. 214..000 ...... 300 x 33.. the peripheral velocity is P er sec Then and if e is eR. per sec (8)...... can be calculated from at inlet determined. it. by shaping them as in Fig. Then 7TUL) If now the number of revolutions is fixed by any special condition.. 227. t may be very small. or a calculated from v\ . a bead 6U feet. say 80 per cent. and for blades cast with the wheel. per sec. To determine the leading dimensions of the turbine. the pressure head at the inlet is If head lost " Example. Then the velocity of flow at inlet.. Or (9) and tan< = IT.... V.. 9 given a value. and taking u^ as radial and equal tan a = to u. such as having to drive an alternator direct.. at some definite speed.
220 shows a double compartment axial flow turbine. The circumferential section of the vanes at any radius when turned into the plane of the plan of the wheel is also shown. . The pressure head at the outlet of the wheel will depend upon the height of the wheel above or below the tail water. A triangles of velocities at inlet and outlet for any radius are similar to those for inward and outward flow turbines. The U at inlet is = 413 The absolute pressure head 2 ft. Fig. paper is as shown in Fig. Assuming 80 per cent.342 of exit HYDRAULICS cent. the The velocities v and v i9 Figs. feet per sec. make allowance for shaft b and to keep even dimension. of the Assuming E is 95 per and Uj = u. 80 x 60 x 32 T7 . . and B=5 e to be inches say. 222 and 223. D=30 feet.as 18. the guide blades being placed above the wheel and the flow through the wheel being parallel to the axis. at the inlet to the wheel is =H +^ . per sec. 138 and 0=91 15'.3^3 . and v = TT 3 *f = 393 .. the head lost by friction in the down pipe = H + 34 265 ft/. = ^ JL'OD = 82 foot =9 Taking inches say. 138x18 and a =32 velocity 18'. being equal. Then from page 340. Then from (4) . . and 0=19 30'. per sec< 138 .. 221.hf.60 feet w= 138 (5). per sec. Parallel or axial flow turbines. = 165 say 20 inches to feet. 197.. head is lost by velocity  and = 05. or five per cent.
9 . 221. the water should the wheel in a direction parallel to the axis. so that it has leave no momentum in the direction of v. 220.TURBINES 343 The general formula now becomes U. Then. 223. Double Compartment Parallel Flow Turbine. 1 efficiency for a given flow. Figs. taking friction and other losses into account. 222. For maximum Fig.
224. = 2'5 feet = 3'75 feet and v = 2nr f = 14*4 and Vi = 2irri f = 21'5 and v2 = 27rr2 f = 24*5 is feet per sec.344 HYDRAULICS velocity v will be proportional to the radius.. A To vanes. The flow is 300 cubic feet per second. Vi = ni^c = 17'9 ft. in the The water <. r TI r2 Then feet per sec. Jonval wheel has an internal diameter of 5 feet and an external diameter of 8' 6". e Taking as 0'80 at each radius. The head is 15 feet and the wheel makes 55 revolutions per minute. and to design the wheel Let TI be any radius. Triangles of velocities at inlet and outlet at three different radii of a Parallel Flow Turbine. is the triangle of velocities at inlet and the ADC ABC . the angles 0. T7 _0'8. = 4*25 feet The mean axial velocity u= 300 = 8 15 ' f Fig. and r and r2 the radii of the wheel at the inner and outer circumference respectively.15 V = JL"J? ~a? 14'4 385 j.. a must vary with the radius. The triangles of velocities for the three radii r. is and The variation form of the vane with the radius is shown by an example. at radius r. feet per sec.~x ~x = 26'7 ft. per sec. find the horsepower of the wheel. per sec. Inclination of the vanes at inlet. per sec.. The depth of the wheel is 7 inches. so that if the to enter and leave the wheel without shock. For example. ri. V 2 = oTTc = 15*7 ft. 224. r2 are shown in Fig.. 32'2.
> from wnicn ^ = 137 6'. the inclination of the guide blade will have to vary from 17 to 27 degrees or else there will be loss by shock. The inclination of the vanes at exit. To get over this difficulty the upper edge only of each guide blade may be made radial. The inclination of the guide blade 8 15 ' at each of the three radii. 225 let r and R be the radii of the inner and outer crowns of the wheel and also of the guide blades. being made parallel to the upper edge of the guide. At Gr it will leave HGr perpendicular to OGr. the lower tips of the guide blades and the upper tips wheel vanes are made radial as in the plan.= ^> <u4 O = 18 22'. at the edge DGr to have an inclination ft . tan If . tan = <ft . instead of being radial. _ 8'15 > fr m which < = 3330'. In Fig. from which = 17. inclined at ft to the horizontal line AB. inlet are 345 inclinations of the vanes at The found from O. If then a section of the guide is taken by a vertical plane perpendicular to DG the elevation of the tip of the vane on this plane will be AL. tan^ji^ tan<92 and ^ = 24 and 2 30'. Fig. it will leave of the now MN the guide in a direction perpendicular to in a direction OD. = Zi O = 20 48'. the lower edge of the guide blade and the upper edge of each vane. DGr being parallel to MN. 221. suppose the guide to the plane of the paper.TURBINES triangle of velocities at outlet. = f^ lo / = 27 30'. Let be the plan of the upper edge of a guide blade and let DGr be the plan of the lower edge. Then as the water runs along the guide at D.l K . and AC Now XX . tan a. = 113 50. tan < 2 = 8'15 15 7 _ 245 .
....... are equal..... = cos a tan p . BC and ED tan B = y tan /? (1).. (4).. tan 2 = cos(a + )tan/3 .. cos (a + and Therefore and Again.. Let y be the perpendicular distance between Let the angles GOD and GOH be denoted by an a respectively. < MN HK and But GH tan a = # tan /3 (2).. and make each of Then the angle EDF is the inclination of the the plane of the paper. Since EF. These should be equal to and a.... 225.. (3)... Draw EF and HK and GH respectively..346 will HYDRAULICS be the intersection of the plane suppose XX with the plane tangent to the tip of the vane.. Plan of guide blades and vanes of Parallel Flow Turbines...... flarb of lower edge of guide....... OD DE stream line at D to and OG respectively.... = XV a..... and DGr. blade'& ofupper edge* of* Fig. and the angle HGK is be the projections on the plane on the tangent plane AC and the inclination of the stream line at G to the plane of the paper. Let x and y be the coordinates of the point D. intersection of the axes.. There are thus three equations from which and P can be being the determined... . <f> sin a (5). Now DE two and GH to of the paper of perpendicular to lines lying perpendicular to them equal to BC..
three equations x. and the constant The length of the guide blade at the edge DG so that the stream lines at D and Gr shall slope have the correct inclination. Fig. thus found. Solving simultaneously x = 1*14 feet. and the is tips of the vane at D and G are made as in Figs. and from which y = 2'23 feet.TURBINES 347 Then and from (5) cos (a cos a R V/ITZ ] 2 ' tan and tan obtained with Substituting for cos (a + <) and cos a and the known values of are 2 in the three equations (35). If now the upper edge of the vane is just below DG. < and . Fig. 226. 226 228. and ft as the unknowns. 228. tan p = 0'67. y. p = 34.
and the circular sections DD'. connected to a ring which could be raised or lowered by three vertical rods having nuts at the upper ends fixed to toothed pinions. 226 228. Fontaine placed sluices in the guide passages. the water will move on to The plane D'G'. of the lower edge of the vane may now be taken as Fig. and may be made in several compartments as in Fig. Fontaine fixed the turbine wheel to a hollow by a shaft which was carried on a footstep above the turbine. When Fig. To regulate the Regulation of the flow to parallel flow turbines. so that the flow can be regulated. PQ. 220. r. The wheel may be made with the crowns opening outwards. 229. 6' respectively. In dry weather flow the head is about . In this example. similar to the Grirard turbine shown in Fig.HYDRAULICS < 2 being 33 30' and 137 the vane without shock. and three radii. the sluices required adjustment.3 feet and the gates of the inner ring can be almost closed as the outer ring will give the full . Adjustable guide blades for Parallel Flow Turbine. The axial flow turbine is well adapted to low falls with variable head. 230. 254. In some modern parallel flow turbines the guide blades are pivoted. so that the axial velocity with which the water leaves the wheel may be small. flow through a parallel flow turbine. 225. Fig. only the inner ring is provided with gates. Fontaine's Sluices. as in Fig. 230. in section. the nuts were revolved together central toothed wheel gearing with the toothed pinions carrying the nuts. GGT at the 198. as in Fig. r1} and r2 are then as in Figs. 229.
per second and supposing the minimum fall is V 8". The radial width of the inner compartment is 1' 9" and of the outer compartment r 6". feet. 349 During times of flood. p + therefore Y 2Yi. the head falls to 2 feet. and the horsepower is per seo. feet. due to the shock in the guide passages of the inner ring. Example. from which.000 k ~GOx625x3x7 = 556sq. The weight of water passing through the wheel is W=954 x 624 x 325 Ibs. Neglecting the thickness of the blades.(125 a 95 2 ) = 52 < 6 sq. Hp = l<l800xl*6x0. page 335. V . find the horsepower of the wheel when all the guide passages are open. ^2V t?+Vi 1 ~~ P! a . 2 2 g w H n ^ 2g 2g w . Efficiency 70 per cent. the abundance of water renders this unimportant. and find what portion of the inner compartment must be shut off so that the horsepower shall be the same under a head of 3 feet. Bernouilli's equations for axial flow turbines. and although. or the outer wheel will nearly develop the horsepower required. Bernouilli's equations for an axial flow turbine can be written down in exactly the same way as for the inward and outward flow turbines._ i . per sec. between Then. . A double compartment Jonval turbine has an outer diameter of 6" and an inner diameter of 6 feet. is equal to v if 2 i. Total area = 95 4 sq.7 550 Assuming the is velocity of flow constant the area required when the head 3 feet is 408x33.3001bs. u v pi p V +5. = 19. inlet and w since v 2 + F= w 2g <u? ' + ^+A 2g /. 199.+ ^. Allowing a velocity of flow of 325 ft. 12' the area of the outer compartment = . feet. except that for the axial flow The turbine there is no centrifugal head impressed on the water outlet. the wheel is not so efficient. and the number of revolutions per minute 14.TURBINES power. larger supply of water at less head can thus be A allowed to pass through the wheel. + 2 ~~ g + p. and when there is plenty of water.= w + Qw 2g 2g g 2g u u. inner = 2 (9'5 6 2)=428 sq. = p _. R and. and the sluices of the inner ring are opened. feet.
By a modification of the shape of the vanes of an inward flow turbine. If V = TL ^. U ^ 1 p i/ . 231. Fig. the axis of which is vertical. fit 200.^ H^ ~\7"<j) it 2 Hrfc. Mixed flow turbines. 220. 231 shows a diagrammatic section through the wheel of a mixed flow turbine. Mixed Flow Turbine. Fig. but in the mixed flow turbine the vanes are so formed that the water acts upon them also. the mixed flow turbine is obtained. 223. while flowing axially. But and w w Therefore. The water . In the inward and outward flow turbine the water only acts upon the wheel while it is moving in a radial direction. i/ I/ ^!/ Ui is axial and equal to w.350 HYDRAULICS in Fig. p. as in Fig.
232. 235 an through the wheel and casing of a having adjustable guide blades to shows a half longitudinal section of outside elevation of the guide blade regulating gear. 234 the turbine. The regulation of the supply to the wheel in the turbine of Fig. the inclination of the discharging edge should so vary. 232. axially. and Fig. Fig. i. Fig.e. component in a direction perpendicular to the axis of the turbine. but it leaves the discharging edge of the vanes in different At the upper part B it leaves the vanes nearly directions. The vanes are spoonas shown in Fig. and should be so formed. that wherever the water leaves the vanes it should do so with no radially.TURBINES 351 enters the wheel in a horizontal direction and leaves it vertically. 231 is effected by a cylindrical sluice or speed gate between the fixed guide blades and the wheel. and at the lower part A. 233 shows a section double mixed flow turbine regulate the flow. The guide blades are surrounded by a large . words. or in other shaped. Fig. with no velocity of whirl. Wheel of Mixed Flow Turbine.
233. one of which is made to revolve about the centre C. the adjustment of the other guide blades is not interfered with. and thus locking one of them. Section through wheel and guide blades of Mixed Flow Turbine. 233.352 HYDRAULICS vortex chamber. further special feature is that between the ring and each of the guide blade cranks is interposed a spiral spring. The moveable parts are made so that the flow can be varied from zero to its maximum value." . Fig. so as to diminish shock at the entrance Each guide blade is really made in two to the guide passages. the outer tip is fixed. noticed that the mechanism for moving the guide blades is entirely external to the turbine. as the spring connected to the locked blade by its elongation will allow the ring to rotate. the mixed flow turbine wheel may either work drowned. while parts. It will be Fig. and the outer tips of the guide blades are of variable shapes. and is consequently out of the water. As with the inward and outward flow turbine. A R In the event of a solid body becoming wedged between two of the guide blades. or exhaust into a "suction tube.
by the diameter of the exhaust openings of the wheel. the diameter of a mixed flow turbine can be made less than an inward flow turbine. and the 23 L.TURBINES 353 For a given flow. of the latter will be much The external diameter. and width of wheel. smaller than for the former. whether the turbine is an inward or mixed flow turbine. For the same axial velocity.IL . the axial velocity with which the water finally flows away from the wheel being the same for the two cases. Halflongitudinal section of Mixed Flow Turbine. 234. and the same total flow. the diameter of the inward flow turbine is in large measure fixed Fig. As shown on page 340. the diameter d of the exhaust openings must be about equal. therefore.
354 HYDRAULICS general dimensions of the turbine will be also diminished. For a given head H. the velocity v of the inlet edge being the same in the two cases. m . the mixed flow turbine can be run at a higher angular velocity. which is sometimes an advantage in driving dynamos.
not easily found.'A" "" <fc ^ Triangle of Velocities at receiving edge. Fig. and describe a circle and MI. as the exact direction of flow at any point on the discharging edge of the vane is . is parallel ABC. The outline of the discharge edge FGrH is shown. This edge of the vane is supposed to be on a radial plane.TURBINES 355 Form blade is oftlie vanes. This triangle has been drawn for the data 235 . perpendicular parts. is the triangle of velocities. The condition to be satisfied is that the water must leave the wheel without any component in the direction of motion. It is now necessary to draw the form of the stream lines. 237. Take any point A. touching the crowns of the wheel at Join AM and AMi. and the plan of it is. v is 46'5 feet per second. 6. of the turbine shown in Figs. 233 BO and from Y = 33'5 feet per second. and upon this radius the section is taken. The best form The following construction gives approximately the form of the vane. Fig. difficult to for the vane at the discharge is somewhat determine. 236. d. Make a section through the wheel as in Fig. Draw a flat curve Mi Mi touching the lines AM and AM in M and MI respectively. and as near as can be estimated. not far from c. as they would be approximately. the vanes being removed. MM a M a 233 . 236. The anglo < is 139 degrees. and to the tip of the blade. therefore. a radius of the wheel. At the receiving edge. 237. at the inlet. say four. Divide 04. into any number of equal and subdivide by the points a. '\ w /"" v. e. as centre. if the water entered the wheel radially and flowed out axially. Fig. the direction of the found in the same way as for an inward flow turbine.
If . the flow through Md will be equal to that through when. the area peripheral area of Mci is nearly 2wrMci. 6. 237. any point Ci on MMi is now taken not far from A. Let the radius of the points g and / be r and r L respectively.356 to the HYDRAULICS probable stream lines through a. e. two points / and g near the centres of and AM are taken. Taking this curve MMi as approximately perpendicular to the stream lines. Fig. and the peripheral of MiCi is nearly SSwriM^. d. On the assumption that the mean velocity through MiM is constant. which can be sketched in approximately for a short distance from 04.
If a circle be struck on this plane with as centre. and the points Ca. therefore. circle into the plane of the velocities FST. If the two curves are not perpendicular. . on the centre stream line. At the points F. and therefore at = u G ~R 2 mn = i . which and e intersect the outlet edge of the vane at the points F. etc. normal to the stream lines. and these again subdivided by the curves aa. that the water shall discharge radially. By approximation Ci can be thus found with considerable accuracy. By drawing other circles to touch the crown of the wheels. the point Ci cannot be much in error. this circle may be taken as an imaginary discharge circumference of an inward flow turbine. the curves 2 3 4 5 etc. H. A nearer approximation to Ci can be found by taking new values for r and n. i. and new values of r and n will have to be obtained by moving the points / and g. and R the radius of the point F. dd. are equal. now when the stream line cci is carefully drawn in. The point F in the plane of FK is moving perpendicular to the plane of the paper with a velocity equal to w. c3 etc. This is the interwith the plane of the paper. it is perpendicular to MMi. Proceeding in a similar manner. Gr. the velocity v of which is u>R and the tip of the blade is to have such an inclination. since the flows through 01. To determine the direction of the tip of the vane at points on the discharging edge. O7T FK to the stream line at F. The curve 22. of a plane perpendicular to the paper and tangent to the stream line at F. Turning this Draw a tangent section. 12. along FK. K .R w being the angular velocity of the wheel. . with a velocity up. MMi is divided at the point so that the point If d will approximately be on the stream line through c. can be obtained.TUKBTNES If.e. and the velocities U F) U Q . UH can be found. H respectively. parts. and ee. the the piano FK is paper and drawing the triangle of inclination a r of the tip of the blade at F in obtained. obtained by moving the points / and g so that they more nearly coincide with the centres of CiM and CiMi. . 66. the directions of the stream lines are known. the curve MMi and the point Ci are not quite correct. 857 Ci therefore. divides the stream lines into equal MM MM . the curves 11 and 33 can be obtained. Gr. dividing the stream lines into four equal parts.
at other points on similarly found. 233. its outlet edge. Fig.358 HYDRAULICS Gr At the stream line is nearly vertical. on this plane. in definite planes. as before. The angle this plane makes with the tangent to the wheel at b is the angle <. Let BC of the same figure be the . Imagine a vertical plane tangent to the tip of the vane at inlet. At H. Fig. 238 and 239. Sections of the vane "by planes 0Gb. 239. 236. and are determined as follows. but wRg can be set out in the plane of the paper. is found. dtn is found in the same way. These are shown in Figs. can be Fig. and OiHd. perpendicular to UQ and the inclination a . and the direction of the vane.
and intersecting AB produced in E. The sluice S 2 is normally out of action. UOQ being the component along OG. of this class. The tangent to the vane at D is parallel to FE. the inclination at the inlet is y2 Fig. 241. double turbine working in open stream and discharging through a suction tube This is a convenient arrangement for is shown in Fig. . Fig. with D as centre* and DE as radius draw the arc EG intersecting DB produced in G. 236. BD From D. and the angle CGF is the angle on the plane 0GB which the tangent to the vane makes with the direction of motion of the inlet edge of the vane. The wheel is divided into three distinct compartments. and making 150 revolutions per minute.TURBINES 359 the plan of plan of a horizontal line lying in this plane. and the radius of the wheel at 6. Fig. 201. 237. and is known as the cone turbine. It has been designed by Messrs Escher Wyss to meet the demand for a turbine that can be adapted to variable flows. . In Fig. . of inward flow turbine. having four wheels on the same shaft and working under a head of 25 feet. along and perpendicular to OG. Mixed flow turbine working in open stream. set out DE. 238. of 1500 horsemoderately power. A. inclined to BD at an angle /?. resolve U Q Fig. To determine the angle a at the outlet edge. The angle CGD is the angle 71. is shown in Fig. the section on the plane Hd. Si and S 2 The sluices S and Si are each moved by three vertical spindles such as A and AI which carry racks at their upper ends. may be determined. 239. low falls. which is partly axial and partly radial. These two sluices move in opposite directions and thus balance each other. 237. Join CG. 240. which the line of intersection. of the plane 0Gb. 238 the inclination of the inlet tip of the blade is yi as shown. Fig. The angle between these lines is y. Another type The example shown has been erected at Gusset near Lyons and makes 120 revolutions per minute. Let ft be the inclination of the plane OGfe to the horizontal. Cone turbine. 237. the upper . Draw the triangle of velocities DEF. with the plane tangent to the inlet tip of the vane. the supply of water being regulated by three cylindrical sluices S. have recently been installed by Messrs Escher Wyss at Wangen an der Aare in Switzerland. Turbines. makes with the radius 0&. Fig. In the same way.
The weight of the shaft is by the waterpressure piston which has acting underneath it a pressure per unit area equal to that in the supply chamber. D on the spindles carrying the sluice Si. The wheel shaft can be adjusted by nuts working on the squarethreaded screw shown. The pinion. one of which C is shown. is rotated by two connecting rods. Feet 6 Fig. is fixed to the shaft M. gearing with racks on A and AI. .360 HYDRAULICS is compartment being closed. which is rotated by the rack R gearing with the bevel pinion Q. and which are under the control of the hydraulic governor as described on page 378. When it is desired to raise the sluice S it is revolved by means of the pinion P until the arms F come between collars The wheel a. The dimensions shown are in millimetres. The rack R. and the sluice S 2 falls with Si. and is carried on a special collar and E then rises and bearing supported partly balanced by the bracket B. shaft T is turned by hand by means of a worm and W. connected to the vertical shaft T. 240. At low heads this upper compartment allowed to come into operation. The sluice S 2 carries a rack which engages with a pinion P.
241. Cone Turbine.TURBINES 361 Fig. .
will remain practically constant as the guides are moved. which the guide makes with the tangent to the wheel. On turning the guides into the dotted position. the when altering turbines. 2 is Bd to AB. at the inlet to the wheel.362 202. y Fig. but BC. HYDRAULICS Effect of changing the direction of the guide blade. therefore. the inclination of these stream tangent to the wheel will be actually greater than <'i. loss due to shock. and suppose the inclination of the tip of the blade is made parallel to BC. through the guides. and A velocity equal to the water. 242. direction will be suddenly changed from drawn parallel to its magnitude to BC 2 . dC dCa has therefore to be suddenly impressed on On page 68 it has been shown that on certain assumptions the . consequently. the triangle of velocities is ABCi. Fig. but as the angle 0. diminishes. and the relative velocity of the water and the periphery of the wheel is now Bd which is inclined to the vane. the flow of inward flow and mixed flow as the velocity of a wheel remains constant. Let ABC. 242. The velocity of flow U. be the triangle of velocities for full opening. As long backward head impressed on the water by the wheel is the same. diminishes the radial component u of U. It will be seen that in the dotted position the tips of the guide blades are some distance from the periphery of the wheel and it is probable that the stream lines on leaving the guide blades follow lines to the the dotted curves SS. the inclination being <'i. and there is. remain constant. and BCi will then be more nearly parallel to BC. and the pressure head. and if so. The loss may be approximated to as follows : As the water enters the wheel its its radial component will remain unaltered. will.
k being a coefficient which may be taken as approximately unity. 203. If water leaves a wheel radially when the flow is a maximum. and the wlieel is drowned. . the velocity with which the water leaves the The angle u and uQ wheel is Ui. as also.TURBINES head from lost 363 is when the velocity of a stream suddenly changed Vi to v* is that Vi is. 243. the triangles of velocity are DEF and DEFi. If this is greater than u. For part flow. the loss of head by friction in the supply and exhaust pipes. by friction in the wheel due to the relative velocity of the water and the vane. it will not do so for any other flow. therefore. but if the discharge is down a less suction tube the velocity with which the water leaves the tube than for full flow and the theoretical hydraulic efficiency is is greater for the part flow. By suitably designing the vanes. of the tip of the blade at exit is unalterable. Effect of diminishing the flow through turbines on the velocity of exit. at full and part load respectively. The loss of head. the greatest efficiency of inward flow and mixed flow turbines can be obtained at some fraction of full load. Fig. should also be diminished. The mechanical losses remain practically constant at all loads. in large measure be due to the losses by shock being increased more than the friction losses are diminished. which is less than at full load. The fact that the efficiency of turbines diminishes at part loads must. and if are the radial velocities of flow. or the exhaust takes place into the air. the theoretical hydraulic efficiency is less than for full load. it is equal to the head due to the relative velocity of and v 2 But CiC 2 is the relative velocity of BCi and BC 2 . and therefore the head lost at inlet may be taken as .
Regulation of the flow by cylindrical gates. Then for the water to move along the vane a sudden velocity equal to must be impressed on & (KD) 2 the water. Let the flow be diminished until the velocity with which the water leaves the guides is to AD. Draw parallel to AB. and there is a head lost equal to . gate is bi than and the velocity TJ remains more nearly constant. 245. when the flow is velocity normal. and u is the radial velocity of flow into the wheel. 244. the speed of the turbine is adjusted by a gate between the guides and the wheel. U U DK KD ^ more nearly constant Mr Swain has introduced the gate shown in Fig. When U with which the water leaves the guide is altered in magnitude but not in direction. and the flow is less than the normal. 245. the 204. and to adjust the flow the guide blades as well as the gate are moved. Let ABC be the triangle of velocities. . and the radial velocity u Fig. Fig. Swain Gate. If the raised. the width b of the wheel opening will be greater the width of the gate opening. 246. equal Then BD is the relative velocity of and v. . Fig. The gate g is rigidly connected to the guide blades. The effective width of the To keep the velocity U guides is thereby made approximately proportional to the quantity of flow.
Fig. The form of the vanes between inlet and outlet of turbines should be such. and let q be the flow in cubic feet per second between the vanes Ae and B/. that there is no sudden change in the relative velocity of the water and the wheel. and d the effective width ef between the vanes. The form of the wheel vanes between the inlet and outlet of turbines. Consider the case of an inward flow turbine. Having given a form to the vane and fixed the width between the crowns of the wheel the velocity relative to the wheel at any radius r can be found as follows. .TURBINES 365 into the wheel will consequently be less than the radial velocity u from the guides. Let be the effective width between the crowns. Or it may be supposed that in the space between the guide and the wheel the velocity U changes from AC to ACi. 247. 246. Relative velocity of tlie water and the vanes. The loss of head will now be k (COO 29 2 205. Fig. Fig. b lug. 247. If U is assumed constant the relative velocity of the water and the vane will suddenly change from BC to BOi. 248. Take any circumferential section ef at radius r.
By trial. the vanes should be made so that the variation of velocity is as uniform as possible. but a second trial will probably make it do so. Join to the centres of these circles and draw a curve MCMi and MI respectively. It will be seen that in this case the curve of relative velocities changes fairly suddenly between c and h. . MMi can be scaled off the drawing and v r calculated. If then. touching the radii OM and OMi at Then MCMi will be practically normal to the stream lines The centre of MCMi may not exactly through the wheel. Suppose the vanes near e M coincide with the centre of ef. plotted as The curve of shown relative velocities for varying radii can then be in the figure. . If the vanes could be made involutes of a circle of radius E . as centre touches the vanes at M and / to be struck with arcs of circles. Fig. 249. .366 HYDRAULICS radial velocity through e/is The Find by drawn with trial near the centre of ef such that a circle a point and MI. 6 MMi vr = q. b is the effective width between the crowns at C.
and the maximum value for u to be 0'25 V2grH. which is higher than generally allowed in practice. it is seen that the whirling velocity greater than v + u cot <. is given by the equation 256H. for the limiting case. cannot be e. and the crowns of the wheel parallel. If v is assumed to have a limiting value of 100 feet per second. Fig. must clearly always be greater than limiting <. sin $. as the angles and B are not independent. Reynolds proposed that the wheels . 249. For parallel flow turbines. Jtio rf r sin sin0 r = R. V Assuming the smallest value for <f> to be 30 degrees. and e to be 0'8.TURBINES 367 as in Fig.346 VS = 10. From the triangle of velocities at inlet of a reaction turbine.g. .B 9 becomes. the general formula S. and or . makes with the circumferences at < A for from the figure it is seen that. This form of vane is however entirely unsuitable for inward flow turbines and could only be used in very special cases for and which the involute outward flow turbines. r . the relative velocity of the wheel and the water would remain constant. then the maximum head which can be utilised in a one H stage reaction turbine. or H = 530 feet. the same water passing through them successively. Professor Osborne Eeynolds has suggested the use of two more turbines in series.. Series or multiple stage reaction turbines. impulse turbines of the types to be presently described being used for heads greater than this value. The head for a single stage reaction Eeaction turbines have not yet been made to work under heads higher than 430 feet. turbine. from which 207. and a portion of the head being utilised in each. 226.000. 9 The angle 206.
* Taken from Prof. Vol. Reynolds' Scientific Papers. very Fig. 250. mrnmm^ f^""^ Toothed quadrant: Figs. x. 250*. largely used in reaction steam turbines. . Axial Flow Impulse Turbine. is and fixed blades be arranged alternately as shown This arrangement. 251.3Go HYDRAULICS in Fig. although not used in water turbines. 252.
about 1850. which are made to rotate about a vertical axis by means of a toothed wheel. Impulse turbines. the free deviation or partial admission turbine. and the turbine is a pure impulse turbine. formed on the end of the arms which are connected wheel TW.TURBINES 208. can be made to close any desired number Several other types of regulators for of the guide passages. Girard turbine. are two indiarubber bands. in the Girard turbine it is only allowed to enter the wheel through guide passages in two diametrically opposite is Fig. the air should be freely admitted to the buckets as shown in Figs. and in the last radial. by means of a cylindrical quadrantshaped sluice. impulse turbines were introduced by Girard and others. any desired number of the In Fig. 252 above the guide crown are two quadrantshaped plates or gates 2 and 4. When the gates are over the quadrants 2 and 4. In Fig. which. the flow 254. To overcome the efficiency with diminution of flow. H. as in the previous case. thus opening or closing the guide passages. and fixed at the opposite ends of a diameter DD. The conical rollers can rotate on journals. 252 In the first two. the rollers can be made rotating to unwrap. For small heads the wheel must be horizontal but for large heads it may be vertical. the indiarubber band. Girard introduced. As the Girard turbine is not kept full of water. Fig. and by turning the gates in the direction of the arrow. axial. This class of turbine has the disadvantage that L. the other ends of the bands being connected to two conical rollers. 253. 252 to the toothed A and 254. To prevent loss of head by broken water in the wheel. all the guide passages are open. 369 difficulty of diminution of Instead of the water being admitted to the wheel throughout the whole circumference as in the reaction turbines. pinion P gears with TW. 253 shows a regulator employed by Fontaine. and by the spindle carrying the pinion P. it cannot 24 . or wrap up. quadrants as shown in Figs. Above the effected guide blades. 254 the variation of flow is passages can be closed. the whole of the available head is converted into velocity before the water enters the wheel.
an head equal to half the width of the wheel must of necessity be lost. For low and variable heads the full head cannot therefore if the wheel is to be clear of the tail water. Fig. the pressure being maintained at the necessary value to keep the surface of the water in the tube below the wheel. To overcome this difficulty Grirard placed the wheel in an air tight tube. be utilised. 254. 254. for of amount Fig. the lower end of which is below the tail water level. Girard Eadial flow Impulse Turbine. and into which air is pumped by a small auxiliary airpump. and hence must always be placed above the tail >vater.370 HYDRAULICS run drowned. .
owing H to the difficulty of preserving the pressure in the tube. is equal to the relative The triangle of velocities at exit is AGB. For the axial flow turbine Vi equals v and the relative velocity vr at exit. 254 and 258. 371 H be the total head above the tail water level of the supply the pressure head due to the atmospheric pressure. Then the airpressure in the tube must be W and the head causing velocity . Fig. . The form of the vanes for impulse turbines. The triangle of velocities then DEF. Fig. 242 .TUKBINES Let water. water the full fall This system. neglecting friction. however. that in the radial flow turbine the area of the section of the stream by the circumference of the wheel. the theoretical hydraulic efficiency H and Ui independent should be observed. is If the velocity with which the water leaves the wheel is Ui. 255. will depend upon the radial component of Ui. and h the distance of the surface of the water in the tube below the tail water level. ~\7 2 neglecting friction. W W So that wherever the wheel is placed in the tube below the tail is utilised. therefore. however. 256. 255. neg lecting friction. of flow into the wheel is. and in the axial flow turbine the area of the section of the is of the direction of . r at inlet. Figs. 209. It stream by a plane perpendicular to the axis will depend upon the That is. there is a V centrifugal head impressed on the water equal 2 to ^  and.+ 2 2 ^ . H the distance of the centre of the wheel below the surface of the supply water. velocity For the radial flow turbine. and Ui equals DF. has not found favour in practice. at exit is = ^j . for a given flow. Fig. in each case the area will depend axial component of Ui the component of Ui perpendicular to Vi upon . The receiving velocity Y r tip of the vane should be parallel to the relative of the water and the edge of the vane.
and the minimum area of this outlet so that it is just not filled will clearly be obtained for a given value of Ui when Ui is perpendicular to v*. * It is often stated that this is the condition for maximum efficiency but it only as stated above. If H and r are the outer and inner radii of the radial flow turbine respectively. . Fig. The efficiency only depends upon the magnitude of T^ and not upon its direction. is so. Fig. 256. or is radial in the outward flow and axial in the parallel flow turbine. Ui is clearly perpendicular to v l BC and when BG. for maximum flow for the given machine. For the parallel flow turbine since equal. and </> of the tips of the vanes are equal. 255. 257. 255.372 HYDRAULICS Now the section of the stream must not fill the outlet area of the wheel. Figs. are and the inclinations a.
. is the modern development. The efficiency.TURBINES 373 For Ui to be radial vr = Vi sec a a. The water instead of being delivered through guides over an arc of a circle. therefore.0048H . and and B as centres. and the hydraulic losses in the wheel are from 5 to 10 per cent. The head lost due to the water leaving the wheel with velocity u is '048H. is delivered through one or more adjustable nozzles. and Ui and vr as radii be circles with H now __ A ABD the triangle of velocities at exit is described. Y r from Fig. The velocity with which the water leaves the guide passages may be taken as from 0'94 to 0*97 V20H. 255 is equal to ^sec^. nearly. 257. and the theoretical hydraulic efficiency is therefore 95'2 per cent. sec a y = r sec ^ <f>. intersecting in D. and is assumed as 0'95 \/2#H. of the head as being lost in the wheel. . neglecting axle friction. Fig. the relative velocity vr at exit can be obtained from the expression vane U the velocity of exit Ui be taken as 0*22N/2#H. and v as 0'45\/2#H.0097H T = 76 per cent. Taking 10 per cent. The velocity head at entrance is 0*9025H and. 210. "097H has been lost when the water enters the wheel. and Ui On practically axial as shown in the figure. of 211. For high heads Girard introduced a form which the turbine shown in Figs. is obtained. these assumptions the best velocity for the rim of the wheel is therefore '45 \/20H instead of *5 x/2#H.E = r sec If for the parallel flow turbine v is made equal "Y to ^ . and therefore. will be H .01H . the triangle of velocities is ABC. Triangles of velocity for an axial flow impulse turbine considering friction. 259. Impulse turbine for high heads. If the angle between the jet and the direction of motion of the is taken as 30 degrees. 258 and of impulse turbine.
s Bp TT .
and the angle Vi </> is 53*5 degrees. inch in the hoop surrounding the Any wheel is 336. per sq. which. 0*484 \/2#H. and the angle the jet makes with the tangent to the wheel is 30 degrees. the triangle of velocities at entrance is ABC. equal to 6 per cent. therefore. of H. and is. Assuming the weight of a bar of the metal of which the rim is made one square inch in section and one foot long as 3'36 Ibs. The form of the orifices has been developed by experience. as also the axles carrying the same. If the velocity with which the water leaves the orifice U is taken as 0*97 \/2#H. and v r = 220 per second. are external to the orifices. The very high peripheral speed of the wheel. As moves over a the speed of the turbine tends to increase the regulator bell crank lever and partially closes both the orifices. The sluices are under the control of a sensitive governor and special form of regulator. 258. To avoid danger of fracture.. The supply pipe is of steel and is 1*312 feet diameter.TURBINES 375 In the example shown. . of the outer edges of the vanes is 205 feet per velocity second. and consequently no loss due to shock. The velocity of the vanes at the inner periphery is 171 feet per second. the wheel has a mean diameter of 6'9 feet and makes 500 revolutions per minute. steel laminated to the periphery of the wheel. and can consequently be lubricated while the turbine is at work. tf 9 = 4400 on Ibs. and is such that there is no sudden change in the form of the liquid vein. The supply of water to the wheel is regulated by the sluices shown in Fig. and assuming there is a loss of head in the wheel. The crown carrying the blades it hoops are shrunk of the wheel. decrease in speed of the turbine causes the reverse action to take place. 260. The ^p 2g 2g + 205* m* 2g 2g ft. so that is made independent of the disc be replaced when the blades become may worn. Fig. inch. it develops 1600 horsepower under a head of 1935 feet. the stress per sq. produces a high stress in the wheel due to centrifugal forces. without an entirely new wheel being provided. 205 feet per second.
261. Fig. . and the head lost by this velocity is 191 feet or '099H. Fig. and the hydraulic Fig. 6 + 99 + 6205. and the total lost in the pipe and nozzle is. 261. Pelton Wheel. The head made above. The = 111 Ui velocity with which the water leaves the wheel is then feet per sec. efficiency is 78' 1 per cent. 260. 262. on the assumption percentage loss of head is. therefore. Fig..376 If HYDKAUL1CS then the angle a is 30 degrees the triangle of velocities at exit is DEF.
TURBINES
377
efficiency of a similar turbine at full load was found by experiment to be 78 per cent.; allowing for mechanical losses the hydraulic losses were less than in the example.
The actual
212.
is
Pelton wheel.
wheel.
as
A form of impulse turbine now very largely used for high heads
shown in Figs. 262 and 266, is fixed to a wheel which is generally mounted on a horizontal axis. The water is delivered to the wheel through a rectangular shaped nozzle, the opening of which is generally made adjustable, either by means of a hand wheel as in Fig. 262, or automatically by a
regulator as in Fig. 266.
known as the Pelton A number of cups,
As shown on page 276, the theoretical efficiency of the wheel is unity and the best velocity for the cups is onehalf the velocity of the jet. This is also the velocity generally given to the cups in actual examples. The width of the cups is from 2J to 4 times the thickness of the jet, and the width of the jet is about
twice
its
thickness.
efficiency is between 70 and 82 per cent. Table XXXVIII gives the numbers of revolutions per minute, the diameters of the wheels and the nett head at the nozzle in a number of examples.
The actual
TABLE XXXVIII.
Particulars of
some actual Pelton wheels.
Head
in feet
378
HYDRAULICS
various turbines but the means adopted for moving the gates and guides have not been discussed.
Until recent years some form of differential governor was almost entirely used, but these have been almost completely superseded by hydraulic and oil governors. as constructed by Figs. 263 and 264 show an oil governor,
Messrs Escher
Wyss
of Zurich.
Figs. 263, 264.
Oil Pressure Kegulator for Turbines.
A
.
piston
P
having a larger diameter at one end than at the
other, and fitted with leathers I and Zi, fits into a double cylinder Oil under pressure is continuously supplied through a pipe S Ci
into the annulus
A between
large piston the pressure of the
the pistons, while at the back of the oil is determined by the regulator.
TURBINES
379
Suppose the regulator to be in a definite position, the space behind the large piston being full of oil, and the turbine running at its normal speed. The valve V
(an enlarged diagrammatic section
is
shown
in
Fig. 265) will be in such a position that oil cannot enter or escape from the large cylinder, and the
pressure in the annular ring between the pistons will keep the regulator mechanism locked. If the wheel increases in speed, due to a diminution of load, the balls of the spring loaded
Gr move outwards and the sleeve For the moment, the point D on the lever MD is fixed, and the lever turns about D as a fulcrum, and thus raises the valve rod NY. This allows oil under pressure to enter the large Fig. 265. cylinder and the piston in consequence moves to the right, and moves the turbine gates in the manner described later. As the piston moves to the right, the rod R, which rests on the connected to the piston, falls, and the point D of the wedge lever MD consequently falls and brings the valve Y back to its original position. The piston P thus takes up a new position The speed of the corresponding to the required gate opening. turbine and of the governor is a little higher than before, the increase in speed depending upon the sensitiveness of the governor.
governor
M
rises.
W
the other hand, if the speed of the wheel diminishes, the falls and the oil from behind the and also the valve large piston escapes through the exhaust E, the piston moving
sleeve
On
M
Y
to the left.
is
The wedge
W then
lifts
the fulcrum D, the valve
Y
automatically brought to its central position, and the piston takes up a new position, consistent with the gate opening being
sufficient to
P
supply the necessary water required by the wheel. hand wheel and screw, Fig. 264, are also provided, so that the gates can be moved by hand when necessary. The piston P is connected by the connecting rod BE to a crank EF, which rotates the vertical shaft T. A double crank KK is connected by the two coupling rods shown to a rotating toothed
A
wheel R, Fig. 241, turning about the vertical shaft of the turbine, and the movement, as described on page 360, causes the adjustment of the speed gates.
214.
Water pressure regulators
for impulse turbines.
Fig. 266 shows a water pressure regulator as applied to regulate the flow to a Pel ton wheel.
The area
of the supply nozzle is adjusted
by a beak
B
which
380
HYDRAULICS
M A
1
N
Figs. 266, 267.
Pelton Wheel and Water Pressure Regulator.
TURBINES
rotates about the centre O.
381
The pressure of the water in the supply pipe acting on this beak tends to lift it and thus to open the orifice. The piston P, working in a cylinder C, is also acted upon, on its under side, by the pressure of the water in the supply pipe and is connected to the beak by the connecting rod DE. The area of the piston is made sufficiently large so that when the top of the piston is relieved of pressure the pull on the connecting
rod
is sufficient
to close the orifice.
pressure, to the valve V, which maybe similar to that described in connection with the oil pressure governor, Fig. 265. piston rod passes through the top of the cylinder, and carries a nut, which screws on to the square thread cut on the rod. lever eg, Fig. 268, which is carried on the fixed fulcrum e, is made link /A connects ef with the lever to move with the piston. MN, one end of which moves with the governor sleeve and the The valve is is connected to the valve rod NV. other end
The pipe p conveys water under the same
A
A
M
A
N
V
shown
in the neutral position.
M
Fig. 268.
A which is momentarily at rest.
the speed of the sleeve rises, and the lever governor
Suppose now
turbine
to
increase.
The
MN turns
V
about the fulcrum
The valve falls and opens the top of the cylinder to the exhaust. The pressure on the piston P now causes it to rise, and closes the nozzle, thus diminishing the supply to the turbine. As the piston rises it lifts again the lever by means of the link A/; and closes the valve V. now position of equilibrium is thus reached. If the speed of the
MN
A
382
HYDRAULICS
and water pressure
governor decreases the governor sleeve falls, the valve rises, is admitted to the top of the piston, which is then in equilibrium, and the pressure on the beak B causes it to
nozzle.
Y
move upwards and thus open the
Hydraulic valve for water regulator. Instead of the simple piston valve controlled mechanically, Messrs Escher Wyss use, for
high heads, a hydraulic doublepiston valve Pp, Fig. 269. This piston valve has a small bore through its centre by means of which high pressure water which is admitted below the valve can pass to the top of the large piston P. Above the piston is a small plug valve Y which is opened and closed by the governor.
Fig. 269.
Hydraulic valve for automatic regulation.
If the speed of the governor decreases, the valve is opened, thus allowing water to escape from above the piston valve, and the pressure on the lower piston p raises the valve. Pressure water is thus admitted above the regulator piston, and the pressure on the beak opens the nozzle. As the governor falls the valve closes, the exhaust is throttled, and the pressure above the piston P rises.
Y
Y
When
is throttled to such a degree that the exhaust through the pressure on P balances the pressure on the under face of the piston p, the valve is in equilibrium and the regulator piston is locked.
Y
TURBINES
If the
383
and the excess pressure on the upper face
causes it exhaust.
Filter.
is closed, speed of the governor increases, the valve of the piston valve to descend, thus connecting the regulator cylinder to The pressure on the under face of the regulator piston
Y
then closes the nozzle.
is
Between the conduit pipe and the governor valve V, a filter, Figs. 270 and 271, to remove any sand or grit placed contained in the water. Within the cylinder, on a hexagonal frame, is stretched a piece of canvas. The water enters the cylinder by the pipe E, and
through the canvas, enters the central perforated
S.
after passing
pipe and leaves by the pipe
Figs. 270, 271.
Water
Filter for Impulse Turbine Regulator.
To clean the filter while at work, the canvas frame is revolved means of the handle shown, and the cock R is opened. Each by
side of the hexagonal frame is brought in turn opposite the chamber A, and water flows outwards through the canvas and through the cock E, carrying away any dirt that may have
collected outside the canvas.
Auxiliary valve to prevent hammer action. When the pipe line long an auxiliary valve is frequently fitted on the pipe near to the nozzle, which is automatically opened by means of a cataract motion* as the nozzle closes, and when the movement of the nozzle beak is finished, the valve slowly closes again. If no such provision is made a rapid closing of the nozzle means that a large mass of water must have its momentum
is
quickly changed and very large pressures may be set up, or in other words hammer action is produced, which may cause fracture of the pipe. When there is an abundant supply of water, the auxiliary valve is connected to the piston rod of the regulator and opened and closed as the piston rod moves, the valve being adjusted so that the opening increases by the same amount that the area of the orifice diminishes.
*
See Engineer, Vol.
xc., p. 255.
384
HYDRAULICS
If the load on the wheel does not vary through a large range the quantity of water wasted is not large.
Hammer blow in a long turbine supply pipe. be the length of the pipe and d its diameter. The weight of water in the pipe is
215.
Let
L
Let the velocity change by an amount dv in time
rate of change of
dt.
Then the
momentum
is
TT, an(l
n &
cross section of
got
the lower end of the column of water in the pipe a force be applied equal to this.
mi
P must
Therefore
P
wljd* dv T\ P = 7  57 4
^
.
g
dt
Referring to Fig. 266,
width.
let b
be the depth of the
orifice
and
da its
Then,
if
r
is
the distance of
D from the
centre about which the
beak from
is
t?
turns, and n is the distance of the closing edge of the beak this centre, and if at any moment the velocity of the piston
feet per second, the velocity of closing of the
beak
will
be
In any small element of time dt the nozzle will close is
amount by which the
Let it be assumed that U, the velocity of flow through the It will actually vary, due to the nozzle, remains constant. resistances varying with the velocity, but unless the pipe is very long the error is not great in neglecting the variation. If then v
is
the velocity in the pipe at the commencement of this element of time and v  dv at the end of it, and the area of the pipe,
A
v.A=fe.<Z,.TJ
.............................. (1)
and
Subtracting
(vdtOA^fc\
(2)
T
dA.di.IJ
/
.
...(2).
from
(1),
TURBINES
If
385
W
is
the weight of water in the pipe, the force
P
in
pounds
that will have to be applied to change the velocity of this water by dv in time Ct is
"
g ot Therefore
P=
*/
~T
>
and the pressure per
nozzle
is
sq.
inch produced in the pipe near the
~
W
g r
A
"
2
and during the closing the piston
motion.
Suppose the nozzle to be completely closed in a time t seconds, P moves with simple harmonic
to close the nozzle
is
Then the distance moved by the piston
br
and the time taken to move this distance is t seconds. The maximum velocity of the piston is then
and substituting
in (3), the
maximum
u
value of
r is,
therefore,
dv
dt~
and the maximum pressure per square inch
is
?r
vWb.d
Pm
where
1
.'U
*.W.Q
2g.t.
Wv
2^A
2
A
2
2t' gA.'
Q
is
began
to close,
the flow in cubic feet per second before the orifice and v is the velocity in the pipe.
Example. A 500 horsepower Pelton Wheel of 75 per cent, efficiency, and working under a head of 260 feet, is supplied with water by a pipe 1000 feet long and 2' 3" diameter. The load is suddenly taken off, and the time taken by the
regulator to close the nozzle completely is 5 seconds. On the assumption that the nozzle is completely closed (1) at a uniform rate, and (2) with simple harmonic motion, and that no relief valve is provided, determine the pressure produced at the nozzle. The quantity of water delivered to the wheel per second when working at full
power
is
500x33.000
The weight
of water in the pipe is
2
W=624x^.
(225)
xlOOO
= 250,000
L.
Ibs.
H.
25
386 6
Tne
velc velocity is
I
HYDRAULICS
7^ = 525 D *y u
21*7
ft.
per sec.
In case (1) the total pressure acting on the lower end of the the pipe is e
column
of water in
250,000x525
g x 5
= 8200 Ibs. lbs.
The pressure per
sq.
inch
is 
p=
8200
= 145
Ibs.
per sq. inch.
In case
(2)
pm =
TT
W Lv
.
^
^=228
lbs.
per sq. inch.
EXAMPLES.
Find the theoretical horsepower of an overshot waterwheel 22 feet (1) diameter, using 20,000,000 gallons of water per 24 hours under a total head of 25 feet.
(2)
An
overshot waterwheel has a diameter of 24
feet,
and makes
3 '5
revolutions per minute. The velocity of the water as is to be twice that of the wheel's periphery.
If
it
enters the buckets
degrees, find the direction of the tip of the bucket, of the water and the bucket.
the angle which the water makes with the periphery is to be 15 and the relative velocity
The sluice of an overshot waterwheel 12 feet radius is vertically (3) above the centre of the wheel. The surface of the water in the sluice channel is 2 feet 3 inches above the top of the wheel and the centre of the sluice opening is 8 inches above the top of the wheel. The velocity of the wheel periphery is to be onehalf that of the water as it enters the buckets. Determine the number of rotations of the wheel, the point at which the water enters the buckets, and the direction of the edge of the bucket.
An overshot wheel 25 feet diameter having a width of 5 feet, and (4) depth of crowns 12 inches, receives 450 cubic feet of water per minute, and makes 6 revolutions per minute. There are 64 buckets. The water enters the wheel at 15 degrees from the crown of the wheel with a velocity equal to twice that of the periphery, and at an angle of 20 degrees with the tangent to the wheel. Assuming the buckets to be of the form shown in Fig. 180, the length of the radial portion being onehalf the length of the outer face of the bucket, find how much water enters each bucket, and, allowing for centrifugal forces, the point at which the water begins to leave the buckets.
overshot wheel 32 feet diameter has shrouds 14 inches deep, and required to give 29 horsepower when making 5 revolutions per minute. Assuming the buckets to be one third filled with water and of the same form as in the last question, find the width of the wheel, when the total
(5)
An
is
fall is
32 feet and the efficiency 60 per cent.
TURBINES
Assuming the
387
velocity of the water in the penstock to be If times that
of the wheel's periphery, and the bottom of the penstock level with the top of the wheel, find the point at which the water enters the wheel. Find also
where water begins
(6)
to discharge
from the buckets.
of the
A radial blade impulse wheel
it
same width
as the channel in
which
runs, is 15 feet diameter. The depth of the sluice opening is 12 inches and the head above the centre of the sluice is 3 feet.. Assuming a coefficient of velocity of 0'8 and that the edge of the sluice is rounded so
that there is no contraction, and the velocity of the rim of the wheel is 0*4 the velocity of flow through the sluice, find the theoretical efficiency of the wheel.
(7)
An
overshot wheel has a supply of 30 cubic feet per second on a
of
fall
of 24 feet.
Determine the probable horsepower width for the wheel.
the wheel, and a suitable
The water impinges on a Poncelet float at 15 with the tangent to (8) the wheel, and the velocity of the water is double that of the wheel. Find, by construction, the proper inclination of the tip of the float.
(9)
In a Poncelet wheel, the direction of the jet impinging on the floats
makes an angle of 15 with the tangent to the circumference and the tip of the floats makes an angle of 30 with the same tangent. Supposing the
velocity of the jet to be 20 feet per second, find, graphically or otherwise, (1) the proper velocity of the edge of the wheel, (2) the height to which the
and direction
water will rise on the float above the point of admission, of motion of the water leaving the float.
(3)
the velocity
Show that the efficiency of a simple reaction wheel increases (10) with the speed when frictional resistances are neglected, but is greatest at a finite speed when they are taken into account. If the speed of the orifices be that due to the head (1) find the efficiency, neglecting friction (2) assuming it to be the speed of maximum efficiency, show that f of the head is lost by friction, and ^ by final velocity of water.
;
(11)
inclined
(12)
Explain why, in a vortex turbine, the inner ends backwards instead of being radial.
of the vanes are
An inward
and
flow turbine wheel has radial blades at the outer
periphery,
at the inner periphery the blade
total
makes an angle
of 30
with
of the
T>
the tangent.
The
if
head
is
70 feet and
r=.
Find the velocity
rim
of the
wheel
the water discharges radially.
Friction neglected.
The inner and outer diameters of an inward flow turbine wheel (13) are 1 foot and 2 feet respectively. The water enters the outer circumference at 12 with the tangent, and leaves the inner circumference radially. The radial velocity of flow is 6 feet at both circumferences. The wheel makes
3 6 revolutions per second. Determine the angles of the vanes at both circumferences, and the theoretical hydraulic efficiency of the turbine.
(14)
Water
is
supplied to an inward flow turbine at 44 feet per second,
and
at 10 degrees to the tangent to the wheel.
The wheel makes 200
252
the outer radius is twice the inner.and velocities are known. and the and final cubic feet per second flows through a directions . and the hydraulic efficiency as 80 per cent. An inward flow turbine is required to give 200 horse power under (19) a head of 100 feet when running at 500 revolutions per minute.388 HYDRAULICS revolutions per minute. and the quantity (20) . find the pressure head at the inlet circumference of the wheel. Un. and the head H. The radial velocity of flow through the wheel is constant. Taking the flow as 20 cubic feet per second and the total losses as 20 per cent. determine the horsepower of the turbine. and the wheel is to have a double outlet. The circumferential velocity of the inlet surface of the wheel is 19^ feet per second. and the width of the bucket at inlet and outlet. feet An outward flow turbine wheel has an internal diameter of 5*249 and an external diameter of 6'25 feet. Find the velocity of the wheel. An inward flow turbine on 15 feet fall has an at 15 inlet radius of 1 foot with the tangent to the circumference and is discharged radially with a velocity of 3 feet per second. and an Water enters vane angles. 1906. of the available energy. Determine the theoretical hydraulic emciency of the turbine. If 5 per cent. The supply of water for an inward flow reaction turbine is 500 (15) cubic feet per minute and the available head is 40 feet. The velocity with which the water leaves the wheel axially may be taken as 10 feet per second. the constant velocity of flow is 4 feet per second. and moment of The wheel of an inward flow turbine has a peripheral velocity of (18) 50 feet per second. The head above the turbine is 1415 feet. (16) Lond. Construct the inlet and outlet angles of the turbine vanes. of the head is lost in friction in the supply pipe. If the hydraulic emciency of the turbine is assumed 80 per cent. Find the inclination of the vanes at inlet and outlet of the wheel. Determine the vane angle at inlet. and the centre of the turbine is 15 feet above the tail race level. and the revolutions are 350 per minute. The vanes are radial at the inlet. Determine the ratio of the kinetic energy of the water entering the wheel per pound to the work done on the wheel per pound. (17) A quantity of water initial Q turbine. The actual velocity of water at inlet is 22 feet per second. and the radial velocity of flow 5 feet per second. The diameter of the outer circumference may be taken as If times the inner. the inner and outer diameters. The width of the wheel at inlet is 10 inches. of Apply the principle of equality momentum to find the couple exerted angular impulse on the turbine. Determine the dimensions of the turbine and the angles of the guide blades and vanes of the turbine wheel. The actual efficiency is to be taken as 75 per cent. the guide and vane angles. The inner radius is 1 foot and the outer radius 2 feet. find the outlet radius of 6 inches. The velocity of whirl of the incoming water is 40 feet per second.
losses are 20 per cent. in the wheel 9 per cent. The radial velocity of flow through the wheel is 4 feet per second. draw suitable sections of the vanes at the three radii. there is a loss of head in the supply pipe of 3 per cent. determine the angles of tips of the vanes so that the water shall leave the wheel radially. Determine the horsepower of the turbine and verify the work done per pound from the triangles of velocities. Determine the number of revolutions of the wheel. of the head in the guide passages a loss of 5 per cent. when the wheel makes 32 revolutions per minute.. circumference of the wheel is 9^ inches and and the water leaves the wheel vanes radially. determine the guide blade angles and vane angles at inlet for the three radii 2 feet 6 inches. . and the flow is 45 cubic feet per second.TURBINES of 389 Assuming the hydraulic water supplied per second is 215 cubic feet. 3 feet 3 inches and 4 feet. radial vanes at inlet. if the upper and lower edges are parallel. the pressure head in the eye of the wheel. and the velocity of flow from the wheel and in the supply pipe. The velocity of 15 feet per second. 5 feet 4 inches (23) A parallel is flow turbine has a mean diameter is 15. determine the vane angles. The diameter The wheel has of the inner of the outer 19 inches. The number flow is 3*5 feet of revolutions per minute guides and the vane angles that the water shall enter without shock and leave the wheel axially. for an inwardflow turbine is 100 feet. Find also the width of the guide blade in plan. From the data given 9 (22) A horizontal inward flow turbine has an internal diameter of and an external diameter of 7 feet. Neglecting friction. crown of a parallel flow pressure turbine crown is 8 feet. (24) per second. and also from the down pipe is 8 feet per second. (21) The total head available is The turbine wheel . the pressure head at the entrance to the guide chamber. Determine the work done per pound of water passing through the wheel. Assuming the depth of the wheel is 8 inches. placed 15 feet above the tail water level. When the flow is normal. Determine the inclination of the guide blades and the axial velocity of the water along the tips of the The diameter of the inner is 5 feet and the diameter of the outer Assuming a hydraulic efficiency of 0'8. . in the down pipe 1 per cent. of 11 feet. The difference in level of the head and tail water is 6 feet. the pressure head at the circumference to the wheel. Find the angle the guide blade makes with the tangent to the wheel. . The head over the wheel is 12 feet. and the lower edge makes a constant angle with the . and the velocity which the water has when it enters the wheel. the horsepower of the wheel and the theoretical hydraulic efficiency. The crowns of the wheel are parallel and are 8 inches apart. The number of revolutions per minute is 52. and the upper crown of the wheel is just below the tail water level.
What is now the hydraulic efficiency of the turbine ? In an axial flow Girard turbine. determine the mean vane and guide (25) A parallel flow impulse turbine is The water angles. U U If the radius of the inner periphery is onehalf that of the outer and the radial velocity through the wheel is constant for any flow. Water is supplied to an axial flow impulse turbine. (26) an external diameter of 6 feet 3 inches. Neglecting all frictional losses. and the velocity The velocity of the wheel periphery is 55 feet per second. (29) The guide blades of an inward flow turbine are inclined at 30 along the tip of the blade is 60 feet per second. having a mean (28) diameter of 6 feet. discharged from the wheel in an axial direction with a velocity due to a head of 4 feet. the velocity remaining constant. so that the stream lines at the inner and the outer crown may have the correct inclinations. find the direction in which it leaves in the second case. and the water left the wheel radially in the first case. Find the hydraulic efficiency of the turbine. and the angle of the vane at outlet so that the water shall leave the wheel radially. degrees. 1905. Lond. Find the loss of head due to shock at entrance. under a head of 100 feet. The velocity of the water as it leaves the nozzles is of the periphery of the wheel. Eight per cent. cent. The circumferential speed of the wheel at its mean diameter is 40 feet per second. receiving and discharging angles of wheel vanes and hydraulic efficiency of the turbine. If when the gate is fully open the the wheel is 70 feet per second velocity with which the water approaches The supply water to a turbine . Let the velocity of the receiving and discharging edges be 0'55 V. The guide blades are turned so that they are inclined at an angle of 15 degrees. of the head available at the nozzle is lost in the wheel. of the head is lost in the supply pipe and guide. and is discharged axially with a velocity '12 V. Find the theoretical hydraulic efficiency. double the velocity water makes an Determine the vane angle at inlet. works under a head of 64 feet. and the angle the vane makes with the direction of motion at exit is 30. Un. and the direction of the angle of 80 degrees with the circumference of the wheel. Determine the relative and on the assumption that 10 per velocity of water and wheel at entrance. find the vane angle at exit that the water shall leave radially. An outward flow impulse turbine has an inner diameter of 5 feet. The angle of the guide blade at entrance is 30. of the total head is lost in friction and shock in the wheel. let V be the velocity due to the Suppose the water issues from the guide blades with the velocity 0'95V. Find the angle of the guide blades. is controlled by a speed gate between the guides and the wheel. and makes 450 revolutions per minute.390 HYDRAULICS plane of the wheel. determine the velocity with which the water leaves the wheel. (30) The of inlet radius is twice the outlet radius. and making 144 revolutions per minute. If 8 per cent. (27) effective head.
the area of which is 44 square inches. an efficiency of 75 per cent. A Pelton wheel.TURBINES and 391 it makes an angle of 15 degrees with the tangent to the wheel. estimate the horse power of the wheel and its efficiency. and the supply when the nozzle is is 100 cubic feet per minute. per square inch. which may be assumed to have semicylindrical (31) buckets. If the revolutions are 600 per minute. is 2 feet diameter. open (32) Show that the efficiency of a Pelton wheel is a maximum neglecting frictional and other losses when the velocity of the cups equals half the velocity of the jet. find the loss of head by shock when the gate is half closed. The available pressure at the nozzle when it is closed is 200 Ibs. 25 cubic feet of water are supplied per second to a Pelton wheel through a nozzle. The velocity of the inlet periphery of the wheel is 75 feet per second. The velocity of the cups Determine the horsepower of the wheel assuming is 41 feet per second. .
the pressure in which is wh pounds per Pumps are machines driven for raising fluids energy to fluids. pump can either be a suction pump. Instead of simply raising the water through a height h. Theoretically any reaction turbine could be made to work as a pump by rotating the wheel in the opposite direction to that in which it rotates as a turbine.CHAPTER PUMPS. but practically the maximum is from 25 to 30 feet. or for imparting For example. and work done upon it against gravity. The principal difference between the several types is in the form of the casing surrounding the wheel. but in the inverse direction to that at which it was discharged when acting as a turbine. is theoretically 34 feet. and this form has considerable influence upon the efficiency of the pump. The reason * See Appendix. Up to the present. it is called a force pump. If the pump delivers the water to a height h above the pump. and supplying it with water at the circumference. and used from a lower to a higher level. 272 to 276. X. Centrifugal and turbine pumps. a pressure pump. . with the same velocity. or against a both. the maximum height through which a pump can draw water. or in other words the maximum vertical distance the pump can be placed above the water in the well. the water has to be first raised by suction. A in the well or sump. and. as will be shown later. by some prime mover. * h. If the pump is placed above the surface of the water or pressurehead 216. the same pumps might be used to deliver water into pipes. only outward flow pumps have been constructed. square foot. Several types of centrifugal pumps (outward flow) are shown in Figs. when a mine has to be drained the water niay be simply raised from the mine to the surface. difficulty would be experienced in starting parallel flow or inward flow pumps.
the water enters the wheel with a small velocity. and consideration. When the water leaves the wheel its velocity is small and the velocity of whirl should be zero. Diagram of Centrifugal Pump. and leaves . 272. Fig.CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS for this 393 can be easily seen in a general way from the following The water approaches a turbine wheel with a high velocity and in a direction making a small angle with the direction of motion of the inlet circumference of the wheel. In the centrifugal pump these conditions are entirely reversed. thus it has a large velocity of whirl.
The casing of Fig. 274 is surrounded by a large whirlpool chamber in which. the velocity with which the water rotates round the wheel gradually diminishes. as shown later. *Centrifugal Pnmp with spiral casing. The wheel of Fig. and practically the whole of the kinetic energy of the water when it leaves the wheel is destroyed the efficiency of such pumps is generally much less than 50 per cent. and thus being proportional to the quantity of water flowing through the section. 273 is made of spiral form.394 HYDRAULICS it with a high velocity. The same result is achieved in the pump of Figs. If the case surrounding the wheel admits of this velocity being diminished gradually. . Fig. and the efficiency of the pump is accordingly low. and that the stream lines are continuous. but if not. It may therefore be supposed that the mean velocity of flow through any section is nearly constant. the kinetic energy of the water is converted into useful work. 272 a circular casing surrounds the wheel. 275 and 276 * See page 542. 273. it is destroyed by eddy motions in the casing. the sectional area increasing uniformly towards the discharge pipe. and the velocity head with which the water leaves the wheel is partly converted into pressure head. . In Fig.
no difficulty in starting as the casing will be maintained full of water. casing. special means have to be provided for filling the pump case. a nonreturn valve must be fitted in the suction pipe.CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS 395 by allowing the water leaves the wheel to enter guide used in a turbine to direct the water passages. If the pump becomes empty. If the pump is below the water in the well there is Starting centrifugal or turbine pumps. In large pumps the air may be expelled by means of steam. Diagram of Centrifugal Pump with Whirlpool Chamber. and suction pipe are full of water. 274. A centrifugal pump cannot commence delivery unless the wheel. When the pump is above the water in the well. or when the pump is first set to work. Fig. This class of centrifugal pump is known as the turbine pump. as in Fig. similar to those area of these passages gradually increases The to the wheel. 217. to prevent Y pump when stopped from being drained. or they should be provided with . 272. as it and a considerable portion of the velocity head is thus converted into pressure head and is available for lifting water. which becomes condensed and the the water rises from the well.
Turbine Pump. relative to the pump case. other provisions will have to be delivery. is closed until the pump has attained the speed necessary to commence delivery*. With some classes of pumps. 276. and the velocity with which the water leaves the wheel. 275. 276. 296. Fig. under special circumstances. Fig. is the vector sum of the velocity of the tip of the vane and the velocity relative to the vane. Fig. if the pump has to commence delivery against full head. to be satisfied by the vanes of a centrifugal pump are exactly the same as for a turbine. 218. It will be seen later that.396 fiYDRAULICS an airpump or ejector as an auxiliary to the pump. made to enable the pump to commence of the vanes of centrifugal pumps. Form The conditions * See page 409 . after which the stop valve is slowly opened. a stop valve on the rising main. Fig. At inlet the direction of the vane should be parallel to the direction of the relative velocity of the water and the tip of the vane. Small pumps can generally be easily filled by hand through a pipe such as shown at P.
A * C B _ * at exit. E Triangle of velocities Fig. can be drawn as follows. 272 is full of water. radii of the discharging and receiving circumferences respectively. is made parallel to The CD the wheel without shock. 272. Let v be the velocity of the receiving edge of the vane or inlet circumference of the wheel. u and u the Y radial velocities at inlet and outlet respectively. Fig. Let B and r be the V Y . 277. and BE equal to VL parallel to BE at a distance from BE equal to Ui. and if the the water will enter vane at A. the radial component of the velocity of exit at the The wheel being A and outer circumference is ference If the direction of the tip of the vane at the outer circumis known the triangle of velocities at exit. 277. 277. the plus is in the opposite direction to sign being used when J. Work done on the water by the wheel. if full of water. not of necessity radial. Ui the absolute velocity of the water and Vi the velocities of whirl at inlet as it leaves the wheel . The change in angular momentum of the water as it passes through the wheel is ViB/$rVr/0 per pound of flow. 278. Fig. triangle of velocities at inlet is ACD. Fig. 219.CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS 397 Suppose the wheel and casing of Fig. Then BF is the vector sum of BE and EF and is the velocity Set out Draw GF with which the water leaves the wheel relative to the fixed casing. 278. and outlet respectively. and the wheel is rotated in the direction of the arrow with such a velocity that water enters the wheel in a known direction with a velocity U. Fig. Figs. Triangle oC velocities cut inlet. as in 277 and 278. Vi the velocity of the discharging circumference of the wheel . there is continuity of flow. and AI are the circumferential areas of the inner and outer circumferences. Fig. Yr and vr the relative velocities of the water and the vane at inlet and outlet respectively . BG radially and equally to HI. and EF parallel to the tip of the vane to meet GF in F.
If Q is and If.. the work done on each... and the work done on the water by the wheel is J/ foot Ibs.. Fig. y therefore. Then 9 Let (180 * ACD is and BEF is <f>. 220.0) the angle which the vane makes with the direction of motion at inlet. Y is zero. The theoretical therefore. 272.. pound of water is If .cot =1 <f> .. flow. (1). cot <#>... Ratio of Vx to vr case of the turbine.... Vi = Vi MI and therefore. Vi and Vi can theoretically have any values consistent with the product As in the . 272.. the work done by the wheel on the water per pound (see page 275) is ' ' 9 If 9 U is radial. In the triangle HEF. H= v\ Vi .398 HYDRAULICS Neglecting frictional and other losses. 1 ' 2# <) be the angle which the direction of the vane at exit makes with the direction of motion... lift. and ud is the velocity with which the water is delivered from the delivery pipe..... is the total height through which the water from the sump or well. the independent of and all p and the ratio . is 29 9 the discharge and AI the peripheral area of the discharging circumference. the water enters the wheel without shock lift is resistances are neglected.. depends only on the velocity and inclination of the vane at the discharging circumference.. per Ib. and (180 . then H is lifted ' and therefore.. HE = HF cot <. as in Fig... for any given head H.
and Ui can therefore be seen that as the velocity with which the water leaves the wheel increases. The kinetic energy of the water at exit from the wheel. <j> < 221. and the remainder appears as the kinetic energy of the water as it leaves H . The angle 30 degrees. by equation (1). The theoretical head and also the discharge for the three cases are therefore the same. section 219. The greater the angle <j> is made the less the velocity ^ of the periphery must be for a given lift. and it increases Vi diminishes. and is is given three values. V Fig. The diagrams are drawn to a common scale. 90 degrees and 150 degrees.CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS 399 being equal to #H. 279. the ratio of x to v l simply depending upon the magnitude of the angle <j>. 279. This is shown at once illustrated in Fig. Part of the head impressed upon the water by the wheel increases the pressure head between the inlet and outlet. and the product V^i and also the radial velocity of flow % are kept constant.
without being accompanied by a considerable loss by eddy motions. pump. It is to be ex pected. and be any discharge Q. This however is not very easily accomplished.400 the wheel. therefore. other losses of head in the wheel and casing are incident . the greater the loss by eddy less efficient will be the pump. If it be assumed that the same 2 Ui ~. and ud the Any to the velocity of flow along the delivery pipe. Manometric The ratio g or e ~ " 2 g . Gross lift of a centrifugal pump. The reason for specifically defining e as the manometric efficiency at normal discharge is simply that the theoretical lift H has been deduced from consideration of a definite discharge Q.in all cases is converted into useful proportion of the head utilised to lift the if water so as to convert velocity work. the manometric efficiency may taken as the ratio of the gross lift at that discharge to the head theoretical tf^Scot* . and can only be U 2 the velocity can be gradually diminished head into pressure head. hs the head lost in the suction pipe . Efficiencies of a centrifugal efficiency. 223. but hs lift hd.h Vi r. A more general definition for is. that the less the angle </>. and only for this one discharge can the conditions at the inlet edge be as assumed. therefore. HYDRAULICS This kinetic energy is equal to 7^. generally given to e. the efficiency does increase as < is diminished. 222. and the clear that the greater Ui. the greater will be the efficiency.cot Q~~~ """' <}> Ui Ai is the manometric efficiency of the pump at normal discharge. Tid the head lost in the delivery pipe . The gross of a pump and this is always less than H. . and experiment shows that for a given form of casing. and the head is 30 then ^ should be considered as external losses. pump. however. it is motions. Let ha be the actual height through which water is lifted.
can be approximately determined by running the machine without load. This generally. by an amount equal to the energy lost by friction at the bearings of the machine. the ratio of the gross on the pump wheel. but the hydraulic efficiency can only be determined when at all loads the mechanical efficiency of the pump To is known. what is generally required is the ratio of the useful work done by the pump. Let E s be the energy given to the pump shaft per sec.h The work done on the pump wheel is less than the work done on the pump shaft by the belt or motor which drives the pump. The hydraulic efficiency of a pump is work done by the pump to the work done lifted = the weight of water Let Let h = the gross head W E per second. Experimental determination of the efficiency of a centrifugal pump. ii.h Es 224. by the energy required to do that work. measure 26 is lifted. in actual machines. as the latter in many pumps is zero. is eg _W. taking it as a whole.ha pump itself. Let == the work done on the pump wheel in foot pounds per second. e Then =~w W. and e m the mechanical efficiency of the pump. From a commercial point of view.CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS 401 This manometric efficiency of the pump must not be confused with the efficiency obtained by dividing the work done by the pump. when the former has its maximum value. the quantity of water . W. Gross efficiency of the pump. Let Bh = the hydraulic efficiency. The gross efficiency of the including mechanical as well as fluid losses.e OT . Actual efficiency. find the actual efficiency. Hydraulic efficiency. The actual and gross efficiencies of a pump can be determined directly by experiment. it is only necessary to the height through which water L. to the work done on the pump shaft. then EE and the actual efficiency s .
but the efficiency of ordinary centrifugal pumps might be very considerably diminished as is increased. the form of the casing being just as important.402 HYDRAULICS discharged. Proc. E s given to the pump shaft in unit A A very convenient method of determining E. Mech. pump to give a discharge Q. Theoretiis generally made from 10 to 90 degrees. and ^ . and the energy time. or more important. better method is to use some form of transmission dynamometer t. the discharge through the wheel. at which. Engs. . If the pipes are long it should not be much greater than 5 feet per second for reasons explained in the chapter on pipes. 225. The angle cally. Design of the wheel of a pump for a given discharge under a given head. than the form of the wheel in determining the probable value of e. y 1903. In the suction pipe. various kinds of correct value to e and in This difficulty will be better appreciated after the losses in pumps have been considered. and the velocity u8 in the suction pipe should be equal to or less than u*. If a pump is required to give a discharge Q under an effective head haj the gross head h can only be determined if hsj hd . t See paper by Stanton. at high velocities. and from previous experience the probable manometric efficiency e at this discharge is known. the velocity of the wheel. the efficiency curve* for which at varying loads is known. Inst. If a Design of is pump The difficulty really arises in giving a making proper allowance for leakage. a loss of head of several feet may occur. the efficiency is not generally velocities < <f> . the problem of determining suitable dimensions for the wheel of the pump is not difficult. the dimensions of the wheel. it can be made much greater than 90 degrees. the losses h 8 and ha can be approximated to and the gross head h found. ThomaleuHowe. are known. the form of the vanes of the wheel. It will then be seen that e depends upon the angle <. and upon the form of the casing surrounding the wheel. with a fair degree of accuracy is to drive the pump shaft direct by an electric motor. a foot valve is generally fitted. Any suitable value can be given to the velocity Ud. * See Electrical Engineering. p. required to give a discharge Q under a gross lift h. The us and u& having been settled. as already stated. 195. as explained on page 395. The manometric efficiency e varies very considerably with radial blades and a circular casing.
The guide passages should be is Ui so proportioned that the velocity gradually diminished to the velocity in the delivery pipe.CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS 403 or a spiral casing. The ratio of the diameter of the discharging circumference to the inlet circumference is somewhat arbitrary and is generally made from 2 to 3. With a vortex chamber. 273. The radial velocity Ui may be taken from 2 to 10 feet per second. the third can be found from the equation t . the manometric efficiency e is from 0*5 to 0'75.9 . y . is parallel to the <j> more than 0'3 and the vanes to 0'4. the ratio might with advantage be made much smaller. as in Fig. 262 . v and if guide blades are to be provided external to the wheel. e is from 0'6 to '85. as in Fig. Viiii cot <) . the of the vane that there shall be no shock is such that inclination u tan a = . and <. but in special cases it may be larger than u. 275. v. as by so doing the frictional losses might be considerably reduced. inlet and B at outlet. and D the diameter of the outlet circumference. Then if the water is admitted to the wheel at both sides. ri e (vi 9 The internal diameter d of the wheel will generally be settled from consideration of the velocity of flow u% into the wheel. the inclination a of the tip of the guide blade with the direction of vl is found from Ui tan a = . and not greater than 90 degrees. at inlet inclined so that the tip water and the vane. Then and If the & =  E water moves toward the vanes at inlet radially. from which d can be calculated when Let b be the width of the vane at ^ and Q are known. and with properly designed guide relative velocity of the blades external to the wheel. This may be taken as equal to or about equal to u. Except for the difficulty of starting (see section 226). Having given suitable values to u and to any two of the three e. quantities. being greater the less the angle <.
Between the wheel and the casing there is in most pumps a film of water. They are now.404 HYDRAULICS Limiting velocity of the rim of the wheel. as in Fig. and the limiting velocities are fixed from consideration of the stresses in the wheel due to centrifugal forces. and to this end many high speed wheels are carefully finished.e. there is also considerable loss of energy external to the wheel due to the relative motion of the water and the wheel. The discharge is 10 cubic feet per second. and the best velocity was supposed to be about 30 feet per second. then 12f". If the radius of the external circumference be taken as 2r and r is taken equal to the radius of the suction pipes. Engineer. . also that the velocity in the suction and delivery pipes and the radial velocity through the wheel are 6 feet per second. At high velocities these frictional resistances may be considerable. y from which 1^=46 feet per sec. *75 = 50. To find the diameter of the suction pipes. Example. 273. and between this film and the wheel. and Eateau has constructed small pumps with a peripheral velocity of 250 feet per second*. Quite apart from head lost by friction in the wheel due to the relative motion of the water and the wheel. = 90) To find the proportions of a pump with radial blades at outlet to lift 10 cubic feet of water per second against a head of 50 feet. and the manometric efficiency is 75 per cent. To keep them small the surface of the wheel crowns and vanes must be made smooth. Since the blades are radial. Peripheral velocities of nearly 200 feet per second are now frequently used. 1902. run at much higher speeds. Until a few years ago the peripheral velocity of pump wheels was generally less than 50 feet per second. however. therefore from which <Z = l03'=12f". First to find Vj. Assume there are two suction pipes and that the water enters the wheel from both sides. the outer casing being so formed that there is but a small clearance between it and the outer edges of the vanes. (i. this loss by fixing the vanes to a central diaphragm only. and the number of revolutions per second will be R B= The velocity of the inner edge of the vane is v = 23 feet per * sec. frictional forces are set up which are practically proportional to the square of the velocity of the wheel periphery and to the area An attempt is frequently made to diminish of the wheel crowns. the wheel thus being without crowns.
when the discharge was zero and the vanes were radial at exit. hc _V v* ~2gW but this is not the lift of the pump. head without normal velocity. For a pump having a wheel seven inches diameter surrounded by a circular casing 20 inches diameter. and is accordingly the difference between the pressure at inlet and outlet when the pump is first set in motion or it is the statical head which the pump will maintain when . running at its normal speed. and with curved vanes. Theoretically it is the head which will be impressed on the water when there is no flow through the wheel. E. of the wheel at inlet =6^ inches. <f> being 30 degrees. a gives the inclination of these blades. The width of the wheel at discharge is M> = 7r. as the water surrounding the wheel prevented from rotating by the casing being brought near one point.CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS The inclination of the vane at inlet that the water is 405 may move on to the vane without shock and the water when it leaves the wheel makes an angle a with v x such that If there are guide blades surrounding the wheel. h was ^ . cannot be much is greater than  . For a pump with a centrifugal head hc spiral case surrounding the wheel. 226. always greater than as the water in the eye of the wheel and in the casing surrounding the wheel is made to rotate by friction. If this is less than . t 1903. Stanton* found that. hc was Q . The centrifugal head impressed on the water by the wheel. * to the wheel at Proceedings Inst. .6 / = 7r. The centrifugal head however. M. the pump theoretically cannot being speeded up above start lifting against its full its is. As shown on page 335.D. the centrifugal head impressed on the water as it passes through the wheel is . the when there is no discharge.20 =3 The width inches about. Head against which a pump will commence to discharge.
as shown in the figure. For a pump with ~^. and with an Appold* wheel running the statical head was ~ .406 HYDRAULICS Parsons found for a pump having a wheel 14 inches diameter with radial vanes at outlet. The layer of water nearest the outer circumference of the wheel will no doubt be dragged along by friction in the direction shown by the arrow. The water in the guide chamber cannot obviously rotate about the axis 0. That the centrifugal head when the wheel has radial vanes is likely to be greater than when the vanes of the wheel are set back is to be seen by a consideration of the manner in which the water in the chamber outside the guide passages is probably set in motion. but there is a tendency for it to do so. and running at 300 revolutions per minute. when the seven inches diameter wheels mentioned above discharged into guide passages surrounded by a circular chamber 20 inches diameter. Stanton found. but must be due to internal motions set up in the wheel and casing. Fig. and consequently stream line motions.  when the vanes of ^9 ^ . Since there is no discharge. 275. . For a pump. the least velocity at which commenced to discharge against a head of 14*67 feet was OK 2 l .when < *9 was 30 degrees. 392 revolutions per minute. that hc was the wheel were radial. and . h c  . are probably set up. the centrifugal head may also 2 be larger than found to be ~. * See page 415. and outside the guide passages a circular chamber as in Fig. with it having a rotor 1*54 feet diameter. the mean actual value for this pump was T087. this rotation cannot be caused by the water passing through the pump. and thus h c was velocity against a ^ and the least head ~ of 17*4 feet was 424 revolutions per circular casing minute or hc was again larger than the wheel. and water will flow from the outer casing to take its place the stream lines will give motion to the water in the outer casing. at 320 revolutions per minute spiral casing. that the head maintained without discharge was 9. . 280. was For a pump having guide passages surrounding the wheel.
in addition to the water in the wheel rotating. and consequently the velocity of the stream lines in the casing will be less in the < latter case than in the former. 280. . but when the vane is set back and the angle is greater than 90 degrees. from dragging the water backwards along the vane. The head which a pump.CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS 407 When the vanes in the wheel are radial and as long as a vane is moving between any two guide vanes. rotor. with a vortex chamber. the velocity of the stream Fig. be less than the velocity i\ of the periphery of the wheel. the straight vane prevents the friction between the water outside the wheel and that inside. Just outside the guide chambers the velocity of rotation will be In the outer chamber it is to be expected that the less than VL water will rotate as in a free vortex. in the guide chamber. will theoretiIn this case it is cally maintain when the discharge is zero. or will rotate in probable that as the discharge approaches zero. there will be a tendency for the water in the wheel to move backwards while that in the guide chamber moves forward. but due to friction and eddy motions. will be in the direction of rotation of the wheel. or its velocity of whirl will be inversely proportional to the distance from the centre of the lines will some manner approximating to this. the general direction of flow of the stream lines. In either case. the water in the vortex chamber will also rotate because of friction. even with radial vanes.
^o^LYiW /_! J_\ R. ~2^ If r. The this becomes j ^4 Zg . In was only ~ . 281. Decouer from experi . If it be assumed that v r is a constant. r and VQ being the radius and tangential velocity respectively of any ring of water of thickness dr. centrifugal head due to the water in the v<?dr chamber is. give h c Stanton's experiments h too high.V* 2^ 2^ and R. Fig. is 2r W ^. Fig.408 HYDRAULICS centrifugal head due to the water in the wheel is The If K = 2r. 281. however. is The conditions here assumed. the centrifugal head due to the vortex chamber is tfrV P*dr = vfr? 3 g !rw 2g The total centrifugal head is then i.V' r + _L\ R.
For any centrifugal pump a curve showing the head against which it will start pumping at any given speed can easily be determined as follows. _ eViVi _ e fa vMi cot <fr) any pump. If is 30 degrees and is unity. and (3) by the wheels being surrounded by casings which allow the centrifugal head to be < greater than .q 2 1  about twice the diameter of the wheel. low manometric efficiencies of actual pumps. (2) by the angle never being greater than 90 degrees. 419 and 542. the pump will only commence to the normal head when the velocity is vi9 if the discharge against manometric efficiency e is less than 0*5. For any given values of and e the velocity vz at which delivery commences decreases with the angle <. the pump will not commence to discharge unless speeded up to some velocity vz such that my* ' e (vi . however. 286. It should be observed that it does not follow. the diameter being I . the actual efficiency of the pump is of necessity low. the speed may be diminished. Headvelocity curve of a centrifugal pump at zero discharge. and that the lift 9 g Then if h is greater than mv* ^. . Let of the it be assumed that hc is ~* in pump *9 when working normally is 2. pumps are run at such a speed that the head at that speed is greater than the gross head centrifugal against which the pump works. and at the top See pages 411. so that there is never any Nearly all actual This is accounted for (1) by the difficulty in starting the pump. because in many cases the manometric efficiency is small.ViUi cot <ft) 2g After the discharge has been commenced. but if is 150 degrees v 2 ~T m <f> m < m </> is equal to Vi when e is 0'428. and is unity. On the delivery pipe * fit a pressure gauge. found hc to be ~ . (See Fig. and the pump will continue to deliver against the given head*. vz is equal to Vi when e is 0'6.CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS 409 ments on a small pump with a vortex chamber. If is 90 or greater than 90 degrees.) 227.
then is  the total centrifugal head h . and 292. foot at the top of the suction pipe. On reference to Fig. 289. the discharge at 2000 revolutions per minute per minute. curve at constant velocity. 60 . * See also page 418. 293. A curve may now be plotted similar to that shown in Fig.410 of the suction pipe a HYDRAULICS vacuum gauge. 285. the speed at which delivery would just start is 2000 revolutions per minute. Start the pump with the delivery valve closed. the head is 44 feet is seen to be 12 cubic feet This means. When the head is 44 feet. Let p be the absolute pressure per sq. ' Fig.4V WOO 1800 2000 2200 Revolutions per Minute. If the speed of a Headdischarge centrifugal pump is kept constant and the head varied. which shows the discharge under different heads at various speeds. when with the head when the speed Variation of the discharge of a centrifugal pump is kept constant*. and observe the pressure on the two gauges for various speeds of the pump. foot in the delivery pipe and pi the absolute pressure per sq. . that if the pump is to discharge against this head at this speed it cannot deliver less than 12 cubic feet per minute. the discharge varies as shown in Figs. 282. 228. 283. 282 which has been drawn from data obtained from the pump shown in Fig. 275.
t 1903. shows the variation of the head with discharge for the pump shown in Fig. and the discharge against a given head has only one value. Rateau on a pump having a wheel 11*8 inches diameter. In the case of the dotted curve the head is always less than the centrifugal head when the flow is zero. 701 20 3 Radii Velocity dffiow from. 285 the discharge when the head is 80 feet may be either *9 or 3'5 cubic feet per minute. . 283. may feet per again without the velocity ^ being increased to 707 second. 284. Head Constant.CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS 411 The curve No. 2. and may suddenly change from one in which case the pump would not start or it actually cease. 283. Fig. Mech. and that of Fig. 4 Fig. 285 was plotted from experimental data obtained by M. 275 when running at 1950 revolutions per minute. In Fig. At the given velocity therefore and at 80 feet head. as shown by the curves of efficiency. Headdischarge curve for Centrifugal Pump. the flow is ambiguous and is value to the other. Velocitydischarge curve for Centrifugal Pump. The work required to drive the pump will be however very different at the two discharges. Wheel. the actual for the two discharges are very different. Velocity Constant. unstable. The data for plotting the curve shown in Fig. This value is calculated from the equation Proceedings last. Engs. of Fig. 289* was obtained from a large centrifugal pump having a spiral chamber. efficiencies and.
412 the coefficient stable HYDRAULICS for this pump being 1'02. the pump should m when be run with a rim velocity greater than 70'7 feet per second. as shown by the velocitydischarge curve of Fig. %60 '* * 10 > W 1" #20 */> . Pump Wheel 90 60 flSctiam/. in which case the discharge cannot be less than 4J cubic feet per minute. The method of determining this curve is discussed later. For the flow to be delivering against a head of 80 feet. 287.
a centrifugal head is impressed on the water between inlet and outlet. the height to which the water can be lifted above the centre of the pump is. foot. and the water in the well is at rest. and if frictional losses be neglected. so that the water leaves the delivery pipe with a velocity ud .CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS Therefore 413 h = 37 feet. wheel is h = P1+ w W_P_uJ (?)> & = *. w 2g 2g g If now the velocity Ui is diminished gradually and without shock. Then assuming the centrifugal head. is v 2 =486 ft. by Bernoulli's equations (see Figs. and p a the atmospheric pressure per sq.. If the But since. w p. 2g w . Let p be the pressure at inlet. + *+ w w 2g . by Bernoulli's equation. Bernoulli's equations applied to centrifugal pumps. . therefore. and the wheel is supposed to be horizontal.. when there is no discharge. and all losses are neglected. from which Let ? 2 be the velocity of the rim of the wheel at which pumping commences. per sec. wheel is at rest and the water passes through it in the same way as it does when the wheel is in motion. w > If the centre of the in the sump 01 w 2g 2g h feet above the level of the water well. pi at outlet 229. _ 2g * 2g 2g p ww=2g2g From (3) V + 2 r v? 2g:2g by substitution as on page 337. 277 and 278). Consider tlie motion of the water in any passage between two consecutive vanes of a wheel.(8). w and when 2g w 2g g g U is radial and therefore equal to u. w 2g w 2g due to the rotation.
.... . vater in the sump..... Example. 0=^/3...... usually much larger than in the case of the turbine. from which v 12 + 5v 1 =1940 . This result verifies the fundamental equation given on page 398.... v l = 1940.+ Further from equation g = H .... and = 41 6 feet per Vj V = 466 The pressure head at outlet is then w To find the velocity v w = 45 when <f> feet. 1 and % = 536 w feet.. (9).... therefore (1) becomes from which vf 5 */3 ..414 HYDRAULICS Substituting from (7) and (8) in (6) 9 2gr 2 = H.. Assuming there are no losses. =5 feet per second............ (1).... and 9 = ll <J = 60 second.. however...... is made 30 cot degrees.. and as it is not an easy matter to diminish 230.. <j> At inlet w *S4' !?. (6) ^1^IZL_2_^L = TT +dw 2g w 2g 2g* The centre of a centrifugal pump is 15 feet above the level of the The total lift is 60 feet and the velocity of discharge from the at discharge is 135 degrees. and The angle delivery pipe is 5 feet per second... Loss of head at exit.. The velocity Ui with which the water leaves the wheel is. per sec.... v 1 = 48 6 ft.... the radial velocity of flow through the wheel is 5 feet per second.. find the pressure head at the inlet and outlet circumferences. 25 64' and therefore. 2g Losses in centrifugal pumps. 64 = 186 The radial velocity at outlet is ! feet. head in a centrifugal pump are due to the same causes as the losses in a turbine. there is generally a much larger loss of velocity head at exit from the wheel in the pump than in the turbine.. The losses of this velocity gradually. > and Then V = 40 ^L = 254 feet.
the theoretical lift is and the maximum possible manometric efficiency is Substituting for Vi. greater than in the first. and for 2 8 Ui Vi + u*. 279.Ui cot <}>. was 90 degrees the efficiency of a Parsons* found that when in which the wheel was surrounded by a circular casing pump was made was nearly 10 per cent. . COt 2 <ft) + U? ~ v l Ui cosec Ui cot < " 2vi (vi <#>) < When v is 30 feet per second. 272. many of the earlier pumps. XLVH. and when this < is 30 degrees ^is lost. t Vol. respectively. When 2 < is 90 degrees ~ TJ 2 is *54H. E. and the efficiencies cannot be greater than 46 per cent. Theoretically. e is 62'5 per cent. the angle being thus less than 90 degrees. and when 48'5 per cent. the effect on the efficiency can be seen by considering the three cases considered in section 220 and illustrated < < the whole of the velocity U head ^. 272. Ht . < < < * Proceedings Inst. i . In general when there is no precaution taken to utilise the energy of motion at the outlet of the wheel. the efficiency in the second case is 18 per cent. in these two cases head while the other losses remain constant.was lost. If. U is *36H. Fig. being less than 40 per cent. =lrS2cosec'*' ' _ fa  U. therefore. C. which had radial vanes at 2 *9 being taken to diminish it gradually and the efficiency was constantly very low. To The effect of the angle increase the efficiency Appold suggested that the blade should be set back. and 64 per cent. no special precautions in Fig. Ui 5 feet per second and is 90 degrees e is 30 degrees. p. . Experiments also show that in ordinary pumps for a given lift and discharge the efficiency is greater the smaller the angle <f>. less than when the angle about 15 degrees. on the efficiency of the pump.CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS In 415 exit.
that is is diminishing and the pressure increasing. 279). have to be larger for no shock than if the flow is radial. (See section 236. It has already been seen that when there is no flow the water in the eye of the wheel is made to rotate by friction. It has been suggested by Dr Stanton that a second reason for the greater efficiency of the pump having vanes curved back at outlet is to be found in the fact that with these vanes the variation of the relative velocity of the water and the wheel is less than when the vanes are radial at outlet. To avoid loss of head at entry the vane must be parallel to the relative velocity of the water and the the velocity </> vane. Loss of head at entry. If the pump has to work under variable conditions and the water be assumed to enter the wheel at all discharges in the same direction. In the first case the maximum actual efficiency was only 39'6 per cent.416 HYDKAULICS Stanton found that a pump 7 inches diameter having radial vanes at discharge had an efficiency of 8 per cent. that there could have been very little loss at inlet. the angle of the vane at inlet will clearly of the wheel. If the water has rotation in the same probably direction as the wheel. when the vanes are radial. which in the suction pipe are parallel to the sides of the pipe. and in the second case 50 per cent. the relative velocity of the water and the edge of the . If there were no friction between the water and the eye of the wheel it would be expected that the stream lines. It has been shown experimentally that when the section of a stream is diverging. These return stream lines cause a loss of energy by eddy motions. less than when the angle $ at delivery was 30 degrees. there is a greater difference between the relative velocity of the water and the vane at inlet and outlet than when the angle is less than 90 degrees (see Fig. the vanes of which were nearly radial at the inlet edge. would be simply turned to approach the vanes radially. That the water has rotation before it strikes the vanes seems to be indicated by the experiments of Mr Livens on a pump.) The efficiencies claimed for this pump are so high. Unless guide blades are provided the exact direction in which the water approaches the edge of the vane is not known. and it is probable that at all flows the water has some rotation in the eye but as the delivery increases the velocity of rotation diminishes. Now in a pump.. there is a tendency for the stream lines to flow backwards towards the sections of least pressure. and it is probable therefore that there is more loss by eddy motions in the wheel in the former case.
and therefore the relative velocity of the water along the tip of the vane is If Uz is assumed to be radial. If Us has a component in the direction of rotation diminished. 27 . .CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS vane can only be parallel to the tip of the 417 vane for one discharge. The relative velocity of is u2 and v V/. a sudden velocity Vr . the ua will be head lost is ^^ . The component of flow through the opening of the wheel must be equal to the radial component of u2 . the water move along the vane a sudden velocity must be impressed upon it. the vector difference of u* radial and v. be the velocity with which the water enters a and v the inclination wheel. Let u. and friction losses are neglected. 288. *9 effective work done on the water by the wheel Ug__ (VUy 23 2<r COt #) 2 is diminished by If now this loss takes place in addition to the velocity head being lost outside the wheel. and and velocity of the tip of the vane \* us >j at inlet respectively.2) Fig.v . which and at other discharges in order to make causes a loss of energy. on certain assumptions. that if a body of water changes its velocity from va to v* suddenly. then 20 V? Q 20  2 2 Si cosec " z 9 2 . change of velocity is us and the head lost may ku 2 If k is assumed to be unity. H. the reasonably be taken as ^In this case the .u* cot has thus to be given to the water. or is *9 the head due to the change of velocity. It has been shown (page 67). u8 . cot. a t.
lift on the assumption that the whole of the kinetic energy 52 cosec 2 30 h= v. It is of interest to study by means of equation (1). Find the theoretical is lost at exit.(25 s  5 cot 15)* 2g = 370 2g feet. The full curve of Fig. section 230. 231. 2g The theoretical lift neglecting all losses is 642 feet. 13 I. 80 degrees and the angle Q is 15 degrees. the variation of the discharge Q with the velocity of the pump when h is constant. Variation of the head with discharge and with the speed of a centrifugal pump. 289 shows the variations of the head with the discharge when the velocity of a wheel is kept constant. and the radius is twice that of the inner The angle is circumference. and the variation of the head with the discharge when the velocity of the pump is constant. i" M . HYDRAULICS The radial velocity of flow through a pump ia 5 feet per second. and to compare the results with the actual results obtained from experiment. The velocity of the outer circumference is 50 feet per sec. The data for which the curve has been plotted is indicated in the figure. and the manometric efficiency is therefore 58 per cent.418 Example.* .
is greater than 26*4 feet per second. which is taken as 12 feet. and will do so as long as Vj. could not safely be run with a rim velocity less than 31*9 ft. 290. 232. that is. or it may suddenly cease. 290 shows how the flow varies with the velocity for a constant value of ft. If and the of the variation of the centrifugal head on the discharge of a pump. The theoretical head assuming no losses is then 28 feet and the manometric less or greater values of f _X efficiency is thus 50 per cent. through. wheel without shock. This means that if the head is 12 feet. 272 . Velocitydischarge curve at constant head for Centrifugal Pnrap. and at any greater velocity the radial velocity of flow could not be less than 8 feet per second. It will be seen that when the velocity t?i is 31*9 feet per second the velocity of discharge may be either zero or 8'2 feet per second. it In the case of the pump considered in section 231.. Radial Velocity Fig. and the centrifugal head in an actual pump was equal to the theoretical centrifugal head. then the losses at inlet and outlet were as above and were loss The by friction the only losses. and it will not start again until effect ^ is increased to 31*9 feet per second.CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS 419 the water enters the When the discharge JL is normal. per sec. pump still continues to discharge. The curve of Fig. the pump could not be made to deliver water against the normal head at a small velocity of discharge. the head diminishes and also the efficiency. will only start when the velocity is 31*9 feet per second and the velocity of discharge will suddenly If become now the velocity Vi is diminished the 8*2 feet per second. as at any velocity v it may suddenly change from CB to CD. theoretically. ~ is 4 feet and For h is 14 feet. Wheei. The flow is however unstable. the pump.
The centrifugal head when the flow is zero is As the flow to. further be assumed that the loss by friction* . the casing will diminish and the centrifugal head will therefore diminish. due to friction. which at high velocities and in small considerable. and many actual pumps can deliver variable quantities of water against the head for which they are designed. and the centrifugal head at the normal speed of the pump when the discharge is zero. or greater than unity. the velocity of whirl in the eye of the wheel and in increases. and if m is known it Let Jc can at once be found. and should be written as also or. can be expressed by the fcV ~2g'~ 2nku1 v 1 2g . and eddy motions. ^ 2g then the correction ' takes into account the variation of the if proper values are given to &. however. There is pumps is generally greater than any head under which the pump works. Let it be assumed that when the velocity of flow is u (supposed being generally equal constant) the centrifugal head flc 7. it has been seen that the centrifugal head at commencement is greater than is also loss of head. n^ and k^ centrifugal head and also the friction head v l .420 HYDRAULICS In actual pumps. . m is _^L_^ ~'2g 20 20 and n being constants which must be determined When u is zero v\ by experiment. as If it Cu2 + 27 be supposed it o !r + latter. apart from the loss at inlet cV and outlet is ~ * The loss of head by friction will no doubt depend not only upon u but upon the velocity v l of the wheel. These two causes considerably modify the headdischarge curve at constant velocity and the velocitydischarge curve at constant head.
fa. 2 The coefficient being known from an experiment when u is zero. would approximate to the dotted curve of Fig.. Q diminution of the centrifugal head head as the flow increases. 289.. varying with the units. and the experimental value of h. by taking k becomes as 0'5. section 232. page 4J 7.. C 2 and C 3 directly. . 289 it is seen that u cannot be greater than 5 feet when the head is 12 feet.~*<*>** nu* cV 2vu cot 9 A . * See page 544. Using the corrected equation (2).. on the velocitydischarge curve at constant head. cosec and cot <. < Substituting values for fa n. v... n as 7*64 and fa as . for a pump such as the one already considered. rh and fa the dotted curve of Fig. three experiments will determine the constants m. ' 2g ~2j If now the head h and flow Q be determined experimentally. 290 is only drawn to the point where u is 5.. effect of the The and the increase of the friction From the dotted curve of Fig.38. or it may be written being the flow in any desired units... This curve has been plotted from equation (2). 290 has been plotted. for many pumps two other* experiments giving corresponding values of h and u will determine the coefficients n and fa. the difference between h as determined from equation (1)... ~^. and having given values to any two of the three variables h... and Q the third can be found. The headdischarge curve at constant velocity. the coefficients C 2 and C8 * If equation (4) is of the correct form. must be equal to V 2nkuv l 2g hi being equal to 2 (c Jc w ). and the given values of k.. equation (2) C and Ci being new coefficients .CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS 421 The gross head h is then. The pump starts delivering when v is 27*7 feet per second and the discharge increases gradually as the velocity increases. and therefore the new curve of Fig. 233.
Professor James Thomson's vortex or whirlpool chamber. y of a body to change. They are now discussed in greater detail. may be considered as moving in a circle of radius r with a velocity v and to have also a radial velocity u outwards. they can be made to give any discharge varying from zero to a maximum. its of / mo. water under a head of velocity of flow from zero to 5 feet per second. therefore. is the weight of the element in pounds. Any fluid particle ab. ~\/\ H 7* wheel moment or couple. Let If W it be supposed the chamber is horizontal. as the head is This is diminished. Special arrangements for converting the velocity head head. upon the body. when running at constant speed.422 HYDRAULICS will 12 feet at The pump any deliver. But since no turning after leaving the constant. radius is perpendicular to the  its momentum and the moment the centre mentum or angular momentum about C is For the momentum and for the moment it. 281. acts upon the element of momentum must be . 234. ^ with which the water leaves the wheel into pressure The methods for converting the velocity head with which the water leaves the wheel into pressure head have been indicated on page 394. In such a pump the manometric efficiency must have its maximum value when the discharge is zero and it cannot be greater than ' COt 9 the case with many existing pumps and it explains why. Thomson first suggested that the wheel should be surrounded by a chamber in which the velocity of the water should gradually change from Ui to ud the velocity of flow in the pipe. a force must act upon of momentum to change. Such a chamber is shown in Fig. 274. Fig. a couple must act effort. so called because no impulse is given to the water while moving in the chamber. In this chamber the water forms a free vortex.
and the inner radius rw Let vfw and v Rw be the whirling velocities . and hi is the head of water above the pump and pa the atmospheric pressure. and. and there fore. therefore.+ 2g = constant. This is a general property of the free vortex. Bernoulli's theorem when the chamber is horizontal + 2g 2g + w is constant for the stream lines. w = w 2g 2g l ^ w + . and the radial velocity of flow u for any ring will be inversely proportional to r . and the stream lines are spirals. If the sides of the chamber are parallel the peripheral area of the concentric rings is proportional to r .CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS Therefore. no energy will hold. the ratio is constant. is 423 constant or V r = constant. then neglecting friction = w . If u is constant ?r" + 2g w = constant. by friction and eddies. Let the outer radius of the whirlpool chamber be R. w . ud* i " ?i 2g w Pa PRW UA or . is lost. Then and since v ? ^o is  a constant. w( ~^' 4* 2g When Uw = 2rw w If the velocity head which the water possesses when it leaves the vortex chamber is supposed to be lost. at the inner and outer radii respectively. or the direction of motion of is any element with equiangular If its radius r constant.
is equal to Vi and = ^1_^ . For clearly if there is a gain of pressure head chamber less of V 2 / \ ^ ne ^ fl ~p~2J> velocity head to is be lost will be chamber. . tt. Therefore . h a is now _V*V 1 Ui COt<j> U? fa . ?*> = R. the total ho. When the discharge or rim velocity further loss of head at entrance equal to not normal. cot* (2).. Therefore. 7.424 If then lift h% is hi HYDRAULICS h + is the height of the pump above the well. _pi_ ^ w p_^ 2g (6) 2 V^/.V 2g V _^ 2<? ' But from equation page 413. When there is no discharge v J. + v ' But also ^zfc. by this amount than when there lift <^>) no vortex Substituting for Vi and Ui the theoretical . " R \ R.Ui is g fy~ ~W COt R 2 ^ n^ is '&. k^ + P /. there a and . rtt . in the vortex Ui V^A R 2 \ ^A R 2 B2/' This might have been written down at once from equation (1). and vru = V lt . * z# = pi. w 2g g 2g Therefore ^ section 230.p to 10 Pr.
275 and 276. as well as the mechanical difficulties. would militate against their adoption.E. So far as the author is aware. and the tangents to the tips of the guide blades should be made parallel to the direction of Uj. first suggested by Professor Reynolds. the direction of the tips can only be correct for one discharge of the pump. efficiencies as high as 85 per cent. Stanton* showed that for a pump having a rotor 7 inches diameter surrounded by a parallel sided vortex chamber 18 inches diameter. the efficiency of the chamber in converting velocity head to pressure head was about 40 per cent. if adjustable guide blades were used. for diminishing the velocity of discharge Ui gradually. _ Vi . but except for large pumps.CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS 425 R = 2 RW and v = 2^1 the centrifugal head with the discharge. is to discharge the water from the wheel into guide passages the sectional area of which should gradually increase from the wheel outwards. See also page 542. 275. of guide passages in small pumps is generally four If the guide blades are fixed as in Fig. centrifugal pumps with vortex chambers are not now being manufactured in England. C. The number or five. and now largely used.ViUi COt (v ~~ < "" Ui (Vi Ui COt 2 <ft) R 2 u cot 0)* k?v* 2nkuvi which reduces to h of the vortex The experimental data on the value per se.. chamber in increasing the efficiency is very limited. 235. Single wheel pumps of this type can be used up to a head of 100 feet with excellent results. the very large increase in initial cost of the pump. . but it seems very probable that by the addition of a welldesigned chamber small centrifugal pumps might have their efficiencies considerably increased. Correcting equation (1) in order to allow for the variation of and the friction losses. * Proceedings Inst. Turbine pumps. It is however questionable whether the design of the pump was such as to give the best results possible. Another method. Figs. . 1903.
which the water leaves which The radial velocity with the water enters the guide passages must be Ui and the velocity along the guide is. is the velocity with the wheel. < the vane Then BE. the direction of the tips can only be correct For any other discharge than the for one discharge of the pump.Uj cot cp a %r At inlet the loss of head is 2 (vu cot (9) 20 and the theoretical lift is cfr = cot (vu cot 0) ~ a ~W fa Ui cot <j> . Fig. lift is Vi v 2 + 2viUi cot a 2vu cot 2 U* (cot <ft + cot 9 a) 2g*} 20 u* cot h 2g 2g feV ^ ZJcnViUj 20 "20 2g " TKU? ' 20 .000 revolutions per minute to deliver against a head of 936 feet. They are now being used to deliver water against heads of over 350 feet. and the _ h= . and M. BF. If the guide blades are fixed. tfv* % . m and to correct for the diminution of the centrifugal head _Zkvin^Ui _ " 2^ then u? 2g> Cl 29 must be added. Let a be the inclination of the guide blade and angle at exit.MI cot <ft . the head lost is fa . Rateau has used a single wheel 3'16 inches diameter running at 18. and on the assumption that the loss of head is equal to the head due to the relative velocity FE. parallel to the fixed guide and there is a loss of head due to shock. Loss of head at the entrance to the guide passages. There is a sudden change of velocity from BE to BF.u\ cot a a) 2g 9 2v u cot a _ v* v = 2g~2~g* ~~2g~ 1 l 2vu cot 20 <f> Ui (cot + cot 2 a) u? cot 2 ~^~ To allow for friction.426 HYDRAULICS having been claimed. therefore. the direction of the water as it leaves the wheel is not normal. 291. Let Ui be the radial velocity of flow.
since to the 427 u can always be written as a multiple of Ui.1 . of Fig. 292. 283. has been drawn. Equations for the turbine pump istic curves. 275. has been plotted. Taking the data shown in Fig. the velocitydischarge curve No.587 (3) eo 3)i<$cftarge. Feet fer Second/. and taking h as 35 feet. From equation (3) taking Vi as 50 feet per second.CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS which. the headdischarge curve No. i_ __J i 1. 23 i Cubic Feet per J&nute. 1.^ Headdischarge curves at constant speed for Turbine Pump. Fig. 284. Character = 5 degrees. of Fig. 292 4 are shown a series of headdischarge curves at . In Figs. reduces form 2gh = mv*+ CuiVi + du* (2). 1. in/ _l f L_ Velocity cub Exit/ fronv the Wlieet/. cot = 11 '43 = 1732 cot a =19*6 equation (2) above becomes 20fc = ' .
C and d in equation (2) the values . and from the two quadratic equations thus obtained C and Ci were calculated.428 HYDRAULICS constant speed. The reader can observe for himself what discrepancies there are between the mean curves through the points and the calculated curves. velocitydischarge curves at constant head. Fig. respectively. The value of m was obtained 1*087. when the stop valve was closed. VelocityDischarge curves at Constant Head. 2'26 and by determining the head h.62*1 respectively. by taking two values of Ui and Vi respectively from one of the actual velocitydischarge curves near the middle of the series. could hardly be distinguished.. for speeds between 1500 and 2500 revolutions per minute. make the equation more nearly fit the remaining ZOOO 2100 Speed* Fig. and the curves. No attempt has been made to draw the actual mean curves in the figures. 282. They were however plotted in all cases from the equation 2gh = obtained a l087t>! + 2'26tM>!  62' W. as in most cases the difference between them and the calculated curves drawn. are practically the mean curves drawn through the experimental points. for which h was known. by substituting for m. By trial C and Ci were then corrected to curves. and headvelocity curves at constant discharge. approximately. It . The values of C and Ci were first obtained. The points shown near to the curves were determined experimentally. 293. Revolutions per Alutute. it will be seen.
toward the * Proceedings Inst. 1903. Fig. was claimed. The angle was about 13 degrees and the mean of the angle for the two sides of the vane 81 degrees. 294. head. an efficiency of 71 per cent. Engs. For a similar pump 21 inches diameter an efficiency of 82 per cent. < spiral case allows the mean velocity of flow discharge pipe to be fairly constant and the results of The Losses in the spiral casings of centrifugal pumps. Mech. 236. the agreement between the curves and the observed points is very close. for a purnp having a wheel 19 \ inches diameter running at 550 revolutions per minute. Mr Livens* obtained.. that the experiments clearly indicated the unstable condition of the discharge when the head was kept constant and the velocity was diminished below that at which the discharge commenced. pump to determine its performance It is interesting to note.CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS 429 will be seen that for a very wide range of speed. . experiment seem to show that a large percentage of the velocity of the water at the outlet of the wheel is converted into pressure head. Headvelocity curves at Constant Discharge. when delivering 1600 gallons per minute against a head of 25 feet. and the equation can therefore be used with confidence for this particular under stated conditions. and discharge.
if 2g > u is the velocity of flow from the wheel... When vl is 66 feet per second the equation to the head discharge curve . The coefficients C 2 and C 3 depend upon the unit of discharge..i^icot< /CsTJi ' (vucotOy 2g 2g friction and the diminution of centrifugal head into Taking account. is tti j.. * See Appendix 11.. g _ v* ViUiCoi<j> _ fe Ui _ 3 ' ' a (v ucotOy 2g a Jcv* 2*7 ~ __ nJm v l _ Jc^t? } g 2g ~2<T "~2g' which again may be written 7. .discharge curve for inches diameter pump from Mr Livens' data to be 118v12 + 3^1142^ = 2gh and for the 21 . * = mv + C ^i^i " ... (1)... (2).. of m. The equations for the gross head h at discharge Q as determined for the several classes of pumps have been shown to be of the form _ = 2g or.....430 HYDRAULICS The the 19 * author finds the equation to the head.. is a 155Qt?i _ 236Q Q being in cubic feet per minute.....'5ul v 1 round the wheel will be less than the velocity with which the water leaves the wheel and there will be a loss of head due to the sudden change in velocity. 75^ *9 The head. General equation for a centrifugal pump.... C and Ci are given for two pumps in equations 237. . when Ui is the radial velocity of flow at exit and assuming the water 8 enters the wheel radially.... Let this loss of The velocity of rotation of the water head be written then 2 k U 2 .. the curves of Figs... Gi^i ' 20 (1) 2g 2g The values and (2).. inches diameter pump = 2gh .. Cuv in which for and 1'5.. ..... I'18v l*4... any pump As a further example and illustrating the case in which at between 1 m varies will certain speeds the flow may be unstable. 285287 may be now considered.
used.CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS 431 The velocitydischarge curve for a constant head of 80 feet as calculated from this equation is shown in Fig. is Single wheel pumps to lift up to 350 feet are however being At this velocity the stress in a hoop due to centrifugal forces about 7250 Ibs. Eateau *. and especially is this so when the suction head is greater than 15 is feet. 286. Wood's Strength of Structural Members . Assuming radial vanes and a manoper metric efficiency of 50 per cent. Bulletin de la Societe de I'Industrie minfrale.. are hardly to be expected. The curves of actual and manometric efficiency are shown in Fig. sirable for the suction only under special circumstances is it therefore dehead to be greater than this amount. . of 239. The greatest height through which a centrifugal or other class pump will draw water is about 27 feet. the wheel must be of some material such as bronze or cast steel. limiting height to which a single wheel centrican be used to raise water. 1902 Engineer. It has already been stated that rim velocities and special precautions must be The hydraulic losses are also considerable.. incht. The up to 250 feet second have been used. and manometric efficiencies greater than 50 per cent. the limiting head against which it is advisable to raise water by means of a single wheel is about 100 feet. "Pompes Centrifuges. p. having considerable resistance to tensile stresses. however. fugal pump The maximum height to which a centrifugal pump can raise water. at which velocity the discharge Q suddenly rises to 4'3 cubic feet per minute. the rim of the wheel can be run. 236. 1902. depends theoretically upon the maximum velocity at which 238. 287. the maximum for the two cases occurring at different discharges. Special precaution has to be taken to ensure that all joints on the suction pipe are perfectly airtight. and it always advisable to keep the suction head as small as possible. According to M. per sq. taken to balance the wheel. At these very high velocities. and the maximum desirable velocity of the rim of the wheel is about 100 feet per second. t See Swing's Strength of Materials The Steam Turbine Stodola. * . a pump running at this velocity would lift against a head of 980 feet. The suction of a centrifugal pump." etc. . To start the pump against a head of 80 feet the peripheral velocity has to be 70' 7 feet per second. March.
432 HYDRAULICS .
n. has been stated that the limiting economical head for a single wheel pump is about 100 feet. By putting several wheels or rotors in series on one shaft. and such pumps have been L. and for high heads series pumps It are now generally used.CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS 433 240. water can be lifted to practically any height. each rotor giving a head varying from 100 to 200 feet. Series or multistage turbine pumps. Fig. 28 . General Arrangement of Worthington Multistage Turbine Pump. 296.
'///////////////////////////w Fig. The vanes of each wheel and the directions difference in pressure of the guide vanes are determined as explained for the single wheel so that losses by shock are reduced to a minimum. The Through the back of each wheel. as constructed by the Worthington Pump Company. On the motor shaft are fixed three phosphorbronze rotors. . and there are n wheels the total lift is nearly nh feet.434 constructed to HYDRAULICS work against a head of 2000 feet. Sulzer Multistage Turbine Pump. or multistage pump. may be from one to twelve according to the total head. of a series. 295 and 296 show a longitudinal section and general arrangement. The water leaves the first wheel at the outer circumference and passes along an expanding passage in which the velocity is gradually diminished and enters the second wheel axially. The water is drawn in through the pipe at the left of the pump and enters the first wheel axially. The water passes through the remaining rotors and guides in a similar manner and is finally discharged into the casing and thence into the delivery pipe. For a given head. The number of rotors. are a number of holes which allow water to get behind part of the wheel. and to the bearings. and within certain limits the greater the efficiency. 297. Figs. head at the entrances to any two consecutive wheels is the head impressed on the water by one wheel. the greater the number of rotors used. just above the boss. alternating with fixed guides. If the head is h feet. which are rigidly connected to the outer casing. The vanes in the passage are of hard phosphorbronze made very smooth to reduce friction losses to a minimum. to balance the end thrust which would otherwise be set up. the less the peripheral velocity. and the wheels and guide passages are made smooth so as to reduce friction. respectively. under the pressure at which it enters the wheel. on one shaft.
and a manometric efficiency at the given delivery of 50 per cent. have been claimed for multistage pumps lifting against heads of 1200 feet and upwards. as there are no sliding parts. Let d be the external diameter of the annular opening. Four wheels would therefore be required. 1450 = x v . The pumps can be arranged and to be driven by to work belt. 241. The Worthington Pump Company state that the efficiency diminishes as the ratio of the head to the quantity increases. and required to lift 45 cubic feet of water per minute against a head of 320 feet. or directly by any form The Fig. and the diameter and number of the rotors. Fig. the best results being obtained when the number of gallons raised per minute is about equal to the total head. 295. 297 shows a multistage pump as made by Messrs Sulzer. there is no fluctuation of speed of the water in the suction or delivery pipes. Required the diameter of the suction.CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS 435 either vertically or horizontally. 282 . of motor. ^ Assuming radial blades at outlet the head lifted by each wheel is =90 feet. Then. t?i D is 1 foot. high as 84 per cent. such as occur in reciprocating pumps. is Then. There are several advantages possessed by centrifugal pumps. Taking the external diameter D of the wheel as 2d. Advantages of centrifugal pumps. 2 f(^3 144 ) = ^ 60 x 55 * from which eZ=6 inches nearly. Example. Assume provisionally that the diameter of the boss of the wheel is 3 inches. Another advantage is that as delivery from the wheel is constant.76 feet per sec. dirty water and even water containing comparatively large floating bodies can be pumped without greatly endangering the pump. and delivery pipes. and consequently there is no necessity for air vessels such as are required on the suction and delivery pipes of reciprocating pumps. A pump is to be driven by a motor at 1450 revolutions per minute." Another advantage is the impossibility of the pressure in the See page 384. assuming a velocity of 5 '5 feet per second in the suction and delivery pipes. In the first place. rotors are arranged so that the water enters alternately left from the Efficiencies as and right and the end thrust is thus balanced. There is also considerably less danger of large stress being engendered in the pipe lines by "water hammer*.
be w lift the pressure head at the top of the suction pipe. of that required when the pump is giving maximum discharge. Then if the resistances are equivalent to a head hs=kv*. This may be livering into case a float valve becoming greater than the centrifugal head (page of use in those cases where a pump is dea reservoir or pumping from a reservoir. Fig. be plotted w W A 3 having . as although the pump is doing no effective work. The pump wheel will continue to rotate but without delivering water. closes the delivery. delivering into a long pipe line. In the second case a similar valve may be used to stop the flow when the water falls below a certain level. the at the pressure head pump end of the delivery pipe must be ESfc+W w w "w Let p* + fcQ! A 2 ' A being the sectional area of the pipe.436 HYDRAULICS pump rotor is casing rising above that of the maximum head which the capable of impressing upon the water. or at intervals. when the water rises to a particular height in the reservoir. while the pump continues to rotate at a constant velocity. In the first may be fitted. . This arrangement although convenient is uneconomical. 2 w f therefore. If the delivery closed the wheel will rotate without any danger of the pressure is in the casing 335). Let 2 be the absolute pressure per square inch which has to be maintained at the end of the pipe line. and let the resistances vary as the square of the velocity v along the pipe. then of the the gross pump is h== PlP = P? If. and if the wheel is running at such a velocity that the centrifugal head is greater than the head in the pipe line it will start delivery when the valve is opened. When a centrifugal or air fan is delivering into a long pipe line the resistances will vary approximately as the square of the quantity of water Pump pump delivered > by the pump. the power required to drive the pump may be more than 50 per cent. which. www fej^p) + l_P A. 298. It follows that a centrifugal pump may be made to deliver water into a closed pipe system from which water may be taken regularly. a curve.
298. but differs from it in an essential feature. . in/ C. to take place into guide above or below the wheel. Discharge 242. It therefore cannot be called a centrifugal pump. as in the centrifugal pump. If on the same figure a curve having h as ordinates and Q as abscissae be drawn for any given speed. per Second/. Parallel flow turbine pump.CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS 437 as ordinates. that no head is impressed on By the water by centrifugal forces between inlet and outlet. reversing the parallel flow turbine a pump is obtained which is similar in some respects to the centrifugal pump. This would have inlet and outlet of the wheel will be equal. it will be a parabola. the axial velocity and of flow will be constant and if the angles are properly r and vr may be equal. w w 2g 2g g wheel has parallel sides as in Fig. Bernoulli's equation is w From which. 299. Since there is no centrifugal head impressed on the water between inlet and outlet. The vanes of such a pump might be arranged as in Fig. where the velocity can be passages The discharge may be allowed gradually reduced. the intersection of these two curves at the point P will give the maximum discharge the pump will deliver along the pipe at the given speed. and Q as abscissae. Ft/. in which case the pressure at chosen. Fig. the triangles of velocities for inlet and outlet being as shown. If the < V the advantage of stopping the tendency for leakage through the clearance between the wheel and casing. 299.
and a nonreturn valve in the discharge pipe. the discharge under full head can be obtained. the parallelflow pump cannot commence discharging unless the water in the pump is first set in motion by some external means. but as soon as the flow is commenced through the wheel. 300. . The velocity with which the water leaves the wheel would however be great and the lift above the pump would depend upon the percentage of the velocity head that could be converted into pressure head. Since there is no centrifugal head impressed upon the water.438 HYDRAULICS Such a pump is similar to a reversed impulse turbine. the pump would generally have to be placed below the level of the water to be lifted. 299. an auxiliary discharge pipe being fitted with a discharging valve. arranged as in Fig. the guide passages of which are kept full. 300. full Fig. To commence the discharge. 301. Fig. Fig.
the wheel can be made to deliver water at its inner periphery. and thus start the flow through the wheel. + ^. if the water enters the wheel radially. 301. but if flow can be commenced and the vanes are properly designed. and as already suggested there are distinct dis 244. A simple form of reciprocating force It consists of pump is shown diain grammatically in Fig. or otherwise the efficiency of the pump will be very low. 243. Like the parallel flow pump. the centrifugal head will tend to cause the flow to take place outwards. + *.CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS 439 The pump could be started when placed at a height h above the water in the sump. radii small. an inward flow pump if constructed could not start pumping unless the water in the wheel were first If the wheel is started with the water at rest set in motion. 4. the pressure at inlet and outlet will be the ^9 same. As in the centrifugal and parallel flow pumps. and U 2g ^ will then be greater than the total H. a plunger P working . advantages. by using an ejector or air pump to exhaust the air from the discharge chamber. the pressure throughout the wheel may be kept constant._ ^L 2g Pi is less lift than p. must therefore be made to diminish gradually. There seems no advantage to be obtained by using either a parallel flow pump or inward flow pump in place of the centri fugal pump. Reciprocating pumps. 2g ^ 2g is equal to 7p. The centrifugal head can be made small by making the Yery special precautions the velocity U difference of the inner ff and outer ?L.. and the made Y 2g a pump becomes practically an impulse pump. Inward flow turbine pump. the total lift is g w w w v* 2g g v* v\ g From the equation p_ Vr _ PI 2g 8 w it will be seen that unless V 2 2 r is 2g 2g' greater than 2g> ?L. and if the wheel passages are carefully designed.
Vertical Singleacting Keciprocating Pump. . 301 a.440 HYDllAULICS Fig.
and the water is forced through Y D into the delivery pipe. and the water in the suction pipe is sustained by the atmospheric pressure. The equivalent head H. then ho = H h.RECIPROCATING PUMPS a cylinder . is or the pressure in pounds per square inch in the cylinder p = '43(H/i). h may be negative or positive according as the pump is above or below the surface of the water in the well. cylinder is the friction between the plunger and the cylinder. If now the plunger is moved outwards. .h)} A = 43fc and the work done by the plunger per stroke E = '43h. On the motion of the plunger being reversed. In actual pumps if h Q is less than from 4 to 9 feet the dissolved gases that are in the water are liberated. B ~12~ I. When. less than the vapour tension of the water. A Ibs.IQQR 183B ' which may be called the barometric height in feet of water. Let ho be the pressure head in the cylinder. Assume for simplicity the pump to be horizontal. Let B be the height of the barometer in inches of mercury. is . 441 C and has two valves Ys and YD known as the suction and delivery valves respectively. Let A be stroke in feet. in feet of water. and it is therefore practically impossible to raise water more than from 25 to 30 feet. the valve YS closes. with the centre of the barrel at a distance h from the level of the water in the well. Ibs. the force necessary to move the plunger is the area of the plunger in square inches and L the The pressure on the end of the plunger outside the equal to the atmospheric pressure. the plunger is at rest. A. very slowly. p cannot become Y h remaining practically constant. L ft. and there is no air leakage the valve s opens. and the atmospheric pressure causes water to rise up the suction pipe and into the cylinder. At ordinary temperatures this is nearly zero. A section of an actual pump is shown in Fig.(H . "When B is 30 inches H is 34 feet. and neglecting P = '43 {H . is H13'596 . the valve Y D is closed by the head of water above it. 301 a.. and h cannot be greater than 34 feet.
and if greater. Y ft. with valves in proper condition. The effective work done by the pump is . should be less than five per cent. and the frictional and other hydraulic losses in the suction and delivery pipes. h foot pounds. and in a steady working pump.442 If HYDRAULICS Y is the volume displacement per stroke of the plunger in cubic feet E = 624/i. If the actual discharge is less than the theoretical the slip is said to be positive. The ratio of the discharge per stroke to the volume displaced by the plunger per stroke is the Coefficient of discharge. and the total is Z+^ foot work two strokes is therefore h + Z + ~ foot pounds per pound. Neglecting delivery stroke in the friction. and at the valves. . The actual work done on the plunger will be greater than this friction in the pump.. h t foot W pounds per minute. the volume the number of is The actual discharge may be greater or less than this amount. pump multiplied by Slip. and Ud the velocity with which the water leaves the delivery pipe. * See page 461. Positive slip is due to leakage past the valves and plunger. the 2 work done by the plunger during the pounds per pound. The weight of water lifted per stroke is *43AL Ibs. and the difference between these quantities is called the Slip. Coefficient of discharge of the The theoretical discharge of a plunger displaced by the plunger per stroke delivery strokes per minute. pump. and the effective horsepower is HP 33.000' 245. negative. therefore. Let Z be the head in the delivery pipe above the centre of the pump. Let W be the weight of water lifted per minute. The causes of negative slip and the conditions under which it takes place will be discussed later*. and lit the total height through which the water is lifted. and the work done per pound is. and the volume of water lifted per suction stroke will generally be slightly less than the volume moved through by the due to mechanical plunger. Ibs.
all frictional resistances. \ T7 Z+^ 'M'd \ ) . Fig. or 62'4 (H h) pounds per square foot. The volumes will clearly be proportional to the displacement of the plunger from the end of its stroke. the ordinates representing the pressure in the cylinder and the abscissae the corresponding volume displacements of the plunger. V. on the assumption made above that the plunger moves very slowly and that therefore inertia forces. Let a diagram be drawn. 443 Diagram of work done by the pump. 62*4 h . Theoretical Diagram. During the suction stroke. and also the neglected. cycle. work done per suction stroke is ABCD which equals and during the delivery stroke is EADF which equals iCtA 62 4 1 H (2\ Z+ + 2^. and on the delivery stroke the pressure is may be H The effective . that is. during one suction E so F . the absolute pressure behind the .RECIPROCATING PUMPS 246.J pounds per square foot. ' 2g / and EBCF is the work done per and one delivery stroke. 302.h feet of plunger is constant and equal to water.
Fig. equal to h plus the losses in the suction pipe. When OB is very long compared with CO. 304. and to accelerate the water in the delivery pipe. the total done in accelerating the water is zero. these correcting quantities are practically inappreciable. 302. together with the and all losses of energy in the head due to velocity of discharge pq in feet of water W suction and delivery pipes. and qr is the head required to lift the water and overcome all losses. The area of this diagram represents the actual work done on the water per cycle. as in Fig. work 247. and is equal to (Z + h).OK 00 By making BD equal to OK a diagram of velocities EDF is found. suppose it to be driven by a crank and connecting rod. has assumption that the velocity of the plunger is very small and without reference to the variation of the velocity and of the acceleration of the plunger. but it is now necessary to consider this variation and its effect on the motion of the water in the suction and delivery To realise how the velocity and acceleration pipes. The theoretical diagram. it is proved in books on mechanism. the velocity of the crank For any crank position OC. It will be seen later that although at any instant the pressure in the cylinder is effected by the inertia forces. The velocity of the plunger being small. of the plunger vary.444 differs HYDRAULICS from the above in that at any point p in the suction is stroke. that the velocity of the point B is Y. and the velocity v of the plunger is then Ysin#. Fig. The accelerations of the pump plunger and of the been drawn on the water in the suction pipe. plus the head required to accelerate the water in the suction pipe. and . crank in feet. and suppose the crank rotates with a uniform angular velocity of w radians per second. including loss at the valve. If r is the radius of the pin is V = wr feet per second. OK is equal to 00 sin 0. 304.
and Let v be the velocity of the plunger at any instant. for any crank angle 0. and the diagram of accelerations is then a straight line. E.A * See Balancing of Engines. The velocity and acceleration of the plunger being v and F respectively. (cos jcos 20) . the motion is simple harmonic. F as BG. and the acceleration becomes F = wV cos 0. the velocity of the water in the pipe must be v a and the acceleration F. 305. for continuity. Then the velocity in the pipe must be v A. : . The Let I be the length of the connecting rod in feet. Dalby. Velocity and acceleration of the water in the suction pipe. W. acceleration* F of the point B in Fig. 304. and there is to be in the column of water in the pipe and cylinder. 305. harmonic motion. a the crosssectional areas of the plunger and of the pipe respect A ively. a curve of accelerations MNQ is When length of the the connecting rod is very long compared with the crank. either positively or negatively.RECIPROCATING PUMPS 445 EDF is a semicircle. is approximately F = o>V Plotting obtained. . Fig. it is continuously being accelerated. the continuity velocity of the water in the pipe must vary with the velocity of If now the plunger. As the velocity of the plunger is continuously changing. The plunger then moves with simple the suction pipe is as in Fig.
a . the accelerating force required is The pressure per unit area is fs^. B . Let L be the length of the suction pipe in feet. and since by Newton's second law of motion is w . L. as the velocity of the plunger decreases. If the plunger be supposed driven by a crank and very long . a its cross sectional area in square feet. not only to lift the water and overcome the resistance in the suction pipe. and to accelerate the water in the suction pipe a force P is required.n. F is positive. or F is large. F. The effect of acceleration of the plunger on the in the cylinder during the suction stroke. the other hand. and w the weight of a cubic foot of water. therefore. and the equivalent head of water is .A . The atmospheric pressure has. Neglecting friction and other losses the pressure in the cylinder is now H Ji ha . but it has also to provide the necessary force to accelerate the water. and the pressure in the cylinder is consequently diminished. when the plunger moves with Pressure in the cylinder during the suction stroke simple harmonic motion.44C HYDRAULICS 248. resisting the motion of the piston is h + ha . Then the mass of water in the pipe to be accelerated pounds. and the head 249. fa the acceleration of the water in the pipe at any instant in feet per second per second. pressure When the velocity of the plunger is increasing./. increased. or the pressure on the plunger is On F is negative. and the piston has to exert a reaction upon the water to diminish its velocity. L = accelerating force mass x acceleration. _L 9 ' "' or since fa = . g.a This may be large if any one of the three quantities.
Diameter of suction pipe 3J inches. is The acceleration at the ends of the stroke M = o> . 306. 2 and . Diameter of plunger 4 inches. length 12 feet 6 inches. . G ALPr. 8 feet. 306.68 1 =71 h. COS in the cylinder TT 7 L AwV cos ga unity. cos# is in negative. and 125.A. per sec. and a very long connecting rod. since its motion is simple harmonic. 157. . For zero. Number of strokes per minute 136. for any crank displacement 0.. The angular velocity of the crank is w= 27T. may be supposed to be driven by a crank 3f inches long. The plunger. . 163 32 10 feet. The pressure ^6 tla = L.<o r is 2 . the crank rotating uniformly with angular velocity u> radians per second. The plunger is assumed to have simple harmonic motion. The variation of the pressure in the cylinder is seen Fig. r = 7*12 v /VQ1O / 1 x (j 6\.15*7 feet per sec. When is is zero. Height of the centre of the pump above the water in the sump.. cos values of is and when is 90 degrees. making 68 revolutions per minute. length of stroke 7 inches.RECIPROCATING PUMPS 447 connecting rod. F = w r cos 0. A Ef B Fig. cos between 90 and 180 degrees.i E2 I . radians per second. which has been drawn for the following data.
A during the stroke. but as will be shown later. under certain circumstances they may cause separation of the water in the pipe. To reduce suction the effects of the accelerating forces. and h a is therefore and when is greater than 90 degrees. and at the end it is 348+ 1036 feet. 8. 310 and 311. but. ha == Ud* L!. the head resisting motion is in the If F is negative. and the water cylinder. Figs. When is 90 degrees. a x the area. . and violent hammer actions may be set up. air vessels are put on the and delivery pipes. When the plunger commences its D and Li the length is the pipe. In quick running pumps. it is greater zero. h a is also negative. force required to than the atmospheric pressure. it varies to from P = 43 (8 + 10) A P = '43 (8 10) A. Neglecting the water in the cylinder. not only in causing a very large increase in the stresses in the parts of the pump. cylinder and the delivery pipe.. and instead of remaining constant and equal to '43. and the move the plunger may be very much increased. but the rate at which the plunger is working at various points in the stroke is affected by them. the effects of these accelerating forces tend to become serious. not altered by the accelerating forces. cos is zero. Accelerating forces in the delivery pipe of a plunger return stroke it has not only the water against the head in the delivery pipe. The area AEDF is clearly equal to GADH. is . for instance. the acceleration head when the acceleration of the piston of F. cos is negative.F Wi * and neglecting head lost by friction etc.448 HYDRAULICS The pressure in the cylinder neglecting the water in the cylinder at the beginning of the stroke is. 250. and the work done per suction stroke is. 34 (10 + 8) =16 feet. therefore. it has also to accelerate the water in the be the diameter. That is. Let to lift pump when there is no air vessel. In the above example.A. Air vessels. if no Y/air vessel is provided. therefore. or when the length of the pipe is long. the force necessary to move the piston at the commencement of the stroke has been more than doubled by the accelerating force.
as in Fig. when Variation of pressure in the cylinder due to friction there is no air vessel. d the diameter. If the atmospheric pressure is acting on the outer end of the plunger. The which total work done on the water in the cylinder is NJKM. and L x are the area. and the head lost by friction at that velocity is ' 2gda* if Oi. and the Fig. the velocity of the water in the pipe. is clearly equal to HJKL. when the plunger is making the delivery stroke and has a velocity v. the head lost by friction. 307.RECIPROCATING PUMPS 449 When diagram is the plunger moves with simple harmonic motion the as shown in Fig. which equals HSTL. Z as 20 feet. 301. when there is no air vessel. 251. the plunger moves with simple harmonic motion. D. which is drawn for the same data as for Fig. LI as 30 feet. If v is the velocity of the plunger at any instant during the suction stroke. the nett work done on the plunger will be SNRMT. 307. and a the area of the suction pipe. v = wr sin 0. diameter and length Similarly. is a . Head lost by friction in the suction and delivery pipes. is When and L. taking diameter D as 3J inches. H. 29 . respectively of the delivery pipe. 306.
= 7rn. is obtained. The mean ordinate of the parabola. is then 2 3 /AVVLZ. Fig. which is the mean frictional head. or the is number of revolutions of the crank & ~ per second. and r. and hf is a maximum. Fig. Plotting values of hf at various points along the stroke. When is 90 degrees. Then and . Let Do be the diameter of the plunger in feet. 308. sin# is unity. = 2r. 308.450 If the HYDRAULICS pump makes n strokes per second. iD and Substituting for <*> I. and I* is the length of the stroke. and since the mean frictional head is equal to the energy pound of water. 309.' ' 2gda? M~~"~ E Fig. the work done per stroke by friction is lost per all dimensions being in feet. the parabolic curve EMF.
there is no air vessel on the suction pipe. friction of total diagram is HKGr.RECIPROCATING PUMPS Therefore. as shown in Figs. The pump being single acting. ho The pressure =H h ha h/. in the part of the suction pipe between the well and the air vessel is practically kept ^ constant. or when the lengths of the pipes are long. 309. during the delivery stroke the work done is The diagram 252. while the crank makes one revolution. As remarked Air vessel on the suction pipe. The work done per suction stroke which equals is equal to the area ARSD + EMF = 624W + Similarly. a the crosssectional area of each of the pipes and d the diameter of the velocity continually \ t pipe. Let Z be the length of the pipe between the air vessel and the cylinder. and the friction head also remains nearly constant. 310 and 311. above. Fig. the water. 309. Let hv be the pressure head in the air vessel and let the air vessel be of such a size that the variation of the pressure may for simplicity be assumed negligible. and for simple harmonic motion ha is zero at the middle of the stroke. and the resultant work done during the two strokes is EMFGrKH. which has its changing as the velocity of the piston changes. Fig. is d* 451 when in the cylinder for any position of the plunger during the suction stroke is now. the quantity of water which flows along AB must be equal to the volume the plunger displaces per stroke. work done by friction per suction stroke. Suppose now that water flows from the well up the pipe AB continuously and at a uniform velocity. the effects of the accelerating forces become serious. in quick running pumps. being practically confined to the water in the pipe between the air vessel and the cylinder. and air vessels are put on the suction and delivery By this means the velocity pipes. At AEMFD. the ends of the stroke h/ is zero. The head required to accelerate the water at any instant is consequently diminished. I the length from the well to the air vessel. 292 .
Let B be the pressure head at the point B. Then by Bernoulli's theorem. the atmospheric head H=x to HOJ. 2 coV t 4/AWZ a) The third and fourth quantities of the righthand part of the equation will generally be very small and hv is practically equal When BC of the the suction stroke is taking place. therefore. when the velocity H plunger is v feet per second. lh A . BC Fig. and the acceleration second per second. the water in the pipe stroke. other losses being neglected. all the water is entering the air being at rest. including friction and the velocity head.452 HYDRAULICS for the crank to t The time make one 27T revolution is = sees.. the water in the pipe has to be accelerated. 310. the mean velocity of flow is _ A 2rw_ Awr (For a double acting pump v m = a \ . F feet per . TT ) / During the delivery vessel.
thus making small. flow The velocity of flow along air vessel is.RECIPROCATING PUMPS Let hf be the loss of 453 h/ the loss in head by friction in AB. fl AW TV 5 s Neglecting the small quantity For a plunger moving with simple harmonic motion Zt putting the air vessel near to the cylinder. Let Q be the quantity of water second in cubic is feet. AW hf > of the pressures above B. Then since the velocity along the suction pipe practically constant v m = and the friction head is . ' and for simple harmonic motion j. A 7TO. BC Awr is and the velocity of from the therefore. v A __ a ^ no.n . Then considering the pipe AB. . H ~ ~h HB and from consideration ~2^~ /vA. "~^ 2 J Neglecting losses at the valve. BC. the acceleration head becomes very small and By hQ = TL hhf 7. . the pressure in the cylinder then approximately is . and . nearly.h ^NT^* The mean velocity in the suction pipe can very readily be lifted per determined as follows. 4>VA H ^.
311. and it accordingly becomes increasingly desirable to provide an air vessel. 253. An air vessel Fig. is 7r2 times the friction head when there is an air vessel. in it remains practically constant. on the delivery pipe serves the same purpose as on the suction pipe. ls . *As the delivery pipe is generally much longer than the suction pipe. when there is no air vessel and the pump is single acting. n and If the . the changes in pressure due to acceleration may be much greater. pump is double acting. in diminishing the mass of water which changes its velocity as the piston velocity changes. . h = /AWZ ga?d For the same length of suction pipe the mean friction head. Assume the air vessel so large that the pressure head. Air vessel on the delivery pipe. single acting and there are n strokes per and A therefore. .454 HYDRAULICS is Wlien the pump second.
RECIPROCATING PUMPS .. the head r resisting the motion of the plunger will be the head at B.. Id be the length of the whole pipe. the total B required to force the water along the pipe will be But the head at B must be equal to H + nearly. In the part AB of the pipe the velocity of the water will vary with the velocity of the plunger..... remains constant. On the assumption that Ht. H TT TT r L 4/^A 2 F..I.A. rm. and i and the area and diameter respectively of the pipe.. If the pump is single acting and the plunger moves with simple harmonic motion and makes n strokes per second. W + H w 7i 2 . and let be the pressure head in the air vessel... 311. Let hz be the height of the surface of the water in the air vessel above the centre of the pipe at B. Neglecting the water in the cylinder. 455 Let Z 2 Fig. Substituting for H v + 7^ from (1). be the length of the pipe between the pump and the air vessel. plus the head necessary to overcome friction in AB.. the velocity in the part BC of the pipe is practically constant. Let Q be the quantity of water delivered per second. and to accelerate the water in H AB. therefore. and a. P Therefore.. (1). . The mean velocity in the part BC of the delivery pipe will be D H The friction head in this part of the pipe is constant and equal to head at Considering then the part BC of the delivery pipe. Let v and F be the velocity and acceleration of the plunger respectively... For the same total length of the delivery pipe the acceleration head is clearly much smaller than when there is no air vessel.
Let it be supposed that for given data the curve of pressures in the cylinder during the suction stroke has been drawn as in Fig.. or in other words.. Perhaps a simpler way to look at the question is as follows.. or separation will not take place as long as If FA  /a . HYDRAULICS 0... of the pipe.. Fig. In reciprocating pumps it is of considerable importance that during the stroke no discontinuity of flow shall take place. fa at any instant becomes equal to FA  .. the diminution 8/of /a .. therefore. neglect the acceleration of the water in the cylinder or suppose it to move with the plunger.. 301. The general condition no separation is.. and fa is not to be come less than FA . For If now the water in the pipe is not to be separated from that in the cylinder. near to the inlet simplicity. the acceleration / of the water in the pipe must not be less than FA  feet per second per second..1 g 12 Neglecting the friction head in Z2 and assuming small com pared with Idj H r =Z+H+ 4/rWA r. no part of the water in the pipe shall separate from the remainder.... 309..... In this figure the pressure in the cylinder always remains positive.456 Therefore.... 2 Zd + w AZ 2 ... Such separation causes excessive shocks pump and tends to broken joints and in the separated. Separation during the suction stroke. or from the water in the cylinder of the pump.. r cos /j ft 254. fdF<3/ . f A times the differential a must not be less than for or in general a dF. Consider a section AB valve. working parts of due to the hammer action caused by the sudden change of momentum of a large mass of moving water overtaking the part from which it has become the pipes. when F is diminished by a small amount 9F.. must not be less than ^ the differential of of F. and let the acceleration of the plunger be F feet per second per second.. but suppose some part of the curve of pressures EF to ... (1)..
for no separation. or the pressure head becomes less than from 4 to 10 feet. page 459. . at any other point in the stroke. is FA a See also Fig. the pressure is negative when rm. t Surface tension of fluids at rest is not alluded to. Theoretically. and will become negative when h + ha > H. dead centre. (2).' when That is. but it is impossible for a fluid to be in tension and therefore discontinuity in the flow must occur t. . falls In actual pumps the discontinuity will occur. T h+ FAL + h JD^V..U a g 7 /i f V + ~2g ^A >H 2 a? And the condition for no separation. for no separation at the  or ga If separation takes place when the pressure some head /&. therefore. if the curve EFGr below the pressure at which the dissolved gases are liberated. Fig.RECIPROCATING PUMPS 457 come below the zero line BC as in Fig. 312*.. and a Neglecting the water in the cylinder. The pressure in the cylinder then becomes negative. zero At the dead centre the pressure in the cylinder just becomes when h + ha = H. therefore. lia head is less than 2i H hm I h. 315. 312.
Z. being the length of the stroke. the acceleration for any crank angle is long con F= or if co 2 r cos 0. have the corner at the commencement of the suction stroke . = and the maximum number of single strokes per second is A. Example. TT V/ ~~ ^4x24x12 163 x 75x125 ~~ 7T = 210 strokes per minute.L Separation actually takes place at the dead centre at a less number of strokes than given by formula (4). r cos = ^ . if and separation will not take place at the end of the stroke a L when TS and will just not take place A The minimum area therefore.458 255. therefore. the pump makes n single strokes per second. A 27 of the suction pipe for no separation is.125 feet. The diameter of the suction pipe is 3J.. and the height of the centre of the pump above the water in the well is 10 feet. 313 315. and ls F = ^n* is . HYDRAULICS Separation during the suction stroke when the plunger moves with simple harmonic motion. To assuming find the number of strokes per second at which separation will take place. A single acting pump has a stroke of 1\ inches and the plunger is 4 inches diameter. Figs.inches. it to do so when the pressure head is zero. the length . Nearly all actual diagrams taken from pumps. F a maximum when is zero. 18 cos 0. due to causes which could not very well be considered in deducing the formula. and. When the plunger is driven by a crank and very necting rod. H* ft = 24 feet.
At 136 strokes . rounding of the corner in producing separation at a less speed than that given by equation (4). illustrate the effect of the The actual pressures are shown by the diagram. and a ram 4 inches diameter. Fig. In Figs. off. 459 The two so that even at very slow speeds slight separation principal causes of this are probably to be found in the failure of the valves to open instantaneously. 313 315. the hammer action producing vibration of the indicator. having a stroke of 7J inches. and the water has then overtaken the plunger. Even at 59 strokes per minute. and second. taken from a singleacting pump. The diagrams Figs. the ordinates to the line rs give the theoretical pressures during the suction stroke. 315. 303 and 313 315. first. 303.RECIPROCATING PUMPS rounded occurs. Delivery Line Fig. at the dead centre a momentary separation appears to have taken place. in the elastic yielding of the air compressed in the water at the end of the delivery stroke.
the speed being greater than that given by the formula when hm is assumed to be 10 feet. The total length of the suction pipe is about 12'5 feet. and the equivalent head is 12'8 feet. Then in the time it takes the crank to turn through 70 degrees the water will move through a distance S = Ut + %fa t* = 0101tt + J52'5x 0102 = l'2u + 3'2 inches. so that z + 4'2 inches should be equal to l'2u + 3*2 inches. and finally overtakes it at the point 6. The height of the centre of the pump is 6' 3" above the water in the sump. and the water lags behind the plunger. Let this distance be z inches and let the velocity of the water be u feet per sec. is. Between these two points the pressure in the cylinder is 2 Ibs. to overcome all resistances and to accelerate the water in the pipe is 29'3 feet. after which the water is accelerated at a quicker rate than the piston. this is about 5 Ibs. The mean acceleration . This condition obtains until the point a is passed. and its diameter is 3 inches. in T6T 5.^$7 seconds = '101 seconds. to have a mean value of 2'5 feet. and the water does not overtake the piston until *7 of the stroke has taken place. the separation is very pronounced. While the piston moves from a to b the crank turns through 70 degrees. therefore. per sec. per sq. inch. feet The horizontal distance ab is 4*2 inches. 20'5 x o* fa  32 = Crt K 52'5 feet per sec. The distance of the point g from the end of the stroke is "84 inch and the time taken by the piston to move from rest to g. The mean pressure accelerating the water during is 0'058 second.460 HYDRAULICS per minute at the point e in the stroke the available pressure is clearly less than ef the head required to lift the water and to produce acceleration. when it strikes the plunger and the indicator spring receives an impulse which makes the wave form on the diagram.. . It is interesting to endeavour to show by calculation that the water should overtake the plunger at b. and therefore the head available to lift the water. this time is the mean ordinate of akm when plotted on a time base . At 230 strokes per minute. inch. per sq. the mean effective head accelerating the water in the pipe is 20*5 feet. When the piston is at g the water will be at some distance behind the piston. Assuming the loss of head at the valve and due to friction etc.
. and the assumptions made are apparently justified. The velocity in the pipe at the end of 0*058 second. per sec.pgo . and therefore for no separation at any crank angle . should therefore be v = 32 x 058 = 1*86 feet per sec. Separation at points in the suction stroke other than end of the stroke. so that z is 0*4 in. and causing discharge before the end of the stroke is reached. z + 4*2 ins. = 4*57 ins. should advance in the cylinder 0*65 . the pressure rising above the delivery pressure. Negative slip in a plunger pump. = 4*6. the head causing acceleration is 12*55 feet and the mean acceleration of the water in the pipe while the piston moves from rest to g is.RECIPROCATING PUMPS 4G1 The small. which vary with the velocity. is o>V cos and of the water in the pipe is  cos 0. Then l'2u + 3*2 ins. and The agreement is. at the 257. 315 shows very clearly the momentary increase in the pressure due to the blow.(*058) =*65in. The coefficient of discharge is 1*025. . 256. when the water overtakes the plunger. If no separation had taken place. and the velocity in the cylinder u= T^Q = * i 1*86 ** * ee * P er irk P sec> it Since the water in the pipe starts from rest the distance should move in 0*058 second is 2 and the distance it 12. The acceleration of the plunger for a crank displacement 9 0. is ins. very close. whereas at 59 strokes per minute it is only 0*975. feet per sec. therefore. = *4 in. therefore. the suction pressure diagram would have approximated to the line rs and the delivery valve would still have opened before the end of the stroke was reached. Assuming the mean frictional resistances. will be frictional head to be '25 foot. fa =  1255 x 32 TOTE Q0 = 32 .j32. Fig.
separation cannot take place if it does not take place at the dead centre. (1). unless Ar (1 + ~^~j is equal to or greater than If. 258. aL consequently it is is not likely to be less than Ar. 310 H. li for L. and only necessary to consider the condition for no separation at the dead centre. from which aL A (l + ~ \ r cos if 0.is supposed equal to zero. . al. a = . In Fig. To vessel find Separation with a large air vessel on the suction pipe. In actual pumps. equations for and (3). whether separation will take place with a large air it is on the suction pipe. hi is negative. and li If the velocity and friction heads. therefore. in the denominator. 4/7 and aL the volume of the suction pipe is greater than half the volume of the cylinder. there is no real solution to this equation. section 254.462 HYDRAULICS Putting in the value of hf) and differentiating both sides of the equation. (2). section 253. and hi for h. be neglected as being small compared with (H h) } then. 310. 4. For no separation when the plunger is at the end of the stroke the minimum area of the pipe between the air vessel and the cylinder is Substituting for h v its g value from equation o vmi V A . and using the result of equation (1). section 255. page 456. Separation will just not take place Since cos cannot be greater than unity. only necessary to substitute in h v of Fig. (4).
in these pipes when the hf. h/ and /i/ the losses of head by friction has a velocity v. the centre of CD being at a height Z above the centre of AB. with an air vessel on the suction pipe. BC and CD respectively. and hm the pressure at which separation plunger t a actually takes place.RECIPROCATING PUMPS 463 The maximum number of strokes is KHfeMa AM. Let Z. becomes H. Let the pressure head at D be . A pump can therefore be run at a much greater speed. Zi and Z2 be the lengths of AB. 259. . when the pipe H discharges into the atmosphere. than without one. 316. which. Consider a pipe as shown in Fig. Separation in the delivery pipe. without fear of separation.
rather than as shown by the full lines. .I+ Z.464 HYDRAULICS for no separation at The condition C is. The ratio of the area of the delivery pipe to the plunger is.h m + hf > FAZ2 i Ho . The student should also find whether there is separation at any other point. The pipe is horizontal for a length of 45 feet. to take place at C. and discharges into the atmosphere. the delivery end. B separation will take place if ^(A and at the point >Ho ^ + ^ + A. and it is therefore better. . If separation does not take place at place at B. and the friction head vanishes. FAZ.. 2. for separation a given total length of the discharge pipe. A if tAW > HO + z .hm + n + n f fl +& At the dead centre v is zero. w . (I Oi The pressure head is therefore less than 7 feet and separation will take place. The retardation of the plunger of a pump at the end of its stroke 8 feet per second per second. the greater Z2 the more likely . to let the pipe rise near For given values H . and the total length of the delivery pipe is 152 feet. At the bottom of the sloping pipe the pressure 39 feet is ^=55 feet. ^" At the point *. Will separation take place on the assumption that the pressure head cannot be less than 1 feet ? is Ans. . then vertical for 40 feet. or separation takes place when Ho * + p. therefore. A it clearly will not take Example.FAft ga is of F and Z. For no separation at the point C it is then necessary that > B~ hm = FAZ for 2 t ~^ no separation at B and for no separation at A _ fc . then rises 5 feet on a slope of 1 vertical to 3 horizontal and is then horizontal. as shown by dotted lines.
and the force required to accelerate it is and the equivalent head P=^.F wA. It is instructive to consider the suction stroke a little detail...P. a J 30 .. Let the displacement be x feet from the end of the stroke.'j the head required to give this velocity is On is the other hand water that enters the cylinder from the pipe to v.. Diagram of pressure in the cylinder and work done during the suction stroke....... As the piston moves forward.. The mass of water to be accelerated in the cylinder is a variable quantity and will depend upon the plunger displacement.. considering the variable quantity of water in the cylinder. diminished in velocity from  and neglecting any loss due is to shock or due to contraction at the valve there pressure head in the cylinder equal to a gain of The friction head in the pipe is 4 The head required to accelerate the water in the pipe is .. water will enter the pipe from the well and its velocity will therefore be increased from zero to j^ v...... more in Let v and F be the velocity and acceleration respectively of the piston at any point in the stroke.. The mass of water in the cylinder is  ^ g is >. is P = p. g \ n... The total acceleration head therefore F/ L.RECIPROCATING PUMPS 4G5 260. (x + LAN ).  Ibs......
the velocity wr sin & and its acceleration is When driven by a crank wV cos 0. then Now let Ho be H = H7i +  .cos 0). Work done during resisting its the suction stroke. / sm & + 4/LAW + o>Vsm2 5 2a 7o 2^ VooW ^ 9 a 9 sum of the integration of the last four quantities of this The expression is equal to zero.tL TT ~~ fl 7. Assuming atmospheric pressure on the face of the plunger.Ho) w dx. and therefore and Substituting for stroke E= (*w Jo . LA^ ') si and . so that the work done by the accelerating forces is zero. wV2 cos ^ g wV2 cos2 g .cos 0). A (H .a0. and is of radius r rotating uniformly with angular velocity a>. and the total work done during the stroke .466 HYDRAULICS the pressure head in the cylinder. Therefore TT J~l _ o . For any small plunger displacement therefore. "V~sin 2gr 2 ~ ~~ 4/LAV ^~ p: 7 2 L ^ A 2srda /.. H its * value from equation (6) 2acZa 2^cZa 2 a ^ = w Ar E . the pressure per square foot motion is (HH ) w. dx. the displacement of the plunger from the end of the stroke is r (1 . is B= Jo ( A (H .. is The displacement from the end of the x = r (1 .(6). g a the plunger moves with simple harmonic motion. . dx = r sin QdQ. the work done is. ) r sin OdO.H 2 .4/ LAV _ JV  LA (5). A(HHo).
Figs. and the head can be represented diagram resisting the motion of the piston matically. In Fig.A o>V 2 . For clearness the diagrams corresponding to each of the parts of equation (6) are drawn in Figs. the area of which is 2 4/LA 2 2 27 302 . 317. 2gda? and the curve HJK is a parabola. 317 is shown the combined diagram.RECIPROCATING PUMPS 467 Or the work done is that required to lift the water through a height h together with the work done in overcoming the resistance in the pipe. 321. by Ho and HHo plotting curves the ordinates of which are equal to as calculated from equations (5) or (6). 320. stroke. 318. Diagrams of pressure in the cylinder and of work done per The resultant pressure in the cylinder. 2 . . Figs. 318 321 and in Fig. 319. 322. any ordinate of which equals Fig. 318 the ordinate cd ' is 2 equal to 2 sin A 0.4/T.
no account has been taken of the head lost due to the sudden enlargement from the pipe into the cylinder.A\ a / ) . 322. VNST. It is probable that the whole of the velocity head. of the water entering the cylinder from the pipe is lost H will not only have to give at the valve. the head resisting the motion of the piston. per square foot. 261. Tilbs. In determining the pressure head H in the cylinder. 320 is S . Fig. A. o>V cos 9 ' and Jcl to <uV g cos a ( + (x L. and opposite sign the sum of the two areas In Fig. but will . the ordinate e/is V "2^ and the ordinate gh of Fig. The area VNST measured on the proper scale. and the curve NFS is clearly the curve GFE. or of the more serious loss of head due to the water passing through the valve. and is equal to VMET + HJK.lbs. VNST be measured in square feet the work done per stroke in ft. 321 has for its ordinate at any point of the stroke. the pressure in pounds resisting the motion of the piston at any point in the stroke is 624. Jem is equal to since the ordinates are always is zero. 2/} *' + g cos 2 0.468 HYDRAULICS In Fig. The scale of the diagram can be determined as follows. 319. = 62'4 A. inverted. Head lost at the suction valve. The areas of the curves are respectively 2 <uV . in which case the available head this velocity to the water. ~ v 2 A 2 $ . Since h feet of water = 62'4/& Ibs. If therefore. of. WXY HH This equals h + Jcl + cd + efgh. Since cos is negative between 90 and 180 the area is equal to YZU. is the work done per stroke. t 1 o>V and are therefore equal.
the angular Example (1).= 1'64. The acceleration at the end of the stroke is then Therefore.  ^ x 40* x 5 ^=34' . and at the valve etc.RECIPROCATING PUMPS also 469 to any water entering the have to give a velocity head gcylinder from the pipe. As the plunger moves with simple harmonic motion. by velocity of the crank being 27r40 radians per minute.20'. it may be supposed driven a crank of 7 inches radius and a very long connecting rod. F is negative.. the acceleration "HI A A ! of the water in the pipe is is and the head required to accelerate the water in the pipe . assuming it to take place when the pressure head becomes less than 7 feet. The is strokes per minute 80. To find the diameter of the suction pipe that no separation shall take place. but as these motors are similar to reversed reciprocating pumps. the pressure per square foot at the inlet end of the supply pipe. description of hydraulic motors is reserved for the next chapter. from which . of the piston of the motor. If L is the length of the supply pipe of a hydraulic motor. stroke of a double acting pump is 15 inches and the number of The diameter of the plunger is 12 inches and it moves with simple harmonic motion. in the cylinder then becomes The pressure head rr =H ~"~r v* H A 2 v* 4/1VA 2 P/ ZA  262. The centre of the pump is 18 feet above the water in the well and the length of the suction pipe is 25 feet. Variation of the pressure in hydraulic motors due to inertia forces. and hf is equal to the losses of head by friction in the pipe. fla = FAL ga  . a The the crosssectional area the crosssectional area of the supply. the pressure on the piston per square foot is If p is When and the the velocity of the piston is diminishing. . inertia of the water in the pipe increases the pressure on the piston. when the velocity of the piston is v. it is convenient here to refer to the effect of the inertia forces in varying the effective pressure on the motor piston. and F the acceleration.
P= 3814 x 625 144 Ibs. Hv + 2' = 207 + 1764. /=Ol05. Therefore. and the velocity zero. inch. long and 5 inches diameter. 80 x 625 lbs.* = 1764 feet. any other The pump of example (1) delivers water into a rising main (2). 60' = The head 12 2 10 80 25'T'60 is 6 h lost due to friction 042 x 962 x 1225 . and Ar point is iii clearly less than al. The weight of water lifted per .80 =6ito D22r. Example (4). Neglecting the mass of water in the cylinder. inch in the air vessel. which is fitted with an air vessel. per sq. Neglecting all losses except friction in the delivery pipe. find the pressure on the piston at the beginning and The student should draw a diagram of pressure for one the centre of its stroke. Hu =:3814feet. Let A and a be the crosssectional areas of the pump cylinder and pipe respectExample feet 1225 ively. therefore separation cannot take place at the stroke. example (2) the air vessel is near the pump and the mean level of the water in the vessel is to be kept at 2 feet above the centre of the pump. determine the horsepower required to work the pump. .2r. 25. and assuming the piston moves with simple harmonic motion. Then . find the pressure per sq.470 Therefore HYDRAULICS ? = 1'28 a d=94". of water supplied  d 2 = 8725 cubic At the commencement of the stroke the acceleration in the supply pipe is is v2 ~ 2 r. If in H .80 * =9 . The total lift is therefore 220 + 1764=3964 feet.=4900 Ibs. and the volume feet. A single acting hydraulic motor making 50 strokes per minute has a cylinder 8 inches diameter and the length of the stroke is 12 inches. inch. Example (3). The head at the junction of the air vessel and the supply pipe is the head necessary to lift the water 207 feet and overcome the friction of the pipe. There are 25 useful strokes per minute per minute is. The water is lifted through a total height of 220 feet. 300 stroke. see Fig. minute is i . at a constant pressure of Ibs. Since there is an air vessel in the delivery pipe the velocity of flow u will be practically uniform. Therefore. > A. therefore. The motor is supplied with water from an accumulator. The diameter of the supply pipe is 3 inches and it is 500 feet long. 339. = 165 per sq.
= 380 which is equivalent to 165 Ibs. These quantities are however always small. and the total hydraulic efficiency will be high. = 108 The pressure on the plunger 300 Ibs. 263.500 60 2 . and even if there are bends along the pipe. inch. friction head during the stroke is of pressure is 31 '3 Ibs per sq. is larger in diameter at the right end than at the left. j . at any instant. inch.8 2 . feet.25 . 323 shows a section through a high pressure pump suitable for pressures of 700 or 800 Ibs. or even some multiple of it. at the middle of the stroke Ibs. inch. and delivery on both strokes.^. It can safely be asserted that.32 feet. is 31 '3 . The net work done pei minute neglecting other losses is 2 (300 Ibs..RECIPROCATING PUMPS The head required to accelerate the water in the pipe is. A is is also made of brass. is . 313). as shown. Z. This example shows clearly that power can be transmitted hydraulically efficiently over comparatively long distances. l t = 1570 The work lost per minute = 39250 ft.1. the outward stroke neglecting slip the volume of water . inch.2. The plunger may have leather packing as On in Fig. and the mean loss lost by friction in the supply pipe per stroke ft. and therefore the work lost by friction is about 10*4 per cent. per sq. =337. per sq.8 . Hemp packing used to prevent leakage past the piston and also in the gland box. of the energy supplied. Fig. High pressure plunger pump. Ibs. and losses due to bends and contraction at the valves. a head equal to the velocity head of the water in the pipe. At the middle of the stroke the acceleration is zero and the velocity of the piston is $ irr=l31 feet per second. the percentage loss of head will still be small. lBP. *J =253 per sq. Ibs. inch. 324. which cause a further loss of head equal to the velocity head. per sq. inch. At the end of the stroke the effective pressure on the piston is 465 Ibs. The friction head is then 04. the loss of head due to shock where the water enters the cylinder. brass liner is fitted in the cylinder and the plunger which.S^SOO' 20. _7r ~ 2 .. per sq. feet. 700 ft. The effective pressure on the piston is therefore 135 Ibs.50 2 . 82 . 3*. The mean The work f 108 = 72 . will be lost by shock at the valves. the piston rod is of steel. Other causes of loss in this case are. and a similar quantity at the entrance to the cylinder. Suction takes place on the outward stroke of the plunger. Ibs. 471 therefore.3 2 .
472 HYDRAULICS .
cubic feet. Fig. 264. of a Duplex feed pump. Tangye Duplex Pump. during each stroke. 325 shows a section through one pump and steam cylinder Tangye doubleacting pump. The amount that flows into the delivery pipe is If. d being the diameter of the small part of the plunger. 325. . 2 2 (D . 324. Fig. The quantity through the valve VD is feet. therefore. part of this water enters the delivery pipe and part flows behind the piston through the port P. On the instroke. ^ Do 2 L cubic feet.d ) is made equal is to d2. the suction valve is closed and water is forced through the delivery valve. Fig.RECIPROCATING PUMPS 473 drawn into the cylinder is : D L 2 . the delivery 42'45D Lw gallons per minute. and is there are n strokes per minute. D being the dia meter of the piston and L of water forced into the delivery pipe 2 <2 2 )L cubic j (Do the length of the stroke. if the delivery. or 2 D is */2d.
As the piston approaches the end of its stroke the steam valve. upper When the piston moves to the left. In the arrangement shown in Fig. 326. Fig. 325 and 327. 265. Figs.474 HYDRAULICS is There are two steam cylinders side by side. through a pipe The hydraulic ram A . As the pump piston is P moves drawn to the right. not shown. which has two tank. During this stroke the right valve is open. Fig. Fig. that of B is practically at rest. When the piston passes the steam port 2. A port of the cylinder B. rotates a spindle to the other end of which is fixed a crank M. In the pump the two lower valves are suction valves and the two upper delivery valves. The steam engine has double ports at each end. the steam enclosed in the cylinder acts as a cushion and brings the piston pump from and plunger gradually to rest. the lefthand lower valve opens and water into the the suction chamber C. is at rest and covers the steam port 1 while the inner steam port 2 is open to exhaust. or stream. one of which only shown. which moves the valve of the cylinder B from left to A right and opens the left piston of therefore. 328 water is supplied from a into a chamber B. the lever L. the water is drawn in through the lower right valve and delivered through the upper left valve. The hydraulic ram. and the piston of A can then commence its return stroke. left to right. of a and vice versa. 326. and water is delivered into the delivery d. 327. the piston of B. is a machine which utilises the momentum stream of water falling a small height to raise a part of the water to a greater height. be called B. Let the one engine and pump shown in section be called A and the other engine and pump. As the piston of moves from right to left. and by a lever its It should be noted that while the piston of A is moving. and two pump cylinders in line with the steam cylinders. LI end of stroke from left stroke. Just before the reaches the commences its and crank Mi moves the valve of cylinder A also from left to right.
W. recoils. and a portion of the water passes into the air vessel C. and if e is the efficiency of the will be ram. and when the pressure is sufficiently large the valve off its V and Vi. page 168. more water being forced into the air chamber C. Let h be the height the water falls to the ram. If Ibs. which causes the valve YL to open. Fig.PUMPS valves 475 falls no flow is taking place the valve seating and the valve YI rests on its seating. 328.) Fig. the valves of which are controlled by springs. As it closes the pressure will increase and the rate of closing will be continually accelerated. causes the pressure to be greater on the under face of the valve. and there is a sudden rise in pressure in. the weight of water lifted through a height H W H e.h w diminishes as increases and may be taken as 60 per cent. at high heads. like a ball thrown against a wall. after being "brought to rest. The water in the supply pipe and in the vessel B. of water descend the pipe per second. and water is forced up the delivery pipe to any desired height. exactly as in the case of the plate obstructing the flow in a pipe. B. The cycle of operations is thearrepeated. the work available per second is Wh foot Ibs. The rapid closing of the valve arrests the motion of the water in the pipe. If water is it will escape through the open allowed to flow along the pipe The contraction of the jet through the valve opening. allowing the water to once more escape through the valve Y. The springs efficiency e The H H . 329 shows a section through the De Cours hydraulic ram. valve V.is again diminished. in which the air is compressed. and the pressure in the vessel.. the height to which the water is lifted. (See Appendix 7. When V A will commence to c]pse.
an efficiency of more than 90 per cent. Fig. At each closing of the valve . 329. This is effected in the De Cours ram by allowing the end of the exhaust pipe F to be under water. As a little air the water escapes through the valve Vi into the air vessel C.. and can be readily adjusted to suit varying heads. With this type of ram Messrs Bailey claim to have obtained at low heads. De Cours Hydraulic Earn. should be taken with it to maintain the air pressure in C constant.476 HYDRAULICS pletely can be regulated so that the number of beats per minute is comunder control. and with H equal to 8h an efficiency of 80 per cent.
it. at certain rates of * Proc. of up the delivery pipe carrying with it a quantity of alternative arrangement is shown in Fig. render it particularly suitable for pumping A in outoftheway places. Inst. the open end of the pipe being placed at a considerable distance below the surface of the water in the well. and for supplying water. 331. delivery pipe is sunk into a well. and some of this air is carried into C when the valve Vi opens. cushion of air is thus formed in the box B every stroke. E. according to Kelly*. for fountains and domestic purposes. to country houses situated near a stream. . The extreme simplicity of the hydraulic ram. 330. together with the ease with which it can be adjusted to work with varying quantities of water. The water. the siphon action of the water escaping from the discharge causes air to be drawn in past the spindle of the valve. 331. C. 330. 266. CLXIII. or forms depends very largely upon the rate at which air is supplied to the pump. In the pump experimented upon by Kelly.PUMPS 477 V. Whether the air acts as a piston and pushes the water in front air rises An a mixture with the water. A very by compressed air. there is surrounding the delivery tube a pipe of larger diameter into which air is pumped by a compressor. A ( s 'Wai4 AirTuUbe *&m Fig. Vol. Lifting water simple method of raising water from deep wells is by means of compressed air. Fig. In the arrangement shown in Fig.
the discharge commenced the velocity then gradually increased until the pipe discharged full bore. and with an zu efficiency of 40 per cent. the air and the water being mixed together. pump . than the height of the lift above the free surface. zo It is necessary that the lower end of the delivery be at a greater distance below the surface of the water in the well. slowly. With an ef The efficiency of it cases does ficiency of 30 per cent. On the other hand the well is much smaller in diameter than would be required for reciprocating or centrifugal pumps. A centrifugal pump wheel has a diameter of 7 inches and makes 1358 revolutions per minute. by a pump whose efficiency is ^. and the theoretical lift. The water is lifted by the 29'4 feet. find the theoretical lift. this was followed by a rush of air. the velocity with which the water leaves the wheel. in cubic feet. at atmospheric pressure. v = ~v approximately. Determine the inclination of the tip of the blades at inlet so that there shall be no shock. after a period of no flow the cycle commenced again. and the well has consequently to be made very deep. The volume v of air. The wheel makes 545 revolutions per minute.478 HYDRAULICS working the discharge was continuous. these pumps is very low and only in exceptional reach 50 per cent. A centrifugal pump has an inner radius of 4 inches and an outer (2) radius of 12 inches. required to lift one cubic foot of water through a height h depends upon the efficiency. after which the flow gradually diminished and finally stopped . The discharge of the pump is 3 cubic feet per second. and the initial cost of constructing the well per foot length is considerably EXAMPLES. The blades are formed so that the water enters and leaves the wheel without shock and the blades are radial at exit. but not sufficiently high to overflow. it is approximately v = o7T. The sides of the wheel are parallel and 2 inches apart. while at low discharges the action was intermittent and the pump worked in a definite cycle. The angle the blade makes with the direction of motion at exit is 153 degrees. Find the horsepower required to raise 100 cubic feet of water per (1) minute to a height of 125 feet. When the rate at which air was supplied was further diminished. and the air escaped without doing useful work. If the head due to the velocity with which the water leaves the wheel is (3) lost. the water rose up the delivery tube. Find the manometric efficiency of the pump.
lift pumps 5000 tons of water from a dock in 45 minutes. the inner radius being half the outer. determine the discharge of the pump when the head is 30 feet and Vi is 50. of the pump. and the number of revolutions per minute is 440. A centrifugal pump has a rotor 19^ inches diameter the width of (9) the outer periphery is 3 T7g. delivery 1500 gallons per minute with a lift of (8) 25 feet. and the vane angle is 30. section 236. Find the revolutions per minute and the breadth at the Lond. the theoretical lift of the pump. inlet. find the discharge of the pump when the head is 21'5 feet. Find the velocity with which the water leaves the wheel. and thus determine the theoretical lift. The angle the tangent to the blade at outlet makes with the direction of motion is 120 degrees. . Determine the pressure head and velocity head where the water leaves the wheel. Lond. the velocity head of the water as it leaves the wheel. and is equivalent to 50 per cent. The inner diameter of a centrifugal pump is 12^ inches. The section of the wheel is such that the radial velocity of flow is constant. The width of the wheel at outlet is 3 inches. Using formula (1). assuming the pressure head in the eye of the wheel is atmospheric. All the kinetic energy at discharge is lost. of the actual lift. section 236. A centrifugal pump with vanes curved back has an outer radius of (6) 10 inches and an inlet radius of 4 inches. 1906. 5 feet per second and it runs at 700 revolutions per minute. Using equation (2). and the total efficiency 70 per cent. the outer (11) diameter 21 f inches. if the other losses are 15 per cent. Un. and the minimum proportion of the velocity head that must be converted into work. . the mean being 20 feet. Determine the hydraulic efficiency and estimate the average horsepower. . and (5) the velocity of the outer periphery is 60 feet per second. Un.PUMPS 479 A centrifugal pump wheel 11 inches diameter which runs at 1203 (4) revolutions per minute is surrounded by a vortex chamber 22 inches diameter. the velocity of whirl being half the velocity of the wheel. 1906. Determine (1) (2) (3) : the angle of the vane at inlet so that there shall be no shock. 1906. (7) A centrifugal pump 4 feet diameter running at 200 revolutions per minute. The water is lifted to a height of 43'5 above the centre chamber.inches. Lond. the tangents to the vanes at outlet being inclined at 40 to the tangent at the outer periphery. has an outer diameter of 16 inches. Un. Find also the lowest speed to start pumping against the head of 20 feet. A centrifugal pump. (10) The angle $ at the outlet of the pump of question (9) is 13. Find the efficiency of the whirlpool The radial velocity of flow through a pump is 5 feet per second. and has radial blades at exit. The area through the wheel periphery is 1200 square inches and the angle of the vanes at outlet is 26. The pressure head at the circumference of the wheel feet is 23 feet.
The velocity of flow through the wheel is 7 feet per second and the efficiency 0'6. is . of the energy is lost by friction. The velocity of flow through the wheel is 4'5 feet per second. is about 11*6 Ibs. per sq. and the vanes are curved backward so that the angle between their directions and a tangent to the circumference is 20 degrees. and deduce an expression an Find the speed of rotation of a wheel of a centrifugal pump which (15) required to lift 200 tons of water 5 feet high in one minute having given the efficiency is 0'6. inch. Lond. find the discharge and horsepower of the pump. angle the tip of the vane makes with the direction of motion of the edge of the vane at exit is 167 degrees. with the direction The Describe a forced vortex. and the mechanical efficiency of the combination is 85 per cent. The mean angle the tip of the vane makes tions per minute of motion of the inlet edge of the vane is 99 degrees. Assuming no slip. A centrifugal pump is required to lift 2000 gallons of water per (16) minute through 20 feet. Assuming that 5 per cent. The radial velocity of flow is 3'6 feet per second. and the pump revolves at 400 revolutions per minute. per square inch. and sketch the form of the free surface the angular velocity is constant. The internal diameter of the wheel is 11^ inches and the external diameter 19^ inches. (17) A doubleacting plunger pump has a piston 6 inches diameter and the length of the strokes is 12 inches. hour to a height of 20 feet. and the acceleration of the . Find the maximum height above the tank at which the pump may be placed so that it will draw water. (13) when (14) If such a pump were required to deliver 1000 gallons for its efficiency. 1903.480 (12) HYDRAULICS The efficiency of a centrifugal pump when running at 550 revoluis 70 per cent. Un. The weight of the suction valve is 2 Ibs. 1905. Find also the necessary diameter for the steam cylinder of an engine driving the pump direct. The outer radius of the wheel is twice the inner. A pump cylinder is Calculate the maximum 8 inches diameter and the stroke of the plunger velocity. how would you design it ? Lond. find the head lost at inlet when the lift is 30 feet. Determine the dimensions of the wheel. The gross head is 500 feet.) is one (19) foot. the diameter of the inside of the paddles is 1 foot. In a centrifugal pump revolving horizontally under water. Find the kinetic energy of the water when it leaves the wheel. assuming the steam pressure is 100 Ibs. and of the outside 2 feet. Hence find the probable velocity impressed on the water as it enters the wheel. and the pump makes 80 strokes per minute. Explain the action of a centrifugal pump. and its diameter 1 inches. the barometer standing at 30 inches and the pump being assumed perfect and without clearance. Find approximately how high the water would be lifted above the tail water level. (The vapour tension of water at 200 F. The angle the tip of the vane at outlet makes with the direction of motion is 150 degrees. A plunger pump is placed above a tank containing water at a (18) temperature of 200 F. Un. and that onehalf of the kinetic energy at exit is lost.
The water is pumped to a height of 250 feet along a delivery pipe 450 feet long and 4 inches diameter. /='0075. (19) calculate the work done on the The 18 feet. (25) acting hydraulic motor makes 160 strokes per minute and moves with simple harmonic motion. 31 . H. Find the ratio between the diameter of the suction pipe and the pump cylinder. assuming a slip of 5 per cent. Q x the quantity of water in the main. find the i. and the connecting rods are very long. the efficiency being '72 and no slip in the pump. etc. may be taken as /= 0'2. The suction pipe is 25 feet long. per square inch. A single H. which includes loss at bends. assuming the piston moves with simple harmonic motion and compare these pressures with the pressures when there is no air vessel.PUMPS 481 to water in the suction and delivery pipes. is doubleacting pumps deliver water into a main without an is driven by an engine with a flywheel heavy enough to keep the speed of rotation uniform. Find the pressure on the pump piston at the two ends of the stroke when the pump is making 40 strokes per minute. so that no separation may take place at the dead points. and the piston to make 36 strokes per minute. Find the delivery of the pump. Each ning of a stroke when one pump is delivering water. When is the acceleration zero ? (24) A doubleacting horizontal pump has a piston 6 inches diameter (the diameter of the piston rod is neglected) and the stroke is one foot. neglecting the friction in the suction pipe. find the total work done per revolution. The motor is supplied with water from an accumulator in which the pressure is maintained at 200 Ibs. L. and if the length of the main itself is 250 feet. Find the pressure due to acceleration (a) at the begin(23) Two air vessel. The delivery pipe is 200 feet long. (20) suction stroke of the (1) (2) Taking the data of question pump. The cylinder is 8 inches diameter and 12 inches stroke. p. The stroke is one foot. the motion of the piston to be simple harmonic. required to drive the pump. The piston of a pump moves with simple harmonic motion. An air vessel is put on the delivery pipe 10 feet from the delivery valve. and it (22) driven at 40 strokes per minute. Assuming the pump to be double acting. Let Q be the mean delivery of the pumps per second. and the suction valve is 19 feet above the surface of the water in the sump. and the coefficient. assuming their respective diameters be 7 inches and 5 inches. Water barometer 34 feet. including the friction in the suction pipe and assuming that the suction pipe is 25 feet long and that /= 0*01. height of the centre of the pump above the water in the sump is If the pump in question (20) delivers into a rising main against (21) a head of 120 feet. (5) at the beginning of the stroke of one of two doubleacting pumps driven by cranks at right angles when both are delivering.
draw the theoretical diagram for the pump. the data A pump has three singleacting plungers 29. The centre of the pump is 12 feet 6 inches above the level of the water in the sump. a (29) I8g (3410) J The it is the stroke long and is 1 foot. and the head at the delivery valve is 40 feet. The maximum acceleration jihead . . Neglect the effect of the variable quantity of water in the cylinder. AL ~ . assuming no air vessel diameter of the suction pipe so that there is no and that separation takes place when the pressure becomes zero.inches diameter (28) driven by cranks at 120 degrees with each other. resultant curve of accelerations will be found to have maximum positive and i also negative values of o~~~ . The stroke is 5 feet and the number of strokes per minute 40. Neglect the effect of the variable quantity of water in the cylinder and the loss of head at the valves. The suction pipe of a plunger pump is 35 feet long and 4 inches (26) diameter. Un. Will separation take place anywhere in the delivery pipe of the of which is given in question (26). piston of a doubleacting pump is 5 inches in diameter and The delivery pipe is 4 inches diameter and 400 feet fitted with an air vessel 8 feet from the pump cylinder. or rises 40 feet immediately from the pump and then runs horizontally for 50 feet. /= 007.482 HYDRAULICS Neglecting the mass of the reciprocating parts and of the variable quantity of water in the cylinder. Assuming the plunger moves with simple harmonic motion and makes 50 strokes per minute. if the pipe first runs horizontally for 50 feet and then vertically for 40. therefore. every 60 degrees. (6) The horsepower of the pump when there is an air vessel on the delivery very near to the pump. The head at the delivery valve is 214 feet. the 120 degrees. [The student should draw out three cosine curves differing in phase by Then remembering that the pump is single acting. Find (a) the minimum separation. 350 feet long. and separation takes place when the pressure head falls below 5 feet ? (27) pump. The suction is 16 feet and the length The delivery pipe is 3 feet diameter and of the suction pipe is 22 feet. find the pressure per square inch on the piston at the beginning and middle of its stroke and the horsepower of the pump when it makes 80 strokes per minute. water is pumped Assuming that the motion of the piston is simple harmonic. There is no air vessel on the pump. the diameter of the plunger is 6 inches and the stroke 1 foot. 1906. 90 feet long. Lond. 2ga = 47rVLA For no separation. is then ha = AI T o)V  . draw a curve of effective pressure on the piston. The delivery pipe is 2 inches diameter. The to a height of 150 feet.
The length of the suction pipe is 12 feet. Fv2 g . and the centre is 9 feet above the level in the sump. determine the horsepower of the pump. diameter of suction pipe 2 1 inches. (33) Explain carefully the use of an air vessel in the delivery pipe of a pump. 1906. (34) plunger has an acceleration of 8 feet per second per second when at the end of the stroke. The pump of question (32) makes 100 single strokes per minute. Lond. Determine the number of single strokes per second at which theoretically separation will take place. A pump A pump of the duplex kind. The hydraulic resistance may be represented by . Un. then vertically for 40 feet. suction head 0'07 ft. the head being supplied by a column of water in the delivery pipe. Large air vessels being put on the suction and delivery pipes near to the pump. 325. on a slope of 1 vertical to 3 horizontal.PUMPS 483 The plunger of a pump moves with simple harmonic motion. The delivery pipe is 152 feet long. it is found that the average loss of head per stroke between the suction tank and plunger cylinder is 0*23 ft. and if so at which section of the pipe. There is no slip. and the sectional area of the plunger is twice the sectional area of the delivery pipe. On the assumption that all losses of head other than by friction in the delivery pipe are neglected. It runs from the pump horizontally for a length of 45 feet. and finally runs in a horizontal direction. When going at 10 revolutions per minute. works against a head of h feet of water. then rises 5 feet. and explain why separation will actually take place when the number of strokes is less than the calculated value. Fig. the diameter of the plunger is (31) 4 inches." Lond. Explain negative slip. stroke 6 inches. the revolutions being 50 per minute. In a singleacting force pump. in which the steam piston is (35) connected directly to the pump piston. (82) A singleacting pump without an air vessel has a stroke of 7 inches. 1906. pipe 3 of the pump The diameter of the plunger is 4 inches and of the suction inches. find the absolute head on the suction side of the plunger at the two ends and at the middle of the stroke. if it be assumed that separation takes place when the pressure head in the pipe becomes 7 feet. Draw a diagram of pressures on the plunger simple harmonic motion being assumed. per square foot. 312 . Un. v being the velocity of the plunger and F a coefficient. Sketch an indicator diagram showing " separation. (30) Find the condition that separation shall not take place on the suction stroke and show why the speed of the pump may be increased if an air vessel is put in the suction pipe. the length of the delivery pipe I and the constant steam pressure on the piston PQ Ibs. Assuming that the frictional losses vary as the square of the speed. and the barometric head 34 feet. the delivery pipe area a. length of suction pipe 63 feet. Find whether separation will take place. and delivers water to a height of 100 feet above the water in the well through a delivery pipe 1000 feet long and 2 inches diameter. The piston area is A the plunger area A.
Ibs. (36) Time to close is given 2 by formula.dx. Un. Lond. 1906. /= x 322. . the ratio of the full valve area to the piston area onefifth. The kinetic energy of the water in the pipe at this velocity is If now is steam p the plunger moves through a distance dx./E + Z dx / E+ cZE = z dS The solution of this equation is ~ A pump valve of brass has a specific gravity of 8 with a lift of the stroke of the piston being 4 feet. the work done by the A. S = $ft . . therefore. Let =E. and. Un. Q dx ft. of the stroke \ TfflV Then the pipe is Let the piston be supposed in any position and let it have a velocity v. 1906.A. the .. Then . find the time it will take to close and the "slip" due to this gradual closing. ^ITI =Z  and Fw?A=/. the head of water 40 feet and J$ foot.484 HYDRAULICS that Show when the plunger has O^.. work done by friction is ^ w. the work done in lifting water is w h Ada. /nn A moved a distance x from the beginning Lond. velocity of the plunger is v and the velocity of the water in the ' . If the valve is neither assisted nor meets with any resistance to closing.
Fig. Figs. . Joints and packings used in hydraulic work. 332 and 333 show methods of connecting two lengths of The arrangement shown in Fig. 333. 834. Fig. 332 is used for small pipe. 267.CHAPTER XL HYDRAULIC MACHINES. The high pressures used in hydraulic machinery make it necessary to use special precautions in making joints.
To make the joint. 335 shows various forms of packing leathers. Fig. 268. is The accumulator a device used in connection with hydraulic machinery In the form generally adopted in practice it consists of a long cylinder C. Fig. . Hemp twine. and metallic packings are also used as shown in Figs. when used in suitably designed glands (see Fig. Fig. Plaited Asbestos or cotton may be substituted for hemp. Fig. 335. a few cords of hemp or tarred rope are driven into the socket. and dipped in hot tallow. by means of the bolts. a large cylinder which can be filled with slag or other heavy material. 333 the packing material is a guttapercha ring. 323. 336 shows an ordinary socket joint for a castiron hydraulic main. 337 and 338. in which slides a ram R and into which water is delivered from pumps. Fig. 339. or it may be loaded with castiron weights as in Fig. Neck leather Cup leather Fig. The water is for storing energy. 340. The accumulator. no packing being required. In Fig. 337. carefully plaited. At the top of the ram is fixed a rigid cross head which carries. 338. Fig. 336. 339) and is also very suitable for pump buckets. Clay is then put round the outside of the socket and molten lead run in it. Fig. The lead is then jammed into the socket with a caulking tool. the applications of which will be seen in the examples given of hydraulic machines. makes a good packing.486 HYDRAULICS wfoughtiron pipes.
HYDRAULIC MACHINES 487 Fig. 339. Hydraulic Accumulator. .
etc. unless the ram is descending and is suddenly brought to rest. together with the rate at which energy is being lost by friction. energy can be stored in the accumulator. . On the ram again falling below a certain level. When the pumps are delivering into a long main. the ram as it approaches the top of its stroke moves a lever connected to a chain which is led to a throttle valve on the steam pipe of the pumping engine. If d is the diameter of the ram in inches. and thus shuts off steam. and the is so adjusted that when the pressure per sq. inch. To start and stop the pump automatically. the demand upon which is varying.488 HYDRAULICS admitted to the cylinder at any desired pressures through a pipe connected to the cylinder by the flange shown dotted. to work for a short time at a much greater rate than the pumps can supply energy. and the accumulator rises. it can be kept working at a steady rate. when the demand is less than the pump supply. the pressure cannot rise very much higher than the pressure p which will lift the ram. With an accumulator on the pipe line. p the pressure in Ibs. or damage to the pump. per sq.. inch in the cylinder is a given amount the ram rises. The engine is set in motion. which are being supplied with hydraulic power from the pumps. pumping recommences. In addition to acting as a storer of energy. it again moves the lever and opens the throttle valve. and during the time lator. the weight of the ram and its load is weight and the energy that can be stored in the accumulator is The principal object of the accumulator is to allow hydraulic machines. and h the height in feet through which the ram can be lifted. the accumulator acts as a pressure regulator and as an automatic arrangement for starting and stopping the pumps. and the pump must be of such a capacity as to supply energy at the greatest rate required by the machines. If the pumps are connected directly to the machines the rate at which the pumps can supply energy must be equal to the rate at which the machines are working. or lifts. the sudden cutting off of the whole or a part of the demand may cause such a sudden rise in the pressure as to cause breakage of the pipe line. and the If the pump supplies water to an accumufrictional resistances.
is its minimum capacity in cubic feet. Since this has to be done once every one and half minutes.000 ft. foot Ibs. Engs. or stored in the accumulator if must Va be. and a passage drilled axially along the lower part of the ram. The difference of the diameters d^ and d being small. the lower part of which is made slightly larger than the upper by forcing a brass liner upon it. the presp can be very great for a comparatively small weight W. V a x 700 x 144 = 200. and the minimum capacity of the accumulator. at a rate of is minutes. . The weight lifted (neglecting friction) is then A and if h is the lift in feet. p .30x112x50 = 238 The rate of doing cubic feet. Differential accumulator*. 240. cylinder ia work in the lift and the work done in lifting 50 feet is 240. inch has 200 feet per minute through a height of 50 feet. inch. This is of advantage when being used in connection with sure * Proceedings Inst. and the minimum horsepower is . however. 1874. is pumped into the cylinder through a pipe. once efficiency of the crane is 70 per cent. every provided.HYDRAULIC MACHINES Example. per sq.000 = is lifting is 33. "070x144x700 ATV.144. at least 200. watertight Water joints being made by means of the cup leathers shown. The capacity of the accumulator is. Ibs..000 ft. cylinder loaded with heavy castiron weights slides upon the ram. per sq. has a fixed ram. Ibs.000 *0* The energy Therefore. therefore. Lx 070 = 30 x 112 x 50'. Ibs. Let p be the pressure in Ibs. the work the pump must supply in one and half minutes is at least 240. Find the volume of the cylinder of the crane. very small. crane working at a pressure of 700 Ibs.000. feet and L the length of the stroke in feet. the minimum horsepower for the pump. Let A be the sectional area of the ram of the crane cylinder in sq. A. Tweddell's differential accumulator. 269.000 ft. V =2 cubic feet nearly. 1 489 A hydraulic The to lift 30 cwts. d and di the diameters of the upper and lower parts of the ram respectively. the energy stored is . 340. shown in Fig. and an accumulator Then. Mech.000x15 The work done by the pump while the crane 240.
. 311. 340.490 HYDRAULICS Fig. Hydraulic Intensitier.
ram rises to pL oi: pounds per D and d being the external diameters the large ram and the small ram respectively. head which has a smaller hollow ram projecting from it. large hollow ram works in a fixed cylinder C. Intensifiers. but is suddenly arrested when the ram of the riveter comes to rest. per sq. and there is a consequent increase in the pressure in the cylinder of the riveter which clinches the rivet. Air accumulator. the pressure pi in the vessel will now be 270. Assuming the temperature remains constant.HYDRAULIC MACHINES 491 hydraulic riveters. the pressure is increased by 50 per cent. inch and a volume v of water is pumped into the vessel. 343. 342. The air V ttv^V If p. Mr Tweddell estimates that when the accumulator is allowed to fall suddenly through a distance of from 18 to 24 inches. is the volume of air in the vessel when the pressure is If p pounds per sq. inch. Water from the mains is admitted into the large and cylinder and also into the hollow ram through the pipe A the lower valve respectively shown in Fig. To increase the pressure to the desired amount the intensifier is used. and a volume of water v is taken out of the vessel. 341. in the upper part of which is made a stuffingbox. and the pressure inside the hollow sq. Fig. Such an air vessel has already been considered in connection with reciprocating pumps and an application is shown in connection with a forging press. and entering the larger ram. It is frequently desirable that special machines shall work at a higher pressure than is available from the hydraulic mains. the ram falls quickly. as when a demand is made upon the accumulator. the ram being made watertight by means of a Connected to the cylinder by strong bolts is a cross stuffingbox. If p Ibs. then on the underside of the large ram there is a total force acting of p7 D 2 pounds. .V V is the volume of air. deliver water while the machinery is not at work. which are supplying power to machinery. 271. inch is the pressure in the main. the volume of air is (V v). One form is shown in Fig. accumulator is simply a vessel partly filled with air and into which the pumps.
steam is admitted into the cylinders D of the press through a valve. 1874. air 273. Water at the same pressure is admitted below the large ram of the intensifier and the pressure in the upper part of the intensifier. Steam intensifies. Hydraulic forging press.. per sq. and the press is capable of making 80 working strokes per minute. These 272. 342. Mech. a finger moves the valve K M * Proceedings List. inch and the die brought to the work. at which pressure the flanging is finished. When the lever is in the mid position everything is at rest . as in Fig. rises to 2000 Ibs. which shows a steam intensifier used in conjunction with a hydraulic forging press. persq. inch. 343. and thus in the press cylinder. To Small to/Under oflntensifier Tb Larqe fyUndef of Intensifier Won. with steam intensifier and accumulator. The large cylinder of an intensifies have also been used on board ship* in connection with hydraulic steering gears. The application of hydraulic power to forging presses is illustrated in Fig. This press is worked in conjunction with a steam intensifier and air accumulator to allow of rapid working. On moving the lever to and admits water its extreme position. 343. per sq.492 HYDRAULICS The form of intensifier here shown is used in connection with a large flanging press. Fig. intensifier may be supplied with steam. ouilOOVbs. on moving the lever partly to the right. Return VaJbves for Intensifier. . The cylinder of the press and the upper part of the intensifier are filled with water at 700 Ibs. instead of water. The whole is controlled by a single lever K. Engs.
On moving the lever to the left. In small presses the valve E is opened by levers.HYDRAULIC MACHINES 493 under a relay piston shown at the top of the figure. which opens a valve E at the top of the air vessel. the water in the cylinder c being forced into the accumulator. The ram B now ascends at the rate of about 1 foot per second. as soon K as it has passed the central position the valve L is opened to .
344. Fig. Fig. 346. 347. the byepass valve L is temporarily disconnected. Fig. Fig. so that steam is supplied continuously H to the lifting cylinders I). Hydraulic cranes. the valve E closes automatically. intensifier An then simply used to H. 345 an elevation a hydraulic crane cylinder. a valve situated above the valve A K J is opened.494 HYDRAULICS exhaust. to prevent W/7///M. 344 shows a section through. and no water automatic controlling gear is K which opens the valve J sufficiently early the intensifier from overrunning its proper stroke. assisted by gravity. The movement second. and a large pressure is exerted on the work under the press head. 345. The lever admit and exhaust steam from the enters or leaves the accumulator. and steam is admitted to the intensifier cylinder . of. the velocity acquired being about 2 feet per touches the work. is also fitted. forces down the ram B. and Fig. until the press head of the lever being continued. 274. . and water from the air vessel. If only a very short stroke is required.
and by substituting in (1). the actual weight lifted is When the ram is in good condition the efficiency of cup leather packings is from '6 to '78. of a wire rope. or chain. the corresponding velocity v z of lifting can be obtained. Fig. 347. Ibs. the corresponding pressure p l in the cylinder can be found from (2). of plaited hemp or asbestos from *7 to '85. the same whatever the load lifted. the pressure on the ram is equally divided among the six ropes. The weight lifted is therefore onesixth of the pressure on the ram. with a given service pressure area to port area must be known so that p >o. and and Vi A v and the velocities in ft. two lifting rams of different diameters are employed. a the area of the valve port. the smaller of which can be used at light loads. and e is the mechanical efficiency of the ram packing and BI of the pulley system. of the ram and the water through the port respectively. per sec. If Wi is the load on the ram when the crane is running light. To determine the diameter of the ram to a given load.. is to the crane per cubic foot displacement 144p ft. 346. 275.HYDRAULIC MACHINES 495 One end cylinder. but the weight equal to six times the movement of the ram. and neglecting friction. and the efficiency of each pulley is from '95 to '98. If there are n/2 pulleys on the end of the ram. In the crane shown there are three pulleys on the ram. When the lift is direct acting n in (2) is lift replaced by unity. To enable a crane designed for heavy work to lift light loads with reasonable efficiency. the ratio of the ram can be found from (1). at a given velocity. . and at light loads the is hydraulic efficiency p/p is consequently small. Double power cranes. d the diameter and the area of the ram in inch units. and finally over the pulley on the jib of the crane. the number of cubic feet of water Ibs. Then '433^ A3 w viv The energy supplied of the ram 144p used ft. inch in the crane valve in the cylinder respectively. the ratio of the ram area to the port area should be fixed so that the velocity v a does not become excessive. of cotton from *8 to '96. arranged as in Fig. If the valve is to be fully open at all loads. The ratio of v 2 to v is generally made from 1*5 to 3. and the work done on the ram is For a given lift. is lifted a distance Let po and p be the pressures per chest sq. is fixed to a lug L on the and the rope is then passed alternately round the upper and lower pulleys.
ram B/ working inside the large ram R.496 HYDRAULICS convenient arrangement is as shown in Figs. the catches are released and the two rams move together. . the large ram is prevented from moving by strong catches C. and the volume of water used is only equal to the diameter of the small ram into the length of the stroke. A the smaller When light loads are to be lifted. For large loads. 348 and 349.
water being admitted to both faces of the piston when light loads are to be lifted. 350. cranes. In the arrangement shown in Fig. 350. 351. For a given stroke s of the ram. 351 276. for hydraulic Figs. ArmstrongWhitworth Fig. 352. Armstrong Doublepower Hydraulic Crane Cylinder. the one on the left being the pressure. 351 there are two independent valves. Hydraulic Crane Slide Valve. ArmstrongWhitworth Hydraulic Crane Valve.d 2 )/D\ A Fig. and to the face only when heavy loads are to be raised.HYDRAULIC MACHINES 497 Another arrangement is shown in Fig. H 32 . L. the ratio of the energy supplied in the first case to that in the second is (D 2 . Hydraulic crane valves. and that on the right the exhaust valve. and 352 show two forms of lifting and lowering valves used by Armstrong. Whitworth and Co. Fig.
pressure water is admitted into the cylinder and the ram is forced down. The castiron cylinder is fitted with a brass liner. when the spindle is moved to the right. water escapes from the cylinder through the port of the slide P. the valve spindle is moved to the right. di the diameter of the piston P. d the diameter of the Let rod Pr . so that the full pressure of the water is continuously exerted upon the small piston P and the annular ring RR. be the diameter of the ram. On moving the valve spindle over to the left. but if it is raised. and p the water pressure in pounds per sq. Small hydraulic press. Leakage to the main cylinder is prevented by means of a guttapercha ring Gr and a ring leather c. The valve is valve. and leakage past the piston P by cup leathers L and LI. Fig. lowered. one ring is opposite to the exhaust and the other opposite to the port p. steel ram and When D The resultant force acting on the ram is and the force main cylinder lifting the is. The small cylinder inside the ram is connected directly to the pressure pipe by a hole drilled along the rod Pr . 277.used. the inner cylinder being lined with a brass liner. The steel ram is hollow. and two rings of six holes in each ring are drilled through the external shell of the chamber. Water is admitted and exhausted from the large cylinder through a Luthe valve. In the arrangement shown in Fig. fixed to the top of the cylinder and operated by the lever A. 353 is a section through the cylinder of a small hydraulic press. is screwed into the liner. and axially with the cylinder a rod Pr having a piston P at the free end. used for testing springs. . These rings of holes are at such a distance apart that. If the valve the water enters the cylinder. the port p is connected with the exhaust. the ram comes back again. the holes . and when the spindle is moved to the left. inch in the cylinder. Immediately the pressure is released. and the ram is forced up by the pressure of the water on the annular ring RR. ram when pressure is released from the The cylindrical valve spindle S has a chamber C cast in it. 352 a single D slide valve is Water enters the valve chest through the pressure passage is shown in the neutral position.
499 p and the pressure water Leakage past the spindle shown. is prevented by the four ring leathers Fig. 278. 354. A section through the cylinder shown and ram of a hydraulic riveter 323 . Hydraulic Press with Luthe Valve. is Hydraulic in Fig. 353.HYDRAULIC MACHINES are respectively opposite to the port inlet. riveter.
354.500 HYDRAULICS tfig. for closing Sprung Fig. . Hydraulic Kiveter. Valves for Hydraulic Biveter. 355.
The pressure acting on the annular ring inside the large ram then brings back the ram. the exhaust valve Yi is opened. On is opened. and on moving the lever to the left. When the lever is in mid position. Hydraulic Capstan. . 356. 355. Fig. the inlet valve Y pressure water is admitted to the large cylinder.HYDRAULIC MACHINES 501 The mode of working is exactly the same as that of the small press described in section 277. especially in those cases where the load is practically constant. allowing the water to escape from the cylinder. Hydraulic engines. forcing out the ram. An enlarged section of the valves is shown in Fig. The methods of preventing leakage are clearly shown in the figures. Hydraulic power is admirably adapted for machines having a reciprocating motion only. 279. and pulling the lever L to the right. both valves are closed by the springs S.
Fig. piston 3 will . and chamber by a small port through the side of the valve. KM H be fully open to pressure and port p 2 fully open to exhaust. When the crank has turned through 60 degrees.502 HYDRAULICS It has moreover been successfully applied to the driving of machines such as capstans and winches in which a reciprocating motion is converted into a rotary motion. The valve receives its motion from a small auxiliary crank T. Fig. connected to the supply exhaust pipe. The valve seating is generally made of lignumvitae. 358. 358. and ports p. has three cylinders in one casting. The face of the valve is as shown in Fig. and has three circular ports as shown dotted in Fig. 357. 356 and 357. When the piston 1 is at the end of its stroke. Water is admitted and exhausted through a valve Y. the port pi should be just opening to the pressure The port p3 should port. the axes of which meet on the axis of the crank shaft S. The hydraulicengine shown in Figs. and just closing to the exhaust port E. revolved by a projection from the crank pin Gr. The motion of the piston P is transmitted to the crank pin by short connecting rods R. 359. E being the exhaust port connected through the centre of the valve to the the pressure port.
and at light loads it is consequently very many attempts to overcome this notably as in the Hastie engine t. therefore. therefore. and the edge At the same instant the port should be just closing to the port p3 of the exhaust port should be coincident with the lower edge . edge of the port p s should each be 60 degrees. . i. f Proceedings on Steam Engine. Fig. and LON. the turning the end of its stroke. * See text book Inst. or turning moment diagram. already pointed out in connection with hydraulic lifts and cranes. and other machinery which works intermittently. difficulty. 1874. Engs. It has the disadvantage. 358. and Eigg engine. as in whatever a position the crank stops one or more of the pistons can exert moment on the shaft. 358. is shown in moment for any crank position OK being OM. 359. they may be made a little longer than shown in the Fig. start turning .HYDRAULIC MACHINES 503 of the pressure be at the inner end of its stroke. This type of hydraulic engine has been largely used for the driving of hauling capstans. which is the magnitude of the moment when any one of the pistons is at The crank* effort. and the engine will. so as to ensure full pressure on the piston when commencing its stroke. Fig. M N The angles QOM. The turning moment can never be less than ON. A little lead may be given to the valve ports. inefficient. 359. Mech.e. There is no dead centre. that the amount of water supplied is independent of the effective work done by the There have been machine. in any position. Fig. .
B. Eigg Hydraulic Engine. 361. 360. the quantity of water supplied is clearly proportional to the length AGr. shown in Fig. E. have to be filled per revolution with high pressure water. Cast in one piece with a fixed ram. Vol. 1898. in which the pressure is continuously maintained. for each stroke. Fig. in which slide a hollow double ended ram PPi which carries the ram is a valve box Fig. HYDRAULICS Rigg hydraulic engine. LXXXV. The stroke of the pistons is twice AG. The difference between the effective areas of P and Pa when water is in the two cylinders. and since the cylinders. The three pistons PI. Fig. P2 and P3 are connected to a disc. of water used to the work done. is of the ram head EI. by three pins. whether the crank or the cylinders revolve. There are two cylinders C and Ci. 360. 360. and through it water enters the cylinder Ci. To adapt the quantity * The three cylinders rotate about a centre Gr. . * See also Engineer. and allowing the cylinders to revolve about it as centre. This disc revolves about a fixed centre A. Rigg has modified the three cylinder engine by fixing the crank pin. is The alteration of the length of the stroke effected by means of the subsidiary hydraulic engine. which is capable of being moved nearer or further away from the point A as desired. is clearly equal to the area the pin G.504 280.
is used to regulate the exhaust from the to the valve V. Fig. On this valve A led along the passages highpressure second valve similar to cylinder C. per square inch. Water Fig. V. Find the capacity of the accumulator in horsepower hours. Estimate the loss of head at the entrance to the ram cylinder. The steady speed of the ram is 6 inches per second and the available (3) The pressure at the working valve is 700 Ibs. EXAMPLES. Assuming the total efficiency of the crane is 70 per cent. The ram of a hydraulic crane is 7 inches diameter. 361. 360. On the exhaust being closed and the valve opened. port. The 3250 x elective pressure 13 x6 . and the extra load on the cage due to friction may be taken as 30 per cent. water cannot escape from the cylinder C and the ram is locked in position by the pressure on the two ends. per square inch. An accumulator has a stroke of 23 feet . When this valve is opened. and since the effective area of P is greater V than PI it is moved to the right carrying the pin Gr.5 From shown the cylinder Ci the water is opening water is admitted to the cylinder C. and assuming this was to be due to a sudden enlargement in passing through the port to the cylinder. the working pressure is 700 Ibs. By suitable gearing the load is lifted 6 times as quickly as the ram. the ram cylinder being 9g inches diameter.. velocity ratio between the cage and the ram is six. the full pressure acts upon both ends of the ram. on the usual assumption. 1906. per square inch. the area of the Lond. of the load on the cage. Un. the ram PPi moves to the left and carries with it the pin Gr. find the weight lifted.HYDRAULIC MACHINES ro. The total weight on the cage of an ammunition hoist is 3250 Ibs. Water is (1) supplied to tlie crane at 700 Ibs. If both valves are closed. the diameter of the ram is (2) 23 inches. but not shown. p=* . estimate.
supplying water to riveting inches respectively. Un. When carrying no load the ram moves through a distance of 60 feet. Lond. with sketches.506 Loss of HYDRAULICS head ^(700. and what assumption is usually made regardis ing it ? A direct acting lift having a ram 10 inches diameter is supplied from an accumulator working under a pressure of 750 Ibs. and the pressure in the accumulator is 1 ton per square inch. accumulator. 1905. guides. two rams are 4 inches and 4 the increase in pressure in the pipe.p). Estimate the coefficient of hydraulic resistance referred to the velocity of the ram. Assumption is made that resistance varies as v 2 . in one minute. Give an instance of the use of such a machine and state why accumulators are used. = . Sketch in good proportion a section through a differential hydraulic What load would be necessary to produce a pressure of 1 ton per square inch. and the time taken to bring it to rest is 2 seconds. some form of hydraulic accumulator suit(4) able for use in connection with riveting. of the gross load lifted and the (9) ram is 8 inches diameter ? Explain what as applied to meant by the " coefficient of hydraulic resistance " a whole system. the valves being fully open. (See sections 262 and 269.) . E. the pressure at the accumulator being 1200 Ibs. is equal to 6 per cent. Suppose when the valve is closed the accumulator is falling at a velocity of 5 feet per second. 1905. (5) Describe with sketches a hydraulic intensifier. Explain by the aid of diagrams. and also how long it would take to move the same distance when the ram carries a load of 20 tons.5) 2<7 a v= velocity Area of port through the valve. friction of the stuffingbox. at a uniform speed. The stroke of the intensifier is to An be 4 feet and its capacity three gallons. if ram possible. (6) Inst. if the diameters of the two rams are 4 inches and 4^ inches respectively ? Neglect the friction of the packing. /r* ( ^ head lost = 750 x 144 ^^ . per square inch the length of the supply pipe which is 3 inches in diameter is 900 yards. 1905. Describe. \ ) . weighing 12 tons is worked by water pressure. etc. What is the approximate speed of ascent of this lift.144 w = (i. per square inch. Un. C. the general nature of the curve of pressure on the riveter during the stroke and point out the reasons of the variations. per square inch on the mains to 3000 Ibs. per square inch. Determine the diameters of the rams. find (7) A Tweddell's differential accumulator The diameters of the is machines. on the assumption that the (8) A lift in the main . intensifier is required to increase the pressure of 700 Ibs. Lond.
suspended from the axles of two pairs of wheels. * any desired velocity between Brit. show that the resistance to motion of plane vertical boards in water. The experiments were carried out near Torquay in a parallel sided tank 278 feet long. It has been shown that the frictional resistance to the flow of water along pipes is proportional to the velocity raised to some power n. The truck was prowhich could pelled by an endless wire rope wound on to a barrel.CHAPTER XTI. Reports. and Mr Froude's classical experiments. Ass." traversed the whole length of the tank. 362. Froude's* experiments to determine frictional resistances of thin boards when propelled in water. light railway on "which ran a stout framed truck. . be made to revolve at varying speeds. when propelled Fig. RESISTANCE TO THE MOTION OF BODIES IN WATER 281. 36 feet broad and 10 feet deep. 18724. in connection with the resistance of ships. about 20 inches above the water level. follows a similar law. so that the truck could A traverse the length of the tank at 100 and 1000 feet per minute. which approximates to two.
later adaptation of the apparatus as used at Haslar for determining the resistance of ships' models is shown in Fig. Mr Froude made the A A N A A W H following deductions. to a multiplying lever which moves a pen D over a recording cylinder. which is carried on a double knife edge at H. The extension of the spring S and thus the movement of the pen D is proportional to the resistance of the model. but is practically constant for lengths greater than 50 feet. of attachment of L and the spring S. An arm L is connected to the model and to a frame beam. and when under experiment were placed on edge in the water. the worm being driven by an endless belt from the axle of the truck. To calibrate the spring S. spring S is attached to a knife edge on the beam and to a fixed knife edge on the link J connects the upper end of the beam frame of the truck. were made of a uniform depth of 19 inches. (1) The frictional resistance varies very nearly with the square of the velocity. Expressed algebraically the frictional resistance to the motion when moving with a velocity v feet of a plane surface of area A per second is / being equal to . The time taken by the truck to move through a given distance can thus be determined. The frictional resistance varies very considerably (3) with the roughness of the surface. and the rotation of the drum is proportional to the distance moved. The mean resistance per square foot of surface for lengths (2) up to 50 feet diminishes as the length is increased. The lengths were varied from 2 to 50 feet.508 HYDRAULICS Planes of wood. 362. the upper edge being about 1 J inches below the surface. about f'V inch thick. From the results of these experiments. the surfaces of which were covered with various materials as set out in Table XXXIX. A pen actuated by clockwork registers time on the cylinder. This cylinder is made to revolve by means of a worm and wheel. The apparatus as used by Froude is illustrated and described in the British Association Reports for 1872. weights are hung from a knife which is exactly at the same distance from as the points edge.
Width of boards 19 inches. that specified in the heading. is estimated at 0'263 pound per square foot.RESISTANCE TO THE MOTION OF BODIES IN WATER 509 TABLE XXXIX. resistance in is / = the mean the length of which As an example. thickness f$ inch. Showing the result of Mr Froude's experiments on the frictional towed through resistance to the motion of thin vertical boards water in a direction parallel to its plane. = the resistance per square /i foot. when the velocity is 10 feet per second. equal to that specified in the heading. the mean resistance is 0'278 pound per square foot. . at 10 feet per second. pounds per square foot of a surface. foot at 8 feet the resistance of the tinfoil surface per square from the leading edge of the board. at a distance from the leading edge of the board. at a velocity of 10 feet per second. n = power or index of speed to which resistance is approxi mately proportional.
in which it is assumed that relative to the ship the water is moving in stream lines as shown in Figs. such as are shown in Figs. and between the water and the surface of the channel.510 HYDRAULICS offered to the 282. there is a pressure acting on the body in the direction of motion of the water. the water has been assumed " stream lines. to the motion of the water has Fig. energy is lost due to eddy motions. and if bodies. 110 and 111. 364. . consecutive stream lines also having relative motion. and the resistance been considered as due to the friction between the consecutive stream lines. The origin of the resistance of ships is best realised by the "stream line" theory. 364. In considering the motion of water along pipes and channels of uniform section. these frictional resistances above certain speeds being such as to cause rotational motions in the mass of the water." which have a relative motion to the to move in sides of the pipe or channel and to each other. 363. Fig. It has also been shown that at any sudden enlargement of a stream. 363. Stream line theory of the resistance motion of bodies in water. be placed in the pipe.. Resistance of ships.
and of the stream lines and the surface (2) Eddy motion resistances due to the dissipation of the energy of the stream lines. and by avoiding a thick stern and stern post. If is the area of the immersed surface. The eddy resistance depends upon the bluntness of the stern of the boat. which depends not only upon the roughness but also the velocity of the ship in feet per second. of the ship. with fine lines. and the surface of which has the same degree of roughness as that of the ship. of the whole and at full speed it is not much less than 60 per cent. Ill.RESISTANCE TO THE MOTION OF BODIES IN WATER 511 According to parts. as the stern is approached. and the kinetic energy. Fig. and can be reduced to a minimum by diminishing the section of the ship gradually. (3) Wave making resistances due to wave motions set up at the surface of the water by the ship.A. is dissipated. has further shown that it is practically the same as that resisting the motion of a thin rectangle. The case is analogous to that of the cylinder. the upon the length. / the coefficient of friction. According to the late Mr Froude. and configure. which has been given to the stream lines by the ship. the length and area of resistance. and suppose the stream lines to be as shown in the the value of the index At the stern of the boat a sudden enlargement of the stream lines takes place. there is' a resultant pressure acting upon the ship in the direction of flow of the stream lines. He the two sides of which are equal to the length and immersed area respectively of the ship./. the energy of the waves being dissipated in the surrounding water. As an extreme case consider a ship of the section shown in Fig. 364. Mr Froude has shown that the frictional resistance of ships. or head. 169. A Y resistance due to friction is r/. p. all of which are not gradually brought to rest. .V. sequently opposing its motion. that is the cross section varies very gradually from the bow towards midships. the full speed of which is about 13 knots. Due to the loss of energy. n approximating to 2. (1) this theory the resistance is divided into three Fractional resistance due to the relative motions of con secutive stream lines. and especially is this so in long ships. the greater proportion of the resistance is due to friction. At speeds less than 8 knots. is nearly 90 per cent. and again from the midships towards the stern.
White's Naval Architecture. as in Fig. called the increase in critical speed. which diminishes in section from the middle body to the stern post. and especially upon the length of the "entrance" and "run. and consequently the water at the bow is elevated above the normal lines to surface. which gradually increases in section* until the middle body." By the "entrance" is meant the front part of the ship. is reached. ships it is resistance. Assuming there is no loss of energy in a stream line between AA and BB and applying Bernoulli's theorem to any stream line. the velocities of the stream lines are diminished gradually and the In actual loss of energy by eddy motions becomes very small. than at A A or BB. Suppose the ship to be moving in smooth water. "Merkara" the wave making resistance at 13 knots. and the stream be passing the ship as in Fig. the normal speed of the ship. Mr Froude found that for the S.S. Now let AA. which is of uniform section. Transactions of Naval Architects. . and the velocity of flow will be greater." the hinder part of the ship. and by the "run. of the whole form of the The wave making resistance depends upon the length and the ship. and CO be three sections of the ship and the Near the midship section CO the stream lines will be more closely packed together. stream lines. Beyond a certain speed. of the whole. The critical speed was about 18 knots. the rate of very much greater than the rate of increase of speed. but at 19 knots it was 60 per cent. probably not more than 8 per cent. As the bow of the boat strikes the dead water in front there is an increase in pressure. 363. therefore. BB.512 HYDRAULICS If the ship has fine lines towards the stern. wave making resistance is An approximate formula for the critical speed V in knots is L being feet. and in the horizontal plane SS the pressure will be greater at the bow than at some distance in front of it. 1877 and 1881. the length of entrance. and Li the length of the run in of the formation The mode by the ship of waves can be partly realised as follows. PA + w V= 2g PC + ^l = w 2g ? w + ^ 2g' * See Sir W. was 17 per cent. 363.
frictional stern. so that in any attempt to design a ship the resistance of which shall be as small as possible. eddy motions. the advance of the energy is dissipated. 33 . neglecting the eddy resistances.RESISTANCE TO THE MOTION OF BODIES IN WATER 513 and since VA and VB are less than v c . w is The surface of the water at A A and BB CO and it takes the form shown in therefore higher Two sets of waves are thus formed. must of necessity have been given to the water by the ship. 362 is used in the same way as in determining the frictional resistance of thin boards. by the principle of similarity. ~R = r/ + re + rw . or the entire length of the ship should be devoted to the entrance and run. and at 10 feet per second the frictional resistance is therefore about J Ib. is the total resistance in pounds. the corresponding resistances of the ship are deduced. ^ and w than at w ? are greater than ^. the area of immersion must be small. where This energy. The only satisfactory way to determine re and rw for any ship is to make experiments upon a model. and. from which. and a corresponding amount of work has to be done by the ship's propeller. The propelling force required to do work equal to the loss of energy by eddy motions is the eddy resistance. the problem resolves itself into making the sum of the frictional and wave resistances a minimum. and at 20 feet per second 1 Ib. For painted steel ships / is practically the same as for the varnished boards. and these to the surrounding water. r/ the re the eddy resistance. feet The horsepower required to drive the ship at a velocity of Y per second is RV To determine the total resistance of the model the apparatus shown in Fig. Total resistance. and rw the wave R resistance. as well as that lost in If resistance. 363. L. and the force required to do work equal to the energy of the waves set up by the ship is the wave resistance. two conflicting conditions have to be met. The frictional resistance r/ can easily be determined when the nature of the surface is known. one by bow and the other by the stream lines at the wave motions are transmitted their Fig. H. per square foot. and should have no parallel body. per square foot. To reduce the wave resistance to a minimum the ship should be made very long. On the other hand for the frictional resistance to be small.
or the a of the ship. as stated by resistance of a Mr Froude. To obtain the resistance of the ship from the experimental resistance of the model the principle of similarity. the values being made the length. In addition the ship is very much longer than the model. According to Mr Fronde's theory. Correction for the difference of the coefficients of friction for the model and shvp. for m of the model. the corresponding speed of the ship will be four times the speed of the model.' If the resistance is assumed to vary as but also upon V2. Let the linear dimensions of the ship be I) times those of the model. the frictional resistance But and . the resistance R/8 of the ship at the corresponding speed V V is As an example. If Rm is the resistance of the model at the velocity m . the model of the ship. is corresponding speed any speed Y Y Corresponding resistances. even if the surfaces were of the same degree of roughness. the speed of the ship at which its resistance must be compared with that of the model. and consequently R a must be corrected to make allowance for the difference of roughness of the surfaces. suppose a model onesixteenth of the size of the ship . and the resistance of the ship at corre3 sponding speeds will be 16 or 4096 times the resistance of the model.514 283. HYDRAULICS Determination of the resistance of a ship from. Corresponding speeds. the frictional resistance of the model at the velocity Vm is and for the ship at the corresponding speed is V. The material of which the immersed surface of the model is made is not generally the same as that of the ship. would therefore be less than for the model. and it be assumed that the coefficients of friction for the ship and the model are the same. Let fm be the coefficient of friction for the model and /. Let A.n be the immersed surface of the model and A* of the ship. is used. and the coefficient of friction. for the to depend not only upon the roughness ship.
365. From the Mr formula 332 . For example. corresponding resistances being 4096 times the resistance of the model. becomes a curve of resistance for the ship. 365. and the scale of resistances for the ship is shown at EH. From the experiments on the model a curve having resistances as ordinates and velocities as abscissae is drawn as in Fig. rs 515 =/ AwVm D 2 8 3 Then the resistance of the ship is ^ Determination of the curve of resistance of the ship from the curve of resistance of the model. this curve. Froude's method of correcting the curve for the difference of the coefficients of friction for the ship and the model. H 4CO D Fig. by an alteration of the scales.RESISTANCE TO THE MOTION OF BODIES IN WATER and. therefore. corresponding velocities being four times as great as the velocity of the model. The scale of velocities for the ship is shown on CD. If now the coefficients of friction for the ship and the model are the same. in the figure the dimensions of the ship are supposed to be sixteen times those of the model.
Lond. Un. Also find the horsepower to drive the ship against this resistance.000 square feet ? You may assume the maximum speed for which the ship is immersed surface designed (3) is 17 knots.. the skin friction per square foot. and at any velocity the ordinate between this curve and RR is the resistance of the ship at that velocity. resistance of a vessel is deduced from that of a model ^th the surface of the model is 29'4 square feet. thus obtained. velocity is the ordinate between FF and RR. if the immersed surface is 18. Estimate the total resistance of the vessel in salt water at the The linear size. . for example. may the resistance of a ship be (4) inferred? Point out what corrections have to be made. The wetted speed corresponding to 200 feet per minute in the model.AsV8 and ordinates are frictional resistance of the ship is now calculated from the set down from the curve . (1) Taking skin friction to be 0'4 Ib. and the index of velocity is T83. third curve is to r8) to the scale for ship resistance. the wave and eddy making resistance is 6c. 1906. per square foot at 10 feet per second. being due to skin resistance. 1906.000 square feet immersed surface at 15 knots (1 knot = T69 feet per second). what horsepower will probably be required to obtain a speed of 14 knots. FF. per 100 square feet at 10 knots. At velocities of 200 feet per minute for the model and 800 feet per minute for the ship. The n formula rs = /. a model 10 feet in length with a wet skin of 24 square feet has a total resistance of 2*39 Ibs. For example. find the skin resistance of a ship of 12. for measured on the scale BG..for the model and on the scale EH the ship. and the index of velocity is T94. What will be the total resistance at the corresponding speed in salt water of a ship 25 times the linear dimensions of the model. (2) If the skin friction of a ship is 0*5 of a pound per square foot of at a speed of 6 knots. and '39 Ib.. is calculated. Un. in fresh water.. measured on the scale EH. At a speed of 300 feet per minute in fresh water. when the ship has a velocity of 800 feet per minute the resistance is ac. at 10 feet per second is 0*3 Ib. The skin friction of the vessel in salt water is 60 Ibs. to wavemaking.516 HYDRAULICS the frictional resistance of the model for several values of V. having given that the surface friction per square foot of the ship at that speed is 13 Ibs. ? How from model experiments Lond. The total resistance of the model in fresh water at 200 feet per minute is T46 Ibs. 2 Ibs. and the curve FF plotted on the same scale as used The wave and eddy making resistance at any for the curve RR. equal A EXAMPLES.
the of loss of head. Similarly the water in contact with the annular ring surrounding a sudden enlargement appeared to be at rest * and the assumption made in section 51 was thus justified. by experiments on the flow of water at varying velocities between two parallel glass In some of the experiments obstacles of various forms plates. The condition of the water as it floAved between the plates was made visible by mixing with it a certain quantity of air. or to pass through an orifice. Aug. When the channel between the plates was made to enlarge suddenly. or else by allowing thin streams of coloured water to flow between the plates along with the other scale. and has exhibited the change from stream line to sinuous. Proceedings of Naval Architects. as in Fig.CHAPTER XIII. no eddy motions were produced and there were no indications water. 59. When the motion was sinuous and the water was made to flow past obstacles similar to those indicated in Figs. or the form of the channel along which it flowed. 58. beautifully shown. flow to become water immediately in contact with the downstream face was shown to be at rest. past which the water had to flow. 1898. the water persisted in stream line flow. 110 and 111. the Professor Hele Shaw* has very form of the When the velocity of flow was kept sufficiently low. Engineer. 1897 and 1898. on a small stream lines in moving masses of water under varying circumstances. 284. Hele Shaw's experiments on the flow of thin sheets of water. or rotational flow. whatever the form of the obstacle in the path of the water. channels of various sections were formed through which the water was made to flow. and in others. STREAM LINE MOTION. were placed between the plates. 1897 and May . the eddy motions were very marked. When the velocity was sufficiently high for the sinuous. and as long as the flow was in stream lines. as in Fig.
. the velocity of which in the film diminish as the surface of the channel is approached. there is a thin film moving in stream lines relatively to the ship.. 285. ^ If the stream line is horizontal. lines.. v be the velocity of the stream line at c... Resolving along the radius through c. or since W = wadr... Fig. (top 9r + . ae. surrounding a ship as it moves through still water. and it was inferred by Professor Hele Shaw that.... (1).... ~. Curved stream line motion... The experiments also indicated that a similar film surrounded obstacles of shiplike and other forms placed in flowing water. p + dp be the pressure per unit area on the face to the horizontal. be the inclination of the tangent to the stream line at c a be the area of each of the faces bd and ae. 366.. r. Let a mass of fluid be moving in curved stream AB.. as in the case of water flowing .. and the pressure adp acting along the radius towards the (3) centre of curvature 0. dp ~ = wv* w dr gr cos a f . dr be the thickness ab of the stream line. the sinuously moving water appeared to be separated from the sides of the channel by a thin film of water.. TT A W cos & = 0. the shearing forces between which and the surrounding water set up eddy motions which account for the skin friction of the ship. let point c let the radius of curvature of the stream line be the centre of curvature. which Professor Hele Shaw suggested was moving in stream lines. be any one of the stream lines. If then the stream line is in a vertical plane the forces acting on the element are (1) (2) W due to gravity...518 HYDRAULICS When the flow was along channels and sinuous. the centrifugal force WV*  acting along the radius away from the centre.. and let At any be r and point c. Consider the equilibrium of an element abde surrounding the Let W be the weight 6 of this element.. p be the pressure per unit area on the face bd.
.. Fig. Oc is horizontal and the component of  .... 367... Free vortex.... An important case arises when is constant for the stream lines...... as when water flows round a river bend.. w dr~ fdr Substituting the value of from ' (5) in (2) V? ' wv dv _ w ~ from which g dr g r rdv + vdr = 0. and therefore by integration vr = constant = C ...STREAM LINE MOTION round the bend of a along Oc is zero. (2). and R! the difference of Integrating between the limits and RI is pressure on any horizontal plane at the radii R R *f)M* 9 equation.. all H Then _1 dp _ vdv gdr (5)..is w or !_ 2g constant.... (s) > which can be integrated when v can be written as a function of r.. applying Bernoulli's + jj.. Now for any horizontal stream line. 519 W river. 366.. w dp Differentiating + ' 2g~ vdv _ dK gdr~~dr V*' 1 wdr A Fig.... or as in Thomson's vortex chamber.
Scouring of the banks of a river at the bends. The pressure head near the bed of the stream. H . while the pressure head increases as the outer bank is approached. VR2 If. then in equation (3) and . and since at a little distance from the bend the surface of the water is horizontal. Experience shows that the opposite effect takes place.520 Equation (3) HYDRAULICS now becomes Pi p_ ~ CP w dr [* 3 g JR r l _ 20 Forced vortex. Near the bed of the river the stream lines have a less velocity (see page 209) than in the mass of the fluid. will be less than near the surface.=  I rdr . as indicated in Fig. <> i. as James Thomson has pointed out. which cause scouring of the outer bank and deposition at the inner bank. When water runs round a bend in a river the stream lines are practically concentric circles. and the water is consequently heaped up towards the outer bank. is thus less than near the surface.. the rate of increase of pressure near the bed of the stream. due to the centrifugal forces. 367. The velocity being greater at the inner bank it might be expected that it will be scoured to a greater extent than the outer. and this pressure head is consequently unable to balance the pressure head due to the heaping of the surface water. as in the turbine wheel and centrifugal the angular velocities of all the stream lines are the same. and the stream lines form a free vortex. The velocity of the outer stream lines is therefore less than the inner. due to the centrifugal forces. the head on any horizontal in the bend must be constant. and crosscurrents are set up. and. pump.
(Engineering News.APPENDIX. Coefficients of discharge : (a) for circular sharpedged orifices.) Diameter of . the values of the coefficients being as follows. 27th September. 1. 1906. Experiments by Messrs Judd and King at the Ohio University on the flow through sharpedged orifices from f inch to 2J inches diameter showed that the coefficient was constant for all heads between 5 and 92 feet.
Recent experiments by Barr (Engineering.522 (b) HYDRAULICS for triangular notches. April 1910) on the flow through triangular notches having an angle of 90 degrees showed that the coefficient C (page 85) varies. but the mean value is very near to that given by Thomson. The coefficients as determined by Barr are given in the following table : Head .
.
head was measured at the air gauge G in cms. Fig. per second. LogV 10 20 40 Velocity 50 60 70 80 90 100 200 m cms. for velocities below the critical velocity. 369. the columns of water in the gauge were very steady.524 HYDRAULICS loss of The water. When the upper critical velocity is passed the columns again become steady. 369. At the critical velocity the columns in the gauge become very unsteady and oscillate through a distance of two or three centimetres. . oscillations scarcely being perceivable with the cathetometer telescope. At any temperature. of The results obtained at various temperatures are shown plotted in Fig.
on losses of head in pipe bends are not very complete. as remarked in the text. Losses of head caused by 90 degree bends expressed in terms of the length of straight pipe of the same diameter in which a loss of head would occur equal to the loss caused by the bend. In the table the length of straight pipe is given in which the loss of head would be the same as in the bend. The experiments were carried out by connecting the bends in turn to two lengths of straight pipe 6 inches diameter. The bend being in position the loss of head in the bend and in the straight piece was then found and the loss caused by the bend obtained by difference. The experimental data. 525 Losses of head in pipe bends. Diameter of all bends 6" (very nearly). . the head lost at various velocities in one of the lengths having been previously carefully determined.APPENDIX 3. The following table gives results obtained by Schoder* from experiments on a series of 6 inches diameter bends of different radii.
. 10 12 14 Fig. Am. Sep. p. Davies* gives the loss of head iri a 2 T diameter elbow as 0'0113v 2 and in a 2" diameter elbow with short turn as 0'0202t.526 HYDRAULICS  4 inches diameter pipes was the same and was equal to v being the velocity of the water in the pipe in feet per second. 4 6 8 Radios of Bend in Diameters. Inchss. some authorities contending that the impact head h produced by the velocity of the moving stream impinging on the tube with the plane of its opening facing up stream should be expressed as . xxxiv. The Pitot tube.E. 7b 2 and others contending that *">. Loss of head due to bends in pipes 3" and 4" in diameter. 370. V 4.C. 1908. There has been considerable controversy as to the correct theory of the Pitot tube. it should be expressed as In the text it is shown that if the momentum of the water per * Proc. 1037. S. Vol.3 ..
" Those who maintain this position do not recognise the simple fact that when it is stated that the kinetic energy of the stream is destroyed. Soc. Experiments by White*. the author and others show that jet of water issuing from an orifice is made to impinge on a plate having its plane perpendicular to the axis of the jet.APPENDIX 527 second which. would flow through an area equal to the area of the impact orifice is destroyed the pressure on the area is equal to wa 9 and the height would be of the column of water maintained by this pressure Experiment shows that the actual height is equal to ~ v > an(l ^ has therefore been contended that the destroyed momentum of the mass should not be considered as producing the head. To obtain a complete theory of the Pitot tube it would be necessary that the conditions of flow in the neighbourhood of the tube should be completely under* Journ. the water approaching the tube is deflected into stream lines which pass the tube with only part of their velocity perpendicular to the tube destroyed. and would obtain equal to onehalf the intensity of pressure that the whole pressure was distributed over an area equal to the area of the jet. and that the reason that the why the head v2 is not equal to is momentum of a mass of water equal to the mass which passes through an area equal to the area of the impact surface is not destroyed. but " rather the velocity head. of Eng. the pressure on the plate is distributed over an area much greater than the area of the original jet. The total pressure on the plate however divided by the area of the jet is if is equal to v* ' g When a Pitot tube is placed with its opening perpendicular to a stream. . of the Assoc. it is exactly the same thing as saying that the momentum of the stream is destroyed. and the maximum intensity of pressure occurs at a point on the plate coinciding with the axis of when a the jet. In this case the whole momentum is destroyed on an area much greater than the area of the jet. August 1901.
and the outer pressure tube made of f inch diameter tube ^ * Eng. the coefficient of velocity for which at all heads Fig. and Burnham*. Gregory Pitot tube having a coefficient of unity. Fig. Fig. 15mm 25/nmi Copper Tubes.cannot be said at present to be a theoretical deduction but simply an experimental result. 372.528 stood. 373. M. and the formula 2 Ji =k *9 i n the present state of knowledge must be looked upon as an empirical formula rather than a theoretical one. HYDRAULICS The is fact therefore that the v* head in the impact tube of a Pitot equal to 5. 1905. forming the impact tube. 371. the inner one inch outside diameter and ^ inch thick. White has determined the coefficients by measuring the height of a column of water produced by a jet issuing from a horizontal orifice. Fig. for which Mr W. . Dec. 372 still water. Fry and Tyndall by experiments on Pitot tubes revolving in air found a value for k equal to unity. News. Fig. and also by moving them through In all cases the coefficient k was unity. using a tube consisting of two brass tubes one in the other. shows impact surfaces for which the author has determined the coefficients by inserting them in a jet of water issuing from a vertical orifice. 371 shows a number of Pitot tubes impact surfaces. was carefully determined by the method described on page 55.
as shown in the examples quoted on pages 328 and 349. The increased head is obtained by an application of the Venturi principle. 34 . Fry and Tyndall found that a tube '177 mm. stand by plant of other types is sometimes provided. thick gave a value of k several per cent. 5. as in the examples cited. If the walls of the impact tube are made very thin the constant may differ perceptibly from unity. additional compartments have to be provided so that a larger volume is used by the turbine to compensate for the loss of head. provided with a slit 1 J inches long by T inch wide for transmitting the static pressure. but when a small mica plate 2 mm. high. greater than unity. indicating that the variation of ~k was due to uncertain effects on the static pressure openings. The position of the pressure holes in the static pressure tube also affects the constant. the coefficient Jc was with some of the tube combinations as much as 10 per cent. diameter was fitted on the end of the tube ~k was unity. also found k to be constant and equal to unity. but when the impact tube was used alone the coefficient was exactly equal to unity. The author has found in experimenting on the velocity of flow in jets issuing from orifices. and the capital expenditure is. Instead of additional compartments. and thus making it possible to run the wheel at a higher velocity. the difference of level between the head and tail water of a low In times of heavy flow the difference of level between the head and tail water of a stream supplying a turbine may be considerably less than in times of normal flow. therefore. into which the exhaust can take place instead of directly into the tailrace. L. the plugged one having small holes pierced through the tube perpendicular to the axis of the tube very near to the end. that. The Herschel fall increaser. diameter with walls "027 mm. the excess water not required by the turbines being utilised to create in a vessel a partial vacuum. or for keeping the head under which a turbine works constant when fall varies. and if the power given by the turbine is then to be as great as when the flow is normal. by using two small aluminium tubes side by side and their ends flush with each other. and if the constant unity is to be relied upon they should be removed some distance from the impact face.APPENDIX 529 V ^V inch thick. In all such arrangements expensive plant is useless in times of normal flow. H. above unity. one of which had the end plugged and the other open. This is an arrangement suggested by Herschel for increasing the head under which a turbine works when the fall is small.
530 HYDRAULICS is In Fig. some of it is allowed to EDF. suppose the turbine working in a casing as shown and is discharging down a tube into the vessel V and let the water escape from V along the pipe EDF. Then without the fall increaser the discharge of the turbine is proportional to \/h and the horsepower to h*Jh. Mr Herschel states that by suitably proportioning the area of the throat D of the pipe. The pipe a plentiful supply of water. which is quite diagrammatic. or is the increase of head by the increaser. 374. . and the head under which the turbine is working is thereby increased. Fig. and is expanded as enters the tailrace. and the area of the admission holes in D. entering at E where it is controlled by is diminished in area at D. When flow is than the pressure at F. like a Venturi it meter. 374. entering the pipe by the small holes shown in the figure. Let taking place the pressure at will less Ji be the difference of level of the up and down streams. Let hi be the amount by which the head at D is less than at F. the head can easily be increased by 50 per cent. Diagram of Fall Increases When there is flow along the pipe a valve. The work done without the increaser is to the work done with the increaser D be .
Mr The Humphrey internal combustion pump. When the difference between the head and tail water is normal the increaser need not be used. B is the exhaust valve.APPENDIX If Qi is the discharge through the turbine used. The pump in its simplest form is shown in Fig. 1910. then the increaser can be used to make the head under which the turbine works equal to the normal head. one of the conditions which had to be fulfilled in the designs being that at all heads the horsepower of the turbines should be the same. the work gained by the increaser 531 when the increaser is h x efficiency of the increaser is this quantity divided weight of water entering at E. The force necessary for the raising of the water being obtained by the explosion of a combustible mixture in a vessel above the surface of the water in the vessel. and what promises to be a very efficient pump has recently been developed by Mr H. which is both simple in principle and in construction. of this efficiency 6. The arrangement was suggested by Mr Herschel. Humphrey. but in times of heavy flow when the head water surface has to be kept low to give sufficient slope to get the water away from up stream and the tail water surface is high. in connection with a new power house to be erected for the further utilisation of the water of Lake Leman at Geneva. Engs. but the credit must remain with him of having evolved on a large scale a successful pump and of having overcome the serious difficulties to be faced in an ingenious and satisfactory manner. A. C is a combustion chamber. These two valves are connected by an interlocking* gear. and releases the * Proc. Inst. When the exhaust valve closes it locks itself. The by Herschel found by experiment that the maximum value was about 30 per cent. All rotating and reciprocating parts found in ordinary pumps are dispensed with. Mech. and accepted. An ingenious. so arranged that when the admission opens and closes it locks itself shut and unlocks the exhaust valve ready for the next exhaust stroke. 375. The idea of exploding such a mixture in contact with the water did not originate with Mr Humphrey. into which is admitted the combustible charge through the valve F. 342 .
375. sparking plug. having a number of small valves Y. The delivery pipe D is connected directly to the combustion is the water valve box chamber C and to the supply tank ET. As long 40 greater than H + h + ~ the mass of water in D will be accelerated positively will and the maximum velocity vm of the water be reached when w The water 2 will have acquired a kinetic energy per motion towards the tank. which is then ready to admit a fresh charge.and . and through which water enters the delivery pipe from the supply tank. opening inwards. The velocity of the water in D increases as long as the pressure of the gases in C is greater than the head against which the pump is delivering together with the head lost by friction. instead of one big one. each held on its seat by a light spring. a quantity of water entering the tank ET. when the suction stroke occurs. let h be the head of water. not shown in the is used to explode the combustible mixture. foot at any instant in the combustion chamber. Suppose a compressed charge to be enclosed in the chamber C and The increase of pressure sets the water in C fired by a spark. 375. Fig. and let the friction head plus the head lost by eddies as W the water enters the supply tank at this velocity be as is 5 . against which the pump is delivering. and p the pressure per sq. let H be the atmospheric pressure in feet of water. supposed for simplicity constant. figure. Eeferring to the diagram.532 HYDRAULICS admission valve. equal to 7. etc. Let v be the velocity of the column of water at any instant. will continue its As it does so . Ib. A f Fig. and in the pipe D in motion.
the water will begin to return and will rise in the chamber C until the surface hits the valve E and shuts the exhaust. Again the column begins to return and compresses the mixture to a pressure much greater than that due to the static head. and when this is less than the atmospheric pressure W will open and allow plus the head of water in ST the valves water to enter D. in the upper part of C. . this arrangement being useful when a continuous flow is required.APPENDIX 533 the pressure in C falls below the atmospheric pressure and the exhaust valve E opens. An important feature " of the pump is in the use that is made of flywheel effect of the is compression. 376. Fig. which of water to give high a necessity for the efficient working of an moving column internal combustion engine*. The pressure in C plus the height of the surface of the water in C above the centre of will give the pressure in W. V and is ready to open when the pressure in C falls below the portion of the burnt gases is enclosed atmospheric pressure. When the kinetic energy of the moving column has expended itself by forcing water into the tank ST. as in Fig. In the two papers cited above other types and modifications of the cycle of operations for single and two barrel pumps are described. The action of the pump is unaltered if it discharges into an air vessel. When the column is again brought to rest a second movement of the column of water towards D takes place. 376. showing that the pump can be adapted to almost any conditions without the " difficulty. instead of into an elevated tank. when it is ignited and a fresh cycle begins. the pressure in C falling again below the atmospheric pressure and a A fresh charge of gas and air is drawn in. Figs. 377 and 377 a show other arrangements of the pump. * See works on gas and oil engines. and the energy of the returning column is used to compress this gas to a pressure which is greater than h + IL. the exhaust valve becoming locked as explained above while the inlet valve is released.
the atmospheric pressure in feet of water. a charge of air is pumped into C by a hand pump or small compressor. which is compressed and ignited and the cycles are commenced. which and compresses the air enclosed in the clearance. This starts the oscillation of the closes the exhaust valve. V A H . is column. 378) be po Ibs. For a given set of conditions the length of the discharge pipe is important in determining the periodicity of the cycles and thus the discharge of the pump. foot absolute. 377 a.534 HYDRAULICS start the To the chamber exhaust valve pump from rest. 377. and the opened by hand. As the expansion of the gases takes place n let the law of expansion be pV = constant. and let the volume occupied by the cubic feet. per sq. h the head against which the pump works in feet of water. Let the delivery pipe be of length L and of the same diameter as the explosion chamber. Let be the crosssectional area of the gases be explosion chamber. u Fig. This compressed air expands below the atmospheric pressure and a charge of gas and air is drawn into the cylinder. Fig. Lot the volume of gases when explosion takes place (Fig.
If the delivery pipe is not bellmouthed the water as it enters the tank with a velocity v will have kinetic Ib. energy per The kinetic energy of the water in the pipe at any velocity v is pi a .APPENDIX 535 of the expanding gases when the surface of the The volume water has moved a distance a? will be Vi = Vo + A and the pressure V Fig.dx w(h+ H) Adx ^ . . .<. to lift a quantity of water equal to AOJ into the tank.. and to overcome friction. dx .. 378. This energy has had to give kinetic energy to the water in the pipe. .v*dx . Ibs.(1). If p is done by the pressure at any instant during expansion the the expanding gases is work Af%cfo= 7v pteYo ""? n1 lYl . of . Let the friction head at any velocity be h/= ^ Then ~ = I pA.ft. A.
the frictional head at any other volume will be approximately 6c. . Then the velocity when the exhaust opens is given by For further movements of the column of water the pressure remains constant. when . inch). and H the atmospheric pressure expressed in feet of water. lifting. Let v m be this maximum velocity. Let it be assumed that the total loss of energy per Ib. ' Let the exhaust valve be supposed to open when the pressure falls to p B (say 14*5 Ibs. at any TjV 2 velocity v is ^ . Then if EK be made equal to Yvf 2<7 and the parabolic arc FK be drawn. The actual velocity will be less than v 4 as calculated from this formula. and if the energy of water entering through the is neglected the water will come to rest when valves Y ACQRSBA = FGTRC. thought desirable velocity is given by if The friction head can now be corrected and v m recalculated. The curve AB now cuts the curve FK at Gr. At any volume V the ^ A1? . or if the mean loss of head is taken as f of the maximum. and Yi is a nearer approximation to the volume at which the maximum velocity occurs. If there is no friction in the pump. or other losses of head. per sq. this including frictional losses and losses by eddy motions as the water enters the supply tank.536 HYDRAULICS let AB be the expansion curve of the Let h be the head against which the pump is Or from the diagram exploded gases. due to the losses of head. Then ^=AFcG. the pressure in the chamber becomes equal to the absolute head against which water is being pumped when the volume is V4 Up to this point the velocity of the water is being increased.
The velocity at B for instance in the return stroke will be approxi Y mately given by wKLv* B 2 the =BMTSNMT. and L are in feet. The compression curve can be drawn and the velocities at the various points in the stroke calculated. 379. 8.E. and diameters has the values shown in the table : H K for different * Proc. Fig. as shown in the figure. Those an able and voluminous paper by Leroy Francis Harza (Bulletin of the University of Wisconsin) in which the Hydraulic Ram is dealt with very fully from both an experiinterested are referred to mental and theoretical point of view. a vertical pipe. flows down the pipe as indicated in the figure. The time taken for the stroke OR can then be found by By calculating dividing the length V^r V  by the mean ordinate of the velocity diagram. C. only a very imperfect and elementary description of the mode of working being attempted. the velocity at various points along the stroke a velocity curve. Grurley* has shown that the flow in cubic feet per second can be expressed in terms of the head and the circumferential length of the weir by the formula H in which n is 1*42. can be drawn. is area NMT being subtracted because friction will act in opposition to the 7. On the return cushioning stroke the exhaust valve will close when the volume 3 is reached and the gases in the cylinder will then be compressed. CLXXXIV. Inst. Vol. If Circular Weirs.APPENDIX 537 trial From this equation V 3 can be calculated or by the two areas can be made equal. with the horizontal end AB carefully faced is placed in a tank and water. is In the text no theory attempted of the working of this interesting apparatus. The Hydraulic Ram. . head h which creating the velocity. having its surface a reasonable distance above AB.
HYDRAULICS Values of K in formula Q = KLHn . Diameter .538 Circular Weirs.
Careful investigations of the flow of air. and by plotting the logarithms of these quantities a straight line should be obtained. but Professor Leest has shown that if points be plotted having log (^2 0*0009^ as ordinates. Stanton. 299. t Proc. 539 General formula for friction in smooth pipes. Stanton and Pannell. have been carried out at the National Physical Laboratory during recent years *. Vol. moving and the distribution of velocity in pipes of and water have also been carefully determined. . R. Vol. 03368T + QQOQ221T 2 is which at 15 deg. The value of v for water in dynes is 0*017756 is + o. By plotting points therefore 2 having R/pi. Phil. Cent. to 12*62 cms.S. These latter experiments have shown that if v is the mean velocity of the fluid in the pipe. the Principle of Dynamical Similarity demands that when for various fluids and conditions of flow vd/v is constant thenf or these 2 cases R//w must also be constant. which satisfies the Principle of Dynamical Similarity. Proc.S. 366. as ordinates and vd/v as abscissae all cases of motion in smooth pipes should be represented by a smooth curve. to 5000 cms. A. Vol. xci. oil and water through smooth pipes of diameters varying from 0*361 cms. LXXXV. lie and log vd/v as abscissae the points do log on the straight line  (^ ' 0*0009) + 0*35 log ^ = log 0*0765. The plottings of the logs of these quantities obtained from the experiments at the National Physical Laboratory and those obtained by other experiments show however that the points do not lie about a straight line. The loss of energy at varying temperatures and for velocities varying from 5 cms. pipe per unit area and p the density of the fluid flowing through R the pipe. p. * 0*0114 and the density nearly unity. per second have been determined in the case of water. A.APPENDIX 9. R. d the diameter of the pipe and v the dynamical air viscosity of the fluid. the velocity curves are similar for different If now is the resistance of the fluids as long as vd/v is constant. p. ccxiv. . Trans.
p in pounds per sq. foot at 00000332<u 165 000000857A  #* If the pressure difference is measured in inches of water r65 h. at two sections cm. Norway. and there is not sufficient head available to allow of using a weir. apart. cm.540 HYDRAULICS resistance Then the R in dynes per sq. foot and d and I in feet. the channel should at hydroelectric A . then lim # For air at of mercury. The flow of water along large regularshaped channels can be measured expeditiously and with a considerable degree of accuracy by means of a diaphragm fixed to a travelling carriage as in Fig. 0'00000163tA 10. The method has been used with considerable success power stations in Switzerland. the difference of pressure sections a distance I feet apart is a temperature of 15 C. then . as for example in the case of large turbines under test. and at a pressure of 760 mm. The moving diaphragm method of measuring the flow of water in open channels. carefully formed channel is so that a diaphragm can be used with only small clearance required between the sides and bottom of the channel . but in cases where it is difficult to keep the flow in the channel steady for any considerable length of time. the rapidity with which readings can be taken is a great advantage. 380. is If p and I pi are the pressures in dynes per sq. cm. and If 0'0036 p and pi are in pounds per sq. The apparatus is expensive. and the Berlin Technische Hochschule. /0'00000637<?. 0'006981i If the difference of pressure is measured in 0'000112t feet of water 7&.
542
HYDRAULICS
be as long as convenient, but not less than 30 feet in length, as the carriage has to travel a distance of about 10 feet before it takes up the velocity of the water in the channel. The carriage
shown
in the figure
tubing so as to get
weighs only 88 Ibs. and is made of thin steel minimum weight with maximum rigidity. The
diaphragm is of oiled canvas attached to a frame of light angles. The frame is suspended by the two small cables shown coiled round the horizontal shaft which can be rotated by the hand wheels N; the guides K slide along the tubes S; two rubber buffers P limit the descent and the hand brake E, prevents the frame falling rapidly. The clutch k holds it rigidly in the vertical
position ; when k is released the shown in the figure.
diaphragm swings into the position
To make a gauging the car is brought to the upstream end of the channel with the diaphragm raised and locked in the vertical At a given signal the diaphragm is dropped slowly, position.
being controlled by the brake, until it rests on the buffers which are adjusted so that there is only a small clearance between the diaphragm and the bottom of the channel. The car begins to move when the diaphragm is partly immersed but after it has moved a distance of about 10 feet the motion is uniform. The time taken for the car to travel a distance of, say, 20 feet is now accurately determined by electric* or other means. The mean velocity of the stream is taken as being equal to the mean velocity of the car. The Swiss Bureau of Hydrography has carried out careful experiments at Ackersand and has checked the results given by the diaphragm with those obtained from a weir and by chemical * means. The gaugings agree within one per cent.
11.
1.
The Centrifugal Pump.
varying the form of the chamber surrounding the wheel of a centrifugal pump has been discussed in the text and it is there stated, page 402, that the form of the casing is more important than the form of the wheel in determining the Kecent experiments, Bulletin Nos. 173 efficiency of the pump. and 318, University of Wisconsin, carried out to determine the effect of the form of the wheel show that, as is to be expected, the
effect of
The
form
of the vane of the wheel has some effect, but as in these experiments the form of the casing was not suitable for converting the velocity head of the water leaving the wheel into pressure head, the highest efficiency recorded was only 39 per cent., while
*
1908,
Sonderabdruck aus der Zeitschrift des Vereines deutscher Ingenieure, Jahrgang and Bulletin of the University of Wisconsin, No. 672. See p. 258.
APPENDIX
543
the highest efficiency for the worst form of wheel was less than 31 per cent. Anything like a complete consideration of the effect of the whirlpool or free vortex chamber or of the spiral casing surrounding the wheel has not been attempted in the text, but
experiment clearly shows that by their use the efficiency of the
centrifugal
pump
is
increased.
In Figs. 381 and 382 are shown particulars of a pump with a free vortex chamber C and a spiral chamber B surrounding the wheel.
The
characteristic equation for this
pump
is
given later.
Tests
carried out at the Des Arts et Metier, Paris, gave an overall
efficiency of 63 per cent, when discharging 104 litres per second against a head of 50 metres. The vanes are radial at exit. The
normal number of revolutions per minute is 1500. The peripheral velocity of the wheel is 31*4 metres per second and the theoretical
lift is
thus
31 '4
Y.QI
2
= 100 metres, nearly,
is
or the manometric efficiency
50 per cent.
'f
330
Fig. 381.
4
544.
HYDRAULICS
Radial
I
Fig. 382.
Schabauer Centrifugal
Pump Wheel
with 8 blades,
grooves
to prevent leakage.
2.
Characteristic equations for Centrifugal Pumps.
characteristic equations for centrifugal pumps have and for the cases there considered they
to
In
stability.
The
discussed in the text,
been have
been shown
be of the form
,
_ mv ~~
2
or since v
is
proportional to the
and u
to the quantity of
number of revolutions per minute water delivered, the equations can be
written in the form
An examination of the results of a number of published experiments shows that for many pumps, by giving proper values to the constants, such equations express the relationship between the variables fairly accurately for all discharges, but for high efficiency
pumps, with a casing carefully designed to convert at a given discharge a large proportion of the velocity head into pressure
head, a condition of instability arises and the headdischarge curves are not continuous. This will be better understood on reference to Figs. 383384, which have been plotted from the
results of the experiments on a Schwade of which is shown in Fig. 385.
*
pump *,
the construction
Zeitschrift filr das Gesamte Turbinenwesen, 1908.
CURVES FOR THREE FIXED POSITIONS N* 1 2 AND 3 OF THE VAL VE ON THE RISING MAIN.
L.
H.
546
HYDRAULICS
APPENDIX
547
guide vanes surrounds
A " forced vortex " chamber with, fixed
the wheel and surrounding this a spiral chamber. The diameter The water enters the wheel from both of the rotor is 420 mm.
sides, so that the wheel is balanced as far as hydraulic pressures are concerned. The vanes of the wheel are set well back, the angle Q being about 150 degrees. The wheel has seven short and
seven long vanes. The fixed vanes in the chamber surrounding the wheel are so formed that the direction of flow from each passage in this chamber is in the direction of the flow taking place in the spiral chamber toward the rising main. This is a very carefully designed pump and under the best conditions gave an
The performances of this pump efficiency of over 80 per cent. at speeds varying from 531 to 656 revolutions per minute, the
head varying from 7*657
and the discharge from have been determined with considerable In Tables XL, XLI and XLII are shown the results precision. obtained at various speeds, and in Figs. 3834 are shown headdischarge curves^ for speeds of 580 and 650 revolutions per minute. In carrying out experiments on pumps it is not easy to run the pumps exactly at a given speed, and advantage has been taken of simple reduction formulae to correct the experimental values of the head and the discharge obtained at a speed near to 580 revolutions per minute or to 650 revolutions per minute respectively as follows. For small variations of speed the head as measured by the gauges is assumed to be proportional to the speed squared and the quantity to the speed. Thus if H see page 414, is the measured head at a speed of N revolutions per minute and Q is the discharge, then the reduced discharge at a
to 13*86 metres
to 275 litres per second,
,
speed Ni nearly equal to
N
is
and the reduced head HI
is
"\r a
*
~ H1
JJ2
TT4
'
make
Before curves at constant speed are plotted it is desirable to these reductions. Also if S is the nett work done on the revolutions per minute the reduced nett shaft of the pump at work at Ni revolutions is taken as
N
352
548
HYDRAULICS
It will be seen on reference to the headdischarge curve at 650 revolutions per minute that when the discharge reaches 120 litres per second the head very suddenly rises, or in other words an
unstable condition obtains.
A
similar
sudden
rise takes place
also at 580 revolutions per minute. The curves of Fig. 384 also illustrate the condition of instability. The explanation would appear to be that as the velocity of flow through the pump
approaches that for which the efficiency is a maximum a sudden diminution in the losses by shock takes place, which is accompanied by a rather sudden change in the efficiency, as shown in Fig. 383.
70
110 90 100 80 Quantity, Litres per Second.
Fig. 386.
Quantityspeed curves for constant head of French pump.
The parts of the headdischarge curves, from no discharge to the unstable portion, are fairly accurately represented by the
equation
10
or
5
H = 2'6N + 31NQ  16'5Q
2
2
H
0mvu  0'904wa
,
APPENDIX
and the second part
105
or
of the curves
549
by
2
H  146N
2
+
147NQ  30Q
H=
The agreement
of the experimental values
and the calculated
seen in Tables
values as obtained from
these equations
are
XLXLIL
are
The quantityspeed curves for the pump shown in Figs. 3812 shown in Fig. 386. The plotted points are experimental values
105
while the curves have been plotted from the equation
H = 2'216N
2
2 + 11485NQ  112'9Q
.
The curves agree with the experimental values equally as well as the latter appear to agree amongst themselves.
3.
The power required
theoretical
to drive a
in raising
pump.
The
work done
Q units of volume through
a height
H
is
E
wheel
is
=
w Q
.
.
H.
If e is the hydraulic efficiency of the
pump, the work done on the
w.Q.H
e
it
On reference to the triangles of velocities given on page 399 will be seen that when the angle of exit from the wheel is fixed
is
the velocity HI is proportional to Vi and since the head tional to Vi the work done E is proportional to vf or
oo
propor
N
3
.
The power required to drive a perfect pump would, therefore, be proportional to N and as stated above for small changes in N the power required to drive an actual pump may be assumed propor:J
,
tional to
N
3
.
head in the pump has been shown, p. 420, to depend on both the velocity of the wheel and the flow through the pump, and it might be expected therefore that the power required to drive the pump can be expressed by S = DN3 + Q (FNQ + GIQ 2 ), D, F and & being constants,
The
loss of
or
by
S =
AN
8
+
N
2 (F.NQ + GM2 ).
The plotted points in Fig. 387 were obtained experimentally while the curves were plotted from the equation
2 2 10 9 S = 0852N3 + 23'05N Q + 67'7NQ
.
HYDRAULICS
POINTS OBTAINED FROM EXPERIMENTAL DATA. CURVES PLOTTED FROM EQUATION: 9 z 3 z !0 H.P.085Z2N +2305N Q+6777NQ
60
70
90 80 Discharge, Litres
100
110
130
per Second
Power Quantity Curves at various heads for Centrifugal Fig. 387. Figs. 381, 382.
Pump shown
in
Normal Head 50 m. Normal Discharge 100 L. per second.
The equation gives reasonable values, for the heads indicated in the figure, up to a discharge of 130 litres per second, the values of corresponding to any value of Q being taken from the
N
curves, Fig. 386. In Fig. 383 the shafthorse power at 580 and 650 revolutions per minute respectively for various quantities of
flow are shown. It will be seen that in each case the points very near to a straight line of which the equation is 105 S = (2'59 + 0'38Q).
lie
W
In Table XL are shown the horsepower as calculated by this formula and as measured by means of an Almsler transmission dynamometer. Closer results could, however, be probably obtained by taking two expressions, corresponding to the parts below and above the critical condition respectively, of the more rational form
given above.
APPENDIX
551
TABLE XL.
H calculated from 10 H = 1'46N
5
2
h
147NQ 30Q
2
.
S
Eevs. per min.
N
Discharge N = 580. Q litres .552 HYDRAULICS TABLE XLIL H calculated from 10 H = 1'46N 5 2 Revolutions per min. + 14'7NQ .30Q 2 .
(3) 298 (4) (6) Depth of C. (11) (8) 86'2 ft. (8) Ibs.553 ANSWEBS TO EXAMPLES. 11'4 ft. (13) 24.250 (14) 105 minutes. P= 532459 Ibs. BM= 1448 (5) 191 ft. ft. page 48. ft. (24) 1725 minutes. per sec. c. Chapter <1) (4) I. ft. per sq. per sec. 6'9 ft. 89850 Ibs. 572 gallons. ft. (5) (2) 784 200'6 tons. 19800 X= 1312 ft. (2) 3906. Chapter IV. (13) 058. 9360 176125 Ibs. c. c. (2) 415 c. ft. foot. . = 2195 ft. 25*01 ft. (10) '60. (21) 105 ins. per sec. (23) 4 52 minutes. 806. 1'36 H. page (1) (3) (5) 110. per sec. 2985 ins. ft.500 c. (2) (5) 140 ft. 6206. ft. 13. 1 42 hours. Ibs. (10) c. 136 Ibs. ft.026 699 4. 3567 ins. (6) (3) 37'636. per sec. (8) (7) 8900 Ibs. page Ibs. from the bottom. Chapter (1) II. (26) Chapter IV. Ibs.P. (22) (25) 545 ft. 5'52 ft. (8) 2'8ms. (15) 640 H. ft. (15) per sec. '089 in. per sq. 1443 115 ft. (11) (4) (8)' 2535. Ibs. 629 sq. 8836. 17'1 per sec. (7) 1'57 ft. ft. Ibs. (9) 763. (9) 1048 gallons. c. ft. (9) 17'1 feet. ft. (6) 945. (14) (11) (12) 294 ins. (18) (19) 102 875 ft. (7) (4) 5 ins. 115 ft. (11) 6400 '91 foot.P. ft. page 35. diam. 533 ft. (3) per sec. (10) (12) 1595 Ibs. ft. ft. 1675 ft. ft.000 c. Less than 138 ft. (1) (5) 8025. 884 ft. 35. 22464 Ibs. per sec. 683ft. ft. (9) 892 ft. (8) 895. ft. (6) 19. (7) 1298 433 222 c. '755. of B. 63 c. 44928ft. Chapter (1) (4) (7) III. 81320 Ibs. page 78. per sec. (12) 23. (16) (20) (17) 14 c. 86 ft.
. 7069 ft. ft. ft. per sec. . (18) ft. (45) Quantity to (46) (47) (49) (51) (53) (54) per min. =92 and (37) (39) H = 182. =58'. per sec. (16) 704. ft.554 ANSWERS TO EXAMPLES Chapter V. 1430 sec. per sec. Velocities 618. 30 26 9 ft. inch. 815 ft. (8) (6) 3 ft. 3 ins. 5815 ft. per from B to P. ft. 6 pipes. 439 ft 936 in. If cZ=9". per and /= 0056. 257ft. (2) 142 ft. (11) (13) Depth 735 ft. ft.P. ft. Using formula for old castiron pipes from page 138.will probably be lost at each bend. per sq. ft. v=5 . first approximation to Q is 144 c. 24 ft. Quantity to B = 60 468 c. (5) 3'78 ft. 29 (20) (22) (24) 44 c. ft. per sec. (23) If pipe is (21) Dirty castiron 6'1 feet per mile. ' (26) 1 foot. V (1) (6) (8) 278 ft. per sq. Slope 00052. 0136. 480 Ibs. 0139. n=l84. C= 291 ft. ft. 5 08. ft. 23 ft. 782ft. ft. v=3'62 ft. (11) ft. ft. ft. 301 ft. fc=004286. 3'64 (14) c. ft. 308 186 (15) (17) per (13) sec. (1) (3) 885. page 170. (4) 65. F = 0468 (19) 1023. A (56) (57) (58) v2 head equal to ^. nearly. per from A to P. 2'1 ft. 1075. . 574ft. 21 c. Bottom width 10 96. (36) 54'5 hrs.P. 258 (10) (12) 197. 736 ft. cZ 3 =22 ins. v= 166 ft.000 c. d2 =29 ins. (29) 108 H. diam. Taking C Loss of head by friction = 73 ft. 15 ft. Increase 17 per cent. 940ft. per sec. Q = 75 per sec. Chapter VI. 295*7 feet. 14 ft. ft. Value of m when discharge is a maximum is 1'357. per sec. ft.250 gallons. (9) 2854 ft. c. ft. from P to C. 46. inch. (4) (7) (9) per sec. 26 per cent. (48) d=38ins. sec. ft. per sec. c. C = 127. C r for tubes = 5 06. ft (30) (6) 002825. (2) 11 ft. /='0053. ^27) (28) (31) (34) "A F= friction per unit area at unit velocity. per sec. 7'72 Ibs. as 120. ft. ft. v= 20*55 ft. 16.250 c. (35) (38) (40) (42) 1487xl04 Yes. (5) Bottom width 15 ft. V! = 88 ft. per sec. d= 413 ins. 0961ft. clean 46 ft. (10) (12) per sec. Bottom width 75 Depth 10'7 ft. p = 840 Ibs. C r =ll'9. 33ft. nearly. 630 c. V3 = 1375 ft. (32) (a) 2871 (33) '0458. v2 = 4'95 sec. Taking 005 to be / in formula h=j^ ft. 818 feet. per sec. ^ = 34 ins. ft. 61 c. c. per min. Ibs. H. o>=17'62. page 229. (17) C = 87'5. 66*6 c.
H. 294 ft. 32ins. per sec. Ibs. ft. ft. per sec. = 134 53'. $ = 120. (6) (7) (8) 36'. ft. d=l'22ft. Vel. 16ins. 19'2. 587 Ibs. 40 to radius. About 22 ft. a 12 45'. 36ft.P. Ibs. 105ft.P. 41 31 30'. 12 39'. 99 per cent. Eff. 93. 81 in. f. 3'4 Ibs. v = 247 ft. 19 26'. per sec. = 78 47'. 960 Ibs. =808. 456H. 197 revs. radius. = 77'64ft. 10 per minute. 1025 H (21) (22) (23) (24) 616. v = 45'35. a = 27 20'. done. 79 15'. a = 18. 1940 (18) ft. 19 to radius. per sec. ft.P. 700 revs. per min.P. Ibs. into tank =348 per sec. = = Vane angle 30 25'. (7) 57 '63. (30) Eff. Chapter IX. a = 9 10'. = 14M6. 94ft. p. Vr = 47 41 feet. Impressed velocity = 28'5 (12) ft. (9) (2) 623 Ibs. 86'8 per cent. per min. (12) (14) (15) (16) (18) (19) (20) per sec. (4) (3) (5) 104 261 131 Ibs. Ibs. (13) Angle = 57. 531 (4) ft. 8 = 12 11' = 152 11'. Chapter X.P. 3' < At 4' radius. 6 10.ANSWERS TO EXAMPLES Chapter VIII. 125 22'. ft. Ibs.P. Radial velocity 142 14 ft.P. 117 c. 6 24'. Efficiencies (19) ^ . 53'. Ibs. '53. per sec. ft. 21 40'. Ibs. 40'. (15) 129 (16) (17) (20) > Work 1420 3666 83 ft. page 386. 356. 970. (1) 555 1248 Ibs.p. H. Wt. per sec. (12) 60 per cent. H. lifted=10'3 tons or 8*65 tons. (8) 29 5'. = 15323'.P. = 29'3. 3'92 24'. per sec. (31) = 23. 32 H. 575. Angles 12 45'. 45'. = 2760. 0=73. 81. (10) (14) 186 Ibs. ^ (1) 474 H. . 3'05 ft. Ibs. 87 per cent. Increased resistance = 2330 Ibs. vr =36. U=77. a = 18. 36. page 280. 356 ft. 23 ins. ft. 50ft (3) (5) 55 per cent. 156 ft. 161 H. . g=51 474 ft. 9375. ft. 1'7 ft. e=73'75 per cent.p.= 925 per cent. (2) = 29.14. (25) (26) 30'. 6 = 15 3" radius. llfins. Pressure head = 67 '3 ft. Blade angle 13 30'. (6) 21'8. Vr =44. H.P. Ibs. 251 H. per sec. 11 from the top of wheel. (13) 0=47 30'. = 153 At 79 53 12 2' 6" Heads by gauge. U = 51'5 = 957. At 46'. H. 45'. per sec. 1150. 1. 6'3 ft. (8) 124. (2) 25. a = 25. 1^ 11 = 106 ft. a = 10 2] . '50. 62 per cent. (27) (28) (29) 15'. 62 24. 6 = 16 25'. 52'5 per cent. per Ib. (1) (3) (4) (9) 105 H. D = 214ft. '678. per sec. 16 4'. 47 H. page 478. (5) 0=47. 55 ft. 45'. = 23 a = 16 per Ib.
P. Ibs. 472 or higher. 123 and 241 ft. p= 4 . P. (4) (2) 3500 H. is Mean friction head = 0268. inch. 25. Acceleration zero when 0=(M + m being any integer. (1) (6) (8) 3150 28 Ibs. (1) 30. (7) (5) 4'7 ins. Ibs. =3*14. and 661 Ibs. is 338.P. ft. 461 H. 232 and 455 ft. D = 19 ins. 4 5 ft. . page 505. per sq. Chapter XII.P. (33) '6.890 Ibs. H. ft. (27) (29) 67'6 7'93 Separation in second case. hours. Max. (31) (34) 253 ft. (3) 4575 Ibs. (32) 3'64 Separation in the sloping pipe. therefore work due (22) to friction (21) (23) very small. (2) 338 H.556 (15) ANSWERS TO EXAMPLES v=2364ft. 2). P. P. 3338 tons. 1191 c. page 516. and 9'7 ins. 2*04 minutes.650 Ibs. accel. ft. per sq. Chapter XI. (18) (16) (17) (19) d=9 ins. (20) per sec. inch respectively. per sec. Revs. per min. 96 ins. diam. 15 H. 1425 H. 175 (9) per sec. Vels. V=11'3. 393 ft. per sec. 5993 ft. per sec. per min.
187 Darcy and Bazin 183 coefficients through orifices jet 56 orifices Ganguillet and Kutter 184 for. [All numbers refer to pages. 525 Bernoulli's theorem 39 applied to centrifugal pumps 423. ^ effect of (see Bends. 439 applied to turbines 334. of trapezoidal form 219 erosion of earth 216 weir. sharpcrested 9799 weir. in logarithmic for form of the from 63 mulae 200208 coefficients. 437. Reciprocating pump) Accumulators air 491 differential 489 examples on 48 experimental illustrations of 41 extension of 48 Borda's mouthpiece 72 Boussinesq's theory for discharge of a weir 104 Boyden diffuser 314 Brotherhood hydraulic engine 501 Buoyancy of floating bodies 21 centre of 23 hydraulic 486 Air gauge. steering of 47 Capstan. see Pumps Channels circular. 455 Angular momentum 273 Angular momentum.557 INDEX. rate of change of equal to a couple 274 Appold centrifugal pump 415 Aqueducts 1. flat crested 99 the cross mined by approximation 225227 diameter of. 189. depth of flow for discharge 221 circular. variation of Bazin's formulae for channels 182. for given flow deter Telocity at any point in section of a pipe 144 weir. 244 formulae of in channels 182. in maximum maximum an flow flow flow flow orifice 59. principle of 22 Arm strong double power hydraulic crane 497 Atmospheric pressure 8 Canal boats. sharpedged 57. hydraulic 501 Centre of buoyancy 23 Centre of pressure 13 Centrifugal force. depth of flow for velocity 220 coefficients for. effect of in discharge Bacon 1 Barnes and Coker 129 Barometer 7 Bazin's experiments on calibration of Pitot tube 245 distribution of pressure in the plane of an prince 59 distribution of velocity in the cross section of a channel 208 distribution of velocity in the cross section of a pipe 144 distribution of velocity in the plane of from waterwheel 286 Centrifugal head in centrifugal pumps 405. 185 orifices. 409. 419. 195 sections of 216 Archimedes. 61 velocity at any depth in a vertical section of a channel 212 190 curves of velocity and discharge for 222 dimensions of. 421 in reaction turbines 303. 185 over dams 102 over weirs 89 Bazin 186. 408. 349 413. 334 Centrifugal pumps. loss of head due to 140. inverted 9 Air vessels on pumps 451. for given maximum discharge 224 distribution of velocity in cross section of 208 earth. sill of small thickness 99 .'] Absolute velocity 262 Acceleration in pumps.
215 steady motion in 178 variation of the coefficient for 190 Coefficients for orifices 57. of given section and slope 223 forms of best 218 variety of 178 formula for flow in applications of 223 approximate for earth 201. work done by 274 Cranes.558 INDEX Current meters 239 calibration of 240 Gurley 238 Haskell 240 Curved stream line motion 518 Cylindrical mouthpiece 73 Channels (cont. 195. 206 rubble masonry 184. 193.) examples on 223231 flow in 178 flow in. 184. 184. 186. 200. 88. 198200 Prony 181. 187. hydraulic 494 Crank effort diagram for three cy Under engine 503 Critical velocity 129 Contraction of 140 Engines. 207 gravel 183. 202 earth 183. floating 31 521 73. 192. flow over 101 Darcy experiments on flow in channels 182 experiments on flow in pipes 122 formula for flow in channels 182 formula for flow in pipes 122 Deacon's wastewater meter 254 Density 3 of gasoline 11 of kerosine 11 of mercury 8 of pure water 4. 201. 76 (see Drowned nappes of weirs Drowned orifices 65 Drowned weirs 98 Earth channels approximate formula coefficients 96. 184 pebbles 184. 187. 184 historical development of 231 logarithmic 192. 232 Ganguillet and Kutters 182. 207 for in Bazin's formula 187 coefficients for in Darcy and Bazin's Ganguillet Condenser 6 Condition of 24 formula 183 stability of floating bodies coefficients for in and jet from orifice 53 Convergent mouthpiece 73 Couple. 63. 207 Aubisson's 233 Bazin's 185 Bazin's method of determining the constants in 187 Chezy 180 Darcy and Bazin's 182 Eyteiwein's 181. 93. 537 (see Weirs) of resistance 67 for 201. 459. for given velocity 215 particulars of 195 problems 223 (see Problems) sections of 216 of a channel 178 (see Channels) over weirs 82 (see Weirs) through notches 85 (see Notches) through orifices 50 (see Orifices) through pipes 112 (see Pipes) Distribution of velocity on cross section of a channel 208 Distribution of velocity on cross section of a pipe 143 siphons forming part of 216 slope of for minimum cost 227 slopes of 213. 184. 522 for Venturi meter 46 for weirs. 89. 187. 187. Divergent mouthpieces 73 Dock caisson 181. for mouthpieces 71. 193. 186. 206 boards 183. 187. 11 Depth of centre of pressure 13 Diagram of pressure on a plane area 16 Diagram of pressure on a 16 vertical circle Diagram of work done in a reciprocating 203 cement 183. 61. loss of head due to . 467 Differential accumulator 489 Differential gauge 8 Discharge coefficient of. 232 hydraulic mean depth of 179 lined with ashlar 183. 186. for Venturi meter 46 logarithmic plottings for 193198 minimum slopes of. 216 Docks. Dams. 197. 100 Mouthpieces) for rectangular notches (see Weirs) for triangular notches 85. 187. 186. for orifices 60 (see Orifices) coefficient of. 184. 184. hydraulic 501 Brotherhood 501 Hastie 503 Rigg 504 Erosion of earth channels 216 Kutter's formula 184 erosion of 216 Elbows. 186. 195. 205 pump 443. 201 brick 183. 187.
design of vanes and determination of efficiency of. discharge of 94 Weir. time 559 (cont. for a given discharge 152. turbine wheel. height of. water leaving the vanes of 269 Impact on vanes. variation of the pressure on the plunger 470 of vane for water to enter without shock and in a given direction 271 leave Impact on vanes. variation of pressure in. time of emptying by weir 108 Reservoirs. diameter of breast wheel for given horsepower 290 Weir. into a condenser 76 Mouthpiece. height of metacentre of 26 Transmission of fluid pressure 12 Turbine. dimensions for given displacement 29 Pressure on a flap valve 13 Pressure on a masonry dam 13 Pressure on the end of a pontoon 13 Eeciprocating pump fitted with an air vessel 470 Reciprocating pump. pressure in an air vessel 470 Reciprocating pump. 227 Channels. separation in. water to be pumped from 33 Head of water 7 Hydraulic machinery. form of vanes for an outward flow 311 Turbine. turbine wheel. separation in the delivery pipe 464 Reciprocating pump. pressure on 18 centre of pressure 18 Floating bodies Archimedes. time of emptying through orifice 78 Ship. form Impact on vanes. velocity of the wheel for a given head 321 Venturi meter 46 Water wheel. friction neglected 322 Turbine. with long delivery pipe 470 Eeciprocating pump. discharge along pipe connecting two reservoirs 151. due to inertia forces 470 Reservoirs. circular diameter. design of vanes and determination of efficiency of. diameter of suction pipe for no 469 Reciprocating pump. work done on a vane 271 Metacentre. discharge of an earth channel 225 Channels. horsepower of. discharge through.) Examples of emptying through a mouthpiece 78 Centrifugal pumps. considering friction 331 Turbine. diameter of siphon pipes to given same discharge as an aqueduct 224 Channels. form of vanes on 272 Impact on vanes. height of. pressure on a vane when a jet in contact with is turned through a given angle 267 Pontoon. determination of pressure head at inlet and outlet 410 Centrifugal pumps. height of metacentre of 34 Floating docks. dimensions of a canal for a given flow and slope 225. time of emptying reservoir by means of 110 Impact on vanes. flow in. solutions to which are given in the text Boiler. discharge of by approximation 108 Weir. dimensions and form of vanes for given horsepower 341 Turbine. time of emptying a boiler by means of 78 Mouthpiece. correction of coefficient for velocity of approach 94 Weir. 153 Pipes. diameter of. pressure at end of a service Fall Increaser 529 Fall of free level 51 Fire hose nozzle 73 Flap valve. 154 Pipes in parallel 154 Pipes. double compartment parallel flow 349 Turbine. separation in. 226. number of strokes at which separation takes place 458 Reciprocating pump. numher of wheels for a given lift 435 Centrifugal pumps. capacity of accumulator for working a bydraulic crane 489 Hydraulic motor. time of emptying a reservoir by means of 78 Pipes. for a ship 26 Mouthpiece. hammer blow in a supply pipe 385 Turbine. for a floating dock 34 Metacentre. for a given maximum discharge 224 Channels. velocity at which delivery starts 412 Channels.INDEX Examples. for given section and slope 223 Cranes 12. dimensions for a given discharge 404 Centrifugal pumps. series. 489 Floating docks. principle of 22 buoyancy of 21 centre of buoyancy of 23 pipe 151 .
pressure differential 8 coefficients in of vessel wholly immersed 30 weight of fluid displaced 22 Floating docks 31 stability inverted air 9 inverted oil 10 Gauging the flow of water 234 33 Floats. definition of 1 pressure on an area in 12 pressure on a horizontal plane in. for ships' surfaces 509. 184 experiments of 183 formula for channels 184 formula for pipes 124 Gasoline. through orifices 50 incompressible 3 in motion 37 by an orifice 235 by a weir 247 by chemical means 258 by floats 239 (see Floats) by meters 234. from Im pulse Turbine 373 on velocity of exit from Poncelet Wheel 297 Froude's experiments on fluid 507 in centrifugal pumps 400 in channels 180 in pipes 113. variations of pressure in. stability of 29 INDEX Friction (cont.560 Floating. 505 joints for 485 maximum efficiency of 295 packings for 485 Hydraulic mean depth 119 Hydraulic motors. effect of. 339. specific gravity of 11 Gauges. 515 effect of. hydraulic 492 Fourneyron turbine 307 Friction coefficients of. 517 transmission of pressure by 11 used in U tubes 9 viscosity of 2 Forging press. 373 examples on 34. must satisfy 270 examples on 489.) conditions of equilibrium of 21 containing water. tions 4 is the same in all direc Hook gauge 248 Hydraulic accumulator 486 Hydraulic capstan 501 Hydraulic crane 494 double power 495 valves 497 Hydraulic differential accumulator 490 Hydraulic engines 501 crank effort diagram for 503 Hydraulic forging press 492 Hydraulic gradient 115 Hydraulic intensifier 491 Hydraulic machines 485 conditions which vanes of. is constant 5 specific gravity of 3 steady motion of 37 stream line motion in 37. condition of Ganguillet and Kutter 24 stability of floating dock 33 stability of rectangular pontoon 26 stability of vessel containing water 29 formula of 125. 540 in pipes 251 Glazed earthenware pipes 186 Gurley's current meter 238 Hammer Head blow in a long pipe 384 Haskell's current meter 240 Hastie's engine 503 position 39 pressure 7. due to inertia forces 469 Hydraulic ram 474. double 237 rod 239 surface 237 Flow of water stability of definitions relating to 38 energy per pound of flowing water 38 in open channels 178 (see Channels) over dams 101 (see Dams) over weirs 81 (see Weirs) through notches 80 (see Notches) through orifices 50 (see Orifices) through pipes 112 (see Pipes) Fluids (liquids) at rest 319 examples on 19 compressible 3 density of 3 flow of.) in reciprocating pumps 449 in turbines 313. 537 Hydraulic riveter 499 Hydraulics. 39 velocity 39 High pressure pump 471 Historical development of channel formulae 231 pipe and pressure in. on discharge of centrifugal on velocity of exit pump 421 effect of. 321.bodies (cont. 516 inetacentre of 24 resistance to the motion of 507 small displacements of 24 stability of equilibrium. 251 (see Meters) by Pitot tubes 241 by weighing 234 examples on 260 in open channels 236. 118 .
251 Moment of inertia 14 of water plane of floating body 25 table of 15 Motion. 380 Piezometer fittings 139 Piezometer tubes 7 H. 521 coefficients of velocity 54. 76 71. hydraulic 491 nonreturn valves for 492 Intensifiers. 73 nozzle 73 coefficients of velocity for conical 73 pressure in the plane of 59 sharpedged 52 time of emptying a lock or tank by 76. 57 7 U contraction incomplete or suppressed 53. charge from 67 Packings for hydraulic machines 485 Parallel flow turbine 276. fire 74 Leathers for hydraulic packings 486 Logarithmic formulae for flow in channels 192 in pipes 125 Logarithmic plottinga for channels 195 for pipes 127. 75. inverted 10 calibration of 11 Oil pressure regulator for turbines 377 Orifices Eazin's coefficients for 57. 368 Parallel flow turbine pump 437 Pelton wheel 276. 63. 77 Torricelli's theorem 51 velocity of approach to 66 velocity of approach to.INDEX Hydrostatics 419 561 Impact of water on vanes 261 (see Vanes) Inertia forces in hydraulic motors 469 Inertia forces in reciprocating Mouthpieces (cont. under constant pressure 75 loss of head at entrance to 70 time of emptying boiler through 78 cylindrical L. under constant pressure 75 force acting on a vessel when water issues from 277 of jet from 63 large rectangular 64 form Mouthpieces 54 Borda's 72 coefficients of discharge for partially drowned 66 Borda's 73 conical 73 cylindrical fire 71. moment of 14 Inverted air gauge 9 Inverted oil gauge 9 Intensifies. in barometer of discharge 57. 56 coefficients Masonry dam 17 Mercury tubes 8 of. 60. in Metacentre.) time of emptying reservoir through 78 pumps Nappe of a weir 81 adhering 95 depressed 95 drowned or wetted 95 free 95 instability of the form of 97 Newton's second law of motion 263 Notation used in connection with vanes. 63 distribution of pressure in plane of 59 distribution of velocity in plane of 69 drowned 65 drowned partially 66 examples on 78 flow of fluids through 50 flow of fluids through. second law of 263 use use specific gravity of 8 of. 61 Bazin's experiments on 56 coefficients of contraction 52. 133 Luthe valve 499 Oil pressure gauge. specific gravity of 11 rectangular 80 triangular 80 (see Weirs) Nozzle at end of a pipe 159 Nozzle. 61. 36 . 377. steam 493 turbines 275. height of 24 Meters current 239 Deacon's waste water 254 Kennedy 255 Leinert 234 Venturi 44. 342. effect on dis convergent 73 73 divergent 73 on 78 examples flow through. turbines and centrifugal pumps 272 Notches coefficients for rectangular (see Weirs) coefficients for triangular 85 445 Inertia. 57 contraction complete 53. Inward flow 318 (see Turbines) Joints used in hydraulic work 485 Kennedy meter 255 Kent Venturi meter 253 Kerosene.
140. coefficients in 138 head experiments on flow in. 124 for steel riveted 121 for Darcy's formula 122 for logarithmic formulae velocity at any point in a cross section of 143 friction in. examples on lost 138 glass 135 riveted 137. 137138 Reynolds 131 nummary and "2gd of 148. 138 cast iron. approximate value 113 hydraulic gradient for 115 hydraulic mean depth of 118 joints for 485 law of frictional resistance for. loss of head due to 141. new and old 125. below the critical velocity 125 limiting diameter of 165 logarithmic formula for 125 logarithmic formula for. 135. 121. 138 wrought iron 122. on velocity of flow in 131. 132. for 121 variation of C in the formulav = 123 . logarithmic formula for 125. new and old 125 for glazed earthenware 125 for steel riveted 184 for wood pipes 125. area of when energy of jet is a maximum 159 when momentum of jet is a maxi159 piezometer fittings for 139 pressure on bends of 166 pressure on a cylinder in 169 pressure on a plate in 168 problems 147 (see Problems) pumping water through long pipe. 184 variation of. 131. criticism of 138 experiments on loss of head at bends 142 experiments on loss of head in 122.539 experiments on loss of head in. by hydraulic pressure 158. use of.539 for cast iron. 114 by friction in 113 lost by friction in. flow of air in 539 bends. for given discharge 152 diameter for minimum cost 158. as given in tables by logarithmic plotting 132 diameter of. 162. 125. 177 resistance to motion of fluid in 112 rising above hydraulic gradient 115 short 153 siphon 161 mum temperature. 138 head head head wood 135. 131. 525 coefficients formula for (cont. 129. criticism of 138 flow through 112 flow diminishing at uniform rate in 157 formula for Chezy 119 Darcy 122 logarithmic formula.) C in formula v logarithmic 125. effect of. above the critical velocity 130 law of frictional resistance for. 138 n in Ganguillet and Kutter's formula cast iron. 133 head required to give velocity to water in the pipe 146 head required to give velocity to water in the pipe. 177 values of C in the formula v = C*Jmi for 120. 136. for practical calculations 136 logarithmic plottings for 126 nozzle at discharge end of. 170 experimental determination of loss of head by friction in 116 experiments on distribution of velocity in 144 150162.562 INDEX Pipes (cont. with service 123 connecting three reservoirs 155 connecting two reservoirs 149 connecting two reservoirs. 133. loss of head by 113 determination of 116 Ganguillet and Kutter's formula for brass pipes 133. diameter of for given discharge 152 critical velocity in 128. empirical formula for 119 head lost by friction in.) Pipes. diameter for minimum cost 158. 522 Darcy's formula for 122 determination of the coefficient C. 137. 170 lost by friction in. 177 diameter varying 160 divided into two branches 154 elbows for 141 empirical formula for head lost in 119 empirical formula for velocity of flow in 119 equation of flow in 117 examples on flow in 149162. new and old 120. 124 gauging the flow in 251 hammer blow in 384 lost at entrance of 70. 123. 122. 524 transmission of power along.
for minimum cost 158. impressed on the water by the wheel 405 of a pipe 143 virtual slope of 115 Pitot tube 241. of given section and slope charge 409 HorsePower 549 kinetic energy of water at exit 399 limiting height to which single wheel pump will raise water 431 limiting velocity of wheel 404 losses of head in 414 223 slope of. 160. effect of on discharge 419. effect of variation of on discharge 421 centrifugal head. 412. in a cross section 563 (cont. pressure on end of 18 Position head 29 Press. for a given flow 225227 earth discharge along.) centrifugal head. variation of. 418. for a given discharge 152 divided into two branches 154 head lost in. when flow diminishes at uniform rate 157 loss of head in. 407. starting of 395 suction of 431 Sulzer series 434 429 Thomson's vortex chamber 422 397. 498 Pressure at any point in a fluid 4 atmospheric. of rim of wheel 413 404 . variation of with the head at constant speed 410 discharge. in feet of water 8 gauges 8 discharge. 421 general equation for 421.) variation of the discharge of. forging 493 Press. special arrangement for converting into pressure head Appold 415 Bernoulli's 422 equation applied to velocity. 526 calibration of 245 design of. 478 form of vanes 396 friction. variation of with speed at constant head 410 efficiencies of 401 efficiencies of. headvelocity curve at zero 409 discharge. for given discharge 402 discharge. 428. 412.INDEX Pipes (cont. 430 gross lift of 400 headdischarge curve at constant velocity 410. solutions of which are given in the text channels diameter of. limiting. effect of the variation of the centrifugal head and loss by friction on 419 Poncelet water wheel 294 Pontoon. diameter of. 414. of varying diameter.) Pumps centrifugal (cont. for minimum cost 227 solutions of. 427 head lost in 414 head. of given dimensions and slope 224 examples on 404. 161 pumping water along. 435. headdischarge curve for at Pumps centrifugal 392 and 542 advantages of 435 constant 410 velocity head. 412. 421. 177 with nozzle at the end 158. 428 velocity. hydraulic 493. 425. for a given maximum discharge 224 dimensions of. by approximation 225227 pipes acting as a siphon 161 connecting three reservoirs 155 multistage 433 series 433 connecting two reservoirs 149 diameter of. triangles of velocities at inlet exit and 397 vane angle at exit. 159 Propulsion of ships by water jets 279 Pumping water through long pipes 158 spiral casing for 394. experimental determination of 401 head 7 measured in feet of water 7 on a horizontal plane in a fluid 5 on a plate in a pipe 168 on pipe bends 166 Principle of Archimedes 19 Principle of similarity 84 Problems. head required to give velocity to water in 146 velocity. with service 123 velocity of flow allowable in 162 velocity. variation of with discharge and speed 418 headvelocity curve at constant discharge 429 headvelocity curve at zero dis flow in. effect of variation of on the efficiency 415 velocitydischarge curve at constant head 411.
448 acceleration of the plunger of 444 acceleration of the water in delivery pipe of 448 acceleration of the water in suction pipe of 445 air vessel on delivery pipe of 454 air vessel on suction pipe of 451 air vessel on suction pipe. 478 force 392 high pressure 472 Humphrey Gas 531 hydraulic ram 476 packings for plungers of 472. 425 headdischarge curves at constant speed 427. 61. when contraction is suppressed 63 Tangye duplex 473 vertical single acting 440 of 443. principle of 84 . diagram 467 turbine 396. separation in 456. 450. 407.) centrifugal (cont. 422 work done on water by 397 compressed air 477 duplex 473 examples on 458. 459. 548 Worthington 432 work done by 443 work done by. 521 table of coefficients for. 467 discharge. for impulse turbine 377 water pressure.545 Sharpedged weir 81 (see Weirs) Ships propulsion of by water jets 279 resistance of 510 resistance of. 469. 323.) INDEX Pumps (cont. flow of 191. 464. 422 with whirlpool or vortex chamber turbine (cont. hydraulic 500 Scotch turbine 301 separation in delivery pipe 463 separation during suction stroke 456 separation during suction stroke when plunger moves with simple harmonic motion 458. 480 friction. variation of pressure in the parallel flow 437 velocitydischarge curves at constant head 428. 459. variation of due to friction 449 Reaction turbines 301 limiting head for 367 series 367 Eeaction wheels 301 efficiency of 304 Eeciprocating pumps 439 (see Pumps) Eectangular pontoon. valve of 468 lost by friction in the suction and delivery pipes 449 high pressure plunger 471 pressure in cylinder of when the plunger moves with simple har monic motion 446 pressure in the cylinder. effect of on pressure in cylinder of a 446. 461 slip of 442. effect of on separation 462 coefficient of discharge of 442 diagram of work done by 443. for impulse turbine 379 Eelative velocity 265 as a vector 266 Eeservoirs. ratio of. 470. 348 Eegulators oil pressure. scouring banks of 520 Eiveter. time of emptying over weir 109 Eesistance of ship 510 Eigg hydraulic engine 503 Eivers. 462 Second law of motion 263 Separation (see Pumps) Sharpedged orifices Bazin's experiments on 56 distribution of velocity in the plane of 59 pressure in the plane of 59 table of coefficients for. series 433 (see Ee head head cylinder due to 449 lost at suction. to velocity of outlet edge of vane 398 vortex chamber of 397.) headvelocity curves discharge 429 inward flow 439 multistage 433 at constant 397. 407. 461. 317. 318. 207. diagram of ciprocating pumps) work done by. work done by 441 work done by. 469. stability of 26 Eectangular sharpedged weir 81 Eectangular sluices 65 Eectangular weir with end contractions 88 Eegulation of turbines 306.564 Pumps (cont. 211 Eivers.) velocity of whirl. when contraction is complete 57. from model 515 stream line theory of the resistance of 510 Similarity. time of emptying through orifice 76 Eeservoirs. 464. coefficient of 443 duplex 473 examples on 458. 461 suction stroke of 441 suction stroke. 486 reciprocating 439 acceleration.
522 discharge through 85 formula i= channels 195 Turbines axial axial axial axial flow 276. effect of diminishing by means of sluices 364 . 93 coefficients for Venturi meters earth channels. contraction suppressed 63 coefficients for sharpedged weirs 89. sewers and aqueducts. forming part of aqueduct 216 pipe 161 Slip of pumps 442. section of the vane slopes and maximum velocities of flow in 215 values of a and ft in Bazin's formula 183 values of v and i as determined experimentally and as calculated from logarithmic formulae 198. pressure or reaction flow. variation of. multistage pump 434 Suppressed contraction 53 effect of. 387 fall increaser for 529 flow through. contraction complete 57. 201208 coefficients for coefficients for coefficients dams 102 sharpedged orifice.INDEX Siphon. 461 Sluices 65 for regulating turbines (see Turbines) Specific gravity 3 of gasoline 11 of kerosene 11 565 minimum of Tables (cont. 331 examples on 311. with temperature Stability of floating body 24. 323. pump. 129^ 517 curved 518 Hele Shaw's experiments on 284 Stream line theory of resistance ships 510 line of Suction in centrifugal pump 431 Suction in reciprocating pump 441 Suction tube of turbine 306 Sudden contraction of a current of water 69 Sudden enlargement of a current of water 67 Sulzer. 321. 341.) slopes for varying values the hydraulic mean depth of brick channels that the velocity may not be less than 2 ft. 61 for sharpedged orifice. impulse 368 flow. 331. 349. particulars of 377 pipes lead. particulars of. on discharge from orifice 62 effect of. theorem 1 and values of in p to proof of 51 Total pressure 12 Triangular notches 80. vortex 407. and heads of inward and outward flow 333 useful data 3 Thomson. by means of moveable guide blades 362 flow through. on discharge of a weir 82 509 peripheral velocities turbines. centrifugal chamber for 397. 385. 25 floating dock 31 floating vessel containing water reasonable values of y and n 138 the the in 11 the formula h = in in values of of C / formula formula 29 v = G\lmi 120. velocities above 46 which erosion takes place 216 342 with the variation of the radius 344 Bernoulli's equations for 334 best peripheral velocity for 329 central vent 320 centrifugal head impressed on water by wheel of 334 cone 359 design of vanes for 346 efficiency of 315. slope of in 128 and velocity of flow 11 of pure water 4 variation of. 342 flow. 422 principle of similarity 62 turbine 323 Time of emptying tank or reservoir by an orifice 76 Time of emptying a tank or reservoir by a weir 109 Torricelli's Tables channels. 121 values rectangular pontoon 26 Steady motion of fluids 37 Steam intensifier 493 121 2gd values of n in Ganguillet and Kutter's formula 125. effect of diminishing. per second 215 moments of mercury 8 of oils. 184 values of n and k in the formula n 137 i = kv resistance to motion of boards in fluids Stream motion 37. with temperature of Inertia 15 Pelton wheels.
317. at 329 central vent 320 examples on 321. 342 adjustable guide blades for 348 Bernouilli's equations for 348 design of vanes for 344 double compartment 343 examples on 349. 307.) flow through. 376 water pressure regulator for 379 water pressure regulator. 362. 318. 321. 321 mixed flow 350 form of vanes of 355 guide blade regulating gear for 352354 in open stream 360 formula. 369384 axial flow 368 examples 387 for high heads 373 form of vanes for 371 Girard 369. 387 experimental determination of the best velocity for 329 Fourneyron 307 losses of head in 313 Niagara falls 318 suction tube of 308. 361. 332 work done on the wheel per water 321 limiting Ib. 318 Bernouilli's equations for 334. 348. hydraulic valve for 382 water pressure regulator. 315 parallel flow 276. 344 inclination of vanes at outlet of wheel 308. 387 experimental determination of the best velocity for 329 for low and variable falls 328 Francis 320 horizontal axis 327 losses in 321 Thomson 324 to develop a given horse.566 Turbines (cont. 387 regulation of the flow to 348 triangles of velocities for 344 reaction 301 axial flow 276342 cone 359 inward flow 275. 350. 341. 326. 319. 365 Fourneyron 306 general formula for 31 general of loss of head in 313. water filter for 383 work done on wheel per Ib. 317 triangles of velocities for 308 work done on the wheel per Ib. of water 310. variation of the angle of. 370. 323 inclination of vanes at inlet of wheel 308. 327. 317. 345 in open stream 360 inward flow 275. 364 Scotch 301 sluices for 305.) diminishing on velocity of exit 363 Fontaine. 364 suction tube of 306 Swain gate for 364 Thomson's inward flow 323 to develop given horsepower 339 triangles of velocities at inlet and outlet of impulse 372. 323. 321. 350. 373 hydraulic efficiency of 371. 275. 373 in airtight best peripheral velocity for. effect of changing the direction of 362 of velocities 355 356 wheel of 351 Niagara falls 318 oil pressure regulator for 377 flow. 362 guide blades. 331. of head for reaction turbine 367 .power 339 inlet examples on 311. 328. 277. 348. 339 best peripheral velocity for. 360. 348. for parallel flow turbines 344 horse power. 316. 339 impulse 300. including friction Swain gate triangles for 374 for 315 guide blades for 320. 318 mixed flow 350 outward flow 306 parallel flow 276342 Scotch 302 series 368 regulation of 306. at inlet 329 Boyden 314 diffuser for 314 double 316 chamber 370 oil pressure regulator for 377 radial flow 370 triangles of velocities for 372 triangles of velocities for considering friction 373. regulating sluices 348 form of vanes for 308. 326. of water 272. 352. 352. INDEX Turbines effect (cont. to develop a given outward 339 306 for Bernouilli's equations 334. guide blades. 347. 376 triangles of velocities at inlet and outlet of inward flow 308 triangles of velocities at inlet and outlet of mixed flow 356 triangles of velocities for 322.
Bazin's formula for Turning moment. 275 Vectors definition of 261 difference of two 262 relative velocity defined as vector 266 sum of two 262 Velocities. 98. 93 for flatcrested 99. 100 for sharpcrested 88. derived from that of a large orifice 82 Francis' formula for 83 gauging flow of water by 247 nappe of adhering 95. 356 for outward flow 311 for parallel flow 344 velocity of whirl 273. for orifices head 39 of approach to orifices 66 of approach to weirs 90 relative 265 Venturi meter 44. suppression of 82 sill. 315 Ib. resultant of two 26 54 Velocity coefficient of. 93. on discharge 94 sill of small thickness 99 . 89. to velocity of inlet edge of vane 332 velocity with which water leaves 334 wheels. 280 impulse of water on 263 notation used in 272 Pelton wheel 276 discharge of. for sharpcrested. 99 drowned 95. 251 Virtual slope 115 Viscosity 2. 96. path of water through 312 wheels. 99 of various forms 101 principle of similarity applied to 86 rectangular sharpedged 81 rectangular. 98 free 88. 98 instability of 97 wetted 95.) 567 (cont. work done by 273 Tweddell's differential accumulator 489 U tubes. for accurate gauging 104 formula for. 95. 96. curve ot 90 Rafter's table of 89 Valves crane 497 hydraulic ram 476 intensifier 492 Luthe 499 98 Cornell experiments on 89 dams acting as. 97. 386 examples Impulse 291 Overshot 283 Poncelet 294 Sagebien 290 Undershot. with sharp crests 98 connection with pressure on moving 266 work done 266. with end contractions 82 side contraction. flow over 101 pump Vanes 470472 discharge larity of. 98. of flow. influence of the height of. 110 experiments at Cornell 89 experiments of Bazin 89 flatcrested 100 form of. 98 Bazin's tables of 89. peripheral velocity of 333 density of 3 specific gravity of viscosity of 2 3 Water wheels Breast 288 effect of centrifugal forces on water 286 on 290. 272. 100 free nappe 88. 96 depressed 95. fluids used in 9 Undershot water wheels 292 adhering nappe 98 depressed nappe 98 drowned nappe 97 flat crested 99. 108.) Water triangles of velocities at inlet and outlet of outward flow 344 triangles of velocities at inlet and outlet of parallel flow 344 types of 300 vanes. when air is not admitted below the nappe 94 drowned.INDEX Turbines (cont. 275. by principle of simi 86 conditions which vanes of hydraulic machines should satisfy 270 examples on impact on 269.539 Water definitions relating to flow of 38 examples on 93. 271. 310 ratio of. form of between inlet and outlet 365 for inward flow 321 for mixed flow 351. 272. with flat blades 292 Weirs Bazin's experiments on 89 Boussinesq's theory of 104 circular 537 coefficients Whitelaw 302 work done on per 304. 75.
B. M. correction of coefficient for. PEACE.) time required to lower water in reservoir by means of 109 various forms of 101 velocity of approach. examples on 94 of approach. AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS .A. discharge 90 wide flatcrested 100 Whitelaw turbine 302 velocity effect of on Whole pressure 12 Worthington multistage pump 433 CAMBRIDGE : PRINTED BY J. correction of coefficient for 92 velocity of approach.568 INDEX Weirs (conf.) Weirs (conf..
.
.
.
Renewed books are subject to immediate recall. General Library University of California Berkeley . or the date to which renewed.FOURTEEN DAY USE RETURN TO DESK FROM WHICH BORROWED This book is due on the m last date stamped below.
YC 33150 .