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Chemistry Exam Review
UNIT ONE: PERIODIC TABLE Group One- alkali metals, most reactive Group Two- alkaline earth metals Group Three-twelve- are the transition metals, most conduct electricity Group Seventeen- are the halogens, very reactive Group Eighteen- are the noble gases, not very reactive ATOMIC THEORY Atomic Number- the number of protons in the nucleus Mass Number- the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus Number of Neutrons- Mass Number – Atomic Number Isotope- atoms of an element that have the same number of protons but different number of neutrons in their nuclei Relative Atomic Mass (u or amu)- atoms are so small, it is a scale used to indicate average mass. The mass of an atom expressed in the unified atomic mass unit, u. A relative number, compared with the carbon-12 standard. According to this scale, both the proton & neutron have a mass close to 1u. Example: C-12=12u and H=1 or 1/12 mass of C and O=16 or 16/12 (4/3) mass of C. Average Atomic Mass- is the mass shown in the periodic table that is a result of an average mass of an element based on the abundance of each isotope. Average atomic mass = (atomic mass of A) x (fraction of a) + (atomic mass of B) x (fraction of b)… Radioisotope- a radioactive isotope of an element which is capable of spontaneously emitting radiation in the form of alpha ( ), beta ( ), and gamma ( ) rays. They can occur naturally or can be produced artificially.
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Name Alpha Particle - travels a few cm.
Symbol He or
Beta Particle - travels a few m.
Gamma Rays - penetrating abilities
Description - helium nucleus with no electrons - nucleus lose 2 protons and 2 neutrons, therefore a new element results - high energy e- increases number of protons by 1 and decreases number of neutrons by 1 - therefore a new element results - high energy particle of light or a type of electromagnetic radiation with no mass/charge - short λ (wavelengths)
Half-life- the time it takes for one half of the nuclei in a radioactive sample to decay A = A0 (0.5)^t/h A= current sample size, A0= original sample size, t= time, h= half-life PERIODIC TRENDS Effective Nuclear Charge- is the net force of attraction between a +ve nucleus and an e- in the valence shell (it tells you how tightly the nucleus is holding onto its e-). - ENC depends on two main factors: magnitude of protons, and electron screening - the magnitude of the nuclear charge (how many p+) does affect the trends across a row (left to right). As you increase the number of p+, ENC increases. - electron screening or electron shielding: the core electrons can affect the force of attraction between a nucleus and its valence e-. It does affect the trend down a group; the increased number of filled energy levels (core e-) will decrease ENC. Atomic Radius (AR)- magnitude increases across. - nucleus has a stronger force of attraction for it’s valence e-; AR increases from left to right.
The extra +ve charge pulls core e.the electron attracting ability of the atom. NAMING COMPOUDS If the compound is Ionic (Metal with a Non-Metal)Binary Ionic Compounds: 1.closer. . 2. .is larger than. neutral.when discussing ionic radius. The extra –ve charge means e. neutral. adding an e. Na+ would be called Sodium).e. F).+ions (cations). (Ex.the energy given off when an electron is added. Sodium Chloride). Na+ is called Sodium).-ve ions (anions).would become chloride). The first word of the chemical name is the name of the cation (Ex. (Ex.shielding causes the nucleus to have a weaker pull on valence e-.(F. The last word is the name of the element of which the anion with the suffix – ide.to an atom causes the electron could to expand. AR increases from top to bottom. Polyatomic Ionic Compounds: 1. Electron Affinity. Electronegativity. The cation is always written before the anion. Na). 3.from an atom causes the electron cloud to shrink. we discuss cations (+ve) and anions (-ve) separately. 2. 4. removing one e.Page 3 of 28 . Cl. Put the two words together.
. The cation is always written before the anion. Ionization Energy. Ionic Radius (IR). Or a whole outer shell of electrons has been lost (Na+ is smaller than.amount of energy required to completely remove an electron from an atom.aren’t pulled closer because there is an increase in repulsion between valence e. The first world of the chemical name is the name of the cation (Ex.
2. In NO. the first part of the second word would be –oxide). 4.
* For elements in the transition metal group.Page 4 of 28 3. the first would be nitrogen).is hydroxide). Mono Di Tri Tetra Penta Hexa Hepta Octa Nona Deca * Remember that pairs). (Ex. a prefix is added to show how many of each element are used. you must be careful in the naming. Iron (II) or (III). In NO. much like binary ionic compounds. OH. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 certain substance form Diatomic Molecules (they hang out in H O F Br I N Cl Ion Name Ammonium Nitrite Nitrate Sulfite Sulfate Ion Name Hydroxide Chromate Dichromate Permanganate Acetate
. The first element in the formula uses the whole name of the element. The first word of the formula does not use mono. Put the two words together. The last word is the name of the polyatomic ion (Ex. (Ex. 3. So the person reading the name can determine what the subscript is on each element. Gold (I) or (III) If the compound is Covalent (Non-Metal with Non-Metal)Binary Molecular (covalent) compounds: 1. Sodium hydroxide). Copper (I) or (II). (Ex. Lead (II) or (IV). Tin (II) or (IV). Cobalt (II) or (III). much like binary ionic compounds. The second element in the formula only uses the first half of the word and – ide is added in place of the removed ending.
Bond type depends on electronegativity. Ar. Atoms form bonds to decrease their potential energy which makes the system more stable. .a chemical bond is a strong interaction between atoms.a molecule is the smallest part of an element or compound which exists independently. compounds tend to dissolve in other compounds that have similar properties. Do not contain the crystal lattice structure of ionic compounds. EA. EN. no electricity (non-electrolyte). or flexible. Properties of Covalent Compounds1. It contains atoms bonded together in a fixed whole number ratio. 3.a type of bonding which results when one or more pairs of electrons are shared between two atoms (non-metals). di. Aren’t very soluble in water. tri… . Covalent compounds are free to move around unlike ionic compounds.Cl + Cl : these two atoms have equal IE. Like dissolves like. Generally have much lower melting and boiling points than ionic compounds.uses prefixes: mono. 4. BONDING Bonding. Have weak intermolecular forces which are easy to break/be separated. to form ions they cannot be charge carriers required to conduct electricity. 2.Page 5 of 28 Hydrogen sulfate Peroxide Cyanide Phosphate Hydrogen phosphate Dihydrogen phosphate Perchlorate Chlorate Chorite Hypochlorite Carbonate Hydrogen carbonate
MOLECULAR OR COVALENT BONDING Covalent Bonding. Covalent compounds do not need to break any bonds like ionic compounds. Since they do not usually dissolve in water. . They do not conduct electricity in water. Since H2O is polar and most covalent compounds are not. Are soft. they don’t usually dissolve in H2O.
. waxy. No ions.
.have high melting and boiling points.determine the number of valence electrons.is a type of chemical bonding resulting from the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions in a compound. 3. Sodium Chloride
LEWIS THEORY OF BONDING .are most stable when they are paired.form crystals.fill in the dots (e-) according to the number of valence electrons. Determine the Lewis dot diagram for both elements. Ions resist movement.” Properties of Ionic Compounds.e. Lewis StructureFor ionic compounds. .are electrolytes.write down the symbol (represents nucleus) . Lewis Dot Diagrams.
. . Ex. Place brackets around each (always remember to write the cation first. Must be in a clockwise fashion. Transfer the electrons so that both atoms are isoelectric with noble gas.Page 6 of 28 Ionic Bonds. anion anion second) and add subscripts if necessary. .atoms and ions are stable if they have noble gas-like electron structure (octet). Most ionic compounds cannot be melted with a Bunsen burner.
. 2. 1. Are solids at SATP. When an ionic compound is put into water the ions pull apart from each other and the negatively charged ions are free to conduct electricity. The family is called “salts.atoms form chemical bonds to achieve a stable octet of e-.very hard and brittle. .
2. Any remaining atoms go to the central atom (usually if central atom is period 3 or later.can achieve stability through ionic or covalent bonding. move lone pairs from the surrounding atoms to form double or triple bonds until the central atom has a complete octet. octet rule may not apply). add or subtract charges if necessary. 6. 5. Draw the Lewis Structure and enclose polyatomic ions with square brackets showing the ion charge. Formal Charge = # valence electrons – (1/2 #bonded e. VSEPR SHAPES
. Count the number of valence electrons of all atoms. Calculate formal charge and reduce.
Rules for Drawing Lewis Structure1. Complete the octets of the surrounding atoms using one pair of electrons. Place a bonding pair of electrons between the central atom and each of the surrounding atoms.+ # lone pairs) 7. 4.Page 7 of 28 . Arrange atoms symmetrically around the central atom. If the central atom does not have an octet. making resonance structures if necessary. 3.
this total will provide you with one of the basic geometric shapes/molecular shapes .VSEPR Theory provides a 3-D geometric structure to be determined using both the bonded and unbounded electrons of the central atom of a molecule. bonding is neither fully ionic or fully covalent.once the Lewis Structure is drawn.
Some Key Steps.Page 8 of 28
VSEPR THEORY . Ex. H + Cl HCl
.arrange and compare the number of lone pairs with the number of bonded pairs to get the final geometric shape
POLAR COVALENT BONDS .draw the Lewis Structure for the molecule .In many molecules. determine the total number of the bonded and lone pairs of the central atom (steric number) .
Cl has a stronger pull of e. . dipoledipole forces.when determining whether a molecule is Polar or Non-Polar. we must consider the following: .Page 9 of 28 .three types of intermolecular forces include: London dispersion forces.bond/atom arrangement in a molecule (VSEPR shape) INTERMOLECULAR FORCES . however.the unequal sharing of the bonded e.over H. the greater that atom’s ability to attract electrons will be. .will be closer on average to the Cl atom.8. covalent. polar covalent.Electronegativity: a measure of the electron attracting ability of the atoms in a molecule.0
.The molecule as a whole is electrically neutral. .London dispersion forces result from instantaneous dipoles 1. . we can determine what type of bond is formed. therefore polar covalent bond. .EN can be used to identify the character of a bond: ionic.1 Cl—EN of 2.9 Difference is 0. .it is almost as if Cl has gained an electron and become negatively charged while H has lost an e.to become positively charged.pair results in a compound where one end is slighty positive ( and the other end is slightly negative ( . Thus. ElectronegativitiesBy determining the difference in EN between 2 atoms. .7 4. . the shared e. it does not attract strong enough to gain complete possession of it.are forces of attraction between covalently bonded molecules . and hydrogen bonding. Covalent Polar Covalent Ionic
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------0 Cl + H ClH H—EN of 2. .this is known as a polar covalent bond.EN values are such that the bigger its number.therefore the bond is not ionic.polarity of each bond in the molecule . .Cl has a stronger pull on the shared e-.
including nonpolar ones. * the charge does not change.are compounds that contain water as part of the ionic crystal structure .they increase as the number of atoms in molecule increases.4 combinations of the polyatomic ions can exist. Therefore.higher boiling point = stronger intermolecular forces . .ion as an example.ClO3.Hype________ite oxyanion has 1 fewer than the ite. . .Dipole-Dipole forces result when polar molecules attract nearby polar molecules. . .very weak forces . If you remove one oxygen atom in exchange for a sulfur atom it becomes Thio_______
HYDRATES .these molecules also have London dispersion forces. electronegative atom .these compounds decompose to an ionic compound and water vapour when heated
.occurs from an attractive force acting between polar molecules. . the charge on the ion does not change.is the chlorite ion. .bonded to N.ClO2.__________ite oxyanion has 1 less than the ate. If you have a polyatomic ion and you add a hydrogen atom. O.ClO4.is the perchlorate ion. .is the chlorate ion most stable.ClO.results when an H atom is bonded to a small.Page 10 of 28 . .___________ate oxyanion is the most stable.Hydrogen bonding . . In this case we’ll use ClO3. or F POLYATOMIC IONS .occurs from an attractive force acting between all molecules. .is the hypechlorite ion. only the number of oxygen atoms. and as the size of the atom increases .Per______ate oxyanion has 1 more oxygen than the ate.stronger than London Dispersion forces . .
when aqueous solutions of many soluble salts area evaporated a precise number of water molecules may be retained as the ions for crystals . the acid ends in ic If the ion ends in ite. Name the ionic compound 2.
NOMENCLATURE CONTINUED Classic MethodRULE: hydro + stem of element + ic then acid HCL hydrochloric acid IUPAC MethodRULE: aqueous hydrogen stem + ide HCL aqueous hydrogen chloride Oxyacids: ions that form when hydrogen combines with polyatomic ions containing oxygen Classic MethodRULE: anion + ous or ic then acid If the ion ends in ate. Copper (II) Sulfate Pentahydrate CuSO4
.water becomes a part of the crystal called water of hydration knows as a hydrate How to Name Hydrates1. the acid ends in ous Stem 1 more oxygen Stem (most stable) 1 less oxygen 2 less oxygen Classic Method ExamplesHCLO4 perchlorate perchloric acid HClO hypchlorite hypochlorous acid IUPAC Method ExamplesH2SO4 aqueous hydrogen sulfate HNO4 aqueous hydrogen pernitrate Ion Per_____ate _______ate ________ite Hypo_______ite Acid Name (add H+ in formula) Per______ic acid ________ic acid ________ous acid Hypo______ous acid
.Page 11 of 28 . Prefix the number of water molecules and end in hydrate
Ex. Followed by a dot 3.
carbon.this will only occur if sufficient oxygen is present .A + B AB Decomposition Reactions-
.this type of reaction is also known as burning Complete Combustion.formation of an odour .instead of 2 products.a very rapid reaction of a substance with oxygen to: .these include a word equation and a chemical equation Evidence of a Chemical Reaction.results in the production of water and carbon dioxide .is a theory stating that chemical reactions involve collisions and rearrangements of atoms or groups of atoms.production of light .combustion.change in colour . synthesis. carbon dioxide.change in temperature . decomposition. double displacement Combustion.evolution of a new gas (effervescence) .produce compounds called oxides . 4 are produced: carbon monoxide. single displacement.General formula: hydrocarbon + oxygen carbon dioxide + water Incomplete Combustion.formation of a precipitate (solid produced from two liquids) . and that the outcome of collisions depends on the energy and orientation of collisions Representing a Chemical Change.explains that chemical reactions occur because particles collide with sufficient energy to break the old bonds and allow the formation of new bonds Collision-Reaction Theory.production of sound Types of Chemical Reactions. and water Synthesis Reactions.Page 12 of 28
CHEMICAL BONDING Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT).occurs when there is not enough oxygen available .
in the activity series.use the solubility table UNIT TWO: CALCULATING # OF ENTITES .from Dalton’s atomic theory .where N = # of entities (atoms or molecules) .the chemical formula for CO is similar to that of CO2.we refer to this study of relationships between quantities of reactants and products as stoichiometry THE MOLE .even though CO and CO2 are similar. they have very different properties .use the unit of measurement called the mole (mol) .a mole is Avogadro’s constant .where n = moles of sample . each metal will displace any metal listed below it Double Displacement Reactions.AB A + B Single Displacement Reactions.the mass of one mole is called Molar Mass
.A + BC AC + B .02 x 10^23 .AB + CD = AD +CB . however.For example: CO and CO2 .6.a specific compound always contains the same elements in definite proportions by mass .chemists often need to measure out a certain mass of a substance .02 x 10^23 entities) LAW OF DEFINITE PROPORTIONS .used to calculate the # of atoms or molecules in a sample N = nNA .where NA = Avogadro’s Constant (6. the difference in the number of oxygen atoms per molecule causes each gas to have different properties .Page 13 of 28 .properties of a substance depend on the elements the compound is composed of .
02 g/mol %H = %N = %O = x 100% = 1.is a calculation used to determine the contribution of each element (as a %) to the total mass of the compound .23% x 100% = 76.Percent to mass . we use the following formula: n= PERCENTAGE COMPOSITION .16%
EMPIRICAL FORMULA .How to find empirical formula? .6% x 100% = 22. What is the percentage composition of nitric acid (HNO3) ? M = 63.Page 14 of 28 CALCULATIONS INVOLVING MOLE .to convert mass to moles.Multiply till whole
. you must: .calculate the mass (or molar mass) of each atom/element in the compound .Mass to mole .determine the total mass (or molar mass) of the compound .the simplest formula/empirical formula does not always indicate the action number of each type of atom within a compound .divide the mass (or molar mass) of each atom/element by the total mass of the compound to determine the percentage composition of each element/atom in the compound Ex.to determine the percentage composition of a compound.indicates a numerical ratio that exists between atoms .Divide by small .
Write a balanced chemical equation .Calculate the number of moles LIMITING AND EXCESS REAGENTS .this says: 1 atom of Fe reacts with 1 atom of Se to produce 1 molecule of FeSe .What is the molecular formula?
THE MOLE AND CHEMICAL EQUATIONS Fe(s) + Se(s) FeSe(s) .indicates the number and type of each atom found in the molecule .we cannot write a molecular formula for all compounds because not all substances are molecules .Record the given mass below that . the empirical formula and molecular formula can be the same .Determine mass of product PERCENTAGE YIELD . leaving an excess of the other reactants To Solve: .or: 1 mole of Fe reacts with 1 mole of Se to produce 1 mole of FeSe .the reactant that is completely consumed in a chemical reaction is known as the limiting reagent . How much of Se is required to react with 16.so far. we’ve been calculating theoretical yield obtained from stoichiometric calculations using our balanced chemical equations
.2g of Fe? To Solve: .or: 55.in some cases.Write a balanced chemical equation (with states) .Determine the limiting reagent . the reaction will stop.81g of FeSe .if the limiting reagent is all used up.Calculate the number of moles present .9g of Se to produce 134.But the order from Boreal has not arrived yet.Page 15 of 28
MOLECULAR FORMULA .85g of Fe reacts with 78.it determines the around of product that will come from a reaction .Record the molar masses below that .
but was created by the nuclear reaction: + .positrons (positive electrons) are produced by the reverse reaction . a proton (hydrogen nucleus) or a neutron Ex.the electron emitted was never found in the nucleus.Page 16 of 28 .involve the greatest quantities of energy . in practice. we don’t always get that expected amount. Write a nuclear equation for the bombardment of nitrogen-14 by an alpha particle giving off a proton and the desired isotope.percentage yield compares the actual and theoretical yield.is done by bombarding a nucleus with an alpha particle (the nucleus).involve nucleons (particles in nucleus) There are four classes of Nuclear Reactions: 1) Radioactive Decay .releases a huge amount of energy
.both alpha and beta decay produce s more stable nucleus . Ex.changing the number of protons changes the atom’s identity. . causing it to split into two smaller nuclei plus 2 or 3 neutrons . . + Beta Decay: .as nucleons reorganize themselves into a more stable configuration.however. This change is known as transmutation. Percentage Yield = x 100%
BALANCING NUCLEAR EQUATIONS Nuclear reactions involve changes occurring in the nucleus of atoms .occurs when an isotope absorbs a neutron. The amount that we measure at the end of our experiment is the actual yield. energy is emitted in the form of gamma rays 2) Artificial Transmutation .the spontaneous decomposition of a nucleus.unstable nuclei may emit high energy electrons known as beta particles in the process of beta decay. + + 3) Fission . Can be wither alpha or beta decay depending on the particle emitted.an alpha particle is the nucleus of a He atom (no electron) . + .
highly polar .a small molecule .between oppositely charged ends . or N) of another .a liquid over a wide temperature range Intermolecular Forces: .production of neutrons leads to further fission. the cycle continues .water makes a great solvent because: .polar solutes dissolve in polar solvents due to dipole-dipole and/or hydrogen bonding .polar molecules containing F. O.non-polar solutes dissolve in non-polar solvents due to London-dispersion forces
. O. liquids.electron in one molecule is attracted to a positive nuclei of others .capable of hydrogen bonding . .liquid and gas solutions are transparent .between slightly positive H atom of one molecule and highly electronegative atom (F.have water as the solvent (“universal”) .solutes and solvents may be solids.occurs when several light atoms combine to form heavier atoms to release a very large amount of energy UNIT THREE: THE NATURE AND PROPERTIES OF SOLUTIONS Solutions are homogeneous mixtures of a substance composed of at least one solute and one solvent.polar molecules HYDROGEN BOND (STRONG) .forces BETWEEN molecules define their solubility LONDON DISPERSION (WEAK) .Page 17 of 28 . or N “Like dissolves like”: .uniform mixture of particles .all (polar and nonpolar) DIPOLE-DIPOLE . or gases Aqueous Solutions: .provide energy for nuclear power generating stations 4) Fusion .
concentrated solutions have a relatively large amount of solute per unit volume of solution .bases in aqueous solution will turn red litmus paper blue .non-electrolytes are compounds that do not conduct electricity in aqueous solution .most highly soluble compounds .acids in aqueous solutions will turn blue litmus paper red . Non-Electrolytes: .dilute solutions have a relatively small amount of solvent per unit of volume of solution .neutral substances will show no change in litmus paper SOLUTION CONCENTRATION . Concentration = .concentrations can be expressed in various ways depending on the usage of the solution 1) Percentage Concentration: can be found on many consumer products and may be expressed as a percentage by volume. Bases.in general. a percentage by weight or a percentage.the ratio between the amount of solute and the amount of solution .compounds are electrolytes if their aqueous solutions conduct electricity .includes most molecular compounds with the exception of acids Classifying Solutions: Acids.Page 18 of 28 Electrolytes vs.
Percentage volume by volume: c= x 100%
Percentage weight by volume: c= x 100%
Percentage weight by weight: c= x 100%
. and Neutral Substances: .
solids generally have a higher solubility at higher temperatures .a standard solution has a precisely known concentration because it was made with a precise mass of solute and a precise volume of solvent .have maximum solute concentrations.to obtain the desired (lower) concentration we can dilute the solution by adding more solvent .with units of mol/L c= OR M =
SOLUTION PREPARATION .under the curve = unsaturated . while the volume and concentration are changed from the initial solution to the final solution For our final and initial solutions.above the curve = supersaturated
. as long as temperate and pressure are constant. and may not be appropriate for the required purpose . the amount of dissolved solute remains the same. Solubility Curves: .aqueous standard solutions are made using distilled (pure) water as the solvent Preparing a Standard Solution: .Page 19 of 28 .along the curve = saturated .no more solute will dissolve.very low concentrations are often better described in terms of parts per million (ppm) 1ppm = 1g/10^6mL = 1g/1000L = 1mg/L = 1ug/g Molar Concentration: .compounds have different solubility’s at different temperatures .standard/stock solutions often have a high concentration.is the maximum concentration of a solute in a solvent at a specific temperate (in grams of solute/100mL of solvent). = SOLUBILITY AND REACTIONS Saturated Solutions.in doing so.the amount of solute in moles that is dissolved in one litre of solution . Solubility. The solution will remain the same.
when concentration increases. effervescence.some examples: colour.net ionic equations show only the ions or neutral substances involved in the overall chemical reaction. light produced.some liquids (mostly polar) dissolve completely in water in any proportions and are said to be miscible with water Crystillization: . silver in
How can we determine the presence of and/or lead ions solution?
. formation of solid.liquids that do not dissolve in water (mostly non-polar) will form a separate layer and are called immiscible with water . .occurs when solution concentration exceeds solubility .use formation of low-solubility compounds (precipitate) to detect the presence of ions
Ex.loss of solvent (through evaporation) increases solute concentration.gases always have higher solubility at lower temperatures .describes a quality or change in matter that has no numerical expression . but some have specific colours in solution . Qualitative Chemical Analysis: . Precipitates have a low solubility in water and are shown as solids.Page 20 of 28 . volume decreases and moles increase IONIC EQUATIONS . smell. crystals come out of solution .chemists use sequential qualitative chemical analysis to test whether ions are present in a sample solution . etc.total ionic equations show all entities present in the reaction with all ionic compounds in their dissociated form.qualitative analysis by colour: most ions in aqueous solution are colourless. .gases dissolve in liquids too .
water is considered a non-electrolyte .we can define a base as an ionic hydroxide that releases mobile hydroxide ions in solution .water consists of molecules. not ions .most bases are ionic compounds that contain a hydroxide.water is actually a weak electrolyte.they do not conduct electricity and are termed non-electrolytes . ionic compounds separate into ions when they are liquid or in solution ACIDS .acids turn litmus paper blue red BASES .when two water molecules collide.according to Arrhenius.is a method of calculating the concentration of substances in a chemical reaction by measuring the volumes of solutions that react completely. H3O or hydronium ions do exist .bases turn litmus paper red blue
. there are a small number of ions present in water because of dissociation H2O(l) + H2O(l) H3O(aq) (hydronium ion) + OH (hydroxide ion) .in their pure form (liquid/solid) acids are molecular compounds that contain hydrogen . in solution. which is released in solution . acids ionize to release hydrogen ions .hydrogen ions do not exist in water. sometimes called volumetric stoichiometry THE DISSOCIATION OF WATER . a hydrogen ion is transferred from one water molecule to the other (fewer than two in one billion ionize at SATP) The Arrhenius Definition: .however.Page 21 of 28
SOLUTION STOICHIOMETRY .
0---------------------BASE-----------------14.0mol/L HCl.0 – 10.a base that dissociates partially THE pH SCALE .7 x 10^-11 mol/L .the pH scale is used to measure the strength of acids and bases. An antacid solution has a hydrogen ion concentration of 4.0 .0 blue Phenolphthalein: colourless 8.33 Ex.What effect does the dilution of an acidic solution have on the pH of the solution? Demo: 1.a base that dissociates totally .7 x 10^-11 mol/L] = 10.0 – 8. What is the hydronium ion concentration? [H+] = 10^-pH = 10^-10.low percentage ionization. digs in the hydrogen ion concentration** Ex.7 x 10^-11 mol/L.a high percentage of ionization.an acid that ionizes almost completely in water (>99%) to form aqueous hydrogen ions (hydronium ions) . What is the pH? = -log[H+] = -log[4.Page 22 of 28
STRONG ACIDS .an acid that ionizes only partially (<50%) in water to form aqueous hydrogen ions . low conductivity STRONG BASE . high conductivity WEAK ACIDS . pH = 1
.0 ---------------------ACID-----------------------7. ROYGBV .pH can be determined using a pH meter or an indicator Litmus: red 6.pH is related to the quantity of H+ ions in the solution pH = -log [H+] and [H+] = 10^-pH . 0.33.** the number of digits following the decimal point in the pH value is equal to the number of sig.0 pink Demo: universal indicator.33 = 4. The pH reading of a solution is 10.metal hydroxides are strong bases WEAK BASE .328 pH is 10.
Active metal + acid H2(g) + ionic compound 2. H2O/OH and NH3/NH4 are the acid-base pairs. [HCL] = unknown.Page 23 of 28 1.a conjugate acid-base pair may be defined as an acid and corresponding base that differ in chemical composition by only a single proton (H+).0mL of 1. Example: NH3/NH4 NH3 (l) + H2O(l) NH4(aq)+ OH(aq) Base Acid C.0 mol/L HCl diluted to 100mL. A base is a proton acceptor. Acid + base salt + water ACID-BASE TITRATION . the pH moves closer to 7 (neutral) Acid + Base Salt + Water BRONSTED-LOWRY DEFINITION .B Therefore. Acid-Base Reactions: .a substance formed by the addition of a proton to a base is called a conjugate acid .to determine the [HCl]. C.add 2 drops of indicator solution (phenolphthalein)
. .A. An acid is a proton donor (H+).usually occurs with neutralization reactions where one of the standardized samples is the base. and the sample is the acid Ex.when an acid reacts with a base.0mL) in an Erlenmeyer flask . Acid + carbonate H2CO3(aq) + ionic compound 3. .a titration is the procedure where a standardized substance of known concentration (the titrant in buret) is added to a substance of unknown concentration (the sample in Erlenmeyer flask) in an attempt to determine the unknown concentration .Bronsted-Lowry Acid: a substance that can donate a proton to some other substance.000 M .acids can take part in several characteristic reactions that can allow us to get clues about unknown substances or predicting what the products could be 1. [NaOH] = 1. take a specific amount of the solution (20.Bronsted-Lowry Base: a substance that can accept a proton from another substance. pH = 2 Neutralization Reactions: .a substance formed by the loss of a proton is called a conjugate base . Acid + ionic compound precipitate + acid 4.
there are no attractive forces between the molecules. (Recall: T measures average kinetic energy). this is the equivalence point . 760 mmHg **
. that is. If the temperature increases.all collisions are perfectly elastic. 100kPa UNIT NAME Pascal Atmosphere Millimeters of mercury Torr Temperature for Gases: . random. .Page 24 of 28 .temperature measures the average kinetic energy of a substance’s particles .the common unit for temperature is degrees Celsius.[H+] = [OH-].325 kPa = 1. indicators can be used . . Pressure of Gases: .slowly add [NaOH] while carefully measuring the amount with the buret until all of the HCl has reacted .molecules of different gases have equal average kinetic energies at the same temperature.gases consist of extremely small particles called molecules. endpoint = equivalence point UNIT FOUR: KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY (KMT) . . They collide with each other and with the walls of the container. but the SI unit is Kelvin (K) .atmospheric pressure is approx. there are no energy losses due to friction.00atm.always use Kelvin when working with gases UNIT SYMBOL Pa atm mmHg torr DEFINITION/CONVERSION 1 Pa = 1N/m^2 1 atm = 101.in the case of acid/base titrations.ideally.the SI unit for pressure is Pascal (Pa) . .Endpoint: occurs when the indicator changes colour and the titration stopped.pressure is defined as a force per unit area . the average kinetic energy of the molecules increases.325kPa 760mmHg = 1 atm 1 torr = 1mmHg
** 101. 760 torr.the point at which stoichiometry equivalent quantities of the substances have been brought together (equal number of moles) . .atmospheric pressure is the force per unit area exerted by air on all objects .the molecules of a gas are in rapid. straight-line motion. These molecules are so small that their volume is negligible in comparison with the volume of the container.
Robert Boyle studied the effect of changing the pressure of a gas on its volume at constant temperature. .standard temperature and pressure (STP) is 273.0 K = absolute zero K = degrees Celsius + 273 Degrees Celsius = K – 273 .the volume of a fixed mass of gas is proportional to its temperature when the pressure is kept constant. . The greater the temperature.the pressure of a fixed amount of gas. and inversely related to each other
. is directly proportional to its Kelvin temperature. the volume of the gas decreases proportionally provided the temperature and amount of gas stayed constant. the volume of a given sample of gas is inversely proportional to its pressure.
Boyle’s Law: . the x.standard ambient temperature and pressure (SATP) is 298.Joseph Gay-Lussac discovered the relationship between temperature and pressure acting on a fixed volume of gas.Lord Kelvin found that regardless of the gas tested. at constant volume. the greater the average kinetic energy. P1V1 = P2V2 Combined Gas Law: .325kPa . .molecular motion would cease and so this point is called absolute zero -273 degrees Celsius = 0.one can see that volume and pressure are directly related to temperature.on a graph would always be -273 degrees Celsius .15K and 100kPa GAS LAWS Charles’ Law: . .Page 25 of 28 Kelvin Scale: .
Gay Lussac’s Law: .15K and 101.he determined that as the pressure on a gas increases.at constant temperature.the average kinetic energy of gas molecules is directly related to the temperature.
no attractive forces . volume. and temperature Ideal gas: a hypothetical gas that obeys all the gas laws perfectly under all conditions (ex. They are STP and SATP
. Does not condense into a liquid when cooled) .Page 26 of 28 IDEAL GAS LAW Purpose: to calculate the amount of gas at any specific conditions of pressure.02 x 10^23 molecules) of a gas should occupy some definite volume under specific conditions .in a balanced chemical equation.the ideal gas law works for any sample of gas . but makes a close approximation .an equation that gives the relationship between the pressure.particles have no volume .states that equal volumes of gases measured at the same temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of molecules (and therefore moles) .ideal gas does not really exist.where V = Litres . although real gases behave this way at high temperatures and low pressures . temperature and number of moles of a gas is: PV = nRT . volumes of gaseous reactants and products of chemical reactions will always combine in simple whole number ratios .this theoretical concept helps explain the laws of combining volumes .one mole (6.where n = moles .assume that gases behave “ideally” (obeys gas laws under all temperatures and pressures) . the mole ratio can be expressed as the volume ratio Molar Volume of Gases: . volume.there are no gases for which this is true.Avogadro’s theory showed that equal volumes of gases contain an equal number of molecules under identical conditions .also known as Gay-Lusaac’s Law of Combing Volumes.we know two specified conditions of temperature and pressure.where P = kPa .where R = .Avogadro’s Theory.when measure at the same temperature and pressure.where T = Kelvin LAW OF COMBINING VOLUMES .
it is very common to collect gases by the displacement of water .during a laboratory experiment. total pressure (total collisions with walls) is the sum of the individual pressures (collisions of only one kind of particle) of each gas present VAPOUR PRESSURE OF WATER AT VARIOUS TEMPERATURES .gas molecules act independently of each other .using the ideal gas law.we can use this knowledge to calculate the volume of gases involved in chemical reactions or to calculate the numbers of moles of gases involved in chemical reactions .therefore.One mole of gas occupies 22.water vapour arises from the evaporation of some liquid water .4L at STP and 24.15K and 101.8L at SATP .Page 27 of 28 .pressure of a gas is caused by collisions of molecules with the walls of a container .if volumes aren’t STP or SATP.conducted a variety of experiments to conclude that each component of air contributes to the total air pressure Ptotal = P1 + P2 + P3… Using KMT to explain Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures: .325kPa). .hydrogen gas is commonly collected by the bubbling of gas (downward displacement of water) into a container filled with water . but a mixture of hydrogen gas and water vapour .John Dalton hypothesized that gas particles behaved independently and that the pressure exerted by an individual has is the same whether it exists by itself or as a mixture . we must use Dalton’s law of partial pressures
.in order to correct for the presence of water vapour. we can determine the volume of one mole of a gas at STP (273.the gas collected in the container is not pure hydrogen. This will determine the molar volume of a gas. they will be corrected to STP or SATP DALTON’S THEORY OF PARTIAL PRESSURE .the amount of water vapour is dependent on the temperature of the surroundings .
A volume of 110.0kPa – 1.0 degrees Celsius = 290K Ptotal = 95.0 degrees Celsius and an atmospheric pressure of 95.0kPa Pwater = 1.0kPa.Page 28 of 28
Ex.06kPa STP: P2 = 101.94kPa V1 = 110. what is the volume of the dry hydrogen at STP? P1 = 95.0mL T1 = 17.0mL of hydrogen is collected over water at a temperature of 17.1mL
.94kPa = 93.325kPa T2 = 273K V2 = ?
V2 =( =(
)( ) )( )