HP/HT well construction, well control issues and risk management

How can a Research Institute contribute ?

Presented by Rolv Rommetveit, Rogaland Research

Contents
• • • • • Background R&D highlights within HPHT The HPHT Laboratory HPHT Integrated Studies How can an R&D Institute contribute ?

HPHT Drilling Research at RF-Rogaland Researc Background
• Prospects and Discoveries in Central Graben

• Serious Well Control Problems during drilling of HPHT Wells • Need for understanding dynamic Pressures as well as Temperature effects in HPHT wells • HPHT Fields under development require solutions to production and reservoir related problems as well

HPHT Research Activities at RF-Rogaland Research

From 1990 R&D within drilling and well technology start at RF • 1991 - 93

“Accurate Pressure Conditions in Deep, Hot Wells” JIP with 5 participants Development of an Advanced Model for Accurate Pressure a Temperature Calculations

• 1991 - 94
Strategic Technology Programme from NFR “Well Technology in Deep, Hot Wells • Productions Problems related to HPHT reservoirs • Drilling related problems was further studied • Needs for Laboratories to study these phenomena was

HPHT Drilling Research at RF-Rogaland Researc 1990 .94: “Understanding Pressures and Temperatures during drilling under extreme conditions” (DEA-E-33 project) Focus on: – – – – Field Measurements of P and T from 2 HPHT Wells Fluid Properties at HPHT (Rheology and Density) Verification of Pressure and Temperature models Development of recommendations for safer Tripping and Drilling .

HPHT field data • Time based surface data • Time based downhole data – Near BOP – Top and bottom of BHA – 1000 m above BHA – Gel tests – Surge and swab – Circulation sweeps –… • The data cover detailed tests in cased holes .

Laboratory experiments • 10 HPHT mud samples collected and analysed • Mud density at HPHT • Mud rheology at HPHT • Correlation based models developed .

WBM • Vertical. 5000 m • Gel tests inside 9 5/8” casing Tests at bottom inside 7” liner .g.1 s.Case 1: • 2.

2 s. up to 27° 5100 m MD Tests inside 9 7/8” casing .g. OBM Deviated.Case 2: • • • • 2.

Pressure (bar) 1000 1100 1200 400 15 Gel tests w. mud Surge and swab Circulation sweeps.o. 200-1000 l/min Static period 500 600 700 800 900 Bottom hole pressure. rotation Gel tests w. and cond. rotation 20 Reaming cement Pressure test Dress off cement plug 25 Time (hours) 30 35 Circ. WBM .

8 .6 Time (hours) 18.4 18.5 18.7 18. WBM 860 850 Pressure (bar) 840 830 820 810 800 18.o.. gel test w. rot.3 18.Pressure.

WBM 1250 1200 Pressure (bar) 1150 1100 1050 1000 950 600 l/min No circ.8 .7 27.6 Time (hours) 27. swab/surge. 27.Pressure.5 27.4 27.

Transient p.Temperature. OBM 165 160 155 Temperature (C) 150 145 140 135 130 125 120 35 40 45 Measured data Calculation .T-model.

Operational recommendations developed for : • Pressure transmission • Drilling – Swab in critical zones • Recommended procedure for critical zones – Surge in critical zones – Gelling • Mud properties – Rheology and gel strength are very temperature dependent – HPHT laboratory measurements are recommended • Use of thermo-hydraulic analysis .

1995 – Drilling Programme – Production Programme – HPHT Laboratory .HPHT Research Activities at RF-Rogaland Research ELF HPHT Drilling and Production Programme A Major Research Co-operation Based on Elgyn / Franklin needs 1992 .

Dynamic Barite Sag in Drilling Fluids Research funded by Elf and ENI / Norsk Agip .

Dynamic Barite Sag Dynamic barite sagging: When weight material in drilling fluid precipitates during circulation. • All drilling fluids show dynamic sagging during laminar shear flow. . • Large differences in different drilling fluids with respect to rate of dynamic sagging.

00E-06 0.00E-05 5.50E-05 1.00E+00 Agip oil Agip water based: based: Glydril: Versa Vert 80/20: Nova Plus 60/40: CMC: Xanthan: Summary of sagging properties of drilling muds .50E-05 2.00E-05 1.Dynamic Barite Sag 2.

Dynamic Barite Sag • A method to measure dynamic sagging in drilling fluids has been developed. • A formalism to analyse the results have bee established .

RF-ROGALAND RESEARCH HPHT Fluids Laboratory Testing of fluids at: Pressures up to 1500 bar Temperatures up to 200º C .

The RF rig area .

APPLICATION IN RESERVOIRS • • • • • • Phase behaviour of fluid mixtures Retrograde condensate evaluation Dew point determination Formation blocking Emulsion stability Foam properties .

APPLICATION IN PRODUCTION • • • • • • • Scale formation studies and inhibition Wax and asphaltene formation Corrosion evaluation Chemical stability Emulsion stability Supercritical properties of gases Solvent properties in fluids .

APPLICATIONS IN COMPLETION • • • • • • • • • Well control Completion fluid characterization Gas / condensate solubility in completion fluids Thermal properties of packer fluids Salt solubility in brines Kill pill stability Fluid compatibilities Precipitation in the formation Emulsion stability .

APPLICATIONS IN DRILLING • Well control • Kick control – Gas. condensate and oil influx in oil and water based mud • ECD management • Drilling fluid characterization – Emulsion stability under HPHT conditions – Rheology stability under HPHT conditions – Static barite sagging under HPHT conditions – Thermophysical properties in fluids .

The HPHT Mud Cell Principle •Piston cell with piston controlled by hydraulic pressure inside a heating cabinet •The cell volume (e.370 bar •Temperature limit: 200 C •Volume: 500 ml ( + 0.2% ) •Material: Solid Hastelloy Applications •Thermal expansion of fluid •Compressibility of fluid •Temperature and pressure effects of fluid components .g. Position of the piston) is read by a linear encoder mounted on the side Technical data •Position encoder for volu measurements •Robust tubing and valves allow handling fluids weig with solid agents •Well for temperature pro the cell body •Computer interfaced dat acquisition Technical data •Pressure range: 0 to 1.

100 cc (cell 2) Accuracy: γL-Level Solid Hastelloy Vespel (seals) Al2O3 (windows) •Interchangable end-sections a variety of sapphire window video-monitor or fiber-optic interface detection •Applications •All standard PVT with unprecedented accuracy •Material: •Direct dewpoint measuremen •Minimal dead volumes (valves integrated in cell bodies) •Flush-mounted pressure transducers •Visual (full-view colour vide monitor) and quantitative stud all phase transition phenomen L1....L2.000 psi) •-30 to 230o C temperature range •Volume: 700 cc (cell1).HPHT-laboratory PVT-cell Principle •Similar to two big yolumetric pumps placed vertically within a large thermostat.500 bar maximum working pressure (20. Solid precipitation. with the pump cylinders utilized as cells •Pistons can compress sample or displace it back and forth to display interesting phenomena in windows •Advanced PVT-apparatus •Two interconnected variabl volume chambers with moto driven pistons working direc into cells •Fully computer-interfaced control and data acquisition Technical data •1.) .

completion and reservoir related studies • Application in – Drilling and completion fluid characterization – Well control / kick control – Gas / condensate solubility – Baryte sag – Fluid stability – Fluid properties vs. Pressure and Temperature .Conclusion • HPHT Fluids laboratory is highly relevant for drilling .

HPHT Drilling Research: Kick Modelling and Control • A GENERAL TOOL FOR WELL CONTROL ENGINEERING AND ANALYSIS – A JIP for development of RF Kick Simulator • Activities related to HPHT well control: – Extended PVT model – Special aspects of kicks in HPHT wells – Surface gas separation and flaring capabilities .

kick tests Full scale kick experime in horizontal wells (DEA-E-50) HPHT Condensate kicks Gas slip analysis Full scale kick tests for SHD (DEA-E-55) Deep water kick module KICK Kick with lost circulation Kill of underground flow General EOS-based PVT-module Gas rise in highly gelled m Kick for slim hole drilling Multiple kicks from multiple zones .s.Design tool for work station (DEA-E-5) Full scale kick tests in OBM (DEA-E-9) Kick development in horizontal wells Dissolved gas transport PVT-experiments in OBM Multilateral well control Blow-out kill model Shallow gas kicks Special kill procedures Verification v.

circ 1200 l/min . OBM.Undetected connection kick Ile 1m3 kick.

Uniqueness of RF Kick • Can model gas.) • Realistic gas transport model enable degasser design evaluations • Less conservative (more realistic) than other models • Special wellsite version for kick tolerance evaluations on critical wells available • A necessary tool in the operator’s tool-kit for special wells and operations . condensate and oil kicks (advanced PVT module) • Well suited for HPHT conditions • Verified for ultra-deep conditions • Can model complex scenarios (with lost circulstion etc.

data • JIP on HPHT Hydraul Modeling since 1990 • Elf Transient Wellbore Temperature Model Belzeb • Results from DEA-E-3 tests improved Model • Extensive verification • HPHT wells • Extended Reach Wells • Deep Water wells .HPHT R&D Thermo-hydraulic Thermo-hydraulic modelling (PRESMOD) • Coupled pressure and temperature simulator • Radial and axial discretization • Dynamic simulations for studies of operational effects on pressure and temperature profiles • State of the art rheology and density models with possibilities to input of fluid lab.

Presmod Value and uniqueness • Presmod is a unique tool to optimize drilling procedures in wells with small margins • Presmod takes into full account the impact of operations-driven T and P changes on the ECDs • Casing running can be optimized • • Pressure loss 81/2” section CsFK m Kristin well case .

HPHT Research . Critical pressure effects • Transient surge and swab pressure – Compressibility – Friction – Hole and casing elasticity • Transient gel breaking pressure – Pump start-up and surge/swab when drilling .

Fluid characterization 2. experiments 4. Pressure transmission laboratory experiments 3. Transient flow modeling 5. HPHT field tests Transient flow model with gel build-up and gel breaking Computer software . Flow start-up lab.Critical Pressure Effects Research activities 1.

74 18.78 18.77 18.75 18.79 18.76 18.Gel breaking pressure near bottom 845 840 Pressure (bar) 835 830 825 820 815 18.8 Time (hours) Pressure at gauge A2 (DEA-E-33 WBM) Measured data No GEL With gelling .

41 Time (hours) 27.42 27.38 27.HTHP surge and swab calculation 1350 1300 1250 Pressure (bar) 1200 1150 1100 1050 1000 27.4 27.39 27.43 Pressure at gauge A2 (DEA-E-33 WBM) Measured data Dynamic calculation Steady state .

KickRisk – project goals Develop a tool that: • • • • • Quantifies uncertainty to kick and blowout Reflects risk related to different design alternatives Highlights critical factors Assists identification of risk reducing measures Is a basis for cost-benefit studies of alternate measures .

KickRisk Overview Norsk Agip Oljedirektoratet Statoil (upgrade) Norsk Agip Norsk Hydro Norsk Agip Norsk Hydro Oljedirektoratet Kick Analysis Completed In use Evaluation Further development Loss of well control Completed Qualification Pilot study Further development Blowout flow module In progress .

KickRisk Kvitebjørn Study • Objectives: – Quantify overall kick probabilities – Identify critical factors – Compare OBM and CsKF in terms of kick probability – Quantify fracturing probabilites – Sensitivity analysis on mudweight • Methodology: – Data gathering via expert team Interviews – Analysis using KickRisk: Risk Analysis module .

KickRisk Kvitebjørn Study • Analysis of fracturing probabilities for CsKF .

Example of application KickRisk study on the Kristin field .

gas diffus • computer simulations and scenar developments with advanced modeling tools.HPHT well studies in Rogaland Research Group • • • Numerous HPHT wells drilled in Norway including 2/4-14 & 16 • Pre. Statoil • Computer simulations and scenar developments.and post analysis of well control • BP Baku Shah Deniz wells BP UK Marnock • Post analysis of well control problems BP UK Devonick • theoretical evaluations • laboratory investigations • computer simulations and scenario developments with advanced modeling tools. advanced hydraul • Kick Risk studies • Kristin . drilling & completions • implementing learning's in procedures and operations • training • operational support • Well control & transient hydraulics evaluations • Gas diffusion • Operational support • Kvitebjørn . drilling & complet • implementing learning's in proced and operations • training • Kick Risk studies . Statoil • theoretical evaluations.

. oil based Mud. temperature effects) – Kick Tolerances (swabbed. drilled and pressured fault kicks) – Undetected Kicks (in oil based Mud) – Gas Migration (free gas migration in brine) – Gas diffusion – Kill Methods – Surface Flow parameters/ Mud Gas Separator – Comparing kick behavior in brine vs.Topics for a Well Control Study – Hydraulic calculations (ECD. swab pressures.

Value of advanced computer modelin • Advanced computer models can be very valuable both the planning and training phase: – – – – – Identify specific well control risks Input to Well Control Procedures (verify vs. improve) Contribute to optimization of well design Develop new procedures Realistic training – Improve knowledge of HPHT wells – Improve kick tolerance calculations .

Completion. and training • Development of procedures • Operational support • QRA analysis – Kick probability using KickRisk – Operational risks • Utilize HPHT Laboratory • Drilling. operation. gas diffusion) . Production and reservoir studies • Understand fully fluid properties ( barite-sag.Future contribution from RF Group in orde to unlock the HPHT Challenge • Well control and hydraulic studies using advanced transient modelling tools • Planning. stability.

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