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Diffusion is the random movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration until evenly distributed.

Example: The smell of perfume in a room will rapidly spread throughout a room from a single source. If the perfume is sprayed in one corner of the room it will be in a high concentration in that corner. The perfume molecules will randomly spread from the corner to the other parts of the room where the concentration is lower. Eventually the perfume will be evenly distributed throughout the room.

Diffusion can also occur in liquids but is usually slower than in gases as gas particles move much faster than liquid particles.



Evenly spread dye

Osmosis is a special type of diffusion involving the movement of water molecules though a partially permeable membrane.

Osmosis is the random movement of water molecules from an area of low water concentration through a semi permeable membrane until the water molecules are evenly spread out. A membrane is a thin boundary between a cell and its surroundings. It allows substances to pass through it, it only allows smaller molecules pass through and not bigger molecules. Example: a string bag is a semi permeable membrane. It might allow graps through but not large oranges.

The water molecules can move in any direction through the partially permeable membrane. There is a higher concentration of water on the left side of the membrane so there will be a net movement of water to the right

Animal cells:

One of the most important ways that animal cells are different from plant cells is that animal cells can't make their own food. Plant cells make their own food in a process called photosynthesis. Animal cells can't do that. Instead, animals must eat food. The animal cells use the food to make the energy they need to reproduce and carry out basic functions. This process takes place in a part of the cell called the mitochondrion.

Sperm Cells: A sperm cell carries out respiration to give the sperm energy to fertilise an egg.

It is specialised because it has a tail which enables it to swim to the egg.

Root Hair:

The root hair cell helps to absorb water and minerals from the soil. It does this by increasing the surface area of the root. It has a really thin cell wall to help the water to enter.

Ciliated Epithelium:

The cilia cell is found in the lungs. It has tiny hairs which move dust and mucus from the lungs to clean them.

Palisade Cell:

The palisade cell is packed with chloroplasts which are needed for photosynthesis so the plant can make its own food.

Plant Cell: