Why New Hampshire’s Primary Tradition Is Important

By William Gardner, New Hampshire Secretary of State
October 12, 2011

Every four years Americans elect the most powerful leader in the world. We go to the polls and select the man or woman who will be President of the United States. It is probably the most important political decision each of us makes because our choice can affect the lives and happiness of ourselves and our children for years into our future. DEMOCRACY IS HARD WORK. Protecting American democracy has been a cause of freedom in our nation for over two centuries, and our fellow citizens who have gone before us dedicated their lives, and in some cases lost their lives, in that fight. The principles of democracy and freedom are worth every bit of that fight. One vital way that we preserve our democracy is to have an election system that allows for the long-said American dream that just about anyone can grow up to be President of the United States. Our boys and girls just starting to go to school should feel that regardless of their wealth or other limitations, they too could become president, or whatever else they aspire to. For nearly 100 years, the New Hampshire First-In-The-Nation Presidential Primary has had meaning and relevance to American politics. It has allowed for candidates regardless of national standing or financial capability to begin their launch into presidential politics by winning or doing well here. Several aspiring Americans likely would not have become president if they weren’t first able to make their case door-to-door, face-to-face, eye-to-eye with New Hampshire voters who meet them at our homes, in our backyards, and on our sidewalks away from the microphones and cameras that create a barrier between human beings. NEW HAMSHIRE IS FIRST FOR A REASON. While New Hampshire has had a presidential primary since 1916, and has been first since 1920, it wasn’t until 1975 that our status was put into state law. The law now requires that our primary is 7 days or more before similar elections that would challenge our traditional position. What that law requires is that I look at the nominating events of other states where presidential candidates run, and then set our primary a week ahead of them. Since New Hampshire citizens pay for our primary, we can hold it whenever we wish.

It is up to the candidates themselves to decide whether to campaign here. Ours is the first event where voters go into the privacy of the voting booth to make a choice for a candidate on the ballot. It tells the nation something about their support. CONSIDER THE ALTERNATIVES. It used to be that delegates for national political conventions were chosen in secret mainly by party leaders, out of view of the public. Would we tolerate that kind of process now? And without having caucuses and primaries in smaller states, larger states would have the exclusive major role in the nominating process. Worse yet, if a national primary was held, or if the role of small states was eliminated, only the very rich or famous candidates would be able to put on the major campaigns needed for victory or to exceed expectations. In a state like New Hampshire, candidates can run without a large staff or heavy advertising and consulting budgets if they have a message, meet directly with voters, and explain why they should be president. Examples abound. OPTIONS FOR NEW HAMPSHIRE’S PRIMARY DATE. With Florida moving its primary earlier than originally planned to January 31st, and South Carolina making a move to set its primary ten days earlier to January 21st, that began to limit options for setting our date in January. When officials in Nevada set their caucus for Saturday, January 14th, that left Tuesday, January 3rd as a possibility for us, but Iowa officials tentatively decided that their caucus would be on that day. My job as NH Secretary of State is to follow our law, which mandates that I set our election 7 days or more before any event that would threaten our traditional leadoff status. So if Nevada does not adjust its caucus date to a later time, I cannot rule out the possibility of a December primary. We cannot allow the political process to squeeze us into a date that wedges us by just a few days between two major caucus states. Our primary will have little meaning if states crowd into holding their events just hours after our polls have closed. The date of our primary is decided by state law, not by the rules or desires of political parties. Since Nevada’s caucus is similar in the eyes of our statute, it means the New Hampshire primary can be set no later than Saturday, January 7th.

IT’S REALLY UP TO NEVADA. If Nevada does not accept a date of Tuesday, January 17th or later for its caucus, it leaves New Hampshire no choice but to consider December of this year. The dates of Tuesday, December 13th, ,and Tuesday, December 6th are realistic options, and we have logistics in place to make either date happen if needed. Candidates have been campaigning here, and elsewhere, for months, and it is about time we begin the next stage of the presidential nominating process. The political parties did not give New Hampshire its presidential primary. Traditionally, it has been the first in the nation for almost a hundred years, and our state law protects our tradition. We have the largest turnout in the country, and our citizens take their roles and obligations seriously. But the parties do have an important role in that they can discourage other states from trying to leapfrog onto our tradition. Right now, the problem is the date of Nevada. We will respond as we need to in order to honor New Hampshire’s tradition, and to keep our primary relevant. Not to do so would allow us to lose an important element of American democracy forever. New Hampshire will not let that happen.
603-271-3242

NEW YORK STATE BOE WEBSITE COVER-UP

New York State Board of Elections Website Blocking Access To Natural Born Citizen Requirements
By Pixel Patriot 10/5/2011

Previous versions of the New York State Board of Elections website that listed the qualifications for the Presidential candidates to be a Natural Born Citizen have not only been scrubbed, but their website has html source code embedded to prevent archiving and specifically coded so as to be excluded in archival sites such as the Way Back Machine.

(Robot Text – embedded in NY BOE website to thwart access to Natural Born Citizen reference)

http://www.elections.state.ny.us/RunningOffice.html

The Board of Elections website cites Article II Section 1 as the Constitutional authority for Presidential requirements; however the reference to Natural Born Citizen has been replaced with just “Born a citizen” and they do not list Clause 5 which was specifically included by the Framers as a strong check against dual allegiance and foreign influence for the Office of the President of the United States and Commander-in-Chief :

UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION ARTICLE II SECTION I CLAUSE V “No person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President; neither shall any Person be eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty-five Years, and been fourteen Years a Resident within the United States.”

The New York State Board of Elections regularly updates their website. And you can use an internet archive program called the Way Back Machine to see some of the previous versions of the Board of Elections website as it existed during various times in the past. However, not all of the previous webpages are available; and it is not due to broken links. The Board of Elections is employing technology within the computer programming language that makes up the website to actively block someone from gaining access to the webpage that previously listed the Natural Born Citizen requirement for the Presidency.

How can I have my site's pages excluded from the Wayback Machine?
Here’s how:

Natural Born Citizen Requirement - EXCLUDED

Natural Born Citizen Requirement - EXCLUDED

“The Internet Archive is not interested in preserving or offering access to Web sites or other Internet documents of persons who do not want their materials in the collection. By placing a simple robots.txt file on your Web server, you can exclude your site from being crawled as well as exclude any historical pages from the Wayback Machine. Here are directions on how to automatically exclude your site. If you cannot place the robots.txt file, opt not to, or have further questions, email us at info at archive dot org:”

Here is the actual code extracted directly from the Board of Elections website as of Tuesday October 4th, 2011: Rows 10-11 <meta name="googlebot" content="noarchive" />  <meta name="robots" content="noarchive" />

Here is the source code for the Presidential candidate requirements: Rows 111-115 <td headers="1">President of the United States</td>      <td headers="2" valign="top">Born a citizen</td>      <td headers="3" valign="top">35 years</td>      <td headers="4" valign="top">14 years in country</td>      <td headers="5" valign="top">United States Constitution  Art. II &sect; 1</td> 

The Internet Archive "This webpage is no longer available", is the sentence familiar to you? “This is no longer a problem since a complete archive for webpages is now available. Through The Internet Archive, you can retrieve expired webpages, trace the development of websites, and go back to events that have shaken the world.”

Really

Additionally, previous versions of the Board of Elections website have also been “BLOCKED” and can’t be accessed from The Internet Archive at the New Library of Alexandria, Egypt, which mirrors The Wayback Machine:

http://www.bibalex.org/isis/frontend/archive/archive_web.aspx

A closer examination of the exclusion policy reveals the typical response by The Internet Archive when having been made by a GOVERNMENT request: Archivists will exercise best-efforts compliance with applicable court orders. Beyond that, as noted in the Library Bill of Rights: 'Libraries should challenge censorship in the fulfillment of their responsibility to provide information and enlightenment.'

Therefore, according to The Internet Archive exclusion policy; if the New York State Board of Elections made a request to have webpages excluded that would block access to historical references to the term Natural Born Citizen as a requirement for Presidential candidates, the request should have been denied.

By removing the reference to Natural Born Citizen as a requirement for a Presidential candidate from the Board of Elections website, that in and of itself is indicative of a concerted attempt to mislead the voters. However, a directive had to have been issued to the person programming the website to implement a technological blockade specifically designed to thwart current and future attempts to gain access to any previous versions of the website that include the Natural Born Citizen reference; pointing to a cover-up and a broader conspiracy by the New York State Board of Elections.

This deceptive practice by the New York State Board of Elections is antithetical to Bill A04356, an ACT to amend election law in the State of New York. Introduced on February 2, 2011 by M. of Latimer in the 2011-2012 Regular Sessions in Assembly: Section 1. Subdivision 1 of section 3-106 of the election law, as amended by chapter 8 of the laws of 1978 and as redesignated by chapter 9 of the laws of 1978, is amended to read as follows: 1. (A) In addition to the powers and duties elsewhere enumerated in this article, the state board of elections, after public hearings, shall adopt a "fair campaign code" WHICH SHALL SET forth ethical standards of conduct for persons, political parties and committees engaged in election campaigns including, but not limited to, specific prohibitions against practices of political espionage and other political practices WHICH INVOLVE subversion of the political parties and process, SUCH AS, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE MISREPRESENTATION OF THE CRIMINAL RECORD OR BACKGROUND, MORAL TURPITUDE, CHARACTER, VOTING RECORD OR OTHER SPECIFIC ACTS OR OMISSIONS OF A CANDIDATE, TO A POTENTIAL VOTER

N.Y. ELN. LAW § 6-122 Designation or nomination; eligibility, restrictions

p.171 “A person shall not be designated or nominated for a public office or party position who if elected will not at the time of commencement of the term of such office or position, meet the constitutional or statutory qualifications thereof”

It is obvious that the New York State Board of Elections is intentionally misleading the voters of New York for the purpose of subverting the Constitutional requirement for the Office of the President while also trying to cover their tracks at the same time. The U.S. Constitution can only be changed through the amendment process. The Board of Elections is currently a defendant in a case before the New York State Supreme Court brought by plaintiff Christopher-Earl Strunk, pro se.

For reference, here is the entire source code from the New York State Board of Elections website:
<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "‐//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN"  "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1‐transitional.dtd">  <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">  <!‐‐ DW6 ‐‐>  <head>  <!‐‐ Copyright 2005 Macromedia, Inc. All rights reserved. ‐‐>  <title>New York State Board of Elections Running for Office Page</title>  <meta http‐equiv="Content‐Type" content="text/html; charset=iso‐8859‐1" />  <meta name="keywords" content="NYS Board of Elections Petitions" />  <meta name="description" content="General Information on Petitions. Sample Forms,  Witnesses to a Petition, Cover sheets etc." />  <meta name="googlebot" content="noarchive" />  <meta name="robots" content="noarchive" />  <link rel="stylesheet" href="ex_side_nav2.css" type="text/css" media="screen" /> 

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    <td headers="2" valign="top">Born a citizen</td>      <td headers="3" valign="top">35 years</td>      <td headers="4" valign="top">14 years in country</td>      <td headers="5" valign="top">United States Constitution Art. II &sect;  1</td>      </tr>      <tr align="left">      <td headers="1">United States Senator</td>      <td headers="2">Citizen 9 years</td>      <td headers="3">30 years</td>      <td headers="4">Resident of state when elected</td>      <td headers="5">United States Constitution Art. I &sect;3</td>      </tr>      <tr>      <td headers="1"><abbr title="New York State">NYS</abbr> Governor/ Lt.  Governor<br />Attorney General<br />Comptroller</td>      <td headers="2" valign="top">Citizen</td>      <td headers="3" valign="top">30 years</td>      <td headers="4" valign="top">Resident of state 5 years immediately  preceding election</td>      <td headers="5" valign="top">New York State Constitution Art. IV &sect; 2  and Art. V &sect; 1</td>      </tr>      <tr>      <td headers="1">Representative in Congress</td>      <td headers="2" valign="top">Citizen 7 years</td>      <td headers="3" valign="top">25 years</td>      <td headers="4" valign="top">Resident of state when elected</td>      <td headers="5" valign="top">United States Constitution Art. I &sect;2</td>      </tr>      <tr>      <td headers="1" valign="top">New York State Senator<br />New York State  Assembly</td>      <td headers="2" valign="top">Citizen</td>      <td headers="3" valign="top">18 years</td>      <td headers="4">Resident of state for 5 years and resident of district for  12 months immediately preceding election. (In a redistricting year, may be a resident of  county for 12 months immediately preceding the election.)</td>      <td headers="5">New York State Constitution Art. III &sect; 7<br /><br  />Public Officers Law &sect; 3</td>      </tr>    </table><br />    <h2 id="Petitions">General Information on Petitions</h2>      <p>These sample forms were prepared by the State Board of Elections. They are  all in Acrobat PDF format. You will need the Adobe (TM) Acrobat Reader to view and print  them.</p>       <p>These forms can be printed and filled out by hand.</p>      <p><strong>Electronic signatures are not acceptable.</strong></p>     <ul>        <li><a href="/NYSBOE/download/law/DesignatingPetitionNoLines.pdf"  target="_self">SAMPLE DESIGNATING PETITION</a> (<img src="images/icons/PDF.gif"  width="16" height="16" alt="pdf" title="Portable Document Format (pdf)"/> 39KB) (print on  legal size paper)</li>         <li><a href="/NYSBOE/download/law/IndependentNomPetChapter246Change.pdf"  target="_self">SAMPLE INDEPENDENT NOMINATING PETITION</a> (<img  src="images/icons/PDF.gif" width="16" height="16" alt="pdf" title="Portable Document  Format (pdf)"/> 62KB) (print on legal size paper)</li>         <li><a href="/NYSBOE/download/law/OTBPetitionNoLines2.pdf"  target="_self">SAMPLE OPPORTUNITY TO BALLOT PETITION</a> (<img src="images/icons/PDF.gif"  width="16" height="16" alt="pdf" title="Portable Document Format (pdf)"/> 63KB) (print on  legal size paper)</li> 

      <li><a href="/NYSBOE/download/law/VillageDPetitionNoLines.pdf"  target="_self">SAMPLE VILLAGE DESIGNATING PETITION</a> (<img src="images/icons/PDF.gif"  width="16" height="16" alt="pdf" title="Portable Document Format (pdf)"/> 30KB) (print on  legal size paper)</li>         <li><a href="/NYSBOE/download/law/VillageBPetitionNoLines.pdf"  target="_self">SAMPLE VILLAGE DESIGNATING PETITION ‐ COUNTY</a> (<img  src="images/icons/PDF.gif" width="16" height="16" alt="pdf" title="Portable Document  Format (pdf)"/> 31KB) (to be used if Election is run by the County Board of Elections)  (print on legal size paper)</li>        <li><a href="/NYSBOE/download/law/VillageAPetitionNoLines.pdf"  target="_self">SAMPLE VILLAGE INDEPENDENT NOMINATING PETITION</a> (<img  src="images/icons/PDF.gif" width="16" height="16" alt="pdf" title="Portable Document  Format (pdf)"/> 31KB) (print on legal size paper)</li>         <li><a href="/NYSBOE/download/law/VillageCPetitionNoLines.pdf"  target="_self">SAMPLE VILLAGE INDEPENDENT NOMINATING PETITION ‐ COUNTY</a> (<img  src="images/icons/PDF.gif" width="16" height="16" alt="pdf" title="Portable Document  Format (pdf)"/> 30KB) (to be used if Election is run by the County Board of Elections)  (print on legal size paper)</li>          <li><a href="/NYSBOE/download/law/cover.pdf" target="_self">SAMPLE COVER  SHEETS</a> (<img src="images/icons/PDF.gif" width="16" height="16" alt="pdf"  title="Portable Document Format (pdf)"/> 11KB)</li>         <li><a href="/NYSBOE/download/law/acceptance.pdf" target="_self">SAMPLE  CERTIFICATE OF ACCEPTANCE</a> (<img src="images/icons/PDF.gif" width="16" height="16"  alt="pdf" title="Portable Document Format (pdf)"/> 906KB)</li>         <li><a href="/NYSBOE/download/law/declination.pdf" target="_self">SAMPLE  CERTIFICATE OF DECLINATION</a> (<img src="images/icons/PDF.gif" width="16" height="16"  alt="pdf" title="Portable Document Format (pdf)"/> 718KB)</li>         <li><a href="/NYSBOE/download/law/substitution.pdf" target="_self">SAMPLE  CERTIFICATE OF SUBSTITUTION</a> (<img src="images/icons/PDF.gif" width="16" height="16"  alt="pdf" title="Portable Document Format (pdf)"/> 944KB)</li>         <li><a href="/NYSBOE/download/law/authorization.pdf"  target="_self">SAMPLE CERTIFICATE OF AUTHORIZATION</a> (<img src="images/icons/PDF.gif"  width="16" height="16" alt="pdf" title="Portable Document Format (pdf)"/> 33KB)</li>    </ul>      <p><strong>NOTE:</strong> The information contained here is intended to  provide general guidance for those who are preparing to circulate petitions, and is not  to be used as a substitute for consulting the Election Law for specific petition  requirements.</p>       <p>Persons wishing to run for elective office may be nominated either by a  political party or through the filing of an independent nominating petition. Party  members may also circulate petitions to create the opportunity to write in the name of an  unspecified person for an office in which there is no contest for the party endorsement.  The current political parties are the Democratic, Republican, Conservative, Working  Families, Independence and Green parties. Any person who is not nominated by one of these  parties must file an independent nominating petition. The requirements for all petitions  are contained in <a href="/NYSBOE/download/law/2008NYElectionLaw.pdf"  target="_self">Article 6 of the Election Law</a> (<img src="images/icons/PDF.gif"  width="16" height="16" alt="pdf" title="Portable Document Format (pdf)"/> 3,303KB). The  provisions for village elections vary slightly, and the reader is directed to <a  href="/NYSBOE/download/law/2008NYElectionLaw.pdf" target="_self">Article 15 of the  Election Law</a> (<img src="images/icons/PDF.gif" width="16" height="16" alt="pdf"  title="Portable Document Format (pdf)"/> 3,303KB) for specifics.</p>      <p><a href="/NYSBOE/download/law/2010RunningForOfficeBrochure.pdf"  target="_self">Running for Office</a> (<img src="images/icons/PDF.gif" width="16"  height="16" alt="pdf" title="Portable Document Format (pdf)"/> 501KB)</p>        <h3>Party Nominations</h3>      <p>Party nomination of candidates for elective office is made at either a  party caucus or at a primary election.</p>      <h3>Caucuses</h3>      <p>A caucus is an open meeting of a town or village's political party at  which candidates are nominated for elective office. Only residents of the town or village 

who are enrolled members of the party may participate in the caucus. For further  information on caucuses see, <a href="/NYSBOE/download/law/2008NYElectionLaw.pdf"  target="_self">Election Law &sect;6‐108 (towns) and &sect;15‐108 (villages)</a> (<img  src="images/icons/PDF.gif" width="16" height="16" alt="pdf" title="Portable Document  Format (pdf)"/> 3,303KB).</p>      <h3>Designating Petitions</h3>      <p>If a party nominates its candidates through the primary election  process, party designations for this primary are made on a designating petition. The  Election Law sets forth the form of this petition; <a  href="/NYSBOE/download/law/2008NYElectionLaw.pdf" target="_self">&sect;6‐132 (state,  county and town offices) and &sect;15‐108 (village offices).</a> (<img  src="images/icons/PDF.gif" width="16" height="16" alt="pdf" title="Portable Document  Format (pdf)"/> 3,303KB) Only enrolled members of a party qualified to vote for an office  may sign designating petitions of the party.</p>      <h3>Nomination of Non‐Party Member</h3>      <p>Political parties may nominate a candidate who is not an enrolled member  of the political party. Such parties must file a certificate of authorization, signed and  acknowledged by the presiding officer and the secretary of the meeting at which such  authorization is given. A certificate of authorization is not needed for nominations  resulting from a caucus or for a candidate for a judicial office.</p>      <h3>Independent Nominations</h3>      <p>To run for office on a line other than an official party line, one must  file an independent nominating petition. The Election Law sets forth the form of this  petition; <a href="/NYSBOE/download/law/2008NYElectionLaw.pdf" target="_self">&sect;6‐140  (state, county and town offices) and &sect;15‐108 (village offices).</a> (<img  src="images/icons/PDF.gif" width="16" height="16" alt="pdf" title="Portable Document  Format (pdf)"/> 3,303KB) Any registered voter who has not already signed a designating  petition, and who is qualified to vote for an office, may sign an independent nominating  petition for that office. For Village offices if you participated in a caucus, you cannot  sign an independent nominating petition.</p>      <h3>Form of Petitions</h3>      <p>The statute requires that all petitions be  <strong>substantially</strong> in the form set forth in the law. See, <a  href="/NYSBOE/download/law/2008NYElectionLaw.pdf" target="_self">Election Law &sect;6‐132  (party designating petitions), &sect;6‐140 (independent nominating petitions) and  &sect;15‐108 (village designating and independent petitions)</a> (<img  src="images/icons/PDF.gif" width="16" height="16" alt="pdf" title="Portable Document  Format (pdf)"/> 3,303KB). Deviations or slight rearrangements of the form of petition are  not fatal defects, provided that the petition contains all of the required  information.</p>      <p>Each sheet of the petition must correctly set forth:</p>       <ul>        <li>the date of the election;</li>         <li>the name of the candidate and the office or position sought;</li>         <li>the candidate's residence, and if different, their mailing or  post office address;</li>         <li>information about the signer: date of signing, voter's residence  address, town or city and</li>         <li>information relating to the person who witnesses the  signatures.</li>      </ul>      <p>A petition may include a committee on vacancies. Failure to provide such  a committee, or naming a committee of fewer than three persons, will not invalidate the  petition.</p>      <p>The voter need only sign the appropriate line on the petition sheet. All  other information may be filled in by someone else. Corrections may be made to any  information on the signature line. However, corrections or alterations in the date or the  signature MUST be initialed by the person making the correction.</p>      <p>Voters may not sign a petition for more candidates than there are  openings for an office. For example, if there is one council seat open, then the voter 

may only sign one petition for a candidate for that office. If there are 2 seats open,  the voter may sign petitions for 2 candidates.</p>      <p>The pages of a petition must be sequentially numbered and securely  fastened.</p>      <h3>Witnesses to a Petition</h3>      <p>Anyone who is qualified to sign a petition may witness a petition. The  information required for the witness statement is mandatory. Omissions, errors, or  unexplained alterations/corrections, may invalidate the entire page. When the witness  signs the statement of witness, they are making an oath that subjects them to the  penalties for perjury if any of the information preceding their signature is false. The  information preceding the signature includes the name and residence of the witness; the  number of signatures on the page; a statement that each person signed in their presence;  and the date they are signing the statement. Witness identification information, which  follows the witness's signature, may be provided by anyone, at any time before the  petition is filed. This information includes the town or city; and the county of the  witness's registration.</p>      <h3>Cover Sheets</h3>      <p>If there are 10 or more pages in a petition, there must be a cover  sheet. In New York City, and in other counties where identification numbers are used,  only one cover sheet is required, regardless of the number of volumes in the petition. In  all other instances, a multi‐volume petition requires a cover sheet for each volume.</p>      <p>Cover sheets <strong>must</strong> contain the following  information:</p>       <ul>        <li>Name, residence address, and mailing address if different, of the  candidate.</li>         <li>The public office or party position sought.</li>         <li>The name of the party or independent body making the  nomination.</li>         <li>A statement that the petition contains a number of signatures  equal to or in excess of the number required by statute.</li>         <li>The volume number OR identification number of that volume.</li>         <li>The total number of volumes in each petition OR the  identification number for each volume of the petition.</li>      </ul>      <p>The following information is <strong>optional</strong>:</p>       <ul>        <li>The name, residence address, (and mailing address if different)  telephone number, and facsimile number of the person designated to receive notice of  deficiencies in binding or cover sheet requirements.</li>      </ul>      <p>There are additional requirements if the petition contains candidates  for county committee, and if there are different candidates on the several pages of the  petition. Those requirements are contained in <a  href="/NYSBOE/download/law/2008NYElectionLaw.pdf" target="_self">Part 6215 of the rules  and regulations</a> (<img src="images/icons/PDF.gif" width="16" height="16" alt="pdf"  title="Portable Document Format (pdf)"/> 3,303KB) of the State Board of Elections.</p>      <p>Pursuant to <a href="/NYSBOE/download/law/2008NYElectionLaw.pdf"  target="_self">Part 6215 of the rules and regulations</a> (<img  src="images/icons/PDF.gif" width="16" height="16" alt="pdf" title="Portable Document  Format (pdf)"/> 3,303KB) of the State Board of Elections, the Board will provide notice  of any correctable errors in cover sheet(s) and binding.</p>      <h3>Filing of Petitions, Acceptances, Authorizations and Declinations</h3>      <p>All filings must be filed timely <a href="PoliticalCalendar.html"  target="_self">(See the Political Calendar)</a> and in the proper manner at the  appropriate board of elections. Pursuant to section 1‐106(1) of the New York State  Election Law, all papers are required to be filed between the hours of nine A.M. and five  P.M. If the last day for filing shall fall on a Saturday, Sunday or legal holiday, the  next business day shall become the last day for filing. All papers sent by mail in an  envelope postmarked prior to midnight of the last day of filing shall be deemed timely  filed and accepted for filing when received, <strong>except</strong> any documents that 

are required to be filed with the board of elections of the city of New York must be  actually received by such city board of elections on or before midnight of the last day  to file any such document. Failure to do so shall be a fatal defect.</p>      <p>No filings will be accepted by facsimile or e‐mail.</p>      <p>Candidates must file a certificate of acceptance for nominations made by  independent nominating petitions, or if they are named in a designating petition but are  not enrolled members of that party. Neither an authorization nor an acceptance is  required if the individual is a candidate for a judicial office. A declination must be  filed should the candidate decide not to accept the designation or nomination.</p>      <h3>Objections</h3>      <p>Every petition is presumed to be valid when filed, if, on its face, it  appears to be in proper form and to contain enough signatures. However, a registered  voter may challenge the validity of a petition. Written objections must be filed within 3  days after the petition is filed (1 day in a village election). Specifications of  objections must be filed within 6 days of filing the general objections (2 days in a  village election). For petitions filed with the State Board of Elections, objectors must  deliver a copy of the specifications of objections to the candidate and file proof of  such delivery with the State Board. For further details see <a  href="/NYSBOE/download/law/2008NYElectionLaw.pdf" target="_self">Election Law &sect;6‐154  and &sect;15‐108 and Part 6204 of the rules and regulations</a> (<img  src="images/icons/PDF.gif" width="16" height="16" alt="pdf" title="Portable Document  Format (pdf)"/> 3,303KB) of the State Board of Elections.</p>      <h2 id="President">Running for President</h2>        <h3>Independent Candidates</h3>        <p>An independent candidate for president is someone who is running on a  line other than an official party line. Petitions for independent candidates must include  the names of the presidential and vice‐presidential candidates, as well as the names of  person(s) running for the electoral college. Each state is permitted to have one elector  for each congressional district, plus two at‐large electors.</p>        <p>Independent petitions for president must contain 15,000 signatures. At  least 100 signatures must come from each of one‐half of the congressional districts in  the state. <a href="/NYSBOE/download/law/2008NYElectionLaw.pdf" target="_self">Election  Law &sect;6‐142(1)</a> (<img src="images/icons/PDF.gif" width="16" height="16" alt="pdf"  title="Portable Document Format (pdf)"/> 3,303KB). Each candidate named in an independent  petition for president is required to file an acknowledged acceptance of the nomination  no later than the third day after the last day to file the petition. <a  href="/NYSBOE/download/law/2008NYElectionLaw.pdf" target="_self">Election Law &sect;6‐ 146(1)</a> (<img src="images/icons/PDF.gif" width="16" height="16" alt="pdf"  title="Portable Document Format (pdf)"/> 3,303KB).</p>        <p>If there are 10 or more pages in a petition, there must be a cover  sheet. A multi‐volume petition requires a cover sheet for each volume. Cover sheets must  contain the following information:</p>     <ul>          <li>Name, address, and mailing address if different, of  candidates</li>           <li>Office sought</li>           <li>Name and emblem of the independent body making the  nomination</li>           <li>A statement that the petition contains a number of signatures  equal to or in excess of the number required by statute.</li>           <li>The volume number of that volume</li>           <li>The total number of volumes in the petition </li>    </ul>        <p>Additional information on cover sheets is contained in <a  href="/NYSBOE/download/law/2008NYElectionLaw.pdf" target="_self">Part 6215 of the rules  and regulations</a> (<img src="images/icons/PDF.gif" width="16" height="16" alt="pdf"  title="Portable Document Format (pdf)"/> 3,303KB) of the State Board of Elections.</p>      <h3>Write‐In Candidates</h3>        <p>To run as a write‐in candidate for president, you are required to file  a certificate of candidacy with the State Board of Elections no later than the third 

Tuesday prior to the general election. The certificate must be signed by the presidential  candidate and must contain the following information:</p>     <ul>          <li>Name and address of presidential candidate</li>           <li>Name and address of any vice‐presidential candidate, and a  signed certificate of acceptance from such candidate</li>           <li>Name and address of at least one elector, with an acceptance  certificate and pledge of support signed by each such candidate for elector. </li>    </ul>        <p><a href="/NYSBOE/download/law/2008NYElectionLaw.pdf"  target="_self">See Election Law &sect;6‐153</a> (<img src="images/icons/PDF.gif"  width="16" height="16" alt="pdf" title="Portable Document Format (pdf)"/> 3,303KB) for  further information.</p>    <h2 id="FilePetitions">Where to File Petitions</h2>    <h3>PUBLIC OFFICE ONLY</h3>    <h3>Congressional Districts</h3>      <ul>      <li>1 ‐ Suffolk County Board of Elections</li>       <li>2 and 3 ‐ State Board of Elections</li>       <li>4 ‐ Nassau County Board of Elections</li>       <li>5 ‐ State Board of Elections</li>       <li>6 through 16 ‐ New York City Board of Elections</li>       <li>17 through 29 ‐ State Board of Elections</li>      </ul>    <h3>Senate Districts</h3>      <ul>      <li>1 through 4 ‐ Suffolk County Board of Elections</li>       <li>5 ‐ State Board of Elections</li>       <li>6 and 7 ‐ Nassau County Board of Elections</li>       <li>8 ‐ State Board of Elections</li>       <li>9 ‐ Nassau County Board of Elections</li>       <li>10 through 33 ‐ New York City Board of Elections</li>       <li>34 ‐ State Board of Elections</li>       <li>35‐ Westchester County Board of Elections</li>       <li>36 ‐ State Board of Elections</li>       <li>37 ‐ Westchester County Board of Elections</li>       <li>38 through 45 ‐ State Board of Elections</li>      <li>46 ‐ Albany County Board of Elections</li>      <li>47 through 49 ‐ State Board of Elections</li>      <li>50 ‐ Onondaga County Board of Elections</li>      <li>51 through 54 ‐ State Board of Elections</li>      <li>55 and 56 ‐ Monroe County Board of Elections</li>      <li>57 ‐ State Board of Elections</li>      <li>58 ‐ Erie County Board of Elections</li>       <li>59 through 62 ‐ State Board of Elections</li>      </ul>    <h3>Assembly Districts</h3>      <ul>      <li>1 through 9 ‐ Suffolk County Board of Elections</li>       <li>10 ‐ State Board of Elections</li>      <li>11 ‐ Suffolk County Board of Elections</li>      <li>12 through 21 ‐ Nassau County Board of Elections</li>      <li>22 through 86 ‐ New York City Board of Elections</li>      <li>87 through 89 ‐ Westchester County Board of Elections</li>       <li>90 ‐ State Board of Elections</li>      <li>91 through 93 ‐ Westchester County Board of Elections</li>      <li>94 and 95 ‐ Rockland County Board of Elections</li>       <li>96 through 101 ‐ State Board of Elections</li>      <li>102 ‐ Dutchess County Board of Elections</li>       <li>103 ‐ State Board of Elections</li>      <li>104 ‐ Albany County Board of Elections</li> 

    <li>105 through 115 ‐ State Board of Elections</li>      <li>116 ‐ Oneida County Board of Elections</li>      <li>117 and 118 ‐ State Board of Elections</li>      <li>119 through 121 ‐ Onondaga County Board of Elections</li>       <li>122 through 125 ‐ State Board of Elections</li>      <li>126 ‐ Broome County Board of Elections</li>      <li>127 through 130 ‐ State Board of Elections</li>      <li>131 through 135 ‐ Monroe County Board of Elections</li>       <li>136 and 137 ‐ State Board of Elections</li>      <li>138 ‐ Niagara County Board of Elections</li>      <li>139 and 140 ‐ State Board of Elections</li>      <li>141 ‐ Erie County Board of Elections</li>       <li>142 ‐ State Board of Elections</li>       <li>143 through 146 ‐ Erie County Board of Elections</li>       <li>147 through 149 ‐ State Board of Elections</li>      <li>150 ‐ Chautauqua County Board of Elections</li>      </ul>      <p><strong>FOR ALL OTHER OFFICES CONTACT YOUR COUNTY BOARD OF  ELECTIONS</strong></p>     <h3>Member of State Committee</h3>      <ul>        <li><strong>REPUBLICAN, DEMOCRATIC, and INDEPENDENCE</strong> Party State  Committee petitions are filed with the county boards of elections.</li>      <li><strong>WORKING FAMILIES</strong> Party State Committee petitions, are  filed in the same manner as those for the office of Member of Assembly (see chart for  ASSEMBLY).</li>      <li><strong>CONSERVATIVE</strong> Party State Committee petitions, are  filed in the same manner as those for the office of Representative in Congress (see chart  for CONGRESSIONAL).      <p>Republican State Committee elections are held at the &quot;Fall&quot;  primary in odd numbered years. All other parties elect state committee at the  &quot;Fall&quot; primary in even numbered years.</p>      <p>To run for any party position such as member of state committee,  national or judicial delegate or alternate, you must be a duly enrolled member of the  party from which you are seeking the designation. You also must be a resident of the  jurisdiction from which you are running.</p>      <p>The offices of judicial delegate and alternate judicial delegate are  elected at the &quot;Fall&quot; primary. (National delegate and alternate national  delegate are elected at the &quot;Spring&quot; primary, held in a presidential election  year).</p></li>      </ul>    <h3>Judicial District Convention Delegate and/or Alternate Delegate</h3>      <ul>      <li>FIRST JD (New York County)</li>       <li>SECOND JD (Kings County)</li>       <li>ELEVENTH JD (Queens County)</li>       <li>TWELFTH JD (Bronx County)</li>      <li>THIRTEENTH JD (Richmond County)        <p>All petitions and nominations for these judicial district delegates and  alternate delegates are filed at the New York City Board of Elections</p>      <p><strong>NOTE:</strong>The following chart for Judicial Delegates and  Alternate Delegates applies <em>only</em> to Democratic, Independence, Conservative and  Working Families Party candidates. Republican Party candidates for this office file their  petitions in the county which contains their portion of the assembly district.</p></li>      </ul>    <h3><strong>THIRD JD Albany, Columbia, Greene, Rensselaer, Schoharie, Sullivan  &amp; Ulster Counties</strong></h3>      <ul>      <li>98 AD ‐ Sullivan County Board of Elections</li>       <li>100 AD ‐ Ulster County Board of Elections</li>      <li>101 AD ‐ Ulster County Board of Elections</li> 

    <li>103 AD ‐ Columbia County Board of Elections</li>       <li>104 AD ‐ Albany County Board of Elections</li>      <li>106 AD ‐ State Board of Elections</li>      <li>107 AD ‐ Ulster County Board of Elections</li>       <li>108 AD ‐ State Board of Elections</li>      <li>109 AD ‐ Albany County Board of Elections</li>      <li>112 AD ‐ Rensselaer County Board of Elections</li>      <li>127 AD ‐ State Board of Elections</li>      </ul>    <h3><strong>FOURTH JD Clinton, Essex, Franklin, Fulton, Hamilton, Montgomery, St.  Lawrence, Saratoga, Schenectady, Warren &amp; Washington Counties</strong></h3>      <ul>      <li>105 AD ‐ State Board of Elections</li>       <li>106 AD ‐ Saratoga County Board of Elections</li>       <li>109 AD ‐ Saratoga County Board of Elections</li>      <li>110 AD ‐ State Board of Elections</li>      <li>112 AD ‐ State Board of Elections</li>      <li>113 AD ‐ State Board of Elections</li>      <li>114 AD ‐ State Board of Elections</li>      <li>117 AD ‐ Fulton County Board of Elections</li>       <li>118 AD ‐ St. Lawrence County Board of Elections</li>       <li>122 AD ‐ St. Lawrence County Board of Elections</li>      </ul>    <h3><strong>FIFTH JD Herkimer, Jefferson, Lewis, Oneida, Onondaga &amp; Oswego  Counties</strong></h3>      <ul>      <li>111 AD ‐ Oneida County Board of Elections</li>       <li>115 AD ‐ State Board of Elections</li>      <li>116 AD ‐ Oneida County Board of Elections</li>      <li>117 AD ‐ Herkimer County Board of Elections</li>      <li>118 AD ‐ Jefferson County Board of Elections</li>      <li>119 AD ‐ Onondaga County Board of Elections</li>      <li>120 AD ‐ Onondaga County Board of Elections</li>      <li>121 AD ‐ Onondaga County Board of Elections</li>      <li>122 AD ‐ State Board of Elections</li>      <li>124 AD ‐ State Board of Elections</li>      <li>128 AD ‐ Oswego County Board of Elections</li>       <li>129 AD ‐ Onondaga County Board of Elections</li>      </ul>    <h3><strong>SIXTH JD Broome, Chemung, Chenango, Cortland, Delaware, Madison,  Otsego, Schuyler, Tioga &amp; Tompkins Counties</strong></h3>      <ul>      <li>107 AD ‐ State Board of Elections</li>       <li>111 AD ‐ State Board of Elections</li>      <li>117 AD ‐ Otsego County Board of Elections</li>       <li>123 AD ‐ State Board of Elections</li>      <li>125 AD ‐ State Board of Elections</li>      <li>126 AD ‐ Broome County Board of Elections</li>      <li>127 AD ‐ State Board of Elections</li>      <li>129 AD ‐ Cortland County Board of Elections</li>       <li>137 AD ‐ State Board of Elections</li>      </ul>    <h3><strong>SEVENTH JD Cayuga, Livingston, Monroe, Ontario, Seneca, Steuben, Wayne  &amp; Yates Counties</strong></h3>      <ul>      <li>123 AD ‐ Cayuga County Board of Elections</li>       <li>128 AD and 129 AD ‐ State Board of Elections</li>      <li>130 AD ‐ State Board of Elections</li>      <li>131 AD through 135 AD ‐ Monroe County Board of Elections</li>       <li>136 AD ‐ State Board of Elections</li>      <li>139 AD ‐ Monroe County Board of Elections</li>  

    <li>147 AD ‐ Livingston County Board of Elections</li>      </ul>    <h3><strong>EIGHTH JD Allegany, Cattaraugus, Chautauqua, Erie, Genesee, Niagara,  Orleans &amp; Wyoming Counties</strong></h3>      <ul>      <li>138 AD ‐ Niagara County Board of Elections</li>       <li>139 AD ‐ State Board of Elections</li>      <li>140 AD ‐ State Board of Elections</li>      <li>141 AD ‐ Erie County Board of Elections</li>       <li>142 AD ‐ State Board of Elections</li>      <li>143 through 146 AD‐ Erie County Board of Elections</li>       <li>147 AD ‐ State Board of Elections</li>      <li>148 AD ‐ State Board of Elections</li>      <li>149 AD ‐ State Board of Elections</li>      <li>150 AD ‐ Chautauqua County Board of Elections</li>      </ul>     <h3><strong>NINTH JD Dutchess, Orange, Putnam, Rockland &amp; Westchester  Counties</strong></h3>      <ul>      <li>87 AD through 89 AD ‐ Westchester County Board of Elections</li>       <li>90 AD ‐ State Board of Elections</li>      <li>91 AD through 93 AD ‐ Westchester County Board of Elections</li>       <li>94 and 95 AD ‐ Rockland County Board of Elections</li>      <li>96 AD ‐ State Board of Elections</li>      <li>97 AD ‐ State Board of Elections</li>      <li>98 AD ‐ Orange County Board of Elections</li>      <li>99 AD ‐ State Board of Elections</li>      <li>100 AD ‐ State Board of Elections</li>      <li>101 through 103 AD ‐ Dutchess County Board of Elections</li>      </ul>     <h3><strong>TENTH JD Nassau &amp; Suffolk Counties</strong></h3>      <ul>      <li>1 AD through 9 AD ‐ Suffolk County Board of Elections</li>       <li>10 AD ‐ State Board of Elections</li>      <li>11 AD ‐ Suffolk County Board of Elections</li>       <li>12 AD through 21 AD ‐ Nassau County Board of Elections</li>      </ul>    <h2 id="Title9">Title 9 of the Official Compilation of Codes, Rules and Regulations of  the State of New York Subtitle V</h2>    <h3>&sect; 6201.2 Use of Public Opinion Polls</h3>      <p>No candidate, political party or committee shall attempt to promote the  success or defeat of a candidate by directly or indirectly disclosing or causing to be  disclosed the results of a poll relating to a candidate for such an office or position,  unless within 48 hours after such disclosure, they provide the following information  concerning the poll to the board or officer with whom statements or copies of statements  of campaign receipts and expenditures are required to be filed by the candidate to whom  such poll relates:</p>    <ol type="a">        <li>The name of the person, party or organization that contracted for  or who commissioned the poll and/or paid for it.</li>        <li>The name and address of the organization that conducted the  poll.</li>        <li>The numerical size of the total poll sample, the geographic area  covered by the poll and any special characteristics of the population included in the  poll sample.</li>        <li>The exact wording of the questions asked in the poll and the  sequence of such questions.</li>        <li>The method of polling&ndash;whether by personal interview,  telephone, mail or other.</li>        <li>The time period during which the poll was conducted.</li> 

      <li>The number of persons in the poll sample: the number contacted  who responded to each specific poll question; the number of persons contacted who did not  so respond.</li>        <li>The results of the poll.</li>    </ol>      <h3>State Board of Elections<br />Part 6204</h3>      <h3>Designating and Independent Nominating Petitions</h3>      <h3>&sect; 6204.1 Specification of objections to designating and independent  nominating petitions.</h3>        <ol type="a">        <li>Any person filing general objections to any designating or  independent nominating petition filed with the State Board of Elections who thereafter  files specifications of his objections to any such petition with such board shall do so  in accordance with the provisions of Section 6‐154 of the Election Law. All such  specifications shall substantially comply with the following requirements:          <ol type="1">           <li>The volume number, page number, and line number of any  signature objected to on any petition shall be set forth in detail. In addition, any  portion of any petition or any signature line or witness statement objected to shall be  specifically identified and reasons given for any such objection;</li>           <li>The total number of signatures objected to shall be set  forth and all objections relating to a single signature line should be grouped  together;</li>           <li>Symbols and/or abbreviations may be used to set forth  objections, provided that a sheet explaining the meaning of any such symbols and/or  abbreviations is attached to the specifications.</li>           </ol></li>        <li>No specifications of objections to any petition will be  considered by the Board unless the objector filing the specifications personally delivers  or mails by registered or certified mail a duplicate copy of the specifications to each  candidate for public office named on the petition. In the case of a petition containing  candidates for party position, service of the specifications shall be made on either the  named candidates or the first person named on the petition's committee to fill vacancies.  Service shall be made on or before the date of filing of any specifications with the  Board. Proof of service shall accompany the specifications or be received by the end of  business two days following the filing of the specifications, whichever is later.</li>        <li>Any notice and/or determination relating to a petition for which  specifications of objections have been filed shall be transmitted by the Board to the  objector filing the specifications, provided that any such objector may designate an  attorney or agent to receive any such notice and/or determination on his behalf. Any such  designation shall be in writing and include the name, address and telephone number of any  such attorney or agent, and any such attorney and/or agent shall be eligible to represent  any such objector in any proceeding conducted by the Board relating to the  specifications.</li>        </ol>      <h3>State Board of Elections<br />Part 6215</h3>      <h3>Preparation, Delivery and Filing of Designating and Nominating  Petitions</h3>      <h3>&sect;6215.1 Rules for filing designating and nominating petitions.</h3>        <ol type="a">        <li>The sheets of a petition shall be numbered sequentially at the foot  of each sheet.</li>        <li>All petitions containing ten or more sheets shall be accompanied by a  cover sheet.</li>        <li>Any two or more petition sheets shall be securely fastened together  by any means which will hold the pages together in numerical order.</li>        <li>Petition sheets may be fastened together to form one or more  volumes.</li>        <li>Individual volumes of a petition shall be filed in the following  manner:          <ol type="1">  

        <li>With respect to petitions which are filed with the Board of  Elections in the City of New York, or petitions which are filed with other boards of  elections containing candidates for more than one public or party office which are not  coterminous, each volume of each petition shall bear an identification number, to be  obtained in accordance with Section 6215.3, infra. The assigned identification number  shall be inscribed on the front of the volume. If an identification number has not been  inscribed by the person or persons filing the petition, and the petition consists of  multiple volumes, then each volume of the petition shall be separately numbered on the  front thereof. Only one identification number may be used to identify a petition  volume.</li>           <li>Any Board of Elections outside the City of New York may adopt a  petition filing system for all petitions utilizing identification numbers as provided for  in Section 6215.3. The Board may adopt such system through the approval of a rule at  least two months prior to the first day to circulate petitions. The rule shall be filed  at the county board of elections and the State Board of Elections.</li>           <li>With respect to all other petitions which contain ten or more  sheets, each volume of the petition shall have a cover sheet secured to the front of such  volume.</li>         </ol></li>      </ol>    <h3>&sect;6215.2 Cover Sheets</h3>      <ol type="a">      <li>A cover sheet shall contain the following information:        <ol type="1">         <li>The office and district number (where appropriate) for which each  designation and nomination is being made, the name and residence address of each  candidate, and the number of volumes comprising the petition. The names and addresses of  candidates for the county committee may be set forth, by assembly district (or, in the  City of New York, by election district) on a schedule to be annexed to the cover sheet.  Cover sheets for the positions of County Committee in the City of New York shall include,  in addition to such schedule a list by election district of the identification numbers  (if known) or the volume number, and page number where such signatures appear for each  election district.</li>         <li>an identification of the volumes comprising the petition. When  multiple volumes are filed pursuant to Section 6215.1(e)(1) or (2) of these rules, a  single cover sheet may be filed with volumes identified by listing the identification  number of each volume either individually or cumulatively, and the total number of  volumes in the petition. With respect to all other petitions filed in multiple volumes,  each volume shall have a cover sheet which shall indicate the volume number; such volumes  shall be numbered sequentially and the cover sheet from the first volume shall set forth  the total number of volumes comprising petition.</li>         <li>a statement that the petition contains the number, or in excess  of the number, of valid signatures, required by the Election Law.</li>         <li>A place for the optional designation of a contact person other  than the candidate(s) to be notified to correct noncompliance with these  regulations.</li>         </ol></li>      <li>Cover sheets shall be substantially in the form set forth in Section  6215.8, infra.</li>      <li>Where a designating petition involves an office to be filled by the  voters of the entire state, the petition shall be accompanied by a schedule which sets  forth the volume and page number of each sheet on which signatures appear of at least 100  or 5 per centum, which ever is less, of properly enrolled voters in each of at least one‐ half of the Congressional Districts of the state.</li>      <li>Where a nominating petition involves an office to be filled by the  voters of the entire state, the petition shall be accompanied by a schedule which sets  forth the volume and page number of each sheet on which signatures appear of at least 100  voters in each of at least one‐half of the Congressional Districts of the state.</li>      </ol>    <h3>&sect;6215.3 Identification Numbers, application, distribution and  utilization</h3> 

    <ol type="a">      <li>Identification numbers shall be issued by the State and County Boards  of Elections, without charge, for the purpose of identifying petition volumes.</li>      <li>The State Board shall assign a series of identification codes to each  County Board.</li>      <li>Any person or persons, individually or jointly, may obtain one or more  identification numbers, upon written application, from the Board of Elections.  Individuals who do not wish to apply for these numbers in advance will have them assigned  to their petitions when they are submitted to the Board of Elections in accordance with  section 6215.6 (b) of these rules. Identification numbers may be used only within the  calendar year for which issued.</li>      <li>The State Board of Elections shall promulgate an identification number  application form, which shall be used by any board of elections. The application shall  set forth:         <ol type="1">        <li>the name and residence address of each applicant for the  identification number;</li>         <li>the daytime and evening telephone numbers for such  applicant;</li>         <li>the type of petition to be filed under the identification number  (i.e., Designating, Nominating, Opportunity to Ballot);</li>         <li>the date of the election;</li>         <li>the Name of the Party or Independent Body; and (6) the number of  identification numbers requested. Each application shall be signed by each applicant and  shall be dated.</li>         </ol></li>      <li>Upon receipt of an application for an identification number, the Board  shall forthwith issue the quantity of identification numbers requested, inscribe such  numbers on the original application, and record the numbers issued with the name and  address of the applicant in a book which shall be available for public inspection. In the  event that an application is filed by multiple applicants, the Board shall record in the  book only the name and address of the first‐named applicant.</li>      <li>An assigned identification number may be used for the filing of  petition sheets only by the person to whom the identification number was issued. In the  case of multiple applicants, the identification number may be used by any of the  applicants.</li>      </ol>    <h3>&sect;6215.4 Multiple Candidates Named On a Petition</h3>      <ol type="a">      <li>All the signatures appearing in a petition volume shall apply to all  candidates named in that volume, unless the cover sheet specifies otherwise.</li>      <li>In the event that the same candidates do not appear on each and every  sheet of the petition, then the cover sheet shall indicate which signatures apply to  which candidate, by indicating the name of the candidate, the identification number or  the volume number, and the page number of the applicable signatures. Signatures on such  pages may be identified by specified numerical ranges (e.g., pages 1 through 15, pages  15‐45).</li>      </ol>    <h3>&sect;6215.5 Filing of petitions</h3>      <ol type="a">      <li>Neither the application for, nor the issuance of, an identification  number constitutes filing of a petition.</li>      <li>Petitions shall be filed with the applicable Board of Elections as set  forth in the Election Law. The officer or Board shall endorse the day, hour and minute of  receipt on such petitions. Such officer or Board shall keep a book, which shall be open  to public inspection, in which shall be entered the name of the candidate, and volume or  identification numbers of the petitions which have been filed and the time of their  filing.</li>      </ol>    <h3>&sect;6215.6 Construction of rules; substantial compliance</h3>      <ol type="a"> 

    <li>Except as specifically set forth herein, these rules shall be liberally  construed and technical defects shall be disregarded where there has been substantial  compliance and where a strict construction is not required for the prevention of  fraud.</li>      <li>The failure to obtain an identification number or inscribe an  identification number on one or more petitions or petition volumes shall not render any  such petition or petition volume invalid. The officer or Board receiving such petition or  petition volume shall assign identification numbers to such petition or petition volumes,  shall inscribe the identification number upon the petition or volume, and shall record  the identification number of such petition or volume. In such instances, the person or  persons submitting the petition or petition volume for filing shall be deemed to be the  applicant for the identification number, or in the event the persons submitting the  petition or petition volume, cannot be identified, the candidates named on the petition  or petition volume shall be deemed to be the applicant or applicants.</li>      </ol>    <h3>&sect;6215.7 Determinations; cures pursuant to Section 6‐134(2) of the  Election Law</h3>      <ol type="a">      <li>Within two (2) business days of the receipt of the petition, the Board  with whom such petition was filed shall review the petition to determine whether the  petition complies with the cover sheet and binding requirements of these regulations.  Such review shall be limited to matters apparent on the face of the documents. Such  review, and such determination, shall be without prejudice to the determination by the  Board of objections and specifications of objections filed pursuant to the provisions of  the Election Law.</li>      <li>In the event that, upon the review conducted pursuant to paragraph (a)  above, the Board determines that a petition does not comply with these regulations, the  Board shall forthwith notify the candidate or candidates named on the petition of its  determination and the reasons therefor.</li>      <li>Notification of a determination of noncompliance shall be given by  written notice by depositing such notice on the day of such determination with an  overnight delivery service, for overnight delivery, on the next business day, or by  personal delivery by the day after the determination to the candidate or the contact  person, if designated, at the address stated on the petition. Notification shall be given  by overnight delivery or personal delivery only, unless the candidate shall have filed  with the Board written authorization, signed by the candidate, for the Board to give  notification by facsimile transmission. In the event that the candidate shall have  authorized notification by facsimile transmission, then the Board shall notify the  candidate or the contact person, if designated, by facsimile transmission on the day of  the determination to the number set forth by the candidate and shall, in addition, mail a  copy of the determination to the candidate.</li>      <li>A candidate may, within three (3) business days of the date of a  determination that the petition does not comply with these regulations, cure the  violation of these regulations. Cover sheet deficiencies may be corrected by the filing  of an amended cover sheet. Such cure or correction must be received by the Board of  Elections no later than the third business day following such determination.</li>      <li>If the petition is one for an opportunity to ballot, then the first  named person on the committee to receive notices or applicant(s) for the identification  number or numbers under which the petition was filed shall be deemed to be the  &quot;candidate&quot; for purposes of subparagraphs (b), (c), and (d) above.</li>      </ol>    <h2 id="Provisions">Further Provisions</h2>    <p>Please be aware that there may be other requirements which may apply to running  for any particular office. These may include but not be limited to:</p>      <h3>FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE REQUIREMENTS:</h3>        <ul>         <li>The New York State Election Law requires candidates and political  committees to file statements disclosing information about contributions received and  expenditures made in connection with an election.</li>  

      <li>The forms required to register a committee and to report receipts and  disbursements, as well as a comprehensive handbook of instructions, are available at the  State Board of Elections and your county Board of Elections.</li>         <li>View the <a href="CampaignFinance.html" target="_self">Campaign  Finance Page</a> for more information on financial disclosure requirements or contact the  State Board of Elections at 1‐800‐458‐3453 or 518‐474‐8200 or contact your <a  href="CountyBoards.html" >county board of elections</a>.</li>    </ul>       <h3>Hatch Act:</h3>       <ul>        <li>Call 1‐800‐85 HATCH ‐ Website <a href="http://www.osc.gov/"  target="_blank">www.osc.gov</a> <img src="images/icons/external‐link.gif" width="16"  height="16" alt="(External Link)" title="The preceding link goes to another  website."/></li>      </ul>       <h3>The Commission on Judicial Conduct:</h3>       <ul>        <li><a href="http://www.scjc.state.ny.us">www.scjc.state.ny.us</a></li>        <li>Call (646) 386‐4800 ‐ Main Office</li>         <li>(518) 453‐4600 ‐ Albany</li>         <li>(585) 784‐4141 ‐ Rochester</li>      </ul>       <h3>Judicial Campaign Ethics Center:</h3>       <ul>        <li><a  href="http://www.nycourts.gov/ip/jcec/">www.nycourts.gov/ip/jcec/</a></li>         <li>1‐888‐600‐JCEC</li>       </ul>       <h3>State Ethics Commission:</h3>        <ul>         <li>Call 1‐800‐873‐8442</li>      </ul>       <h3>Legislative Ethics Committee:</h3>        <ul>         <li>Call (518) 432‐7837 </li>        </ul>     </div>  </div>  <div id="footer">    <div id="globalNav">      <a href="INDEX.html"><abbr title="State Board of Elections">SBOE</abbr> HOME </a><a  href="Contact.html">CONTACT <abbr title="State Board of Elections">SBOE</abbr> </a><a  href="SiteIndex.html">SITE INDEX </a><a href="WebsiteAccessibility.html">ACCESSIBILITY  </a>     </div>    <div id="copyRight">&copy; 2008, NEW YORK STATE BOARD OF ELECTIONS    </div>  </div>  </div>  <script type="text/javascript">  var gaJsHost = (("https:" == document.location.protocol) ? "https://ssl." :  "http://www.");  document.write(unescape("%3Cscript src='" + gaJsHost + "google‐analytics.com/ga.js'  type='text/javascript'%3E%3C/script%3E"));  </script>  <noscript class="noscript">Your browser does not support javascript.</noscript>  <script type="text/javascript">  var pageTracker = _gat._getTracker("UA‐4287801‐1");  pageTracker._initData();  pageTracker._trackPageview();  </script> 

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NYSBOE Request for Access to Public Records Printable Page

Page 1 of 1

instructions: Ai! persons submitting a request to access public records must complete the followlng: * indicates a required field *Name *Address *City *State *Zip *E-mail *Date:
H William Van Allen

351 North Road
Hurley NY

12443

Day Phone 8453894366
hvanallen@hvc.rr.com

September

30, 2011

*Applicant Signature:

Islv;.
No

Does Applicant apply on own behalf? "Yes

If No, name and address of person or organization on whose behalf applicant is acting. Name Address City State Zip

Please list the records, determinations, minutes, rules or other documents you wish to examine or have copied. (Photocopy charge: $.25 per page, prepaid).
all electronic records (email) for the period 2007-2008 between NYS-BOE NYS Office of the Governor staff as well as with NYS Office of Attorney staff. including: all electronic communication executive sessions of the NYS-BOE (email) for this 2007-2008 staff and General

period

related

to

http://www.elections.state.ny.uslF

oilRequestPublicRecordsPrint.html

9/3012011

James A. Walsh Co-Chair Gregory P. Peterson Commissioner Todd D. Valentine Co-Executive Director

Douglas A. Kellner Co-Chair Evelyn J. Aquila Commissioner

STATE BOARD OF ELECTIONS
40 STEUBEN STREET ALBANY, N.Y. 12207-2108 Phone: 518/474-6336 Fax: 518/474-1008 http://www.elections.state.ny.us

Robert A. Brehm, Co-Executive Director

October 7, 2011 VIA EMAIL

H. William Van Allen 351 North Road Hurley, NY 12443 Dear Mr. Van Allen: The New York State Board of Elections has received your request for access to public records, specifically: “all electronic records (email) for the period 2007-2008 between NYS-BOE staff and NYS Office of the Governor staff as well as with NYS Office of Attorney General staff, including: all electronic communication (email) for this 2007-2008 period related to executive sessions of the NYS-BOE.” With respect to electronic communications with the New York State Attorney General’s Office, we have conducted a search of our records and determined that the relevant electronic communications are exempt from disclosure pursuant to New York State Public Officers Law §87(2)(a) constituting either attorney work product or subject to attorney-client privilege. With respect to electronic communications related to executive sessions of the Board, we have conducted a search of our records and determined that the relevant electronic communications are exempt from disclosure pursuant to New York State Public Officers Law §87(2)(g) constituting intra-agency materials which are not statistical or factual tabulations or data; instructions to staff that affect the public; final agency policy or determinations; or external audits, including but not limited to audits performed by the comptroller and the federal government. With respect to electronic communications between NYS-BOE and Office of the Governor staff, we are unable to determine with specificity the records sought. The “Governor’s staff” constitutes dozens of agencies which we cannot identify with reasonable effort.

Mr. Van Allen October 7, 2011 Page 2 You have 30 days from receipt of a denial of access to public records or portions thereof to appeal to: FOIL Appeal Officer New York State Board of Elections 40 Steuben Street Albany, NY 12207-2107 Thank you for your interest in the New York State Board of Elections. If you require further assistance, please contact us again. Sincerely yours

J. Conklin
John W. Conklin Director of Public Information Records Access Officer 518-474-1953

JWC/mer

the 2008 presidential election
PROVISIONS OF THE CONSTITUTION AND UNITED STATES CODE

PREFACE

The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) is proud to acknowledge its role in the Presidential election process. NARA’s Office of the Federal Register (OFR) acts as the administrator of the Electoral College on behalf of the states, the Congress, and the American people. In this role, the OFR is charged with helping the states carry out their election responsibilities, ensuring the completeness and integrity of the Electoral College documents submitted to Congress, and informing the public about the Presidential election process. The Electoral College system was established under Article II and Amendment 12 of the U.S. Constitution. In each state, the voters choose electors to select the President and Vice President of the United States, based on the results of the November general election. Prior to the general election, the OFR sends an informational package to each state’s governor to officially notify them of their electoral responsibilities. As the results of the popular vote are finalized in each state, election officials send to the OFR Certificates of Ascertainment, which establish the credentials of their electors. In December, the electors hold meetings in each state to cast their votes for President and Vice President. Those choices are documented in Certificates of Vote, which are sent to the OFR for review on behalf of the Congress. In January, the Congress sits in joint session to certify the election of the President and Vice President, based on the documentary evidence assembled and reviewed by the OFR. In the year after the election, electoral documents are held at the OFR for public viewing, and then transferred to the Archives of the United States for permanent retention and access. In this Presidential election year, the cover of this pamphlet shows a representation of the Electoral College system in celebration of the spirit of the American democratic process.

For more information on the Electoral College, visit NARA’s web site at:

http://www.archives.gov/federal-register/electoral-college/. Our thanks are extended to the Creative Services Division of the U.S. Government Printing Office for its assistance in developing this cover.

This pamphlet has been compiled and published by the Office of the Federal Register, National Archives and Records Administration, for use by the Executives and Electors of the several States in the performance of their duties in connection with Presidential Elections. [Revised July, 2008]

The 2008 Presidential Election/Provisions of the Constitution and United States Code

2

TABLE OF CONTENTS

2008 Presidential Election Summary of Key Dates, Events and Information ......................................................... 4
2008 List of States and Votes ................................................................................................................................. 6
CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES .............................................................................................................. 7
Article II..............................................................................................................................................................................7
Twelfth Amendment ...........................................................................................................................................................7
Fourteenth Amendment .....................................................................................................................................................7
Fifteenth Amendment.........................................................................................................................................................8
Nineteenth Amendment .....................................................................................................................................................8
Twentieth Amendment .......................................................................................................................................................8
Twenty-second Amendment ..............................................................................................................................................8
Twenty-third Amendment ...................................................................................................................................................8
Twenty-fourth Amendment.................................................................................................................................................9
Twenty-fifth Amendment ....................................................................................................................................................9
Twenty-sixth Amendment ...................................................................................................................................................9
UNITED STATES CODE ......................................................................................................................................... 10
Title 3—The President: Chapter 1. Presidential Elections and Vacancies .............................................................................. 10
§ 1Time of Appointing Electors....................................................................................................................................... 11
§ 2 Failure to Make Choice on Prescribed Day.............................................................................................................. 11
§ 3 Number of Electors................................................................................................................................................... 11
§ 4 Vacancies in Electoral College.................................................................................................................................. 11
§ 5 Determination of Controversy as to Appointment of Electors ................................................................................... 11
§ 6 Credentials of Electors; Transmission to Archivist of the United States and to
Congress; Public Inspection .................................................................................................................................... 11
§ 7 Meeting and Vote of Electors.................................................................................................................................... 11
§ 8 Manner of Voting ...................................................................................................................................................... 12
§ 9 Certificates of Votes for President and Vice President ............................................................................................. 12
§ 10 Sealing and Endorsing Certificates ........................................................................................................................ 12
§ 11 Disposition of Certificates....................................................................................................................................... 12
§ 12 Failure of Certificates of Electors to Reach President of the Senate or
Archivist of the United States; Demand on State for Certificate............................................................................. 12
§ 13 Same; Demand on District Judge for Certificate .................................................................................................... 12
§ 14 Forfeiture for Messenger’s Neglect of Duty............................................................................................................ 12
§ 15 Counting Electoral Votes in Congress.................................................................................................................... 12
§ 16 Same; Seats for Officers and Members of Two Houses in Joint Meeting .............................................................. 13
§ 17 Same; Limit of Debate in Each House.................................................................................................................... 14
§ 18 Same; Parliamentary Procedure at Joint Meeting................................................................................................... 14
§ 19 Vacancy in Offices of Both President and Vice President; Officers Eligible to Act................................................. 14
§ 20 Resignation or Refusal of Office............................................................................................................................. 15
§ 21 Definitions............................................................................................................................................................... 15
MAILING INFORMATION ........................................................................................................................................ 16
CONTACTS ............................................................................................................................................................ 16

The 2008 Presidential Election/Provisions of the Constitution and United States Code

3

2008 PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION

Summary of Key Dates, Events and Information
General Authority:
The Archivist of the United States, as the head of the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), is responsible for carrying out ministerial duties on behalf of the States and the Congress under 3 U.S.C. sections 6, 11, 12, and 13. NARA is primarily responsible for coordinating the various stages of the electoral process by helping the States prepare and submit certificates that establish the appointment of electors and validate the electoral votes of each State. The Archivist delegates operational duties to the Director of the Federal Register. The Federal Register Legal Staff ensures that electoral documents are transmitted to Congress, made available to the public, and preserved as part of our nation’s history. The Legal Staff reviews the electoral certificates for the required signatures, seals and other matters of form, as specified in Federal law. Only the Congress and the Courts have the authority to rule on substantive legal issues.
1. June through October 2008 3. Mid-November through December 15, 2008

Transmission of Certificates of Ascertainment to NARA:
The Certificates of Ascertainment list the names of the electors appointed and the number of votes cast for each person. • The States prepare no less than SEVEN originals, which are authenticated by the Governor’s signature and the State seal, and TWO certified copies. Alternatively, NINE originals may be prepared. One original along with two certified copies (or three originals, if nine were prepared) must be sent by registered mail to the Archivist at the address below: Allen Weinstein Archivist of the United States National Archives and Records Administration c/o Office of the Federal Register (NF) 8601 Adelphi Road College Park, MD 20740-6001 The Governors must submit the Certificates of Ascertainment “as soon as practicable” after their States certify election results. At the very latest, they must be received by the electors on the statutory deadline of December 15, 2008 and submitted to the Archivist no later than December 16, 2008. • The remaining SIX original Certificates of Ascertainment will be attached to the Certificates of Vote at the State meetings.
4. December 9, 2008

Preparation Stage:
• The Federal Register prepares letters and instructional materials for the Archivist to send to the Governors of the 50 States and the Mayor of the District of Columbia. The materials include pamphlets on Federal election law and detailed instructions on how to prepare and submit the electors’ credentials (Certificates of Ascertainment) and the electoral votes (Certificates of Vote). • In October, the Federal Register begins contacting Governors and Secretaries of State to establish contacts for the coming election.
2. November 4, 2008

Date for Determination of Controversy as to Appointment of Electors:
• States must make final determinations of any controversies or contests as to the appointment of electors at least six days before December 15 meetings of electors for their electoral votes to be presumptively valid when presented to Congress. Determinations by States’ lawful tribunals are conclusive, if decided under laws enacted prior to election day.

General Election:
• The voters in each State choose slates of electors to serve in the Electoral College. Forty-eight of the fifty States and the District of Columbia are “winner-take all” (Maine and Nebraska are the exceptions).

The 2008 Presidential Election/Provisions of the Constitution and United States Code

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5. December 15, 2008

Meetings of Electors and Transmission of Certificates of Vote to NARA:
• The electors meet in their State to select the President and Vice President of the United States. No Constitutional provision or Federal law requires electors to vote in accordance with the popular vote in their States. NARA’s web site lists the States that have laws to bind electors to candidates. The electors record their votes on SIX “Certificates of Vote,” which are then paired with the SIX remaining original Certificates of Ascertainment. • The electors sign, seal and certify the electoral votes in packages containing a paired original Certificate of Ascertainment and original Certificate of Vote each. They immediately distribute the paired certificates as follows: • One pair of original certificates is sent to the President of the Senate (Richard B. Cheney): The Honorable Richard B. Cheney
President of the United States Senate
United States Senate
Washington, DC 20510
• Two pairs of original certificates are sent to the Archivist at the following address: Allen Weinstein Archivist of the United States National Archives and Records Administration c/o Office of the Federal Register (NF) 8601 Adelphi Road College Park, MD 20740-6001 The Archivist holds one pair subject to the order of the President of the United States Senate in case the electoral votes fail to reach the Senate. The other pair is held by the Office of the Federal Register for public inspection for one year. • Two pairs of certificates are sent by registered mail to the Secretary of State of each State, who holds one pair subject to the order of the President of the United States Senate in case the electoral votes fail to reach the Senate.

• One pair of original certificates is sent to the Chief Judge of the Federal District Court located where the electors meet. It is held subject to the order of the President of the United States Senate or the Archivist of the United States in case the electoral votes fail to reach the Senate or the Archivist.
6. December 24, 2008

Deadline for Receipt of Electoral Votes at NARA:
• The President of the Senate and the Archivist should have the electoral votes in hand by December 24, 2008. If votes are lost or delayed, the Archivist may take extraordinary measures to retrieve duplicate originals.
7. On or Before January 3, 2009

Transmission of Certificates of Ascertainment to Congress:
• As the new Congress assembles, the Archivist transmits copies of the Certificates of Ascertainment to Congress. This generally occurs in late December or early January when the Archivist and/or representatives from the Federal Register meet with the Secretary of the Senate and the Clerk of the House. This is, in part, a ceremonial occasion. Informal meetings may take place earlier.
8. January 6, 2009

Counting Electoral Votes in Congress:
• The Congress meets in joint session to count the electoral votes (Congress may pass a law to change the date). The President of the Senate is the presiding officer. If a Senator and a House member jointly submit an objection, each House would retire to its chamber to consider it. The President and Vice President must achieve a majority of electoral votes (270) to be elected. In the absence of a majority, the House selects the President, and the Senate selects the Vice President. If a State submits conflicting electoral votes to Congress, the two Houses acting concurrently may accept or reject them. If they do not concur, the votes of the electors certified by the Governor of the State would be counted in Congress.
9. January 20, 2009 at Noon

Inauguration:
• The President-elect takes the Oath of Office and becomes the President of the United States.

The 2008 Presidential Election/Provisions of the Constitution and United States Code

5

2008 LIST OF STATES AND VOTES

Allocation of Electoral Votes
based on the 2000 Census

Total: 538; Majority Needed to Elect: 270 Alabama - 9 Alaska - 3 Arizona - 10 Arkansas - 6 California - 55 Colorado - 9 Connecticut - 7 Delaware - 3 District of Columbia - 3 Florida - 27 Georgia - 15 Hawaii - 4 Idaho - 4 Illinois - 21 Indiana - 11 Iowa - 7 Kansas - 6 Kentucky - 8 Louisiana - 9 Maine - 4 Maryland - 10 Massachusetts - 12 Michigan - 17 Minnesota - 10 Mississippi - 6 Missouri - 11 Montana - 3 Nebraska - 5 Nevada - 5 New Hampshire - 4 New Jersey - 15 New Mexico - 5 New York - 31 North Carolina - 15 North Dakota - 3 Ohio - 20 Oklahoma - 7 Oregon - 7 Pennsylvania - 21 Rhode Island - 4 South Carolina - 8 South Dakota - 3 Tennessee - 11 Texas - 34 Utah - 5 Vermont - 3 Virginia - 13 Washington - 11 West Virginia - 5 Wisconsin - 10 Wyoming - 3

The 2008 Presidential Election/Provisions of the Constitution and United States Code

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CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES

ARTICLE II SECTION 1. The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall hold his Office during the Term of four Years, and, together with the Vice President, chosen for the same Term, be elected, as follows

Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or Person holding an Office of Trust or Profit under the United States, shall be appointed an Elector. * * * * * * * The Congress may determine the Time of chusing the Electors, and the Day on which they shall give their Votes; which Day shall be the same throughout the United States.
TWELFTH AMENDMENT

such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. … The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President, shall be the Vice-President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed, and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President to the United States.
FOURTEENTH AMENDMENT SECTION 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

The Electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President, and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as VicePresident, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate; The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates and the votes shall then be counted;—The person having the greatest number of votes for President, shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed; and if no person have

* * * * * * *
SECTION 3. No person shall be … elector of President and Vice President … who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall
* Asterisks represent additional text not printed here.

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have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability.
FIFTEENTH AMENDMENT SECTION 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.

Congress may by law provide for the case wherein neither a President elect nor a Vice President elect shall have qualified, declaring who shall then act as President, or the manner in which one who is to act shall be selected, and such person shall act accordingly until a President or Vice President shall have qualified.
SECTION 4. The Congress may by law provide for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the House of Representatives may choose a President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them, and for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the Senate may choose a Vice President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them.

* * * * * * *
NINETEENTH AMENDMENT

The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex. * * * * * * *
TWENTIETH AMENDMENT SECTION 1. The terms of the President and Vice President shall end at noon on the 20th day of January, and the terms of Senators and Representatives at noon on the 3d day of January, of the years in which such terms would have ended if this article had not been ratified; and the terms of their successors shall then begin. SECTION 2. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall begin at noon on the 3d day of January, unless they shall by law appoint a different day. SECTION 3. If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the President, the President elect shall have died, the Vice President elect shall become President. If a President shall not have been chosen before the time fixed for the beginning of his term, or if the President elect shall have failed to qualify, then the Vice President elect shall act as President until a President shall have qualified; and the

* * * * * * *
TWENTY-SECOND AMENDMENT SECTION 1. No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, and no person who has held the office of President, or acted as President, for more than two years of a term to which some other person was elected President shall be elected to the office of the President more than once. But this Article shall not apply to any person holding the office of President when this Article was proposed by the Congress, and shall not prevent any person who may be holding the office of President, or acting as President, during the term within which this Article becomes operative from holding the office of President or acting as President during the remainder of such term.

* * * * * * *
TWENTY-THIRD AMENDMENT SECTION 1. The District constituting the seat of Government of the United States shall appoint in such manner as the Congress may direct: A number of electors of President and Vice President equal to the whole number of Senators and

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Representatives in Congress to which the District would be entitled if it were a State, but in no event more than the least populous State; they shall be in addition to those appointed by the States, but they shall be considered, for the purposes of the election of President and Vice President, to be electors appointed by a State; and they shall meet in the District and perform such duties as provided by the twelfth article of amendment. * * * * * * *
TWENTY-FOURTH AMENDMENT SECTION 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or other election for President or Vice President, for electors for President or Vice President, or for Senator or Representative in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any State by reason of failure to pay any poll tax or other tax.

SECTION 4. Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive departments or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall immediately assume the powers and duties of the office as Acting President.

* * * * * * *
TWENTY-FIFTH AMENDMENT SECTION 1. In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, the Vice President shall become President. SECTION 2. Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, the President shall nominate a Vice President who shall take office upon confirmation by a majority vote of both Houses of Congress. SECTION 3. Whenever the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, and until he transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary, such powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice President as Acting President.

Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that no inability exists, he shall resume the powers and duties of his office unless the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive department or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit within four days to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office. Thereupon Congress shall decide the issue, assembling within forty-eight hours for that purpose if not in session. If the Congress, within twenty-one days after receipt of the latter written declaration, or, if Congress is not in session, within twenty-one days after Congress is required to assemble, determines by twothirds vote of both Houses that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall continue to discharge the same as Acting President; otherwise, the President shall resume the powers and duties of his office.

TWENTY-SIXTH AMENDMENT SECTION 1. The right of citizens of the United States, who are eighteen years of age or older, to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of age.

* * * * * * *

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UNITED STATES CODE
The following provisions of law governing Presidential Elections are contained in Chapter 1 of Title 3, United States Code (62 Stat. 672, as amended):

Title 3 — The President

Chapter 1 Presidential Elections and Vacancies
Section 1. Time of appointing electors. 2. Failure to make choice on prescribed day. 3. Number of electors. 4. Vacancies in electoral college. 5. Determination of controversy as to appointment of electors. 6. Credentials of electors; transmission to Archivist of the United States and to Congress; public inspection. 7. Meeting and vote of electors. 8. Manner of voting. 9. Certificates of votes for President and Vice President. 10. Sealing and endorsing certificates. 11. Disposition of certificates. 12. Failure of certificates of electors to reach President of the Senate or Archivist of the United States; demand on State for certificate. 13. Same; demand on district judge for certificate. 14. Forfeiture for messenger’s neglect of duty. 15. Counting electoral votes in Congress. 16. Same; seats for officers and Members of two Houses in joint meeting. 17. Same; limit of debate in each House. 18. Same; parliamentary procedure at joint meeting. 19. Vacancy in offices of both President and Vice President; officers eligible to act. 20. Resignation or refusal of office. 21. Definitions.

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Time of Appointing Electors § 1. The electors of President and Vice President shall be appointed, in each State, on the Tuesday next after the first Monday in November, in every fourth year succeeding every election of a President and Vice President. Failure to Make Choice on Prescribed Day § 2. Whenever any State has held an election for the purpose of choosing electors, and has failed to make a choice on the day prescribed by law, the electors may be appointed on a subsequent day in such a manner as the legislature of such State may direct. Number of Electors § 3. The number of electors shall be equal to the number of Senators and Representatives to which the several States are by law entitled at the time when the President and Vice President to be chosen come into office; except, that where no apportionment of Representatives has been made after any enumeration, at the time of choosing electors, the number of electors shall be according to the then existing apportionment of Senators and Representatives. Vacancies in Electoral College § 4. Each State may, by law, provide for the filling of any vacancies which may occur in its college of electors when such college meets to give its electoral vote. Determination of Controversy as to Appointment of Electors § 5. If any State shall have provided, by laws enacted prior to the day fixed for the appointment of the electors, for its final determination of any controversy or contest concerning the appointment of all or any of the electors of such State, by judicial or other methods or procedures, and such determination shall have been made at least six days before the time fixed for the meeting of the electors, such determination made pursuant to such law so existing on said day, and made at least six days prior to said time of meeting of the electors, shall be conclusive, and shall govern in the counting of the electoral votes as provided in the Constitution, and as hereinafter regulated, so far as the ascertainment of the electors appointed by such State is concerned.

Credentials of Electors; Transmission to Archivist of The United States and to Congress; Public Inspection § 6. It shall be the duty of the executive of each State, as soon as practicable after the conclusion of the appointment of the electors in such State by the final ascertainment, under and in pursuance of the laws of such State providing for such ascertainment, to communicate by registered mail under the seal of the State to the Archivist of the United States a certificate of such ascertainment of the electors appointed, setting forth the names of such electors and the canvass or other ascertainment under the laws of such State of the number of votes given or cast for each person for whose appointment any and all votes have been given or cast; and it shall also thereupon be the duty of the executive of each State to deliver to the electors of such State, on or before the day on which they are required by section 7 of this title to meet, six duplicate-originals of the same certificate under the seal of the State; and if there shall have been any final determination in a State in the manner provided for by law of a controversy or contest concerning the appointment of all or any of the electors of such State, it shall be the duty of the executive of such State, as soon as practicable after such determination, to communicate under the seal of the State to the Archivist of the United States a certificate of such determination in form and manner as the same shall have been made; and the certificate or certificates so received by the Archivist of the United States shall be preserved by him for one year and shall be a part of the public records of his office and shall be open to public inspection; and the Archivist of the United States at the first meeting of Congress thereafter shall transmit to the two Houses of Congress copies in full of each and every such certificate so received at the National Archives and Records Administration. Meeting and Vote of Electors § 7. The electors of President and Vice President of each State shall meet and give their votes on the first Monday after the second Wednesday in December next following their appointment at such place in each State as the legislature of such State shall direct.

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Manner of Voting § 8. The electors shall vote for President and Vice President, respectively, in the manner directed by the Constitution. Certificates of Votes for President and Vice President § 9. The electors shall make and sign six certificates of all the votes given by them, each of which certificates shall contain two distinct lists, one of the votes for President and the other of the votes for Vice President, and shall annex to each of the certificates one of the lists of the electors which shall have been furnished to them by direction of the executive of the State. Sealing and Endorsing Certificates § 10. The electors shall seal up the certificates so made by them, and certify upon each that the lists of all the votes of such State given for President, and of all the votes given for Vice President, are contained therein. Disposition of Certificates § 11. The electors shall dispose of the certificates so made by them and the lists attached thereto in the following manner: First. They shall forthwith forward by registered mail one of the same to the President of the Senate at the seat of government. Second. Two of the same shall be delivered to the secretary of state of the State, one of which shall be held subject to the order of the President of the Senate, the other to be preserved by him for one year and shall be a part of the public records of his office and shall be open to public inspection. Third. On the day thereafter they shall forward by registered mail two of such certificates and lists to the Archivist of the United States at the seat of government, one of which shall be held subject to the order of the President of the Senate. The other shall be preserved by the Archivist of the United States for one year and shall be a part of the public records of his office and shall be open to public inspection. Fourth. They shall forthwith cause the other of the certificates and lists to be delivered to the judge of the district in which the electors shall have assembled.

Failure of Certificates of Electors to Reach President of The Senate or Archivist of The United States; Demand on State for Certificate § 12. When no certificate of vote and list mentioned in sections 9 and 11 and of this title from any State shall have been received by the President of the Senate or by the Archivist of the United States by the fourth Wednesday in December, after the meeting of the electors shall have been held, the President of the Senate or, if he be absent from the seat of government, the Archivist of the United States shall request, by the most expeditious method available, the secretary of state of the State to send up the certificate and list lodged with him by the electors of such State; and it shall be his duty upon receipt of such request immediately to transmit same by registered mail to the President of the Senate at the seat of government. Same; Demand on District Judge for Certificate § 13. When no certificates of votes from any State shall have been received at the seat of government on the fourth Wednesday in December, after the meeting of the electors shall have been held, the President of the Senate or, if he be absent from the seat of government, the Archivist of the United States shall send a special messenger to the district judge in whose custody one certificate of votes from that State has been lodged, and such judge shall forthwith transmit that list by the hand of such messenger to the seat of government. Forfeiture for Messenger’s Neglect of Duty § 14. Every person who, having been appointed, pursuant to section 13 of this title, to deliver the certificates of the votes of the electors to the President of the Senate, and having accepted such appointment, shall neglect to perform the services required from him, shall forfeit the sum of $1,000. Counting Electoral Votes in Congress § 15. Congress shall be in session on the sixth day of January succeeding every meeting of the electors. The Senate and House of Representatives shall meet in the Hall of the House of Representatives at the hour of 1 o’clock in the afternoon on that day, and the President of the Senate shall be their presiding officer. Two tellers shall

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be previously appointed on the part of the Senate and two on the part of the House of Representatives, to whom shall be handed, as they are opened by the President of the Senate, all the certificates and papers purporting to be certificates of the electoral votes, which certificates and papers shall be opened, presented, and acted upon in the alphabetical order of the States, beginning with the letter A; and said tellers, having then read the same in the presence and hearing of the two Houses, shall make a list of the votes as they shall appear from the said certificates; and the votes having been ascertained and counted according to the rules in this subchapter provided, the result of the same shall be delivered to the President of the Senate, who shall thereupon announce the state of the vote, which announcement shall be deemed a sufficient declaration of the persons, if any, elected President and Vice President of the United States, and, together with a list of the votes, be entered on the Journals of the two Houses. Upon such reading of any such certificate or paper, the President of the Senate shall call for objections, if any. Every objection shall be made in writing, and shall state clearly and concisely, and without argument, the ground thereof, and shall be signed by at least one Senator and one Member of the House of Representatives before the same shall be received. When all objections so made to any vote or paper from a State shall have been received and read, the Senate shall thereupon withdraw, and such objections shall be submitted to the Senate for its decision; and the Speaker of the House of Representatives shall, in like manner, submit such objections to the House of Representatives for its decision; and no electoral vote or votes from any State which shall have been regularly given by electors whose appointment has been lawfully certified to according to section 6 of this title from which but one return has been received shall be rejected, but the two Houses concurrently may reject the vote or votes when they agree that such vote or votes have not been so regularly given by electors whose appointment has been so certified. If more than one return or paper purporting to be a return from a State shall have been received by the President of the Senate, those votes, and those only, shall be counted which shall have been regularly given by the electors who are shown by the determination mentioned in section 5

of this title to have been appointed, if the determination in said section provided for shall have been made, or by such successors or substitutes, in case of a vacancy in the board of electors so ascertained, as have been appointed to fill such vacancy in the mode provided by the laws of the State; but in case there shall arise the question which of two or more of such State authorities determining what electors have been appointed, as mentioned in section 5 of this title, is the lawful tribunal of such State, the votes regularly given of those electors, and those only, of such State shall be counted whose title as electors the two Houses, acting separately, shall concurrently decide is supported by the decision of such State so authorized by its law; and in such case of more than one return or paper purporting to be a return from a State, if there shall have been no such determination of the question in the State aforesaid, then those votes, and those only, shall be counted which the two Houses shall concurrently decide were cast by lawful electors appointed in accordance with the laws of the State, unless the two Houses, acting separately, shall concurrently decide such votes not to be the lawful votes of the legally appointed electors of such State. But if the two Houses shall disagree in respect of the counting of such votes, then, and in that case, the votes of the electors whose appointment shall have been certified by the executive of the State, under the seal thereof, shall be counted. When the two Houses have voted, they shall immediately again meet, and the presiding officer shall then announce the decision of the questions submitted. No votes or papers from any other State shall be acted upon until the objections previously made to the votes or papers from any State shall have been finally disposed of. Same; Seats for Officers and Members of Two Houses in Joint Meeting § 16. At such joint meeting of the two Houses seats shall be provided as follows: For the President of the Senate, the Speaker’s chair; for the Speaker, immediately upon his left; the Senators, in the body of the Hall upon the right of the presiding officer; for the Representatives, in the body of the Hall not provided for the Senators; for the tellers, Secretary of the Senate, and Clerk of the House of Representatives, at the Clerk’s desk; for the other officers of the two Houses, in front of the Clerk’s desk and upon

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each side of the Speaker’s platform. Such joint meeting shall not be dissolved until the count of electoral votes shall be completed and the result declared; and no recess shall be taken unless a question shall have arisen in regard to counting any such votes, or otherwise under this subchapter, in which case it shall be competent for either House, acting separately, in the manner hereinbefore provided, to direct a recess of such House not beyond the next calendar day, Sunday excepted, at the hour of 10 o’clock in the forenoon. But if the counting of the electoral votes and the declaration of the result shall not have been completed before the fifth calendar day next after such first meeting of the two Houses, no further or other recess shall be taken by either House. Same; Limit of Debate in Each House § 17. When the two Houses separate to decide upon an objection that may have been made to the counting of any electoral vote or votes from any State, or other question arising in the matter, each Senator and Representative may speak to such objection or question five minutes, and not more than once; but after such debate shall have lasted two hours it shall be the duty of the presiding officer of each House to put the main question without further debate. Same; Parliamentary Procedure at Joint Meeting § 18. While the two Houses shall be in meeting as provided in this chapter, the President of the Senate shall have power to preserve order; and no debate shall be allowed and no question shall be put by the presiding officer except to either House on a motion to withdraw. Vacancy in Offices of Both President and Vice President; Officers Eligible to Act § 19. (a)(1) If, by reason of death, resignation, removal from office, inability, or failure to qualify, there is neither a President nor Vice President to discharge the powers and duties of the office of President, then the Speaker of the House of Representatives shall, upon his resignation as Speaker and as Representative in Congress, act as President.

(2) The same rule shall apply in the case of the death, resignation, removal from office, or inability of an individual acting as President under this subsection. (b) If, at the time when under subsection (a) of this section a Speaker is to begin the discharge of the powers and duties of the office of President, there is no Speaker, or the Speaker fails to qualify as Acting President, then the President pro tempore of the Senate shall, upon his resignation as President pro tempore and as Senator, act as President. (c) An individual acting as President under subsection (a) or subsection (b) of this section shall continue to act until the expiration of the then current Presidential term, except that — (1) if his discharge of the powers and duties of the office is founded in whole or in part on the failure of both the President-elect and the Vice-President-elect to qualify, then he shall act only until a President or Vice President qualifies; and (2) if his discharge of the powers and duties of the office is founded in whole or in part on the inability of the President or Vice President, then he shall act only until the removal of the disability of one of such individuals. (d)(1) If, by reason of death, resignation, removal from office, inability, or failure to qualify, there is no President pro tempore to act as President under subsection (b) of this section, then the officer of the United States who is highest on the following list, and who is not under disability to discharge the powers and duties of the office of President shall act as President: Secretary of State, Secretary of the Treasury, Secretary of Defense, Attorney General, Secretary of the Interior, Secretary of Agriculture, Secretary of Commerce, Secretary of Labor, Secretary of Health and Human Services, Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, Secretary of Transportation, Secretary of Energy, Secretary of Education, Secretary of Veterans Affairs. (2) An individual acting as President under this subsection shall continue so to do until the expiration of the then current Presidential term, but not after a qualified and prior-entitled individual is able to act, except that the removal of the disability of an individual

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higher on the list contained in paragraph (1) of this subsection or the ability to qualify on the part of an individual higher on such list shall not terminate his service. (3) The taking of the oath of office by an individual specified in the list in paragraph (1) of this subsection shall be held to constitute his resignation from the office by virtue of the holding of which he qualifies to act as President. (e) Subsections (a), (b), and (d) of this section shall apply only to such officers as are eligible to the office of President under the Constitution. Subsection (d) of this section shall apply only to officers appointed, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, prior to the time of the death, resignation, removal from office, inability, or failure to qualify, of the President pro tempore, and only to officers not under impeachment by the House of Representatives at the time the powers and duties of the office of President devolve upon them. (f) During the period that any individual acts as President under this section, his compensation shall be at the rate then provided by law in the case of the President. Resignation or Refusal of Office § 20. The only evidence of a refusal to accept, or of a resignation of the office of President or Vice President, shall be an instrument in writing, declaring the same, and subscribed by the person refusing to accept or resigning, as the case may be, and delivered into the office of the Secretary of State. Definitions § 21. As used in this chapter the term — (a) “State” includes the District of Columbia. (b) “executives of each State” includes the
Board of Commissioners* of the District
of Columbia.

* The functions of the Board of Commissioners of the District of Columbia are now performed by the Mayor of the District of Columbia. (Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1967, Section 401, 81 Stat. 948: Pub. L. 93-198, Sections 422 and 711, 87 Stat. 790, 818.)

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MAILING INFORMATION

Certificates of Ascertainment
As soon as practicable after certifying their general election results, each State must send ONE original Certificate of Ascertainment, along with TWO certified copies (if seven originals were prepared) OR THREE original Certificates of Ascertainment (if nine originals were prepared) to: Allen Weinstein Archivist of the United States National Archives and Records Administration c/o Office of the Federal Register (NF) 8601 Adelphi Road College Park, MD 20740-6001 The remaining SIX original Certificates of Ascertainment will be attached to the Certificates of Vote at the State meetings.

Certificates of Vote
As soon as possible after their Electors vote, each State must pair SIX original Certificates of Vote with the SIX remaining original Certificates of Ascertainment, and send them to the designated Federal and State officials as follows: • ne pair of original certificates is sent to the President of the Senate (Richard B. Cheney): O The Honorable Richard B. Cheney President of the United States Senate
United States Senate
Washington, DC 20510
• Two pairs of original certificates are sent to the Archivist at the following address: Allen Weinstein Archivist of the United States National Archives and Records Administration
c/o Office of the Federal Register (NF)
8601 Adelphi Road
College Park, MD 20740-6001
The Archivist holds one pair subject to the order of the President of the United States Senate in case the electoral votes fail to reach the Senate. The other pair is held by the Office of the Federal Register for public inspection for one year. • Two pairs of certificates are sent by registered mail to the Secretary of State of each State, who holds one pair subject to the order of the President of the United States Senate in case the electoral votes fail to reach the Senate. • One pair of original certificates is sent to the Chief Judge of the Federal District Court located where the electors meet. It is held subject to the order of the President of the United States Senate or the Archivist of the United States in case the electoral votes fail to reach the Senate or the Archivist. CONTACTS For more information on the Electoral College and the election responsibilities of the States and the Archivist of the United States,
contact the Office of the Federal Register:
Phone: 202-741-6030
Email: Electoral.College@nara.gov
Your Electoral College contacts at the Office of the Federal Register are:
Amy Bunk, Director of Legal Affairs and Policy
Allyson Fenton Christou, Attorney-Advisor

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For more information on the Electoral College, visit NARA’s web site at:

http://www.archives.gov/federal-register/electoral-college/.

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