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Certificate in
Power System Modeling and Analysis
Training Course in
Power System Modeling
U. P. NATIONAL ENGINEERING CENTER NATIONAL ELECTRIFICATION ADMINISTRATION
Training Course in Power System Modeling
2
Course Outline
1. Utility Thevenin Equivalent Circuit 2. Load Models 3. Generator Models 4. Transformer Models 5. Transmission and Distribution Line Models
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration
Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering
Training Course in Power System Modeling
3
Utility Thevenin Equivalent Circuit
Thevenin’s Theorem Utility Fault MVA Equivalent Circuit of Utility
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration
Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering
Training Course in Power System Modeling
4
Thevenin’s Theorem
Any linear active network with output terminals AB can be replaced by a single voltage source Vth in series with a single impedance Zth A Linear Active Network B Vth B + A Zth
The Thevenin equivalent voltage Vth is the open circuit voltage measured at the terminals AB. The equivalent impedance Zth is the driving point impedance of the network at the terminals AB when all sources are set equal to zero.
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering
Training Course in Power System Modeling
5
Utility Fault MVA
Electric Utility Grid IF Fault Electric Utilities conduct short circuit analysis at the Connection Point of their customers Customers obtain the Fault Data at the Connection Point to represent the Utility Grid for their power system analysis
Customer Facilities
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration
Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering
National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .Training Course in Power System Modeling 6 Utility Fault MVA Electric Utility provides the Fault MVA and X/R ratio at nominal system Voltage for the following types of fault: • Three Phase Fault Fault MVA3φ • Single LinetoGround Fault X/R3φ X/RLG Fault MVALG System Nominal Voltage in kV U. P.
Training Course in Power System Modeling 7 Equivalent Circuit of Utility Positive & Negative Sequence Impedance From ThreePhase Fault Analysis I TPF = V f Z1 S TPF = V f I TPF = [V ] f 2 Z1 Z1 = Where. P. Z1 and Z2 are the equivalent positive2 sequence and kV = Z 2 negativesequence Fault MVA 3φ impedances of the utility [ ] U. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .
Training Course in Power System Modeling
8
Equivalent Circuit of Utility
Zero Sequence Impedance
From Single LinetoGround Fault Analysis
I SLGF =
3V f Z1 + Z2 + Z0
S SLGF = V f I SLGF =
3Vf
[ ]
2
2Z 1 + Z 0
2Z1 + Z0 =
3 Vf
[ ]
Z1 = Z2
Resolve to real and imaginary components then solve for Zo
Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering
2
SSLGF
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration
Training Course in Power System Modeling
9
Equivalent Circuit of Utility
Example: Determine the equivalent circuit of the Utility in per unit quantities at a connection point for the following Fault Data:
System Nominal Voltage = 69 kV Fault MVA3φ = 3500 MVA, Fault MVALG = 3000 MVA, X/R3φ = 22 X/RLG = 20
The Base Power is 100 MVA
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering
Training Course in Power System Modeling
10
Equivalent Circuit of Utility
Base Power: 100 MVA Base Voltage: 69 kV Base Impedance: [69]2/100 = 47.61 ohms
Z1 = Z2 =
In Per Unit,
[kV ]
2
Fault MVA 3 φ
=
[69 ]
2
3500
= 1.3603 Ω
or
Z actual 1.3603 = = 0.0286 p.u. Z1 = Z2 = Z base 47 . 61
100MVA BASE Z1 = Z2 = = 0.0286 p.u. 3500 MVA FAULT
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering
Training Course in Power System Modeling
11
Equivalent Circuit of Utility
Solving for the Resistance and Reactance, Z √[(1 + (X/R)2] X
θ
R
θ
1
θ = tan −1 [ X / R ] X/R R = Z cos θ X = Z sin θ
+
0.0013+j0.028571 +
R 1 = 0.0286 cos [tan 1 (22 )] X 1 = 0.0286 sin [tan = 0 . 028571 = 0 . 00 13 p.u. = R 2
1
(22 )]
V f 1∠0

p.u. = X 2

U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration
Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering
Training Course in Power System Modeling
12
Equivalent Circuit of Utility
For the Zero Sequence Impedance,
SLGF P .U . = Voltage
3000 MVA SLGF ( actual ) 100 MVA BASE 69 kV = = 1 . 0 p .u . 69 kV
2
= 30 p .u .
P .U .
2Z 1 + Z 0 =
3Vf
[ ]
S SLGF
3[1.0 ] = = 0 .1 30
2
Re al {2 Z 1 + Z 0 } = 0.1cos tan 1 (20 ) = 0.004994 Im ag {2 Z 1 + Z 0
1
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration
[ } = 0.1sin [tan
] (20 )] = 0.099875
p.u. p.u.
Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering
099875) − 2(0. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration .028571 + + 0.004994 + j0.042733 p.028571) = 0.042733 V f 1∠0     Positive Sequence Negative Sequence Zero Sequence Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering U.099875 Z 0 = (0.003694 + j0.003694 + j0.u.Training Course in Power System Modeling 13 Equivalent Circuit of Utility 2 Z 1 + Z 0 = 0. + 0.0013+j0.0013+j0. P.028571 + 0.004994 + j0.0013 + j0.
. Impedance = 0. Impedance = 0.Training Course in Power System Modeling 14 Equivalent Circuit of Utility Example: Determine the equivalent circuit of the Utility in per unit quantities at a connection point for the following Fault Data: Pos.u.07 p. P.u. Seq. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering ..03 p. Zero Seq. System Nominal Voltage = 69 kV Base Power = 100 MVA X/R1 = 22 X/R0 = 22 U.
National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . P.Training Course in Power System Modeling 15 Equivalent Circuit of Utility The equivalent sequence networks of the Electric Utility Grid are: + + + r + Eg  R1 +jX1 R2 +jX2  R0 +jX0  Positive Sequence Negative Sequence Zero Sequence Utility Thevenin Equivalent Circuits U.
Training Course in Power System Modeling 16 Load Models Types of Load Customer Load Curve Calculating Hourly Demand Developing Load Models U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .
3Ph 85%PF 13.1034 + j2. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .Training Course in Power System Modeling 17 Types of Load An illustration: Sending End Line Receiving End 1.2 kVLL Load 2 MVA. P.2 kVLL U.0856 ohms/phase ISR = ? VS = ? VR = 13.
12 = 74.0856 ohms/phase ISR = ? VS = ? VR = 13. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .4773 ∠ 31.7 MW + j1. 3Ph 85% pf lag 13.0520 + j 45.2 kVLL Load 2 MVA.8948 Ω U.79o A Constant Impedance (R & X) Z = 87. P.Training Course in Power System Modeling 18 Types of Load An illustration: Sending End Line Receiving End 1.2 kVLL Constant Power (P & Q) 2 MVA = 1.1034 + j2.0536 MVAR Constant Current (I∠θ) I = 87.
200 o = ∠0 + (87. lag 13.0856) 3 = 7.85 pf.Training Course in Power System Modeling 19 Types of Load Sending End Line 1. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .800∠0.2 kVLL r r r r VS = VR + I SR ( Z line ) r VSLL = 13.1034 + j 2.2 kVLL Load 2 MVA. P.1034 + j2.0856 ohms/phase ISR = ? Receiving End VS = ? VR = 13.760o V U.79o )(1.510 KVLL 13.4773∠ − 31. 3Ph 0.
Training Course in Power System Modeling 20 Types of Load Sending End Line 1.800∠0. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .79o ∠ Receiving End VS = 13.7256 MW + j1.85 pf. P.48∠31.4773∠31.51 kVLL VR = 13.2 kVLL Load 2 MVA.1034 + j2.2 kVLL r r* 3VS I S = 3(7.76o )(87. lag 13.0856 ohms/phase ISR = 87.1010 MVAR U.79o ) = 1. 3Ph 0.
48∠31. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .0856 ohms/phase ISR = 87.85 pf.7256 − 1.Training Course in Power System Modeling 21 Types of Load Sending End Line 1.1034 + j2. 3Ph 0.2 = 2.2 VR = × 100% 13.51 kVLL VR = 13.79o ∠ Receiving End VS = 13. lag 13.6 KW 13.510 − 13. P.7 MW = 25.2 kVLL Load 2 MVA.2 kVLL Plosses = 1.35% U.
0856 ohms/phase ISR = ? Receiving End VS = ? VR = 11.Training Course in Power System Modeling 22 Types of Load Sending End Line 1. P.88 KVLL We will again analyze the power loss (Ploss) and Voltage Regulation (VR) for different types of loads U.88 kVLL Load What happens if the Voltage at the Receiving End drops to 90% of its nominal value? VR =11.1034 + j2. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .
79o r r r r VS = VR + I SR ( Z line ) 11.88 0 = ∠0 + (97.0536 MVA I SR = 311.88KV = 97. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .0856) 3 = 7.1979∠ − 31.224 KV U.7 MW + j1.78)(1.1034 + j 2.940 V = 12.057.Training Course in Power System Modeling 23 Types of Load Case 1: Constant Power Load 2 MVA = 1.1979∠ − 31.7 − j1.8∠0.0536 MVAR r 1.
Training Course in Power System Modeling 24 Types of Load Case 1: Constant Power Load 2 MVA = 1.0134) W = 28.19792 )(1.88 = 2.9% U.224 − 11.7 MW + j1.0536 MVAR Plosses = 3(97.88 VR = × 100% 11.722 KW 12. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .
8∠0.88 o = ∠0 + (87. P.0856) 3 = 7.79o )(1.84o V = 12.037.1034 + j 2.190 KV U.4773∠ − 31.4773 ∠ 31. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .Training Course in Power System Modeling 25 Types of Load Case 2: Constant Current Load I = 87.79o A r r r r VS = VR + I SR ( Z line ) 11.
Training Course in Power System Modeling 26 Types of Load Case 2: Constant Current Load I = 87.19 − 11.88 = 2.33 KW 12.6% U.482 )(1. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . P.88 VR = × 100% 11.78o A Plosses = 3(87.1034) W = 25.4773 ∠ 31.
Training Course in Power System Modeling 27 Types of Load Case 3: Constant Impedance Load Z = 87.79o + (1.12 ∠31.79o Ω = 74. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration .12∠31.8948 Ω r VR r VS r r ⎡ Z Load ⎤ r ⎥ = VS ⎢ r ⎣ Z Load + Z Line ⎦ r r r ⎡ Z Load + Z Line ⎤ r = VR ⎢ ⎥ Z Load ⎣ ⎦ 11.12∠31.88 o ⎡ 87.159 KV = 7.0856 ⎤ = ∠0 ⎢ ⎥ 87.77o KV Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering U.79o 3 ⎣ ⎦ r VSLL = 12. P.1034 + j 2.0199 ∠0.0520 + j 45.
79o + 1.730 A o U.77 = 87.12∠31.0856 = 78. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .8948 Ω r r VS r I SR = r Z Load + Z Line 7.0199 ∠0.0520 + j 45.79o Ω = 74.1034 + j 2. P.12 ∠31.Training Course in Power System Modeling 28 Types of Load Case 3: Constant Impedance Load Z = 87.
National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . P.12 ∠31.732 )(1.88 = 2.84 KW 12.88 VR = × 100% 11.159 − 11.0134) W = 18.34% U.79o Ω = 74.8948 Ω Plosses = 3(78.Training Course in Power System Modeling 29 Types of Load Case 3: Constant Impedance Load Z = 87.0520 + j 45.
National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .Training Course in Power System Modeling 30 Types of Load Load Constant VS* 12.190 2.9*13.9 % Ploss 28.2 KV U. P.12 ∠31.33 kW 12.224 VR 2.85 pf lag 87.159 2.78 87.78 Current Constant Impedance 12. 0.6 % 25.34 % 18.72 kW Power Constant 2 MVA.48 ∠31.84 kW * Sending end voltage with a Receiving end voltage equal to 0.
Z1Im are the constant Impedance components of the Demand U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .IIm are the constant Current components of the Demand Z1Re.Training Course in Power System Modeling 31 Types of Load DemandReA= (PA+ IReA Va + Z DemandImA=(QA+ IImA Va + Z 1 1 ReA Va2 ) Va2 ) ImA DemandReB= (PB+ IReB Vb + Z 1ReB Vb2 ) DemandImB = (QB+ IImB Vb + Z 1ImB Vb2 ) DemandReC= (Pc+ IReC Vc + Z DemandImC= (Qc+ IImC Vc + Z Where: 1 Vc2 ) ReC Vc2) ImC 1 P.Q are the constant Power components of the Demand IRe.
04 18:00 30.08 16:00 19.00 21:00 34.80 15:00 19.08 U.92 10:00 21.72 19:00 38.52 4:00 17.88 7:00 29.64 8:00 32.20 17:00 23. P.Training Course in Power System Modeling 32 Customer Load Curve 24Hour Customer Load Profile Time Demand (A) 1:00 17.84 24:00 22.32 Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .40 5:00 21.60 23:00 24.76 2:00 16.20 12:00 22.28 9:00 25. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Time Demand (A) 13:00 20.72 11:00 25.00 20:00 35.68 3:00 17.00 22:00 27.88 14:00 19.00 6:00 29.
88 0.567 U.682 10:00 21.32 0.553 6:00 29.786 7:00 29.00 20:00 35.439 3:00 17.64 0.00 0.572 11:00 25.80 0.505 17:00 23.00 0.461 4:00 17.08 0.458 5:00 21.000 38.663 12:00 22.921 21:00 34.60 0.587 ΣPU = 15.581 Time Demand (A) Per Unit 13:00 20.780 8:00 32.68 0.20 0.72 0.606 18:00 30.76 0.92 0. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .654 24:00 22.521 15:00 19.88 0.72 0.40 0.502 16:00 19.08 0.20 0.84 0.28 0.Training Course in Power System Modeling 33 Customer Load Curve • Establishing Normalized Hourly Demand Time Demand (A) Per Unit 1:00 17.04 0.52 0.895 22:00 27.00 0.726 23:00 24.549 14:00 19.849 9:00 25.808 19:00 1.467 2:00 16.
2 1.0 Demand (Per Unit) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Time U. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .4 0.6 0.8 0.0 0. P.2 0.Training Course in Power System Modeling 34 Customer Load Curve 1.
National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Time (24 hours) Customer Energy Bill Converted to Hourly Power Demand Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .2 Nr a z d e a d pru i ) om i e D n ( e n l m t 1 0.4 0.2 0 Normalized Customer Load Curve U. P.6 0.Training Course in Power System Modeling 35 Calculating Hourly Demand 350 300 250 D and (W) em 200 150 100 Customer Energy Bill 1.8 50 0 Area under the curve = Customer Energy Bill 0.
P.Training Course in Power System Modeling 36 Calculating Hourly Demand Total Total Monthly Energy Monthly Energy Daily Energy Daily Energy Hourly Demand ⎛ ⎜ ⎜ pt Pt = Energy daily 24 ⎜ ⎜ ∑ pt ⎝ 1 Customer Customer Load Load Curve Curve ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ U. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .
567 = 0. P.15011 kW = 150. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .11 W U.1 / ΣP.Training Course in Power System Modeling 37 Calculating Hourly Demand Example: kWHr Reading (Monthly Bill) = 150 kWHr Billing Days = 30 days Daily Energy = 150 / 30 = 5 kWh [24 hours] Hourly Demand1 = Daily Energy x [P.U] = 5 kWh x 0.467 / 15.U.
Training Course in Power System Modeling 38 Calculating Hourly Demand 350 300 250 Demand (W) 200 150 100 50 0 1:00 3:00 5:00 7:00 9:00 11:00 13:00 15:00 17:00 19:00 21:00 23:00 Hourly Real Demand U. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . P.
Training Course in Power System Modeling 39 Calculating Hourly Demand Qt = Pt tan cos pf t Qt = hourly Reactive Demand (VAR) Pt = hourly Real Demand (W) Pft = hourly power factor ( −1 ) Example: Real Demand (W) = 150.11 tan (cos1 0.96 lag Reactive Demand = P tan (cos1 pf) = 150.96) = 43. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . PF = 0.11 W.78 VAR U.
National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .Training Course in Power System Modeling 40 Calculating Hourly Demand 350 Demand (W and VAR) 300 250 200 150 100 50 1:00 3:00 5:00 7:00 9:00 11:00 13:00 15:00 17:00 19:00 21:00 23:00 0 Hourly Real & Reactive Demand U. P.
P..e. other types of customers) Variations in Load Curves Customer types and subtypes WeekdayWeekend/Holiday variations Seasonal variations U. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .Training Course in Power System Modeling 41 Developing Load Models Load Curves for each Customer Type Residential load curves Commercial load curves Industrial load curves Public building load curves Street Lighting load curves Administrative load curves (metered) Other Load Curves (i.
National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . Billing Cycle Data. P.Training Course in Power System Modeling 42 Developing Load Models Converting Energy Bill to Power Demand Data Requirements Customer Data. Distribution Utility Data Tables and Instructions U. Customer Energy Consumption Data. and Load Curve Data.
P.Training Course in Power System Modeling 43 Generator Models Generalized Machine Model SteadyState Equations Generator Sequence Impedances Generator Sequence Networks U. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .
National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .Training Course in Power System Modeling 44 Generalized Machine Model Constructional Details of Synchronous Machine Axis of b qaxis Phase c winding daxis Phase b winding Stator: distributed threephase winding (a. P. c) Rotor: Field winding F Damper winding Q Phase a winding Axis of a Damper winding D DC field winding (F) and shortcircuited damper windings (D. b. Q) Axis of c U.
National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration dλ v = Ri + dt Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering  .Training Course in Power System Modeling 45 Generalized Machine Model Primitive Coil Representation phase b qaxis b ib b +V  daxis vQ Q iQ + F iF D + v D θe iD  a ia + Va  ωm +V c + v phase a F ic c phase c U. P.
v D dt = v Q = 0 ).Training Course in Power System Modeling 46 Generalized Machine Model Voltage Equations for the Primitive Coils For the stator windings For the rotor windings dλF dt dλD dt dλQ dλa v F = R F iF + v a = R a ia + dt dλb v D = R D iD + v b = R b ib + dt dλc v Q = R Q iQ + v c = R c ic + dt Note: The D and Q windings are shorted (i. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . ⎡ v abc ⎤ ⎡ Rabc ⎢v ⎥=⎢ ⎣ FDQ ⎦ ⎣ ⎤ ⎡ i abc ⎤ ⎥ ⎢i ⎥ + R FDQ ⎦ ⎣ FDQ ⎦ ⎡ λ abc ⎤ p⎢ λ FDQ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ λ = Li U.e. P.
P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration [LSR ]⎤ ⎡ i abc ⎤ [L RR ]⎥ ⎢i FDQ ⎥ ⎦⎣ ⎦ Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .Training Course in Power System Modeling 47 Generalized Machine Model The flux linkage equations are: or ⎡λa ⎤ ⎡Laa ⎢λ ⎥ ⎢L ⎢ b ⎥ ⎢ ba ⎢ λc ⎥ ⎢Lca ⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎢λF ⎥ ⎢LFa ⎢λD ⎥ ⎢LDa ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢λQ ⎥ ⎢LQa ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ Lab Lbb Lcb LFb LDb Lac Lbc Lcc LFc LDc LaF LbF LcF LFF LDF LQb LQc LQF LaD LaQ ⎤ ⎡ia ⎤ LbD LbQ ⎥ ⎢ib ⎥ ⎥⎢ ⎥ LcD LcQ ⎥ ⎢ic ⎥ ⎥⎢ ⎥ LFD LFQ ⎥ ⎢iF ⎥ LDD LDQ⎥ ⎢iD ⎥ ⎥⎢ ⎥ LQD LQQ ⎥ ⎢iQ ⎥ ⎦⎣ ⎦ ⎡ λ abc ⎤ ⎡ [L SS ] ⎢λ ⎥=⎢ ⎣ FDQ ⎦ ⎣[L RS ] U.
Training Course in Power System Modeling 48 Generalized Machine Model COIL INDUCTANCES Stator Self Inductances L aa = L s + L m cos 2θ e L bb = L s + L m cos( 2θ e + 120 o ) Lcc = Ls + Lm cos( 2θ e − 120 o ) StatortoStator Mutual Inductances Lab = Lba = −M s + Lm cos(2θ e − 120o ) Lbc = Lcb = −M s + Lm cos2θe Lca = Lac = −M s + Lm cos(2θe + 120o ) U. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . P.
P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .Training Course in Power System Modeling 49 Generalized Machine Model COIL INDUCTANCES Rotor Self Inductances LFF = LFF LDD = LDD LQQ = LQQ RotortoRotor Mutual Inductances L FD = L DF = LFD L FQ = L QF = 0 L DQ = L QD = 0 U.
P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .Training Course in Power System Modeling 50 Generalized Machine Model COIL INDUCTANCES StatortoRotor Mutual Inductances LaF = LFa = LaF cosθ e LbF = LFb = LaF cos(θ e − 120o ) LcF = LFc = LaF cos(θ e + 120 ) o LaD = LDa = LaD cosθe LbD = LDb = LaD cos(θe − 120o ) LcD = LDc = LaD cos(θe + 120o ) LaQ = LQa = − LaQ sin θ e LbQ = LQb = − LaQ sin( θ e − 120 o ) LcQ = LQc = − LaQ sin( θ e + 120 o ) U.
Training Course in Power System Modeling 51 Generalized Machine Model Equivalent Coil Representation qaxis baxis Q iQ vQ + ib +V b Rotor coils FDQ stationary b Stator coils abc rotating F ic c ωm a + V c D iF iD + vF .+ vD + Va aaxis ia daxis caxis U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .
qaxis vQ + vq + d ω m Q . National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration .Training Course in Power System Modeling 52 Generalized Machine Model Equivalent Generalized Machine Replace the abc coils with equivalent commutated d and q coils which are connected to fixed brushes.i Q q . P.i q λ F = LFd i d + LFF i F + LFD i D λ D = LDd id + LDF i F + LDD i D λQ = LQq iq + LQQ iQ F i + vF F D i + vD D daxis i d + vd  λ d = L dd i d + L dF i F + L dD i D λ q = L qq i q + L qQ iQ Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering U.
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering aaxis . The O axis is perpendicular to the d and q axes.Training Course in Power System Modeling 53 Generalized Machine Model Transformation from abc to Odq qaxis baxis qaxis ib caxis ω m q i q daxis id ic ia d daxis θe Note: The d and q windings are pseudostationary.
P. The resultant mmf of coils a. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . We get Ndid = Kd [Naia cos θe + Nbib cos (θe . b and c along the qaxis must equal the mmf of coil q for any value of angle θe. U.120o) Ncic sin (θe + 120o)] where Kd and Kq are constants to be determined.Nbib sin (θe . b and c along the daxis must equal the mmf of coil d for any value of angle θe.Training Course in Power System Modeling 54 Generalized Machine Model Equivalence: 1. The resultant mmf of coils a. 2.120o) + Ncic cos (θe + 120o)] Nqiq = Kq [Naia sin θe .
National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .Training Course in Power System Modeling 55 Generalized Machine Model Assume equal number of turns.120o) + ic cos (θe + 120o)] iq = Kq [ia sin θe .ib sin (θe . Na = Nb = Nc = Nd = Nq Substitution gives id = Kd [ia cos θe + ib cos (θe .120o) ic sin (θe + 120o)] The Ocoil contributes no flux along the d or q axis. Let its current io be defined as io = Ko ( ia + ib + ic ) U. P.
Training Course in Power System Modeling 56 Generalized Machine Model Combining. one possible solution is o 2 Kd = Kq = 3 Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering U. we get ⎡io ⎤ ⎡ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢id ⎥ = ⎢ ⎢ iq ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ Ko K d cos θ e − K q sin θ e K d cos (θ e − 120 ) Ko ⎤ ⎡ia ⎤ ⎥ K d cos (θ e + 120 ) ⎥ ⎢ib ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ − K q sin (θ e + 120 )⎥ ⎢ic ⎥ ⎦⎣ ⎦ Ko − K q sin (θ e − 120 ) The constants Ko. that is [P ]− 1 K = = [P ]T 1 3 Assuming Kd = Kq. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration . Kd and Kq are chosen so that the transformation matrix is orthogonal.
P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .Training Course in Power System Modeling 57 Generalized Machine Model Park’s Transformation Matrix ⎡ ⎢ ⎢ 2⎢ 3⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ⎡ ⎢ ⎢ 2⎢ 3⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ 1 2 cos θ e − sin θ e 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 cos (θ e − 120 ) − sin (θ e − 120 ) cos θ cos (θ e − 120 ) cos (θ e + 120 ) ⎤ ⎥ 2 ⎥ cos (θ e + 120 ) ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ − sin (θ e + 120 )⎥ ⎦ 1 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ − sin (θ e − 120 )⎥ ⎥ ⎥ − sin (θ e + 120 )⎥ ⎦ − sin θ e [P ] = [P ]−1 = U.
National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .Training Course in Power System Modeling 58 Generalized Machine Model Voltage Transformation The relationship between the currents is i odq = [P ]i abc or i abc = [P ] iodq −1 Assume a powerinvariant transformation. P. that is vaia + vbib + vcic = voio + vd id + vqiq or v i T abc abc =v T odq odq i U.
P.Training Course in Power System Modeling 59 Generalized Machine Model Substitution gives v T abc [P] −1 i odq = v T odq T odq odq i v =v T abc [P] T Transpose both sides to get v odq = [P ]v abc −1 v abc = [P ] v odq Note: Since voltage is the derivative of flux linkage. That is. λ odq = [P ]λ abc Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering U. then the relationship between the flux linkages must be the same as that of the voltages. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration .
P. i odq = [P ]i abc v odq = [P ]v abc i abc = [P ] iodq −1 v abc = [P ] v odq −1 λ odq = [P ]λ abc λ abc = [P ] λ odq −1 U.Training Course in Power System Modeling 60 Generalized Machine Model In summary. using Park’s Transformation matrix. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .
Training Course in Power System Modeling 61 Generalized Machine Model Recall the flux linkage equation or ⎡λa ⎤ ⎡Laa ⎢λ ⎥ ⎢L ⎢ b ⎥ ⎢ ba ⎢ λc ⎥ ⎢Lca ⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎢λF ⎥ ⎢LFa ⎢λD ⎥ ⎢LDa ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢λQ ⎥ ⎢LQa ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ Lab Lbb Lcb LFb LDb Lac Lbc Lcc LFc LDc LQb LQc LaF LaD LaQ ⎤ ⎡ia ⎤ LbF LbD LbQ ⎥ ⎢ib ⎥ ⎥⎢ ⎥ LcF LcD LcQ ⎥ ⎢ic ⎥ ⎥⎢ ⎥ LFF LFD LFQ ⎥ ⎢iF ⎥ LDF LDD LDQ⎥ ⎢iD ⎥ ⎥⎢ ⎥ LQF LQD LQQ ⎥ ⎢iQ ⎥ ⎦⎣ ⎦ ⎡ λ abc ⎤ ⎡ [L SS ] ⎢λ ⎥=⎢ ⎣ FDQ ⎦ ⎣[L RS ] U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration [LSR ]⎤ ⎡ i abc ⎤ [L RR ]⎥ ⎢i FDQ ⎥ ⎦⎣ ⎦ Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .
National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration ( Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .Training Course in Power System Modeling 62 Generalized Machine Model Recall where ⎡ Laa [LSS ] = ⎢ Lba ⎢ ⎢ Lca ⎣ Lab Lbb Lcb Lac ⎤ Lbc ⎥ ⎥ Lcc ⎥ ⎦ L aa = L S + L m cos 2 θ e Lbb = L S + L m cos 2 θ e + 120 o L cc = L S + L m − 120 o e L ab = Lba = − M S + L m cos 2 θ e − 120 o ( (cos 2 θ ( ) ) ) ) Lbc = Lcb = − M S + L m cos 2 θ e Lca = L ac = − M S + L m cos 2 θ e + 120 o U. P.
Training Course in Power System Modeling 63 Generalized Machine Model Substitution gives ⎡ LS [LSS ] = ⎢− M S ⎢ ⎢− M S ⎣ − MS LS − MS − MS ⎤ − MS ⎥ ⎥ LS ⎥ ⎦ cos(2θ e − 120 ) cos(2θ e + 120 )⎤ ⎡ cos 2θ e ⎥ cos 2θ e + Lm ⎢cos(2θ e − 120 ) cos(2θ e + 120 ) ⎢ ⎥ ⎢cos(2θ e + 120 ) cos 2θ e cos(2θ e − 120 )⎥ ⎣ ⎦ U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .
⎡ ⎤ − L aQ sin θ e L aF cos θ e L aD cos θ e ⎢ ⎥ [L SR ] = ⎢ LaF cos (θ e − 120 ) LaD cos (θ e − 120 ) − LaQ sin (θ e − 120 )⎥ ⎢ LaF cos (θ e + 120 ) L aD cos (θ e + 120 ) − LaQ sin (θ e + 120 )⎥ ⎣ ⎦ Apply Park's transformation to Flux Linkage equation [P ]λ abc or = [P ][L SS ]i abc + [P ][L SR ]i FDQ −1 λ odq = [P ][L SS ][P ] i odq + [P ][L SR ]i FDQ U.Training Course in Power System Modeling 64 Generalized Machine Model Similarly. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .
P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .Training Course in Power System Modeling 65 Generalized Machine Model The term [P ][LSS ][P ]−1 can be shown ⎡ ⎢Ls − 2M ⎢ = ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ s 3 Ls + M s + Lm 2 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 3 Ls + M s + Lm ⎥ ⎥ 2 ⎦ Let L oo = L S − 2 M L dd = L S + M L qq = L S + M S S S 3 Lm 2 3 − Lm 2 + [P ][Lss ][P ] −1 ⎡ Loo ⎢ =⎢ ⎢ ⎣ Ldd ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ Lqq ⎥ ⎦ U.
it can be shown that ⎡ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ 3 [P][LSR ] = ⎢ LaF 2 ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎣ 0 3 LaD 2 0 ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎡ ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ = ⎢ LdF ⎥ ⎢ 3 ⎥ ⎣ LaQ ⎥ 2 ⎦ ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ LqQ ⎥ ⎦ LdD where LdF = 3 LaF 2 LdD = 3 LaD 2 L qQ = 3 L aQ 2 U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .Training Course in Power System Modeling 66 Generalized Machine Model Similarly.
U. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . [P ][LSS ][P ] −1 and [P ][LSR ] −1 λ odq = [P ][L SS ][P ] i odq + [P ][L SR ]i FDQ Finally. P.Training Course in Power System Modeling 67 Generalized Machine Model Substituting. we get λ o = Loo io λ d = Ldd i d + LdF i F + LdD i D λ q = Lqq i q + LqQ iQ Note: All inductances are constant.
Training Course in Power System Modeling 68 Generalized Machine Model The Flux Linkage Equations for the FDQ coils in matrix form is λ FDQ = [L RS ]i abc + [L RR ]i FDQ Since we get [LRS] =[LSR] T λFDQ = [LSR ] [P] i odq + [LRR ]i FDQ T −1 Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering U. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration . P.
Training Course in Power System Modeling 69 Generalized Machine Model It can be shown that ⎡ ⎢ ⎢ [P ]−1 = ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ 0 0 0 3 LaF 2 3 LaD 2 0 ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎡ ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ =⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 3 LaQ ⎥ ⎣ ⎥ 2 ⎦ [LSR ]T LFd LDd ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ LQq ⎥ ⎦ L Fd = 3 L aF 2 L Dd = 3 L aD 2 L Qq = 3 L aQ 2 U. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . P.
National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .Training Course in Power System Modeling 70 Generalized Machine Model Recall that the rotor self. U.and mutual inductances are constant Upon substitution. we get ⎡ LFF LFD 0 ⎤ ⎥ ⎢ [LRR] = ⎢LDF LDD 0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 LQQ ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ λ F = LFd id + LFF iF + LFDiD λ D = LDd id + LDF iF + LDDiD λ Q = LQqiq + LQQiQ Note: All inductances are also constant. P.
National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . P.+ vD D D LdD LFD LDD Q ⎤ ⎡io ⎤ ⎥ ⎢i ⎥ ⎥⎢ d ⎥ LqQ⎥ ⎢iq ⎥ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎥ ⎢iF ⎥ ⎥ ⎢iD⎥ ⎥⎢ ⎥ LQQ⎥ ⎢iQ⎥ ⎦⎣ ⎦ ωm id + vd  U.Training Course in Power System Modeling 71 Generalized Machine Model The Flux Linkage Equation qaxis vQ + Q i Q q iq vq + d F iF o d q F ⎡λo ⎤ o ⎡ Loo ⎢λ ⎥ d ⎢ Ldd LdF ⎢ d⎥ ⎢ ⎢λq ⎥ q ⎢ Lqq ⎢ ⎥= ⎢ LFd LFF ⎢λF ⎥ F ⎢ ⎢λD⎥ D ⎢ LDd LDF ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ LQq ⎢λQ ⎥ Q ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ D daxis i + vF .
Then. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .Training Course in Power System Modeling 72 Generalized Machine Model Transformation of Stator Voltages Assume Ra = Rb = Rc in the stator. v abc = Ra [u3 ]i abc Recall the transformation equations d + λ abc dt i odq = [P ] i abc v odq = [P ] v abc odq λ = [P ] λ abc U.
National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration . P.Training Course in Power System Modeling 73 Generalized Machine Model Apply Park’s transformation [P ]v abc = [P ]R a [u 3 ][P ] i odq −1 d + [P ] dt {[P ] −1 λ odq } Simplify to get v odq = R a [u 3 ]i odq + [P ][P ] −1 d ⎧d −1 ⎫ λ odq + [P ]⎨ [P ] ⎬ λ odq dt ⎩ dt ⎭ Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering U.
National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration for a two–pole machine for a P–pole machine Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . P.Training Course in Power System Modeling 74 Generalized Machine Model It can be shown that ⎡ 2⎢ d −1 [P] = ⎢ 3 dt ⎢ ⎣ where 0 0 0 ⎤ ⎥ dθe − sin(θe −120) − cos(θe −120)⎥ dt − sin(θe +120) − cos(θe +120)⎥ ⎦ − sinθe − cosθe dθ e = ωe = ω m dt P = ωm 2 U.
National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . P. we get 0 0 ωm 0 ⎤ − ωm ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎦ for a twopole machine d v o = R aio + λo dt d v d = R a i d + λ d − ω mλ q dt d v q = R aiq + λ q + ω mλ d dt U.Training Course in Power System Modeling 75 Generalized Machine Model It can also be shown that ⎡ 0 d −1 [P] [P] = ⎢ 0 ⎢ dt ⎢ 0 ⎣ Finally.
National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . U.Training Course in Power System Modeling 76 Generalized Machine Model Voltage Equation for the Rotor vF vD vQ d = R F iF + λF dt d = R D iD + λD = 0 dt d = R Q iQ + λQ = 0 dt Note: No transformation is required. P.
Training Course in Power System Modeling 77 Generalized Machine Model Matrix Form of Voltage Equations ⎡ vo ⎤ ⎡Ra ⎤ ⎡io ⎤ ⎡λo ⎤ ⎡ ⎢v ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢i ⎥ ⎢λ ⎥ ⎢ Ra ⎢ d⎥ ⎢ ⎥⎢ d⎥ ⎢ d⎥ ⎢ ⎢vq ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢iq ⎥ d ⎢λq ⎥ Ra ⎢ ⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ + ⎢ ⎥ + ωm ⎢ RF ⎢vF ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢iF ⎥ dt ⎢λF ⎥ ⎢ ⎢vD ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢iD ⎥ ⎢λD ⎥ ⎢ RD ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ RQ ⎥ ⎢iQ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢λQ ⎥ ⎢vQ ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦⎣ ⎦ 1 1 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ ⎡λo ⎤ ⎢λ ⎥ ⎢ d⎥ ⎢λq ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢λF ⎥ ⎢λD ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢λQ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ The equation is now in the form [v ] = [R ][i ] + [L ] p [i ] + ω m [G ][i ] Resistance Voltage Drop Transformer Voltage Speed Voltage U. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . P.
National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration .Training Course in Power System Modeling 78 Generalized Machine Model d d ⎡ Ldd q ⎢ ⎢ [L] = F ⎢LFd D ⎢LDd ⎢ Q⎢ ⎣ q F LdF D LdD Q Lqq LFF LQq LFD LDF LDD Note: All entries of [L] and [G] are constant. P. ⎤ LqQ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ d q F D Q ⎥ LQQ ⎥ d ⎡ − Lqq − LqQ ⎤ ⎦ ⎥ q ⎢ Ldd LdF LdD ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ [G] = F ⎢ ⎥ D⎢ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ Q⎢ ⎣ ⎦ Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering U.
National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . P.Training Course in Power System Modeling 79 Generalized Machine Model Summary of Equations Voltage Equations Flux Linkages (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) vo = Ra io + pλ o vd = Ra id + pλ d − ωm λ q vq = Ra iq + pλ q + ωm λ d vF = RF iF + pλ F vD = Rd iD + pλ D = 0 vQ = RQiQ + pλ Q = 0 (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) λ o = Looio λ d = Ldd id + LdF iF + LdDiD λ q = Lqqiq + LqQiQ λ F = LFd id + LFF iF + LFDiD λ D = LDd id + LDF iF + LDDiD λ Q = LQqiq + LQQiQ U.
P.Training Course in Power System Modeling 80 Generalized Machine Model Electromagnetic Torque Equation Te = −[i] [G][i] T = − io id iq iF iD We get [ Te = −(− λq id + λd iq ) ⎡ 0 ⎤ ⎢− λ ⎥ ⎢ q⎥ ⎢ λd ⎥ iQ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ ] = − (Ldd − Lqq ) id iq + LdF iF iq + LdDiDiq − LqQiQid for a 2pole machine [ ] U. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .
1. P. iD = iQ = 0 Voltage Equations vo = Ra io vd = Ra id − ω m Lqq iq vq = Ra iq + ω m (Ldd id + LdF iF ) v F = R F iF U.Training Course in Power System Modeling 81 Steady–State Equations At steady–state condition. Thus. 2. No voltages are induced in the damper windings. All transformer voltages are zero. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .
then the air gap is uniform. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .Training Course in Power System Modeling 82 Steady–State Equations CylindricalRotor Machine If the rotor is cylindrical. and Ldd = Lqq. Define synchronous inductance Ls LS = Ldd = Lqq when the rotor is cylindrical Voltage and Electromagnetic Torque Equations at Steadystate v = R i − ω L i d a d m s q vq = Raiq − ωm Ls id + ωm LdF iF Te = LdF iF iq U. P.
2. ia. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration . ib and ic are balanced threephase currents. Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering U.Training Course in Power System Modeling 83 Steady–State Equations For Balanced ThreePhase Operation ( ) i = 2 I cos (ωt + α + 120 ) Apply Park’s transformation i odq = [P ]i abc . id and iq are DC currents. We get ib = 2 I cos ωt + α − 120 o o c ia = 2 I cos (ωt + α ) io = 0 id = 3 I cos α iq = 3 I sin α Note: 1.
National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration . P. Given va = 2 V cos(ωt + δ) vc = vb = 2 V cos ωt + δ − 120 We get ( ) 2 V cos(ωt + δ + 120 ) o o vo = 0 vd = vq = 3 V cos δ 3 V sin δ Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering U.Training Course in Power System Modeling 84 Steady–State Equations A similar transformation applies to balance threephase voltages.
P. i abc = [P ] i odq −1 We get 2 ia = id cos ωt − iq sin ωt 3 [ ] 2 = id cos ωt + iq cos ωt + 90o 3 U. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration [ ( )] Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . and assuming io = 0.Training Course in Power System Modeling 85 Steady–State Equations Inverse Transformation Given id and iq.
we get 1 Ia = id ∠0o + iq ∠90o 3 [ ] assuming the d and q axes as reference. Simplify iq id Ia = + j 3 3 I a = I d + jI q U.Training Course in Power System Modeling 86 Steady–State Equations Recall the phasor transformation 2 I cos (ω t + θ ) ↔ I∠ θ Using the transform. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .
given vd and vq with vo = 0 2 va = vd cos ωt − vq sin ωt 3 2 o = v d cos ωt + vq cos (ωt + 90 ) 3 [ ] [ ] In phasor form. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . P. vq vd Va = + j 3 3 =Vd + jV q U.Training Course in Power System Modeling 87 Steady–State Equations Similarly.
P.Training Course in Power System Modeling 88 Steady–State Equations SteadyState OperationCylindrical Recall at steadystate vd = Ra id − ω m Ls iq vq = Ra iq + ω m Ls id + ω m LdF iF Divide by 3 Vd = Ra I d − ωm Ls I q 1 Vq = Ra I q + ωm Ls I d + ωm LdF iF 3 U. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .
Training Course in Power System Modeling 89 Steady–State Equations Xs = ωmLs = synchronous reactance 1 E f = ωm LdFiF = Excitation voltage 3 Phasor Voltage V a Define V a = Vd + jVq = Ra I d − X s I q + j (Ra I q + X s I d + E f ) = Ra (I d + jI q ) + jX s (I d + jI q ) + jE f (motor equation) V a = Ra I a + jX s I a + E m U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .
P.Training Course in Power System Modeling 90 Steady–State Equations For a generator. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . current flows out of the machine V a = Ra − I a + jXs − I a + E g E g = Ra I a + jXs I a + V a R a + jX + AC ( ) ( ) + s Eg  Ia Va  Equivalent Circuit of Cylindrical Rotor Synchronous Generator U.
Recall the steadystate equations vd = Raid − ω m Lqqiq vq = Raiq + ω m Ldd id + ω m LdF iF Divide through by Vd = Ra I d − X q I q Vq = R a I q + X d I d + U.Training Course in Power System Modeling 91 Steady–State Equations SalientPole Machine If the rotor is not cylindrical. The analysis is based solely on the phasor diagram describing the machine. no equivalent circuit can be drawn. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration 3 ω m LdF iF 3 Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . P.
P.Training Course in Power System Modeling 92 Steady–State Equations where Xd =ωmLdd = direct axis synchronous reactance quadrature axis synchronous reactance Xq =ωmLqq = Define: Ef = ωm LdF 3 iF = excitation voltage U. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .
National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .Training Course in Power System Modeling 93 Steady–State Equations We get Vd = Ra I d − X q I q Vq = Ra I q + X d I d + E f Va =Vd + jV . P. we get q V a = Ra Id − Xq Iq + j(Ra Iq + Xd Id + Ef ) = Ra (Id + jIq ) − Xq Iq + jXd Id + jEf From or V a = Ra I a − X q Iq + jXd Id + jEf U.
Te is assumed to be positive. For a generator. Te is assumed to be negative.Training Course in Power System Modeling 94 Steady–State Equations SteadyState Electromagnetic Torque At steadystate Te = − (Ldd − Lqq ) id iq + LdF iF iq [ ] saliency cylindrical torque torque The dominant torque is the cylindrical torque which determines the mode of operation. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . U. P. For a motor.
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . − LdFiF iq < 0 > 0 Recall that when iq > 0 (motor) when iq < 0 (generator ) I a = Id + jIq Note: The imaginary component of Ia determines Whether the machine is operating as a motor or a Generator.Training Course in Power System Modeling 95 Steady–State Equations Since the field current iF is always positive.
National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration ) Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . P.Training Course in Power System Modeling 96 Steady–State Equations What about Id? Assume From we get Iq = 0 . We get V a = V d + jV q = R a I d + j (X d I d + E f ≈ j (X d I d + E f ) U. Vd = Ra I d − X q I q Vq = Ra I q + X d I d + E f Vd = Ra I d Vq = X d I d + E f In general. Ra << Xd.
P.Training Course in Power System Modeling 97 Steady–State Equations If the magnitude of Va is constant. Vq = X d I d + E f = constant Recall that Ef = ω m L dF 3 iF Thus. U. For some value of field current iFo. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . the excitation voltage depends only on the field current since ωm is constant. Ef = Va and Id = 0.
P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . Iq > 0 daxis Id > 0.Training Course in Power System Modeling 99 Steady–State Equations Operating Modes qaxis Overexcited Motor Id < 0. Iq < 0 Underexcited Generator U. Iq > 0 Id < 0. Iq < 0 Overexcited Generator Underexcited Motor Id > 0.
U. 2.Training Course in Power System Modeling 98 Steady–State Equations Overexcitation and Underexcitation 1. Under this condition. Under this condition. Id < 0 (demagnetizing). National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . then Ef < Va and the machine is underexcited. If the field current is increased above iFo. If the field current is decreased below iFo. Id > 0 (magnetizing). P. then Ef > Va and the machine is overexcited.
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Steady–State Equations
Drawing Phasor Diagrams
A phasor diagram showing Va and Ia can be drawn if the currents Id and Iq are known. Recall
I a = I d + jI q V a = Vd + jVq V a = Ra I a − X q I q + jX d I d + jE f V a = jE f − X q I q + jX d I d + Ra I a
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering
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Id < 0 Iq > 0
Ra I a
− X q Iq
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jEf
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Leading Power Factor
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration
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Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering
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Underexcited Motor
Id > 0 Iq > 0
Ra I a
jX d I d
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Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering
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Overexcited Generator qaxis − XqIq
jEf
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jIq
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Underexcited Generator
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jXd Id
jEf − Xq Iq
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daxis
Ia
Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering
Training Course in Power System Modeling 105 Steady–State Equations Observations 1. V a leads jEf for a motor V a lags jEf for a generator The angle between the terminal voltage Va and jEf is called the power angle or torque angle δ. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . P. The equation V a = Ra I a + jXd Id − X q Iq + jEf applies specifically for a motor. 2. The excitation voltage jEf lies along the quadrature axis. 3. U.
V a = −Ra I a − jXd Id + Xq Iq + jEf or jEf = V a + Ra I a + jXd Id − Xq Iq 5. Iq and I a are negative. Thus Id. the actual current flows out of the machine. Let jE f = E m jE f = E g for a motor for a generator Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering U. For a generator. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration .Training Course in Power System Modeling 106 Steady–State Equations 4. P.
No equivalent circuit can be drawn for a salientpole motor or generator.Training Course in Power System Modeling 107 Steady–State Equations The generator equation becomes E g = V a + Ra I a + jXd Id − X q Iq For a motor. P. U. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . the equation is V a = Em + Ra I a + jXd Id − Xq Iq 6.
97 kV linetoline linetoneutral Va  U. P. Singlephase + + equivalent circuit Ia Eg AC Va = 13. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .5 ohms per phase.8 jXs power factor. 13.8 kV. Find the excitation voltage Eg when the machine is supplying rated MVA at rated voltage and 0.8 kV = 7. The armature resistance is negligible.Training Course in Power System Modeling 108 Steady–State Equations Example 1: A 25 MVA. 3600 RPM. Yconnected cylindricalrotor synchronous generator has a synchronous reactance of 4.
667 − j5.Training Course in Power System Modeling 109 Steady–State Equations Pa = 25(0. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration .8) = 20 MW.67 MW/phase Qa = Pa tan θ = 15 =5 Let MVar. threephase = 6.000 = 7. P. threephase MVar/phase V a = 7.97∠0o kV. Using the complex power formula Pa + jQa = V I Ia = Pa − jQa V * a * a a 6. the reference.97∠0o Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering U.
P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .046∠ − 36.046∠ − 36.Training Course in Power System Modeling 110 Steady–State Equations We get Ia = 837 − j628 A = 1.429 volts.732 volts.791 + j3.429∠19.5 1. Eg = jXS I a + V a = 10.87o A Apply KVL.24o V = j 4. linetoneutral = 19.766 = 11.87o + 7.970∠0o ( ) Eg = 11. linetoline U.
4Ω + + Eg  AC Ia Va  R = 4Ω Va(LL) = 20. The armature resistance is negligible.547 volts Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering U. 3phase synchronous generator has a synchronous reactance of 2. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration .000 volts Va(LN) = 11. at a terminal voltage of 20 kV linetoline. The machine supplies power to a wyeconnected resistive load. P. 4Ω per phase.4 ohms.Training Course in Power System Modeling 111 Steady–State Equations Example 2: A 100 MVA. (a) Find the excitation voltage X S = 2. 20 kV.
o Ia = = = 2. the reference V a 11547 .4(2.547 + j 6.887) + 11.32 kV.324 V = 23 .928 = 13. line − to − line U.887∠0 Amps R 4 Applying KVL.96o V line − to − neutral E g = 3 (13.466 ) = 23.Training Course in Power System Modeling 112 Steady–State Equations V a = 11. E g = jXS I a + V a Let = j 2.547∠0o V.547 = 11. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .466∠30.
Find the terminal voltage. Va. P. Thus. Req = 4Ω // 4Ω = 2Ω Let Va = Va ∠ 0 o . Eg is unchanged. A second identical resistive load is connected across the machine terminal. Since iF is constant. the reference Va 1 o Ia = = Va∠0 Req 2 U. linetoneutral. Eg = 13. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .466 V.Training Course in Power System Modeling 113 Steady–State Equations (b) Assume that the field current is held constant.
line − to − line U. 44 V a 2 2 Va = 8. P.2Va 2 2 2 We get Eg = Va + (1.621 V .Training Course in Power System Modeling 114 Steady–State Equations Apply KVL. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . line − to − neutral Va = 14.932 V .4⎜ Va ⎟ + Va ⎝2 ⎠ = Va + j1.2Va ) 13 . 466 = 2 . E g = jX s I a + V a ⎛1 ⎞ = j 2.
19 o V line − to − neutral E g = 3 (18 .547 + j13.547 Ia = = = 5. line − to − neutral V a 11. Find Eg.037 ∠50 . 547 ∠ 0 o V . V a = 11 .24 kV line − to − line U. 037 ) = 31. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .547 = 11. P.4(5774 ) + 11.856 = 18.Training Course in Power System Modeling 115 Steady–State Equations (c) Assume that the field current iF is increased so that the terminal voltage remains at 20 kV linetoline after the addition of the new resistive load.774 ∠ 0 o Amps Req 2 E g = j 2. 241 V = 31 .
Training Course in Power System Modeling 116 Generator Sequence Impedances The equivalent Circuit of Generator for Balanced ThreePhase System Analysis a Za Ea Eb Zb Ec Zc Ib Ic c b Ia R a + jX + Ia s + Eg  Va  ThreePhase Equivalent U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration SinglePhase Equivalent Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .
I ao Z o Zero Sequence Positive Sequence Negative Sequence U.I a2 Z 2 V ao = . the Sequence Networks for Unbalanced ThreePhase Analysis + + + Ia1 Va1  Ia2 Va2 Z2 Va0  Ia0 Z0 Z1 + E  V a1 = E – I a1 Z 1 V a2 = . National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . P.Training Course in Power System Modeling 117 Sequence Impedance of Power System Components From Symmetrical Components.
National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .15X d " ≤ X 0 ≤ 0.6X d " U.Training Course in Power System Modeling 118 Generator Sequence Impedances PositiveSequence Impedance: Xd”=DirectAxis Subtransient Reactance Xd’=DirectAxis Transient Reactance Xd=DirectAxis Synchronous Reactance NegativeSequence Impedance: X2 = 1 (X d "+ X q " ) for a salientpole machine 2 for a cylindricalrotor machine X2 = X d " ZeroSequence Impedance: 0. P.
P.Training Course in Power System Modeling 119 Generator Sequence Impedances Positive Sequence Impedance The AC RMS component of the current following a threephase short circuit at noload condition with constant exciter voltage and neglecting the armature resistance is given by ⎛ −t ⎞ E ⎛ E E ⎞ +⎜ I( t ) = ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ X ' − X ⎟ exp⎜ τ ' ⎟ X ds ⎝ d ds ⎠ ⎝ d ⎠ ⎛ E ⎛ −t ⎞ E ⎞ +⎜ ⎜ X " − X ' ⎟ exp⎜ τ " ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ d ⎠ ⎝ d ⎝ d ⎠ where E = AC RMS voltage before the short circuit. U. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .
Training Course in Power System Modeling 120 Generator Sequence Impedances The AC RMS component of the shortcircuit current is composed of a constant term and two decaying exponential terms where the third term decays very much faster than the second term. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . U. while the straight line is the transient portion. If the first term is subtracted and the remainder is plotted on a semilogarithmic paper versus time. The rapidly decaying portion of the curve is the subtransient portion. the curve would appear as a straight line after the rapidly decaying term decreases to zero.
oscillograms should be taken showing the short circuit current in each phase. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . U. neglecting the rapid variation during the first few cycles. For each test run. The directaxis transient reactance is equal to the ratio of the opencircuit voltage to the value of the armature current obtained by the extrapolation of the envelope of the AC component of the armature current wave. P.Training Course in Power System Modeling 121 Generator Sequence Impedances IEEE Std 1151995: Determination of the Xd’ and Xd” (Method 1) The directaxis transient reactance is determined from the current waves of a threephase short circuit suddenly applied to the machine operating opencircuited at rated speed.
National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . the initial transient component and the sustained component for each phase gives the corresponding value of I”. U. The sum of the initial subtransient component. P.Training Course in Power System Modeling 122 Generator Sequence Impedances The directaxis subtransient reactance is determined from the same threephase suddenly applied short circuit. the values of the difference between the ordinates of Curve B and the transient component (Line C) are plotted as Curve A to give the subtransient component of the shortcircuit current. For each phase.
5 1.0 0.0 1.8 0.4 0 Line A + + + + + + Curve A 20 30 40 50 60 10 Time in halfcycles U. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .Training Course in Power System Modeling 123 Generator Sequence Impedances Current in phase 1 (per unit) 14 12 + 10 + + Curve B + + ++ 8 ++ + ++ + ++ 6 Line ++ +++ 5 ++ + 4 3+ + + C ++ ++ + ++ 2. P.6 0.
P.6 16.0993 1.4 14.Training Course in Power System Modeling 124 Generator Sequence Impedances Example: Calculation of transient and subtransient reactances for a synchronous machine Phase 1 (1) Initial voltage (2) Steadystate Current (3) Initial Transient Current (4) I’ = (2)+(3) (5) Xd’ = (1)÷(4) (6) Init.6 10.0682 10.4 9. Subtransient Current 3.4 8. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Phase 2 Phase 3 Ave 1.1 1.4 8.8 (7) I” = (4)+(6) (8) Xd” = (1)÷(7) U.5 Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .1 10.0 1.67 0.3 9.5 5.07 0.4 14.7 13.0 4.
line currents and electric power input are measured and expressed in perunit. Two or more tests should be made with current values above and below rated current. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . U. Symmetrical sinusoidal threephase currents of negative phase sequence are applied to the stator. to permit interpolation. The linetoline voltages. X2 (Method 1) The machine is operated at rated speed with its field winding shortcircuited. P.Training Course in Power System Modeling 125 Generator Sequence Impedances Negative Sequence Impedance IEEE Std 1151995: Determination of the negativesequence reactance.
I X2 = Z2 − R 2 2 2 =Negative Sequence Reactance. P. U. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . I P R 2 = 2 =Negative Sequence Resistance. p. p.u. p. P = three phase electric power input. I = average of line currents.u.u.u. Note: The test produces abnormal heating in the rotor and should be concluded promptly.u. p.u. E Z2 = =Negative Sequence Impedance. p. p.Training Course in Power System Modeling 126 Generator Sequence Impedances Let E = average of applied linetoline voltages.
Training Course in Power System Modeling 127 Generator Sequence Impedances Zero Sequence Impedance IEEE Std 1151995: Determination of the zerosequence reactance. current and electric power. Measure the applied V voltage. A singlephase voltage is applied between the line terminals and the neutral point. X0 (Method 1) The machine is operated at rated speed with its field winding shortcircuited. Field U. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration E A W Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . P.
National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . in p. p.u.u. P. p.u. I X0 = Z0 ⎛P⎞ 1−⎜ ⎟ ⎝ EI ⎠ 2 =Zero Sequence Reactance.u. P = wattmeter reading. p. in p.Training Course in Power System Modeling 128 Generator Sequence Impedances Let E = applied voltage.u. of base linetoneutral voltage I = test current. singlephase base voltampere 3E Z0 = =Zero Sequence Impedance. U.
30 0.75 0.90 0.10 1.08 0.24 0.15 1. P.90 0.Training Course in Power System Modeling 129 Generator Sequence Impedances Average Machine Reactances Turbo WaterWheel Synchronous Reactance Generators Generators Motors Xd 1.40 0.15 0. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .34 0.24 0.37 0.23 0.23 0.35 0.20 Xq X d‘ X q‘ X d” X q” X2 1.12 0.75 0.12 0.35 U.
F1 F2 F0 r + Eg  jZ1 jZ2 N1 N2 jZ0 N0 Positive Sequence Negative Sequence Zero Sequence U. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .Training Course in Power System Modeling 130 Generator Sequence Networks GroundedWye Generator The sequence networks for the groundedwye generator are shown below. P.
Training Course in Power System Modeling 131 Generator Sequence Networks GroundedWye through an Impedance If the generator neutral is grounded through an impedance Zg. the zerosequence impedance is modified as shown below. F1 F2 F0 r + Eg  jZ1 jZ2 N1 N2 jZ0 3Zg N0 Positive Sequence Negative Sequence Zero Sequence U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .
The sequence networks for the generator are shown below. no zerosequence current can flow.Training Course in Power System Modeling 132 Generator Sequence Networks UngroundedWye Generator If the generator is connected ungroundedwye or delta. P. F1 F2 F0 r + Eg  jZ1 jZ2 N1 N2 jZ0 N0 Positive Sequence Negative Sequence Zero Sequence U. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .
National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . P.Training Course in Power System Modeling 133 Transformer Models Two Winding Transformer ShortCircuit and OpenCircuit Tests Three Winding Transformer Autotransformer Transformer Connection Three Phase Transformer Three Phase Model U.
Training Course in Power System Modeling 134 TwoWinding Transformer Ideal Transformer The voltage drop from the polaritymarked terminal to the nonpolaritymarked terminal of the H winding is in phase with the voltage drop from the polaritymarked terminal to the nonpolaritymarked terminal of the X winding. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . N N Voltage Equation: r VH NH r = NX VX r VH _ + r IH H X r + IX r VX _ U. P.
Training Course in Power System Modeling 135 TwoWinding Transformer r VH _ + r IH NH N X r IX r VX _ + Current Equation: r r NH IH = N X IX The current that enters the H winding through the polaritymarked terminal is in phase with the current that leaves the X winding through the polaritymarked terminal. U. P. Note: Balancing ampereturns satisfied at all times. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration must be Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .
P. VH a= r VX r IX a= r IH r r V H = aV X r IH r IX = a Dividing VH by IH. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration .Training Course in Power System Modeling 136 TwoWinding Transformer Referred Values From therTransformation Ratio. r r VH 2 VX r =a r IH IX ZH = a2 Z X Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering U.
iH + φm + iX eX  vH eH  NH NX vX iron core U.Training Course in Power System Modeling 137 TwoWinding Transformer Practical Transformer 1. P. There are leakage fluxes in the H and X coils. 4. 2. The H and X coils have a small resistance. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . 3. There is resistance loss in the iron core. The permeability of the iron is not infinite.
Xm =core resistance and magnetizing reactance U.Training Course in Power System Modeling 138 TwoWinding Transformer Equivalent Circuit v RH + jX H I ex N H N X R X + jX X r VH  + r IH R c H winding jX m v EH  + +  v EX r IX r VX  + Ideal X winding RH. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . XX =resistance and leakage reactance of X coil Rc. XH =resistance and leakage reactance of H coil RX. P.
National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . P.Training Course in Power System Modeling 139 TwoWinding Transformer Referring secondary quantities at the primary side. RH + jX H a 2 R X + ja 2 X X NH N X v r VH  + I ex r IH R jX m c r IX a r v aV X EH  + + +  v EX RH + jX H r VH  + r IH R c v I ex a 2 R X + ja 2 X X jX m r IX a r aV X  + U.
National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Req + jX eq 1 a r IX jX m r aV X  + Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . P.Training Course in Power System Modeling 140 TwoWinding Transformer The transformer equivalent circuit can be approximated by Req + jX eq r VH  + r IH R c v Iex jX m r + 1 a IX r  R eq = R H + a 2 R X X eq = X H + a 2 X X v Iex aV X + r r IH V H Rc U.
National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .Training Course in Power System Modeling 141 TwoWinding Transformer For large power transformers. P. shunt impedance and resistance can be neglected R eq + jX eq jX eq r VH  + r r 1 IH = a IX r aV X  + r VH  + r r 1 IH = a IX r aV X  + U.
National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration a −1 y pq a Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . P.Training Course in Power System Modeling 142 TwoWinding Transformer TapChanging Transformer a:1 q s p r 1 y pq a The π equivalent circuit of transformer with the per 1− a y pq 2 unit transformation ratio: a U.
Training Course in Power System Modeling 143 ShortCircuit and OpenCircuit Tests ShortCircuit Test Conducted to determine series impedance With the secondary (Lowvoltage side) shortcircuited. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration x2 Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . W A V H2 U. apply a primary voltage (usually 2 to 12% of rated value) so that full load current H1 x1 flows. P.
P.Training Course in Power System Modeling 144 ShortCircuit and OpenCircuit Tests ShortCircuit Test Req + jX eq + Ie I SC Rc I1 jX m VSC  Ie ≈ 0 I sc = I 1 PSC Req = 2 I SC Z eq VSC = I SC X eq = Z − R 2 eq 2 eq U. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .
P. x1 W A V H1 x2 U. apply rated voltage to the primary.Training Course in Power System Modeling 145 ShortCircuit and OpenCircuit Tests OpenCircuit Test Conducted to determine shunt impedance With the secondary (Highvoltage side) opencircuited. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration H2 Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .
National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration .Training Course in Power System Modeling 146 ShortCircuit and OpenCircuit Tests OpenCircuit Test Req + jX eq + Ie I OC Rc VOC  jX m I OC = I e V Rc = POC 2 OC ⎡ I OC ⎤ 1 1 = ⎢ ⎥ − 2 Xm Rc ⎣VOC ⎦ Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering 2 U. P.
Training Course in Power System Modeling 147 ShortCircuit and OpenCircuit Tests Example: 50 kVA.41 amps PSC = 617 watts POC = 186 watts OpenCircuit Test: LV side energized Determine the Series and Shunt Impedance of the transformer. 2400/240V. What is %Z and X/R of the transformer? U. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .8 amps I OC = 5. P. singlephase transformer ShortCircuit Test: HV side energized VSC = 48 volts VOC = 240 volts I SC = 20.
P.31 ohm 20.42 = 1.H = 2.8 ) 2 2 X eq . National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration (240 )2 = = 310 ohm X m .42 o hm 2 (20 .H = Z eq .L = 45 ohm Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .H 48 = = 2.82 ohm From the opencircuit test Rcq .41 ⎤ ⎡ 1 ⎤ = ⎢ −⎢ ⎥ ⎥ Xm ⎣ 240 ⎦ ⎣ 310 ⎦ U.L 186 2 2 1 ⎡ 5.8 617 = 1 .Training Course in Power System Modeling 148 ShortCircuit and OpenCircuit Tests Solution: From the shortcircuit test R eq .31 − 1.
Training Course in Power System Modeling
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ShortCircuit and OpenCircuit Tests
Referred to the HV side
Rc ,H = a 2 Rc ,L = 30 ,968 ohm
X m ,H = a 2 X m ,L = 4 ,482 ohm
%Z and X/R
Z BASE =
[2.4 ]2
50 / 1000
= 115.2 ohm
1.82 X /R= = 1.28 1.42
Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering
⎛ 2.31 ⎞ %Z = ⎜ ⎟ x100 = 2% ⎝ 115.2 ⎠
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration
Training Course in Power System Modeling
150
X/R Ratios of Transformers
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration
Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering
Training Course in Power System Modeling
151
ThreeWinding Transformer
r VH
_
+
r IH
NH
NX
r IX r IY
r VX
_
+
NY
r VY
_
+
r VH NH r = NX VX
r VH NH r = NY VY r r r NH IH = N X IX + N Y IY
r VX NX r = NY VY
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration
Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering
Training Course in Power System Modeling
152
ThreeWinding Transformer
From 3 shortcircuit tests with third winding open, get ZHX=impedance measured at the H side when the X winding is shortcircuited and the Y winding is opencircuited ZHY=impedance measured at the H side when the Y winding is shortcircuited and the X winding is opencircuited ZXY=impedance measured at the X side when the Y winding is shortcircuited and the H winding is opencircuited Note: When expressed in ohms, the impedances must be referred to the same side.
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering
Training Course in Power System Modeling
153
ThreeWinding Transformer
ZH ZX
+ r +
r VH

+
ZY
r VX

VY Z HY = Z H + Z Y
Z HX = Z H + Z X
Z XY = Z X + Z Y
or
Z H = 1 ( Z HX + Z HY − Z XY ) 2 1 Z X = 2 ( Z HX − Z HY + Z XY ) Z Y = 1 ( − Z HX + Z HY + Z XY ) 2
Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration
P.41 Ω @ the X side Find the equivalent circuit in ohms.21 Ω @ the H side ZXY = 4.8 kV Short circuit tests yield the following impedances: ZHX = 63.37 Ω @ the H side ZHY = 106.5 MVA 4.41 ) = 37 .Training Course in Power System Modeling 154 ThreeWinding Transformer Example: A threewinding threephase transformer has the following nameplate rating: H: 30 MVA 140 kV X: 30 MVA 48 kV Y: 10. referred to the H side. 140 2 Z XY = ( 48 ) ( 4. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .52 Ω U.
18 Ω 66.18 Ω r VX  VY U.37 + 106. we get 1 Z H = 2 ( 63.21 + 37.21 + 37.52 ) = 66.66 Ω + + r  r VH  + 40.03 Ω Z X = 1 ( 63.03 Ω − 2.66.21 − 37. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .Training Course in Power System Modeling 155 ThreeWinding Transformer With all impedances referred to the H side.52 ) = 40.37 + 106. Ω 2 1 ZY = 2 ( −63.52 ) = −2.37 − 106. P.
National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Additive Polarity Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .Training Course in Power System Modeling 156 Transformer Connection Transformer Polarity V1 H1 H2 H1 V1 H2 V Less than V1 x1 x2 Greater than V1 V x2 x1 Subtractive Polarity U. P.
” (ANSI/IEEEC57. P.Training Course in Power System Modeling 157 Transformer Connection H1 Subtractive X1 X2 X2 H2 H1 H2 Additive X1 “Singlephase transformers in sizes 200 kVA and below having highvoltage ratings 8660 volts and below (winding voltage) shall have additive polarity. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .12.001993) U. All other singlephase transformers shall have subtractive polarity.
National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . P.Training Course in Power System Modeling 158 Transformer Connection Parallel Connection H1 H2 H1 H2 x1 x2 x1 x2 LOAD U.
075 of each other U.925 to 1.Training Course in Power System Modeling 159 Transformer Connection Parallel Connection same turns ratio Connected to the same primary phase Identical frequency ratings Identical voltage ratings Identical tap settings Per unit impedances within 0. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .
P.Training Course in Power System Modeling 160 Transformer Connection H1 H2 H1 H2 H1 H2 x1 x2 x1 x2 x1 x2 WYEWYE (YY) Three Phase Transformer Bank U. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .
P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .Training Course in Power System Modeling 161 Transformer Connection H1 H2 H1 H2 H1 H2 x1 x2 x1 x2 x1 x2 DELTADELTA (ΔΔ) Three Phase Transformer Bank U.
P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .Training Course in Power System Modeling 162 Transformer Connection H1 H2 H1 H2 H1 H2 x1 x2 x1 x2 x1 x2 WYEDELTA (YΔ) Three Phase Transformer Bank U.
National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . P.Training Course in Power System Modeling 163 Transformer Connection H1 H2 H1 H2 H1 H2 x1 x2 x1 x2 x1 x2 DELTAWYE (ΔY) Three Phase Transformer Bank U.
Training Course in Power System Modeling 164 Transformer Connection H1 H2 H1 H2 x1 x2 x1 x2 OPEN DELTA – OPEN DELTA Three Phase Transformer Bank U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .
National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .Training Course in Power System Modeling 165 Transformer Connection H1 H2 H1 H2 x1 x2 x1 x2 OPEN WYE . P.OPEN DELTA Three Phase Transformer Bank U.
Training Course in Power System Modeling 166 ThreePhase Transformer Windings are connected Wye or Delta internally U. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . P.
12. The angular displacement for a threephase transformer with a YΔ or ΔY connection shall be 30o. with the low voltage lagging the high voltage. U. P. The angular displacement for a threephase transformer with a ΔΔ or YY connection shall be 0o.Training Course in Power System Modeling 167 ThreePhase Transformer Angular Displacement ANSI/IEEEC57. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .001993: The angular displacement of a threephase transformer is the time angle (expressed in degrees) between the linetoneutral voltage of the highvoltage terminal marked H1 and the the linetoneutral voltage of the lowvoltage terminal marked X1.
P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration ΔY Connection Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .Training Course in Power System Modeling 168 ThreePhase Transformer Vector Diagrams H2 X2 H2 X1 H1 X2 H2 H3 X3 X2 X2 X1 H1 H2 H3 X3 ΔΔ Connection YΔ Connection X1 X1 H1 H3 X3 H1 H3 X3 YY Connection U.
U. the second letter defines the connection of the X winding. P. the number designates the angle.Training Course in Power System Modeling 169 ThreePhase Transformer IEC Designation 0 IEC Designation for ΔΔ Dd0 Dd2 Dd4 Dd6 Dd8 Dd10 10 2 IEC Designation for YY Yy0 Yy6 8 6 4 Note: The first letter defines the connection of the H winding. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .
Training Course in Power System Modeling 170 ThreePhase Transformer IEC Designation IEC Designation for YΔ Yd1 Yd5 Yd7 Yd11 IEC Designation for ΔY Dy1 Dy5 Dy7 Dy11 7 5 9 11 1 3 Note: The first letter defines the connection of the H winding. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . the number designates the angle. U. the second letter defines the connection of the X winding. P.
Training Course in Power System Modeling 171 ThreePhase Transformer Positive–Sequence Voltages B H2 N X1 X2 b A C r VBN1 H1 H3 X3 c (ABC) r r Vab1 r Vca1 Van1 r r r Vbc1 Van1 lags VAN1 o r Vcn1 by 30 r Vbn1 a r VAN1 r VCN1 U. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . P.
National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration r Iac1 r I Training & Certification Program in Competencyc1 Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . P.Training Course in Power System Modeling 172 ThreePhase Transformer Positive–Sequence r Currents B r C IB1 r IA1 A r IC1 H1 H2 Iba1 X1 H3 r Iac1 r IB1 (ABC) r Icb1 r b X2 r Ib1 Icb1 r Ic1 r c X3 Ia 1 r Ib1 a r IA1 r IC1 r Ia1 r Iba1 r r Ia1 lags IA1 by 30o U.
Training Course in Power System Modeling 173 ThreePhase Transformer Positive Sequence Impedance Whether a bank of singlephase units or a threephase transformer unit (core type or shell type). P. the equivalent impedance is the same. the positivesequence equivalent circuit is Z1 = R1 + jX1 r VH  + r r IH = IX r VX  + Note: The negativesequence impedance is equal to the positivesequence impedance. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration . Using perunit values. Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering U.
P.Training Course in Power System Modeling 174 ThreePhase Transformer Negative–Sequence Voltages B H2 N H1 X1 X2 b A H3 r C VCN2 (ACB) r Vcn2 X3 c r Vac2 r Van2 r VAN2 r VBN2 r Vcb2 r Vbn2 r Vba2 r r Van2 leads VAN2 by 30o a U. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .
Training Course in Power System Modeling 175 ThreePhase Transformer Negative–Sequence Currents r B r C IB 2 r IA2 A r H IC2 1 H2 Iba2 X1 H3 r IC 2 r IB 2 r Ic 2 r Iac2 r Iac2 b r X2 r Ib2 Icb2 r Ic2 r c X3 Ia 2 a (ACB) r IA 2 r Iba2 r Ia2 r Icb2 r Ib 2 r r Ia2 leads IA2 by 30o U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .
National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . P.Training Course in Power System Modeling 176 ThreePhase Transformer Positive– & Negative Sequence Networks Z1 + Primary Side Z2 + Secondary Side r I1 + Primary Side r I2 + Secondary Side     Positive Sequence Network Z1 = Z2 Negative Sequence Network U.
Training Course in Power System Modeling 177 ThreePhase Transformer Transformer Core 3Legged Core Type Shell Type 4Legged Core Type U. Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Note: Only the X windings are shown.
φa φb φc φa + φb + φc = 0 Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering U. the sum of the fluxes is zero. P.or negativesequence flux.Training Course in Power System Modeling 178 ThreePhase Transformer ThreeLegged Transformer Core The 3legged core type threephase transformer uses the minimum amount of core material. For balanced threephase condition. Note: For positive. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration .
Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering φ0 φ0 φ0 3Legged Core Type U. P. On the other hand. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration . the 4legged core type and the shelltype threephase transformer provide a path for zerosequence flux. 3φ0 Note: The zerosequence flux leaks out of the core and returns through the transformer tank.Training Course in Power System Modeling 179 ThreePhase Transformer Zero Sequence Flux The 3legged core type threephase transformer does not provide a path for zerosequence flux. a bank of singlephase units.
National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration + r VX  + r *Excluding 3phase unit with a 3legged core. P.Training Course in Power System Modeling 180 ThreePhase Transformer Zero Sequence Impedance* Transformer Connection ZeroSequence Network Z0 = Z1 VH  + r VX  + r Z0 = Z1 VH U. Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .
National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . U. P.Training Course in Power System Modeling 181 ThreePhase Transformer Zero Sequence Impedance* Transformer Connection ZeroSequence Network Z0 = Z1 VH  + r VX  + r Z0 = Z1 VH + r VX  + r *Excluding 3phase unit with a 3legged core.
Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .Training Course in Power System Modeling 182 ThreePhase Transformer Zero Sequence Impedance* Transformer Connection ZeroSequence Network Z0 = Z1 VH  + r VX  + r Z0 = Z1 VH U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration + r VX  + r *Excluding 3phase unit with a 3legged core.
07 + r + r  Zero Sequence impedance Z0=j0.07 + r + r  VH VX VH VX U. Draw the positive and zerosequence equivalent circuits.8YG kV (Dyn1) Z=7%. Positive/Negative Sequence impedance Z1=j0. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .Training Course in Power System Modeling 183 ThreePhase Transformer Example: Consider a twowinding threephase transformer with the following nameplate rating: 25 MVA 69Δ 13. Use the transformer rating as bases.
82 p. U.u.0% XY @ 45 MVA = 36. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .u. P.148 ( 100 / 150 ) = 0. HX @ 150 MVA = 14.10 p.8% HY @ 45 MVA = 21.Training Course in Power System Modeling 184 ThreePhase Transformer Example: A threewinding threephase transformer has the following nameplate rating: 150/150/45 MVA 138zG69zG13. At the chosen MVA base.8Δ kV (Yy0d1).u. Z HX = 0.47 p.369 ( 100 / 45 ) = 0.9% Draw the positive and zerosequence equivalent circuits.21( 100 / 45 ) = 0. Z XY = 0. Z HY = 0. Use 100 MVA and the transformer voltage ratings as bases.
82 ) = −0. Positive/Negative Sequence Network Zero Sequence Network ZH ZX ZY + r  VH  + r r VX  + ZH ZX ZY + r  VY VH  + r r VX  + VY U. 2 1 Z Y = 2 ( −0.u.47 + 0. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .u.595 p.u.47 + 0.125 p. Z X = 1 ( 0.225 p.82 ) = −0.10 + 0.10 − 0.10 + 0.82 ) = 0.47 − 0.Training Course in Power System Modeling 185 ThreePhase Transformer We get 1 Z H = 2 ( 0.
P.Training Course in Power System Modeling 186 Three Phase Model THREEPHASE TRANSFORMER AND 3 SINGLEPHASE TRANSFORMERS IN BANK Primary A B C Secondary Y abc T Core Loss a b c Admittance Matrix U. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .
= D V + Eε System Base ( ( ) ) V in per unit A = 0.Training Course in Power System Modeling 187 Three Phase Model CORE LOSS MODELS 1.7 U.00267 D = 0. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . Constant P & Q Model 2.u .5 F = 22.734x10 9 E = 0. = System Base 2 kVA Rating 2 FV Q p .268x10 13 C = 13.u . P. EPRI Core Loss Model 2 kVA Rating 2 CV A V + Bε Pp .00167 B = 0.
Training Course in Power System Modeling 188 Three Phase Model I1 I2 z12 z11 z23 z22 I3 z34 z33 I4 z45 z44 I5 z56 z55 z66 I6 + V1 + V2 + V3 + V4 + V5 + V6 Primitive Coils       z11 z21 z31 z41 z51 z61 z12 z22 z32 z42 z52 z62 z13 z23 z33 z43 z53 z63 z14 z24 z34 z44 z54 z64 z15 z35 z45 z55 z65 z16 z36 z46 z56 z66 Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering z25 z26 Primitive Impedances U. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration . P.
Training Course in Power System Modeling 189 Transformer Model Three Identical Singlephase Transformers in Bank z11 z21 z12 z22 z33 z43 z34 z44 z55 z65 z56 z66 Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering I1 z11 z12 z22 I2 I3 z33 z34 z44 I4 I5 z55 z56 z66 I6 U. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration . P.
P. C V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6 VA VB VC Va Vb Vc = [V123456] = [C][VABCabc ] Matrix C defines the relationship of the Primitive Voltages and Terminal Voltages of the ThreePhase Connected Transformer U. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .Training Course in Power System Modeling 190 Transformer Model Node Connection Matrix.
P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . C V1 V2 1 1 1 1 1 1 VA VB VC Va Vb Vc [V123456] = [C][VABCabc ] V3 V4 V5 V6 = U.Training Course in Power System Modeling 191 Transformer Model VA IA 1 3 5 IB 6 Ic Vc 2 Ia 4 Ib Vb Va VC IC VB Wye GroundedWye Grounded Connection Node Connection Matrix.
C V1 V2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 VA VB VC Va Vb Vc [V123456] = [C][VABCabc ] V3 V4 V5 V6 = U. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .Training Course in Power System Modeling 192 Transformer Model VA IA 1 3 5 IC 4 Ic Vc 6 2 Ib Vb Ia Va VC VB IB Wye GroundedDelta Connection Node Connection Matrix. P.
R1 R1 N 3 L1 M L2 4 M L2 6 b R2 5 L1 c Z 1 = R1 + jωL1 = Z 3 = Z 5 Z 2 = R2 + jωL2 = Z 4 = Z 6 Z M = Z 12 = jωM = Z 34 = Z 56 U. P.Training Course in Power System Modeling 193 Transformer Model R1 A M 1 L1 R2 a L2 2 R2 3 Identical SinglePhase B Transformers connected WyeDelta C Let. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .
National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration = The Primitive Voltage Equations The Inverse of the Impedance Matrix The Primitive Admittance Matrix 1 Z1 Z2 –ZM2 ZM Z1 Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . P.Training Course in Power System Modeling 194 Transformer Model V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6 Z1 ZM ZM Z2 Z1 ZM ZM Z2 Z1 ZM ZM Z2 I1 I2 I3 I4 I5 I6 Z2 ZM ZM Z1 Z2 ZM ZM Z1 Z2 ZM U.
National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . P.Training Course in Power System Modeling 195 Transformer Model YBUS = [C][ Yprim][CT] A Z2 Z2 B C a ZM b ZM ZM c A ZM ZM B C a b c YBUS = 1 Z1 Z2 –ZM2 ZM ZM ZM ZM Z2 ZM ZM 2Z1 Z1 Z1 2Z1 Z1 Z1 ZM 2Z1 ZM Z1 U.
P.Training Course in Power System Modeling 196 Transformer Model The Bus Admittance Matrix Iinj = [C Yprim CT] Vnode YBUS = [C][Yprim][CT] 1 1 Z2 ZM 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ZM Z1 Z2 ZM ZM Z1 Z2 ZM ZM Z1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Z1 Z2 –ZM2 U. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .
P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .Training Course in Power System Modeling 197 Three Phase Model Define z2 yt = 2 z1 z 2 − z m yt yt n1 a= n2 ayt ayt ayt yt ayt 2a2yt a2yt ayt a2yt a2yt 2a2yt a2yt ayt ayt a2yt a2yt 2a2yt YBUS = ayt ayt ayt ayt ayt U.
then the effective turns ratio ”a” must be n1 1 = a= n2 3 yt yt yt − 1 3 1 3 − 1 3 yt − 1 3 1 3 yt yt − 1 3 1 z2 yt = 2 z1 z 2 − z m yt yt 1 yt yt − 1 3 1 3 1 3 yt yt yt − 1 3 yt 3 2 yt 3 1 − yt 3 1 − yt 3 yt 3 1 1 − yt − yt 3 3 2 yt − 1 yt 3 3 2 1 y − yt 3 t 3 U. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . P.Training Course in Power System Modeling 198 Three Phase Model If the admittances are already in per unit system.
P.Training Course in Power System Modeling 199 Three Phase Model Summary A A B C B C a b c YAA YBA YCA YaA YbA YcA YAB YBB YCB YaB YbB YcB YAC YBC YaC YbC YcC YAa Yab YAc YBa YBb YBc YCb Ycc Yab Ybb Ycb Yac Ybc Ycc Yaa Yba Yca [Ybus] = YPP YPS YSP YSS YCC YCa a b c U. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .
Training Course in Power System Modeling 200 Three Phase Model PRI WyeG WyeG WyeG Wye Wye Wye Delta Delta Delta SEC WyeG Wye Delta WyeG Wye Delta WyeG Wye Delta YPP YI YII YI YII YII YII YII YII YII YSS YI YII YII YII YII YII YI YII YII YPS YI YII YIII YII YII YIII YIIIT YIIIT YII YSP YI YII YIIIT YII YII YIIIT YIII YIII YII U. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . P.
National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . P.Training Course in Power System Modeling 201 Three Phase Model Summary yt 2yt yt yt yt yt YI = YII = 1/3 yt 2yt yt yt yt 2yt yt yt yt yt yt yt YIII = 1/√3 yt yt yt yt yt YIIIT = 1/√3 yt U.
X/R=3 are connected Wye(grounded)Delta.4.Training Course in Power System Modeling 202 Three Phase Model Example: Three singlephase transformers rated 50 kVA. = ____ j ____ [Ybus] = U. Assume yt = 1/zt Zp.u. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . = ____ +j ____ yp. %Z=2.62kV/240V. 7.u. Determine the Admittance Matrix Model of the Transformer Bank.
National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .Training Course in Power System Modeling 203 3Phase Transformer Impedance Matrix Model Distributing Transformer Impedance Between Windings Impedance Matrix in BackwardForward Sweep Load Flow WyeGrounded – WyeGrounded DeltaDelta U. P.
VPRI =a VSEC Z PRI 2 =a Z SEC N PRI a= N SEC Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering I PRI 1 = I SEC a U. P.Training Course in Power System Modeling 204 Transformer Equations Consider the windingtowinding relationship between primary and secondary: From transformer equations. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration .
Training Course in Power System Modeling 205 Distributing Transformer Impedance Between Windings Transformers are typically modeled with series impedance lumped at either end. series impedance must be modeled in both windings. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . P. To properly model transformer behavior. PROBLEM: divide ZT into ZP and ZS given a ZT = Z P + Z S ' U.
Z S = aZ P Referring ZS to primary side . P.Training Course in Power System Modeling 206 Distributing Transformer Impedance Between Windings ASSUMPTION: Transformer impedance varies as number of wire turns. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . ZT = Z P + a Z P 3 = (1 + a3 ) Z P U. ZS ' = a ZS = a ZP 2 3 Substituting.
P. 1 ZP = ZT 3 (1 + a ) a ZS = ZT 3 (1 + a ) U.Training Course in Power System Modeling 207 Distributing Transformer Impedance Between Windings To find ZP and ZS. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .
National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . P.Training Course in Power System Modeling 208 Impedance Matrix in BackwardForward Sweep Load Flow Transformer model involved in backward summation of current forward computation of voltage WyeGrounded – WyeGrounded DeltaDelta U.
P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .Training Course in Power System Modeling 209 Wye Grounded – Wye Grounded U.
National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration . P.Training Course in Power System Modeling 210 WyeGndWyeGnd Backward Sweep Secondary to Secondary Winding ⎡ I Sec _ Winding _1 ⎤ ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ I a ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ I Sec _ Winding _ 2 ⎥ = ⎢ 0 1 0 ⎥ ⎢ I b ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢ I Sec _ Winding _ 3 ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 1 ⎥ ⎢ I c ⎥ ⎦⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ Secondary Winding to Primary Winding if in PU: If not in PU: ⎡ I Pr i _ Winding _1 ⎤ ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ I Sec _ Winding _1 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ I Pr i _ Winding _ 2 ⎥ = ⎢ 0 1 0 ⎥ ⎢ I Sec _ Winding _ 2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ I Pr i _ Winding _ 3 ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 1 ⎥ ⎢ I Sec _ Winding _ 3 ⎥ ⎦⎣ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ Primary Winding to Primary ⎡1 ⎢ ⎡ I Pr i _ Winding _1 ⎤ ⎢ a ⎢ ⎥ I Pr i _ Winding _ 2 ⎥ = ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ I Pr i _ Winding _ 3 ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ ⎢0 ⎢ ⎣ 0 1 a 0 ⎤ 0⎥ ⎥ ⎡ I Sec _ Winding _1 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎢ I Sec _ Winding _ 2 ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎢I 1 ⎥ ⎣ Sec _Winding _ 3 ⎦ a⎥ ⎦ ⎡ I A ⎤ ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ I Pr i _ Winding _1 ⎤ ⎥ ⎢ I ⎥ = ⎢0 1 0 ⎥ ⎢ I ⎢ B⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ Pr i _ Winding _ 2 ⎥ ⎢ I C ⎥ ⎢0 0 1 ⎥ ⎢ I Pr i _ Winding _ 3 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦⎣ ⎦ Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering U.
P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration ⎢0 ⎢ ⎣ ⎤ 0⎥ ⎥ ⎡VPr i _ Winding _1 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎢VPr i _ Winding _ 2 ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎢V 1 ⎥ ⎣ Pr i _ Winding _ 3 ⎦ a⎥ ⎦ Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .Training Course in Power System Modeling 211 WyeGndWyeGnd Forward Sweep Primary to Primary winding ⎡VPr i _ Winding _1 ⎤ ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ ⎡VAN ⎤ ⎡ I Pr i _ Winding _1 * Z Pr i _ Winding _1 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ VPr i _ Winding _ 2 ⎥ = ⎢0 1 0 ⎥ ⎢VBN ⎥ − ⎢ I Pr i _ Winding _ 2 * Z Pr i _ Winding _ 2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢VPr i _ Winding _ 3 ⎥ ⎢0 0 1 ⎥ ⎢VCN ⎥ ⎢ I Pr i _ Winding _ 3 * Z Pr i _ Winding _ 3 ⎥ ⎦⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ Primary Winding to Secondary Winding If in PU: ⎡VSec _ Winding _1 ⎤ Secondary Winding to Secondary ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ ⎡VPr i _ Winding _1 ⎤ If not in PU: ⎢ ⎡VSec _ Winding _1 ⎤ ⎢ a ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ ⎢V ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢VSec _ Winding _ 2 ⎥ = ⎢ 0 1 0 ⎥ ⎢ Pr i _ Winding _ 2 ⎥ ⎢VSec _ Winding _ 2 ⎥ = ⎢ 0 ⎢VSec _ Winding _ 3 ⎥ ⎢ 0 0 1 ⎥ ⎢VPr i _ Winding _ 3 ⎥ ⎦⎣ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎢V ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ Sec _ Winding _ 3 ⎡1 0 1 a 0 ⎦ ⎡Van ⎤ ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ ⎡VSec _ Winding _1 ⎤ ⎡ I Sec _ Winding _1 * Z Sec _ Winding _1 ⎤ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢V ⎥ = ⎢0 1 0 ⎥ ⎢V − ⎢ I Sec _ Winding _ 2 * Z Sec _ Winding _ 2 ⎥ ⎢ bn ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ Sec _ Winding _ 2 ⎥ ⎢Vcn ⎥ ⎢0 0 1 ⎥ ⎢VSec _ Winding _ 3 ⎥ ⎢ I Sec _ Winding _ 3 * Z Sec _ Winding _ 3 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ U.
Training Course in Power System Modeling 212 DeltaDelta Transformer Connection U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .
National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration ⎡1 ⎢ ⎡ I Pr i _ Winding _1 ⎤ ⎢ a ⎢ ⎥ I Pr i _Winding _ 2 ⎥ = ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ I Pr i _ Winding _ 3 ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ ⎢0 ⎢ ⎣ 0 1 a 0 ⎤ 0⎥ ⎥ ⎡ I Sec _ Winding _1 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎢ I Sec _ Winding _ 2 ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎢I 1 ⎥ ⎣ Sec _ Winding _ 3 ⎦ a⎥ ⎦ Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .Training Course in Power System Modeling 213 DeltaDelta Backward Sweep Secondary to Secondary Winding ⎡ I Sec _ Winding _1 ⎤ ⎡ 1 −1 0 ⎤ ⎡ I a ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ 1⎢ I Sec _ Winding _ 2 ⎥ = ⎢ 0 1 −1⎥ ⎢ I b ⎥ ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ 3 ⎢ I Sec _ Winding _ 3 ⎥ ⎢ −1 0 1 ⎥ ⎢ I c ⎥ ⎣ ⎦⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ Secondary Winding to Primary Winding If in PU: ⎡ I Pr i _ Winding _1 ⎤ ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ I Sec _ Winding _1 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥⎢ ⎢ I Pr i _ Winding _ 2 ⎥ = ⎢0 1 0 ⎥ ⎢ I Sec _ Winding _ 2 ⎥ ⎢ I Pr i _ Winding _ 3 ⎥ ⎢0 0 1 ⎥ ⎢ I Sec _ Winding _ 3 ⎥ ⎦⎣ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ If not in PU: Primary Winding to Primary ⎡ I a ⎤ ⎡ 1 0 −1⎤ ⎡ I Pr i _ Winding _1 ⎤ ⎥ ⎢ I ⎥ = ⎢ −1 1 0 ⎥ ⎢ I ⎢ b⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ Pr i _ Winding _ 2 ⎥ ⎢ I c ⎥ ⎢ 0 −1 1 ⎥ ⎢ I Pr i _ Winding _ 3 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦⎣ ⎦ U. P.
P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .Training Course in Power System Modeling 214 DeltaDelta Forward Sweep Primary to Primary Winding ⎡VPr i _ Winding _1 ⎤ ⎡ 1 −1 0 ⎤ ⎡VAN ⎤ ⎡ I Pr i _ Winding _1 * Z Pr i _ Winding _1 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ VPr i _ Winding _ 2 ⎥ = ⎢ 0 1 −1⎥ ⎢VBN ⎥ − ⎢ I Pr i _ Winding _ 2 * Z Pr i _ Winding _ 2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ ⎥⎢ ⎥ ⎢VPr i _ Winding _ 3 ⎥ ⎢ −1 0 1 ⎥ ⎢VCN ⎥ ⎢ I Pr i _ Winding _ 3 * Z Pr i _ Winding _ 3 ⎥ ⎦⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ Primary Winding to Secondary Winding If in PU: ⎡1 ⎢ ⎡VSec _ Winding _1 ⎤ ⎡1 0 0 ⎤ ⎡VPr i _ Winding _1 ⎤ ⎡VSec _ Winding _1 ⎤ ⎢ a ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎥⎢ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢VSec _ Winding _ 2 ⎥ = ⎢0 1 0 ⎥ ⎢VPr i _ Winding _ 2 ⎥ VSec _ Winding _ 2 ⎥ = ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢VSec _ Winding _ 3 ⎥ ⎢0 0 1 ⎥ ⎢VPr i _ Winding _ 3 ⎥ ⎦⎣ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎢VSec _ Winding _ 3 ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ ⎢0 Secondary Winding to Secondary ⎢ ⎣ If not in PU: 0 1 a 0 ⎡ 1∠ − 3 0 ⎢ 3 ⎡V a ⎤ ⎢ ⎢ V ⎥ = ⎢ 1∠ − 1 5 0 ⎢ b⎥ ⎢ 3 ⎢V c ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ ⎢ 1∠ − 3 0 ⎢ 3 ⎣ 0 0 0 ⎤ 0⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ ⎥ 1⎥ ⎦ ⎤ 0⎥ ⎥ ⎡VPr i _ Winding _1 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ 0 ⎥ ⎢VPr i _ Winding _ 2 ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎢V 1 ⎥ ⎣ Pr i _ Winding _ 3 ⎦ a⎥ ⎦ ⎡ V S e c _ W in d in g _ 1 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ V S e c _ W in d in g _ 2 ⎥ ⎢ V S e c _ W in d in g _ 3 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ U.
Training Course in Power System Modeling 215 Transmission and Distribution Line Models Series Impedance of Lines Shunt Capacitance of Lines Nodal Admittance Matrix Model Data Requirements Transmission Line U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Distribution Line Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .
Training Course in Power System Modeling 216 Transmission and Distribution Line Models +• Z = R + jXL 1 Y C 2 1 Y C 2 •+ VR • •A B C Balanced ThreePhase System Zaa Zba Zca Y’aa Y’ba Y’ca Y’ab Y’bb Y’cb Y’ac Y’bc Y’cc Zab Zbb Zcb Zac Zbc Zcc Y”aa Y”ba Y”ca Y”ab Y”bb Y”cb Y”ac Y”bc Y”cc a b c Unbalanced ThreePhase System U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .
Training Course in Power System Modeling 217 Series Impedance of Lines Conductor Materials Aluminum (Al) is preferred over Copper (Cu) as a material for transmission and distribution lines due to: lower cost lighter weight larger diameter for the same resistance* * This results in a lower voltage gradient at the conductor surface (less tendency for corona) Copper is preferred over Aluminum as a material for distribution lines due to lower resistance to reduce system losses. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . U. P.
etc. 61. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration (ACSR) Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .Training Course in Power System Modeling 218 Series Impedance of Lines Stranding of Conductors Alternate layers of wire of a stranded conductor are spiraled in opposite directions to prevent unwinding and make the outer radius of one layer coincide with the inner radius of the next. The total number of strands of uniform diameter in a concentrically stranded cable is 7. The number of strands depends on the number of layers and on whether all the strands are of the same diameter. 91. P. Steel Aluminum Aluminum Conductor Steel Reinforced HardDrawn Copper (Cu) U. 19. 37.
Training Course in Power System Modeling 219 Series Impedance of Lines Resistance of Conductors The Resistance of a Conductor depends on the material (Cu or Al) Resistance is directly proportional to Length but inversely proportional to crosssectional area L R=ρ A R – Resistance ρ – Resistivity of Material L – Length A – CrossSectional Area Resistance increases with Temperature SkinEffect in Conductors U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .
22300 0.25700 0.65000 0.32500 0. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .69000 0.00418 1.38000 0.12000 0.00418 1.55000 0.25000 0.98000 0.35500 0.39800 0.00430 2.00510 0.00452 2.00416 3.18000 0.00394 3.28100 0.57000 0.00446 1. (Inches) 0. P.D.Training Course in Power System Modeling 220 Series Impedance of Lines Resistance of Conductors Conductor Size Type Value Unit INDEX 1 ACSR 6 AWG 2 ACSR 5 AWG 3 ACSR 4 AWG 4 ACSR 4 AWG 5 ACSR 3 AWG 6 ACSR 2 AWG 7 ACSR 2 AWG 8 ACSR 1 AWG 9 ACSR 1/0 AWG 10 ACSR 2/0 AWG Source: Westinghouse T&D Handbook Strands 6/1 6/1 7/1 6/1 6/1 7/1 6/1 6/1 6/1 6/1 O.19800 0.44700 GMR Resistance (feet) (Ohm/Mile) 0.07000 0.00437 2.00504 1.31600 0.89500 U.
Training Course in Power System Modeling 221 Series Impedance of Lines Line Inductance Self Inductance: L = L int + L ext Mutual Inductance (between 2 conductors): z 11 1 r I1 z 2 1’ 12 r I2 2’ z 22 V 1− 1' = I 1 z 11 + I 2 z 12 U. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . P.
U. P. Local Earth REF Va  + r a z aa r Ia a’ r V =0 d r Id z ad Remote Earth Fictitious Return Conductor d zdd d’ The current returns through a fictitious earth conductor whose GMR is assumed to be 1 foot (or 1 meter) and is located a distance Dad from the overhead conductor. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .Training Course in Power System Modeling 222 Series Impedance of Lines Carson’s Line Carson examined a single overhead conductor whose remote end is connected to earth.
Subtracting the two equations. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . U.Training Course in Power System Modeling 223 Series Impedance of Lines The line is described by the following equations: r r r r r Note: I a = − I d . P. we get or r r r r r Vaa ' = Va − Va ' = zaa I a + zad I d r r r r r Vdd ' = Vd − Vd ' = zad I a + zdd I d r r Va = ( zaa + zdd − 2 zad ) I a r r zaa Va = zaa I a = zaa + zdd − 2 zad zaa is the equivalent impedance of the single overhead conductor. Vd = 0 and Va ' − Vd ' = 0.
respectively Dsa. Dsd = GMRs of overhead conductor and fictitious ground wire. respectively Dad = Distance between the overhead conductor and fictitious ground wire U. P. rd = resistances of overhead conductor and fictitious ground wire. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .Training Course in Power System Modeling 224 Series Impedance of Lines Primitive Impedances: 2s − 1) zaa = ra + jω La = ra + jω k (ln Dsa 2s zdd = rd + jω k (ln − 1) Dsd 2s zad = jω M = jω k (ln − 1) Dad ω k = (2π f )(2 x10 −7 ) ohm/meter ra.
059214 U.09528 Ω/mile Ω/km = 0.588 x 10 f d = 9.869 x 104 f Ω/km where f is the power frequency in Hz Note : At 60 Hz. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . rd = 0. 3 Ω/mile r = 1. P.Training Course in Power System Modeling 225 Series Impedance of Lines Earth Resistance: Carson derived an empirical formula for the earth resistance.
09 4 Dsc d 3 Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering Note: Dsc=GMR of a single conductor U. Ds Bundle of Two d d d − 1 4 = rε = 0. P.78 r Bundle of Four Ds = Dsc d Ds = 1.Training Course in Power System Modeling 226 Series Impedance of Lines Geometric Mean Radius For a solid conductor with radius r. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration .
National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . P.Training Course in Power System Modeling 227 Series Impedance of Lines Equivalent Impedance: Substitute the primitive impedances into D ad 2 zaa = ( ra + rd ) + jω k ln Dsa Dsd D ad 2 De = Define Dsd We get We get zaa = zaa + zdd − 2 zad De zaa = (ra + rd ) + jωk ln Dsa Ω/unit length U.
Resistivity (Ωm) 0. P.9279 8822790 2790 8820 8. De = 2160 ρ / f Return Earth Condition Sea water Swampy ground Average Damp Earth Dry earth Sandstone feet Typical values of De are tabulated below. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .0 10100 100 1000 109 De (ft) 27.82x106 U.011.Training Course in Power System Modeling 228 Series Impedance of Lines The quantity De is a function of frequency and earth resistivity.
National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .Training Course in Power System Modeling 229 Series Impedance of Lines ThreePhase Line Impedances a +r  b +r Va Vb +r Vc  c r Ia r Ib r Ic z aa zbb z cc z ad zbd a’ zab z ca b’ zbc z cd d’ c’ All wires grounded here REF r V =0 d d r Id zdd U. P.
National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . we get from KCL or r r r r I a + Ib + Ic + I d = 0 r r r r I d = −( I a + I b + I c ) U.Training Course in Power System Modeling 230 Series Impedance of Lines The voltage equation describing the line is r r r Vaa ' Va − Va ' r r r Vbb ' Vb − Vb ' r = r r Vcc ' Vc − Vc ' r r r Vdd ' Vd − Vd ' = zaa zba zca zda zab zbb zcb zdb zac zbc zcc zdc zad zbd zcd zdd r Ia r Ib r Ic r Id Since all conductors are grounded at the remote end. P.
b and c. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . P.Training Course in Power System Modeling 231 Series Impedance of Lines We can subtract the voltage equation of the ground conductor from the equations of phases a. The resulting matrix equation is r Va r Vb r Vc = zaa zab zac zab zbb zbc zac zbc zcc r Ia r Ib r Ic V/unit length Self Impedances: zaa = zaa − 2 zad + zdd zcc = zcc − 2 zcd + zdd zbb = zbb − 2zbd + zdd Ω/unit length Ω/unit length Ω/unit length U.
bc.ad.c.d Primitive Impedances: 2s − 1) z xx = rx + jω k (ln Dsx 2s z xy = jω k (ln − 1) Dxy U.ca.b.bd.cd Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .Training Course in Power System Modeling 232 Series Impedance of Lines Mutual Impedances: z ab = z ab − z ad − z bd + z dd z bc = z bc − z bd − z cd + z dd z ac = z ac − z ad − z cd + z dd Ω/unit length Ω/unit length Ω/unit length Ω/unit length x=a. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Ω/unit length xy=ab. P.
Training Course in Power System Modeling 233 Series Impedance of Lines Assumptions: 1.ca U. Distances of the overhead conductors to the fictitious ground conductor are the same De = Dad = Dbd = Dcd We get De zaa = zbb = zcc = (ra + rd ) + jω k ln Ds De Ω/unit length z xy = rd + jω k ln Dxy xy=ab. Identical phase conductors Ds = Dsa = Dsb = Dsc 2.bc. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .
Assume an earth resistivity of 100 Ωmeter.93 + j 58.095 ) + j0. ra=0. P.278 Ω/mile @ 25oC Dsc=0. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .Training Course in Power System Modeling 234 Series Impedance of Lines Example: Find the equivalent impedance of the 69kV line shown.01668 Ω/mile = 0.38 Ω U.278 + 0. The line is 40 miles long.121 ln 0. 19 strands which operate at 25oC.373 + j1.459 Z aa = 14.01668 ft @ 60 Hz 10’ a b 10’ c De z aa = z bb = z cc = ( ra + rd ) + jωk ln Ds 2790 = ( 0. The phase conductors are 4/0 harddrawn copper.
93+ j58.33 3.095 + j0.97 Ω We get Ω/mile ⎡14.33 Ω z ac = 0.81 + j 23.81+ j27.81 + j 27.33 14.33 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 3.38⎥ ⎦ ⎣ U.33 14.81+ j27.81+ j23.38 3.095 + j0.81+ j27.121 ln 2790 20 Z ac = 3.Training Course in Power System Modeling 235 Series Impedance of Lines z ab = z bc = 0.97 ⎤ Zabc= ⎢ 3.121 ln 2790 10 = 0.93+ j58. P.81+ j23.095 + j0.93+ j58.97 3.81+ j27.38 3. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Ω Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .683 Z ab = 3.
P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration .Training Course in Power System Modeling 236 Series Impedance of Lines Lines with Overhead Ground Wire r a b +r Va +r z ww z ad Vb +r w r Vc + zbd Vw z cd z wd r V =0 d REF d r Id c Ia r Ib r Ic r Iw z aa a’ zbb z cc zab z ca zbc b’ c’ w’ All wires grounded here d’ zdd Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering U.
Training Course in Power System Modeling 237 Series Impedance of Lines The primitive voltage equation is r r Va − Va ' r r Vb − Vb ' r r Vc − Vc ' r 0 − Vw ' r 0 − Vd ' zaa zba = zab zbb zcb z wb zdb zac zbc zcc zwc zdc zaw zbw zcw zww zdw zad zbd zcd zwd zdd zca zwa zda r Ia r Ib r Ic r Iw r Id V/unit length From KCL. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration .rwe get r or r r r I a + Ib + Ic + I w + Id = 0 r r r r r I d = −( I a + Ib + Ic + I w ) Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering U. P.
bc.aw.cc.ac.Training Course in Power System Modeling 238 Series Impedance of Lines It can be shown that Vw r Va r Vb r Vc r = zaa zba zca zwa zab zbb zcb zwb zac zbc zcc zwc zaw zbw zcw zww Iw r Ia r Ib r Ic r where Vw = 0 r De zxx = ( rx + rd ) + jωk ln Dsx De z xy = rd + jω k ln Dxy U.ww xy=ab. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration xx=aa.bb. P.cw Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .bw.
Training Course in Power System Modeling 239 Series Impedance of Lines Using Kron Reduction technique. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering −1 . P. V1 Z1 Z2 = Z3 Z4 0 I1 I2 where Z1. V1 = (Z1 − Z2Z4 Z3 )I1 I2 is eliminated and the matrix is reduced to the size of Z1 U. Z3 and Z4 are also matrices. Z2.
National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .Training Course in Power System Modeling 240 Series Impedance of Lines Eliminating the ground wire current Iw We get ⎡ z aa ⎢z Z 1 = ⎢ ba ⎢ z ca ⎣ z ab z bb z cb z ac ⎤ ⎡zaw ⎤ ⎢z ⎥ ⎥ z bc ⎥ Z2 = ⎢ bw ⎥ ⎢zcw ⎥ z cc ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎦ z aw z wb z ab − z ww z bw z wb z bb − z ww z cw z wb z cb − z ww Z 3 = [zaw zbw zcw ] Z 4 = z ww z aw z wc ⎤ z ac − ⎥ z ww ⎥ z bw z wc ⎥ z bc − z ww ⎥ z cw z wc ⎥ ⎥ z cc − z ww ⎥ ⎦ z abc ⎡ z aw z wa ⎢ z aa − z ww ⎢ ⎢ z − z bw z wa = ba ⎢ z ww ⎢ ⎢ z ca − z cw z wa ⎢ z ww ⎣ U. P.
P.001 ft @ 60 Hz For the ground wire. The overhead ground wires have the following characteristics: w rw=4. we get 15’ 10’ a b 10’ c z ww De = ( rw + rd ) + jωk ln Dsw Z ww 2790 = ( 4.0 Ω/mile @ 25oC Dsw=0.001 = 4.8 Ω/mile = 163.095 ) + j0.121 ln 0.Training Course in Power System Modeling 241 Series Impedance of Lines Example: Find the equivalent impedance of the 69kV line shown.0 + 0.8 + j72 Ω Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering U. The phase conductors are the same as in the previous examples.095 + j1. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration .
121 ln 18.38 3.33 14.81+ j27.03 = Z cw = 3.81+ j23.93+ j58.33 3.81 + j 24.095 + j0.47 Ω De Ω/mile = rd + jωk ln Daw Z bw = 0.38 3.81+ j27.81+ j23.81 + j 25. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Ω Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .33 14. P.97 ⎤ ⎢ 3.81+ j27.Training Course in Power System Modeling 242 Series Impedance of Lines z aw = z cw Z aw 2790 = 0.93+ j58.97 3.36 Ω From a previous example.095 + j0.38⎥ ⎣ ⎦ U.121 ln 2790 Ω/mile 15 Z bw = 3. we got ⎡14.81+ j27.33 ⎥ Z1= ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 3.93+ j58.
P.8 + j72 Ω Performing Kron reduction.48 + j 25.81 + j 24 .47 ⎤ ⎢ 3 .36 ⎥ T = Z3 Z2 = ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 3 . we get 6.81 + j 24 .Training Course in Power System Modeling 243 Series Impedance of Lines Using the ground wire impedances.48 + j 25.81 + j 25 .47 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡17.48 + j 25.0 17.0 ⎢ ⎢ 6.48 + j 25.7 ⎤ 6. U.0 ⎥ Ω ⎥ 17.97 6.0 6.5 + j56. we also get ⎡ 3 .11⎥ ⎦ Note: The self impedances are no longer equal.5 + j56.7 ⎣ Z 4 = 163.71+ j55.11 Zabc = ⎢ 6.38 + j 21. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .38 + j 21.
2 Ic Pos. Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering U. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration .Training Course in Power System Modeling 244 Series Impedance of Lines Line Transposition Line transposition is used to make the mutual impedances identical. r Ia Phase c r Pos.3 s1 Section 1 Note: Phase b s2 s3 Section 3 Section 2 Each phase conductor is made to occupy all possible positions.1 Ib Phase a r Pos. P.
National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Section r Z 12 − 1 Z 13 − 1 ⎤ ⎡ I a ⎤ r ⎥⎢I ⎥ Z 22 − 1 Z 23 − 1 ⎥ ⎢ b ⎥ r Z 32 − 1 Z 33 − 1 ⎥ ⎢ I c ⎥ ⎦⎣ ⎦ r Z 12 − 2 Z 13 − 2 ⎤ ⎡ I c ⎤ r ⎥⎢I ⎥ Z 22 − 2 Z 23 − 2 ⎥ ⎢ a ⎥ r ⎢Ib ⎥ Z 32 − 2 Z 33 − 2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎦ r Z 12 − 3 Z 13 − 3 ⎤ ⎡ I b ⎤ r ⎥⎢I ⎥ Z 22 − 3 Z 23 − 3 ⎥ ⎢ c ⎥ r ⎢I a ⎥ Z 32 − 3 Z 33 − 3 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎦ volts volts volts Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .Training Course in Power System Modeling 245 Series Impedance of Lines Voltage Equations for Each r ⎡V a ⎤ ⎡ Z 11 − 1 ⎢r ⎥ ⎢ V = ⎢ Z 21 − 1 For Section 1 ⎢ rb ⎥ ⎢V c ⎥ ⎢ Z 31 − 1 ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ r ⎡V c ⎤ ⎡ Z 11 − 2 ⎢r ⎥ ⎢ For Section 2 ⎢V a ⎥ = ⎢ Z 21 − 2 r ⎢V b ⎥ ⎢ Z 31 − 2 ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ r ⎡V b ⎤ ⎡ Z 11 − 3 ⎢r ⎥ ⎢ For Section 3 ⎢V c ⎥ = ⎢ Z 21 − 3 r ⎢V a ⎥ ⎢ Z 31 − 3 ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ U. P.
P. b. and c are: r r ΣVa = ( Z 11−1 + Z 22 − 2 + Z 33 −3 )I a r + ( Z 12 −1 + Z 23 − 2 + Z 31−3 )I b r + ( Z 13 −1 + Z 21− 2 + Z 32 − 3 )I c r r ΣVb = ( Z 21−1 + Z 32 − 2 + Z 13 −3 )I a r + ( Z 22 −1 + Z 33− 2 + Z 11− 3 )I b r + ( Z 23 −1 + Z 31− 2 + Z 12 − 3 )I c r r ΣVc = ( Z 31−1 + Z 12 − 2 + Z 23 −3 )I a r + ( Z 32 −1 + Z 13 − 2 + Z 21−3 )I b r + ( Z 33 −1 + Z 11− 2 + Z 22 − 3 )I c U. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .Training Course in Power System Modeling 246 Series Impedance of Lines The total Voltage Drop at phases a.
Training Course in Power System Modeling 247 Series Impedance of Lines Define f1. We get r r ΣVa = ( f 1 Z 11 + f 2 Z 22 + f 3 Z 33 )I a r r ΣVb r ΣVc r + ( f 1 Z 13 + f 2 Z 21 + fr3 Z 32 )I c = ( f 1 Z 21 + f 2 Z 32 + f 3 Z 13 )I a r + ( f 1 Z 22 + f 2 Z 33 + f 3 Z 11 )I b r + ( f 1 Z 23 + f 2 Z 31 + f 3 Z 12 )I c r = ( f 1 Z 31 + f 2 Z 12 + f 3 Z 23 )I a r + ( f 1 Z 32 + f 2 Z 13 + f 3 Z 21 )I b r + ( f 1 Z 33 + f 2 Z 11 + f 3 Z 22 )I c + ( f 1 Z 12 + f 2 Z 23 + f 3 Z 31 )I b s1 f1 = s s2 f2 = s s3 f3 = s U. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . f2 and f3 as as the ratios of s1. respectively. s2 and s3 to the total length s. P.
Training Course in Power System Modeling 248 Series Impedance of Lines Define: Z k 1 = f 1 Z 12 + f 2 Z 23 + f 3 Z 13 Z k 2 = f 1 Z 13 + f 2 Z 12 + f 3 Z 23 Z k 3 = f 1 Z 23 + f 2 Z 13 + f 3 Z 12 Z s = Z 11 = Z 22 = Z 33 r ⎡ ΣV a ⎤ ⎡ Z s ⎢ r⎥ ⎢ ⎢ Σ Vb ⎥ = ⎢ Z k 1 r ⎢ Σ Vc ⎥ ⎢ Z k 2 ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ Substitution gives Z k1 Zs Zk3 r Z k 2 ⎤⎡I a ⎤ r ⎥⎢I ⎥ Z k 3 ⎥ ⎢ b ⎥ Volts r Z s ⎥⎢I c ⎥ ⎦⎣ ⎦ Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration .
National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration .Training Course in Power System Modeling 249 Series Impedance of Lines It can be shown that De Z s = ( ra + rd )s + jωks ln Ds ⎛ De De De ⎞ ⎟ Z k 1 = rd s + jωks ⎜ f 1ln + f 2 ln + f 3 ln ⎜ D12 D23 D31 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ Zk2 Z k3 ⎛ De De De ⎞ ⎟ = rd s + jωks ⎜ f 1ln + f 2 ln + f 3 ln ⎜ D31 D12 D23 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ De De De ⎞ ⎟ = rd s + jωks ⎜ f 1ln + f 2 ln + f 3 ln ⎜ D23 D31 D12 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering U. P.
93 + j58. ra=0.38 3.81+ j27. P.81+ j23.33 3. Assume s1=8 miles.81+ j27.93 + j58.81+ j27.33 ⎥ Ω ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 3.93 + j58. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .278 Ω/mile @ 25oC Dsc=0.38⎥ ⎣ ⎦ U.33 14.01668 ft @ 60 Hz 10’ a b 10’ c Without the transposition. 19 strands which operate at 25oC.38 3.33 14.Training Course in Power System Modeling 250 Series Impedance of Lines Example: Find the equivalent impedance of the 69kV line shown.97 ⎤ Zabc = ⎢ 3.81+ j23. s2=12 miles and s3=20 miles. The line is 40 miles long.81+ j27. Section 1 ⎡14. The phase conductors are 4/0 harddrawn copper.97 3.
5( 3.2( 3.65 Ω Similarly.81 + j 26.33 ) + 0.3( 3.97 ) = 3.32 Ω Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .81 + j 27. we get Z k 2 = f 1 Z 13 + f 2 Z 12 + f 3 Z 23 Z k 3 = f 1 Z 23 + f 2 Z 13 + f 3 Z 12 U.81 + j 27. we get Z k 1 = f 1 Z 12 + f 2 Z 23 + f 3 Z 13 = 0.33 ) + 0.81 + j 25. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration = 3. P.Training Course in Power System Modeling 251 Series Impedance of Lines Solving for the mutual impedances.81 + j 26.66 Ω = 3.81 + j 23.
65 14.93+ j58.81+ j25. the impedance matrix of the untransposed line is ⎡14.38 3.66 ⎤ Zabc= ⎢ 3.33 14.32 ⎥ Ω ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 3.38 3.81+ j23.33 14.81+ j25.93+ j58.97 ⎤ Zabc= ⎢ 3.81+ j27.38 3. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .81+ j27.93+ j58. P.38⎥ ⎣ ⎦ For comparison.65 3.93+ j58.93+ j58.81+ j26.81+ j26.81+ j27.33 3.81+ j23.81+ j26.Training Course in Power System Modeling 252 Series Impedance of Lines The impedance matrix of the transposed line is ⎡14.93+ j58.81+ j26.32 14.97 3.81+ j27.66 3.38 3.38⎥ ⎣ ⎦ U.33 ⎥ Ω ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 3.
respectively De Ω = rd s + jωks ln Dm Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Ds.Training Course in Power System Modeling 253 Series Impedance of Lines Completely Transposed Line ra ⎥ ⎢ s ⎢ ⎢ ΣVb ⎥ = ⎢ Z m r ⎢ Σ Vc ⎥ ⎢ Z m ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ where If s1=s2=s3. P. Dm = GMR and GMD. We r r get ⎡ ΣV ⎤ ⎡ Z Z Z ⎤ ⎡I ⎤ m Zs Zm ra ⎥ ⎥⎢I Z m ⎥⎢ b ⎥ r Volts Z s ⎥⎢I c ⎥ ⎦⎣ ⎦ m De Z s = ( ra + rd )s + jωks ln Ds Ω Z m = ( Z 12 + Z 23 + Z 13 ) 1 3 U. the line is completely transposed.
Training Course in Power System Modeling 254 Series Impedance of Lines Geometric Mean Distance (GMD) Typical threephase line configurations D12 D31 D12 D31 D23 D31 D23 D23 D12 D 31 D 23 D12 Dm = 3 D12D23D31 U. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . P.
6 feet Z m = 3. The impedance of the transposed line is ⎡14.81+ j26.21 3.Training Course in Power System Modeling 255 Series Impedance of Lines Example: For the same line assume a complete transposition cycle.81+ j26. 10’ 10’ The GMD is Dm = 3 10( 10 )( 20 ) = 12.81+ j26.81+ j26.21 ⎤ Zabc= ⎢ 3.93+ j58.81+ j26.21 14. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .38 3.21 14.81 + j 26.38⎥ ⎣ ⎦ U.38 3.93+ j58.81+ j26.93+ j58.21 ⎥ Ω ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 3.21 Ω a b c We get the average of the mutual impedances. P.21 3.
National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .Training Course in Power System Modeling 256 Series Impedance of Lines Phase to Sequence Impedances Consider a transmission line that is described by the following voltage equation: or r ⎡Va ⎤ ⎡ Z aa ⎢r ⎥ Vb ⎥ = ⎢ Z ab ⎢r ⎢ ⎢Vc ⎥ ⎢ Z ac ⎣ ⎣ ⎦ Z ab Z bb Z bc r r Vabc = Z abc I abc and r Z ac ⎤ ⎡ I a r ⎥⎢ I Z bc ⎥ ⎢ b r Z cc ⎥ ⎢ I c ⎦⎣ ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ volts From symmetrical components. we have r r Vabc = AV012 r r I abc = AI 012 U. P.
National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . U. we get ⎡ Z 0 ⎤ ⎡ Z s 0 + 2 Z m0 ⎢Z ⎥ = ⎢ Z − Z m1 ⎢ 1 ⎥ ⎢ s1 ⎢Z 2 ⎥ ⎢ Z s 2 − Z m 2 ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ Z s2 − Z m2 Z s0 − Z m0 Z s 1 + 2 Z m1 Z s 1 − Z m1 ⎤ Z s 2 + 2Z m 2 ⎥ ⎥ Z s 0 − Z m0 ⎥ ⎦ Note: Z012 is not symmetric.Training Course in Power System Modeling 257 Series Impedance of Lines Substitution gives or r r AV012 = Z abc AI 012 r r −1 V 012 = A Z abc A I 012 which implies that Z 012 = A −1 Z abc A Performing the multiplication. P.
P.Training Course in Power System Modeling 258 Series Impedance of Lines It can be shown that 1 Z s 0 = 3 ( Z aa + Z bb + Z cc ) 1 Z s 1 = 3 ( Z aa + aZ bb + a 2 Z cc ) 1 Z s 2 = 3 ( Z aa + a 2 Z bb + aZ cc ) Z m 0 = 1 ( Z ab + Z bc + Z ca ) 3 Z m 1 = 1 ( a 2 Z ab + Z bc + aZ ca ) 3 1 Z m 2 = 3 ( aZ ab + Z bc + a 2 Z ca ) U. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .
U. Z s0 = Z s Z s1 = Z s 2 = 0 ⎡ Z 0 ⎤ ⎡Z s + 2 Z m ⎢Z ⎥ = ⎢ 0 ⎢ 1⎥ ⎢ ⎢Z 2 ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ Z m0 = Z m Z m1 = Z m 2 = 0 0 Zs − Zm 0 0 ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ Zs − Zm ⎥ ⎦ The sequence impedance matrix reduces to Note: The sequence impedances are completely decoupled.Training Course in Power System Modeling 259 Series Impedance of Lines If the line is completely transposed. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .
Training Course in Power System Modeling 260 Series Impedance of Lines For a completely transposed line. P. the equation in the sequence domain is r r V a0 ⎡Z 0 r V a1 = ⎢ 0 ⎢ r ⎢ 0 Va2 ⎣ 0 Z1 0 0 ⎤ ⎡ I a0 r ⎥⎢I 0 ⎥ ⎢ a1 r Z 2 ⎥⎢I a2 ⎦⎣ ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ where Dm Z 1 = Z 2 = ra s + jωks ln Ds Z 0 = ra s + 3rd s + jωks ln De Ω 3 2 Ds Dm Ω U. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .
80 Ω Z 1 = Z 2 = Z s − Z m = 11.93 + j 58.12 + j 32. P.17 Ω U. 10’ 10’ In the previous example.55 + j110. we got a b c Z s = 14.81 + j 26.Training Course in Power System Modeling 261 Series Impedance of Lines Example: For the same line and assuming a complete transposition cycle. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .21 Ω The sequence impedances are Z 0 = Z s + 2 Z m = 22. find the sequence impedances of the line.38 Ω Z m = 3.
Training Course in Power System Modeling 262 Shunt Capacitance of Lines Caw b Cab a Cbg Ccg Cac c Cag Cbw Cbc Ccw Cwg • Selfcapacitance • Mutualcapacitance w Capacitance of Three Phase Lines U. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . P.
Training Course in Power System Modeling 263 Shunt Capacitance of Lines Voltage Due to Charged Conductor Consider two points P1 and P2 which are located at distances D1 and D2 from the center of the conductor. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration . The voltage drop from P1 to P2 is Electric charge q + D1 P1 D2 P2 v 12 D2 = ln 2πε D1 q Volts x ˆr a r r D = E= q 2πε x ε ˆ ar Permitivity of medium Electric Field of a Long Conductor Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering U. P.
we get the voltage drop vab. Consider the two cylindrical conductors shown.Training Course in Power System Modeling 264 Shunt Capacitance of Lines Capacitance of a TwoWire Line The capacitance between two conductors is defined as the charge on the conductors per unit of potential difference between them. v ab qa D ln = 2πε ra Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering U. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration . P. qa qb D Due to charge qa.
P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration . we also get the voltage drop vba. we get v ab U. v ab qa rb qb D ln + = ln 2πε ra 2πε D qa D2 ln = 2πε ra rb Volts Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering Since qa+qb=0. v ba qb D ln = 2 πε rb or v ab qb qb rb D ln = =− ln 2πε rb 2πε D Applying superposition.Training Course in Power System Modeling 265 Shunt Capacitance of Lines Due to charge qb. we get the total voltage drop from charge qa to charge qb.
Training Course in Power System Modeling 266 Shunt Capacitance of Lines SelfCapacitance In general. P. ra=rb. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . We get v ab D = ln πε r qa Volts The capacitance between conductors is qa πε = C ab = Farad/meter D Vab ln r The capacitance to neutral is C an = C bn = 2C ab 2πε = D ln r Farad/meter U.
The electric field that results is the same if an image conductor is used for every conductor above ground. U.Training Course in Power System Modeling 267 Shunt Capacitance of Lines Mutual Capacitance In capacitance calculations. P. the earth is assumed as a perfectly conducting plane. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration +qa Dab +qb Daw Dac +qc +qw Haa Hab Hac Haw qc qw qa qb Mirror Conductors below ground Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .
. + q n ln 4πε ra Dab Dan ra Dab Dan − q a ln − qb ln − . P.. − q n ln ) H ab H an H aa Combining common terms... we get H aa H ab H an ( q a ln + qb ln + ..Training Course in Power System Modeling 268 Shunt Capacitance of Lines The voltage drop from conductor a to ground is 1 va = 2 vaa' H aa H ab H an 1 = ( q a ln + qb ln + . National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . + q n ln ) va = Dab Dan 2πε ra 1 U..
. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration … .. we get ⎡v a ⎤ ⎡ Paa ⎢v ⎥ ⎢ P ⎢ b ⎥ = ⎢ ba ⎢M⎥ ⎢ M ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎣v n ⎦ ⎣ Pna U. P... Pbn ⎥ ⎢ b ⎥ 2πε rk H kj 1 M M ⎥⎢ M ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ Pkj = 2πε ln D kj .. Pan ⎤ ⎡q a ⎤ H kk 1 ln ⎥ ⎢q ⎥ Pkk = . Pnn ⎦ ⎣q n ⎦ Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering Using matrix notation. for the kth overhead conductor H bk H kk H ak ( q a ln vk = + qb ln + ...... + q k ln Dak Dbk rk 2πε H nk + . + q n ln ) Dnk 1 Pab Pbb M Pnb Pac Pbc M Pnc .Training Course in Power System Modeling 269 Shunt Capacitance of Lines In general.
... − Cbn ⎥ M M ⎥ ⎥ .then [C ] = [P ] − C ac − Cbc M − C nc −1 Inversion of matrix P gives ⎡+ C aa ⎢− C ⎢ ba C= ⎢ M ⎢ ⎣− C na − C ab + Cbb M − C nb ..Training Course in Power System Modeling 270 Shunt Capacitance of Lines [v ] = [P ][q ] Since.. P. − C an ⎤ ⎥ . . q = Cv. + C nn ⎦ U.. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .
. − jωC an ⎤ ⎥ . the capacitance from a to ground is C ag = C aa − C ab − C ac − . P..... National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .. For example.Training Course in Power System Modeling 271 Shunt Capacitance of Lines The Shunt Admittance is Ybus ⎡ + jω C aa ⎢ − jωC ba ⎢ = ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ − jω C na − jω C ab + jωC bb − jω C nb − jω C ac − jω C bc − jω C nc . − C an U.. + jω C nn ⎦ The difference between the magnitude of a diagonal element and its associated offdiagonal elements is the capacitance to ground. − jω C bn ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ..
to neutral U.2 Pos.3 qa qb qc 1 3 Phase c Phase a Phase b s 1 3 s 1 3 s Section 1 Section 2 Section 3 The capacitance of phase a to neutral is C an = C bn = C cn qa 2πε = = Dm v an ln r Farad/meter.Training Course in Power System Modeling 272 Shunt Capacitance of Lines Capacitance of a Transposed Line Pos. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .1 Pos. P.
National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . U. P.Training Course in Power System Modeling 273 Shunt Capacitance of Lines Capacitive Reactance 1 xc = 2πfC Dm 2.779 6 xc = x 10 ln f r Ωmeter. divide xc by the total length of the line. to neutral Note: To get the total capacitive reactance. to neutral Ωmile.862 9 x 10 ln xc = f r Dm 1.
P. we have Using matrix notation. we have C012 = A −1C abc A U. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .Training Course in Power System Modeling 274 Shunt Capacitance of Lines Sequence Capacitance r r r r I abc = jωCabcVabc I abc = YabcVabc r r r r From Vabc = AV012 and I abc = YabcVabc. we get r r A I 012 = jω C abc A V012 r r or −1 I 012 = jωA Cabc AV012 Thus.
P. Cs0 = Caa = Cbb = Ccc C m 0 = C ab = C bc = C ac Substitution gives C012 or 0 0 ⎤ ⎡( Cs0 − 2Cm0 ) ⎥ ⎢ = 0 ( Cs0 + Cm0 ) 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ 0 0 ( Cs0 + Cm0 )⎥ ⎦ ⎣ C0 = Cs0 − 2Cm0 C1 = C2 = Cs0 + Cm0 Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering U. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration .Training Course in Power System Modeling 275 Shunt Capacitance of Lines For a completely transposed line.
Training Course in Power System Modeling
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Shunt Capacitance of Lines
Example: Determine the phase and sequence capacitances of the transmission line shown. The phase conductors are 477 MCM ACSR 26/7 whose radius is 0.0357 ft. The line is 50 miles long and is completely transposed. 14’ 14’ Calculate distances a b c Haa=Hbb=Hcc=80 ft
Hab=Hbc=81.2 ft Hac=84.8 ft Find the P matrix
40’
H aa Paa = Pbb = Pcc = ln 2πε 0 ra 1
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Shunt Capacitance of Lines
1 x 10 9 ε0 = For air, 36π
Substitution gives
9
Farad/meter
Similarly, we get
80 Paa = 18 x 10 ln 0.0357 = 138.86 x 10 9 Meter/Farad = 86.29 x 10 6 Mile/Farad
H ab Pab = Pbc = ln 2πε 0 Dab = 19.66 x 10 6 Mile/Farad 1
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Shunt Capacitance of Lines
The P matrix can be shown to be
⎡86.29 19.66 12.39 ⎤ P = ⎢19.66 86.29 19.66 ⎥ x 106 mi/F ⎢ ⎥ ⎢12.39 19.66 86.29 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦
Using matrix inversion, we get the C matrix.
⎡ 12.34 − 2.54 − 1.19 ⎤ ⎢− 2.54 12.75 − 2.54 ⎥ x 109 F/mi C= ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ − 1.19 − 2.54 12.34 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦
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Shunt Capacitance of Lines
For 50 miles, we get C=
The capacitances to ground are
⎡ 6.17 − 1.27 ⎢− 1.27 6.38 ⎢ ⎢ − 0.60 − 1.27 ⎣
− 0.60 ⎤ − 1.27 ⎥ ⎥ 6.17 ⎥ ⎦
x 107 F
Cag = Caa − Cab − Cac = 0.43 μF Cbg = Cbb − Cab − Cbc = 0.38 μF Ccg = Ccc − Cbc − Cac = 0.43 μF
Since the line is transposed,
Cg0 = 1 (Cag + Cbg + Ccg ) = 0.41 μF 3
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Shunt Capacitance of Lines
The self and mutual capacitances are
C s0 = 1 ( C aa + Cbb + Ccc ) = 0.62 μF 3 C m0 = 1 ( C ab + Cbc + C ca ) = 0.105 μF 3
The sequence capacitances are
C0 = C s0 − 2C m0
= 0.41 μF
a Cg0
Cm0
b Cm0 Cm0 c
C1 = C 2 = C s 0 + C m0
= 0.725 μF
U. P. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration
Cg0
Cg0
Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering
National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .Training Course in Power System Modeling 281 Nodal Admittance Matrix Model [Z] IiABC ViABC Yaa Yba Yca Yab Ybb Ycb Yac Zaa Zba Zca Ybc [Y]/2 Ycc Zab Zbb Zcb Zac Zbc Zcc Yaa [Y]/2 Yba Yca Yab Ybb Ycb Ikabc Vkabc Yac Ybc Ycc [IiABC] [Ik abc] = [Z]1+[Y]/2 [Z]1 6x6 [Z]1 [Z]1+[Y]/2 [ViABC] [Vkabc] 6x1 6x1 U. P.
Training Course in Power System Modeling 282 Nodal Admittance Matrix Model 3’ Example 1’ B 3’ C 4’ A Phase Conductor 336. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . P.400 26/7 ACSR Neutral Conductor 4/0 6/1 ACSR Length: 300 ft. N 24’ U.
Size & Strands Conductor Spacing Conductor Height Earth Resistivity U. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . P. Size & Strands Ground/Neutral Wire Type.Training Course in Power System Modeling 283 Data Requirements Phasing Configuration System Grounding Type Length Phase Conductor Type.
Spacing. and Height (Subtransmission Lines) U. P.Training Course in Power System Modeling 284 Distribution Line Models Dca Dab Dbc a b c Dca c Dbc a Dca Hg Ha Hc a b Dab b Dab Dbc c Hb Ha Hb Hc Hg Hg Hc Hb Ha Horizontal One Ground Wire (a) Vertical One Ground Wire (b) Triangular One Ground Wire (c) Configuration. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering .
National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . 1 Horizontal Two Ground Wires (d) Triangular Two Ground Wires (e) Circuit No.Training Course in Power System Modeling 285 Distribution Line Models Dgg Dgg Dgg D12 Circuit No. P. 2 Parallel Two Ground Wires (f) Line Spacing (Ground Wires) U.
and Height (Distribution Lines) U.Training Course in Power System Modeling 286 Distribution Line Models A B C B N A B C N C A C B C A N A B N N C A B N 3Phase (ABC) A B B 3Phase (BCA) A B N N N A 3Phase (CAB) A B A N Hg Note: N – Consider the grounded neutral as Ground Conductor for Hg N VPhase (AB) VPhase (BA) 1Phase (A) Configuration. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . P. Spacing.
Training Course in Power System Modeling 287 U. National Engineering Center National Electrification Administration Competency Training & Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering . P.
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