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CHAPTER – 1

ENERGY SOURCES
1.1. Introduction to energy The energy of a body is its capacity to do work. It is measured the total amount of work that the body can do. Energy is the primary and most universal measure of all kinds work by human beings and nature. Every thing what happens the world is the expression of flow of energy in one of its forms. 1.2. Different forms of energy The different forms of energy are: 1. Mechanical energy (kinetic and potential) 2. Thermal (or) Heat energy 3. Chemical energy 4. Electrical energy 5. Nuclear energy 6. Electromagnetic energy 7. Gravitational energy The S.I unit of energy is Joule or KJ or Watt.h. Primary Energy Sources Primary energy sources can be defined as sources which provide a net supply of energy Coal, Oil, Uranium etc., are examples of this type. The energy required to obtain these fuels is much use than what they can produce by combustion or nuclear reaction. The supply of primary fuels is limited. It becomes very essential to use these fuels sparingly. Examples Coal, natural gas, oil and nuclear energy. Secondary Energy sources Secondary fuels produce no net energy. Though it may by necessary for the economy, these may not yield net energy.
Non-Conventional Energy Sources 2

Secondary sources are like sun, wind, water (tides), etc. Solar energy can by used through plants, solar cells, solar heaters and solar collectors. 1.3. Energy sources and their availability Introduction Today every country draws its energy needs from a variety of sources. We can broadly categorize these sources as commercial and noncommercial. The commercial sources include the fossil fuels (coal, oil and natural gas), hydro-electric power and nuclear power, while the noncommercial sources include wood, animal waste and agricultural wastes. In an Industrialized country like U.S.A. most of the energy requirements are met from commercial sources, while in an Industrially less developed country like India, the use of commercial and non-commercial sources are about equal. 1.4. Conventional and non-conventional sources energy 1.4.1. Conventional energy sources Conventional energy sources are: (a) Fossil fuel energy (b) Hydraulic energy (c) Nuclear energy (a) Fossil fuel energy Coal, petroleum, and natural gas are called Fossil fuel as these are formed by the decomposition of the remains of dead plants and animals

buried under the earth for a long time. These are non-renewable sources of energy, which, if exhausted, can not be replenished in a short time. Their reserves are limited and are considered very precious. These should be used with care and caution to let them last long. These are also contributing to the global environmental pollution. (i) Coal Since the advent of industrialization coal has been most common source of energy. In the last three decades, the world switched over from
Non-Conventional Energy Sources 3

coal to oil as a Major source of energy because it is simpler and cleaner to obtain useful energy from oil. Coal is a complex mixture of compounds of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Small amounts of nitrogen and Sulphur compounds are also present in coal. It is mainly available in Bihar, West Bengal, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh. The big coal mines in our country are at Jharia and Bokaro in Bihar and at Raniganj in West Bengal. It is considered as the backbone of the energy sector for its use in industry, transportation and electric power generation. Depending upon the carbon contents of coal, it is classified as follows: Type of coal Carbon content (%) 1. Peat 60 2. Lignite (soft coal) 70 3. Bituminous (house hold coal) 80 4. Anthracite (hard coal) 90 It is clear that peat is the most inferior quality of coal. Whereas anthracite is the most superior quality of coal. Bituminous is most commonly used in households and industry. On strong heating, coal breaks up to produce coal gas, ammonia, coaltar and coke. Coke is 98% carbon, obtained after lossing all its volatile constituents during destructive distillation of coal. It can be used as smoke free fuel. (ii). Petroleum It is a dark coloured, viscous and foul smelling crude oil. The petroleum means rock oil. It is normally found under the crust of earth trapped in rocks. The crude oil is a complex mixture of several solid liquid gaseous hydrocarbons mixed with water, salt and earth particles. It is a natural product obtained from oil wells.
Non-Conventional Energy Sources 4

Some of the crude oil producing locations in our country are: (i) Ankleshwar and Kalol in Gujarat (ii) Rudrasagar and Lakwa in Assam; and (iii) Bombay high (off-shore area) The oil wells of Bombay high are producing about 22 million tons of crude petroleum oil per year, which is little less than half of the total requirement of the country. The efforts are also being made to search oil well in off-shore deltas to Godavari, Kaveri, and Rajasthan. The crude petroleum is refined by the process of fractional distillation to obtain more useful petroleum products. The crude petroleum is heated to a temperature of about 400oC in a furnace and vapors thus formed are passed into a tall fractioning column from near its bottom. As the mixture of hot vapours rises in the column, it starts getting cooled gradually.

The products obtained from crude petroleum as follows: (i) Petroleum gas (below 40oC) used as LPG. (ii) Petrol (40oC to 170oC) for light vehicles. (iii) Kerosene (170 to 250oC) for household and industrial use. (iv) Diesel oil (250 to 350oC) for heavy vehicles. (v) Residual oil ; (a) Lubrication oils (b) paraffin wax and (c) asphalt (vi) Fuel oil (350 to 400oC) for boilers and furnaces. (iii) Natural gas It consists about 95% Methane and rest ethane and propane. It occurs deep under the crust of the earth either alone or a long with oil above the petroleum deposits. It is a product of petroleum mining. The gas is available in Tripura, Jaisalmer, off-shore areas of Bombay High and in the Krishna – Godavari delta. It is used as a domestic and industrial fuel. The natural gas is now also available as CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) a substitution of petrol in automobiles.
Non-Conventional Energy Sources 5

(b) Hydraulic energy (or) Water power Water power is developed by allowing water to fall under the force of gravity. It is used almost exclusively for electric power generation, in fact, the generation of water power on a large scale became possible around the beginning of the twentieth century only with the development of electrical power plants or Hydro electric plants were usually of small capacities usually less than 100 KW. Potential energy of water is converted into Mechanical energy by using prime moves known as hydraulic turbines. Water power is quite cheap where water is available in abundance. Although capital cost of hydro electric power plants is higher as compared to other types of power plants but their operating Costs are quite low, as no fuel is required in this case. The development rate of hydropower is still low, due to the following problems: 1. In developing a project, it will take about 6-10 years time for planning, investigation and construction. 2. High capital investment is needed, and some parts of the investment have to be designed from foreign sources. 3. There are growing problems on relocation of villages, involved, compensation for damage, selecting the suitable resettlement area and environmental impact. Because of long transmission line to the villages with low load factor, the electric power will be available to the people in rural areas may not be economical. This leads to the development of Mini or Micro hydroelectric projects to supply the electric power to remote areas. The Importance of Micro hydroelectric projects have been observed in some parts of the country with availability of river flow through out the year. In order to reduce the cost of development several Measures have been considered as follows: (a) Development of low cost turbines and generators. (b) Participation of villages in the development and operation of the project. (c) Using the appropriate technology and tolerable substandard requirement and project civil work component at the beginning stage.
Non-Conventional Energy Sources 6

(c) Nuclear energy According to modern theories of atomic structure, matter consists of

liberate large amount of heat energy. 1. The energy from these reactions flow out from the sun and escape into space. (c) Solar energy Brief history of solar energy (or) Importance of solar energy: Energy from the sun is called solar energy.4. Non-Conventional Energy Sources The sources of energy which are being produced continuously in nature and are in exhaustible are called renewable sources of energy (or) non-conventional energy. 2. 1. The Uranium reserves in the world at present are small. The tidal range is only a Meter. (b) Tidal energy Tides are generated primarily by the gravitational attraction between the earth and the Moon. Tarapur atomic power station in Maharashtra 2. Kalpakkam atomic power station near Madras.2. Basically in a tidal power station water at high tide is first trapped in a artificial basin and then allowed to escape at low tide. Tamilnadu. Narora atomic power station in U. Some of these sources are: (a) Wind energy (b) Tidal energy (c) Solar energy Non-Conventional Energy Sources 7 (a) Wind energy Winds are caused because of two factors. About 3% of the energy produced in India is obtained from nuclear power plants. These reserves are recoverable but are expensive. Rajasthan 3. The presently working power plants are: 1. A wind mill converts the kinetic energy of moving air into Mechanical energy that can be either used directly to run the Machine or to run the generator to produce electricity. The Sun’s energy comes from nuclear fusion reaction that take place deep in the Sun. limited availability of raw materials. Ranapratap sagar atomic power station near Tota. The escaping water is used to drive water turbines. The rotation of the earth about its axis and its motion around the Sun.minute particles known as atoms. However there are some limitations in the use of nuclear energy namely high capital cost of nuclear power plants.P. Hydrogen nucleus fuse into helium nucleus. The energy released by the complete fission of one Kg of Uranium (U235). which in turn drive electrical generators. difficulties associated with disposal of radio active waste and shortage of well trained personnel to handle the nuclear power plants. CHAPTER – 1 ENERGY SOURCES . Heavier unstable atoms such as U235. The heat produced by nuclear fission of the atoms of fissionable material is utilized in special heat exchangers for the production of steam which is then used to drive turbogenerators as in the conventional power plants. They arise twice a day in Mid-Ocean. 4. Th239. is equal to the heat energy obtained by burning 4500 tonnes of coal (or) 220 tons of oil. The absorption of solar energy on the earth’s surface and in the atmosphere.

can not be replenished in a short time. 1. are examples of this type. the use of commercial and non-commercial sources are about equal.A. water (tides).4. Their . animal waste and agricultural wastes. while in an Industrially less developed country like India. if exhausted. Nuclear energy 6.2. and natural gas are called Fossil fuel as these are formed by the decomposition of the remains of dead plants and animals buried under the earth for a long time. Oil. natural gas. In an Industrialized country like U. We can broadly categorize these sources as commercial and noncommercial. Electrical energy 5.1. Energy is the primary and most universal measure of all kinds work by human beings and nature. which. The supply of primary fuels is limited. while the noncommercial sources include wood.4. These are non-renewable sources of energy. Every thing what happens the world is the expression of flow of energy in one of its forms. these may not yield net energy. 1.. Solar energy can by used through plants. oil and nuclear energy. Energy sources and their availability Introduction Today every country draws its energy needs from a variety of sources. Primary Energy Sources Primary energy sources can be defined as sources which provide a net supply of energy Coal. Though it may by necessary for the economy.I unit of energy is Joule or KJ or Watt. hydro-electric power and nuclear power. Conventional energy sources Conventional energy sources are: (a) Fossil fuel energy (b) Hydraulic energy (c) Nuclear energy (a) Fossil fuel energy Coal. oil and natural gas). Non-Conventional Energy Sources 2 Secondary sources are like sun. The commercial sources include the fossil fuels (coal. Different forms of energy The different forms of energy are: 1.3. Uranium etc. It is measured the total amount of work that the body can do. Conventional and non-conventional sources energy 1. 1. petroleum. etc. Gravitational energy The S.1. The energy required to obtain these fuels is much use than what they can produce by combustion or nuclear reaction. most of the energy requirements are met from commercial sources. solar heaters and solar collectors. Chemical energy 4.h. Thermal (or) Heat energy 3. Examples Coal.1.S. Mechanical energy (kinetic and potential) 2. It becomes very essential to use these fuels sparingly. wind. Introduction to energy The energy of a body is its capacity to do work. solar cells. Secondary Energy sources Secondary fuels produce no net energy. Electromagnetic energy 7.

the world switched over from Non-Conventional Energy Sources 3 coal to oil as a Major source of energy because it is simpler and cleaner to obtain useful energy from oil. It is mainly available in Bihar. it is classified as follows: Type of coal Carbon content (%) 1. viscous and foul smelling crude oil. Orissa and Madhya Pradesh. The petroleum means rock oil. Petroleum It is a dark coloured. Non-Conventional Energy Sources 4 Some of the crude oil producing locations in our country are: (i) Ankleshwar and Kalol in Gujarat (ii) Rudrasagar and Lakwa in Assam. It is considered as the backbone of the energy sector for its use in industry. Depending upon the carbon contents of coal. The crude petroleum is refined by the process of fractional distillation to obtain more useful petroleum products. The efforts are also being made to search oil well in off-shore deltas to Godavari. (i) Coal Since the advent of industrialization coal has been most common source of energy. These are also contributing to the global environmental pollution. salt and earth particles. ammonia. and Rajasthan. It is a natural product obtained from oil wells. (ii). Kaveri. Small amounts of nitrogen and Sulphur compounds are also present in coal. . and (iii) Bombay high (off-shore area) The oil wells of Bombay high are producing about 22 million tons of crude petroleum oil per year. it starts getting cooled gradually. The products obtained from crude petroleum as follows: (i) Petroleum gas (below 40oC) used as LPG. It is normally found under the crust of earth trapped in rocks. hydrogen and oxygen. The crude oil is a complex mixture of several solid liquid gaseous hydrocarbons mixed with water. The crude petroleum is heated to a temperature of about 400oC in a furnace and vapors thus formed are passed into a tall fractioning column from near its bottom. Bituminous (house hold coal) 80 4.reserves are limited and are considered very precious. Peat 60 2. These should be used with care and caution to let them last long. As the mixture of hot vapours rises in the column. transportation and electric power generation. Coke is 98% carbon. It can be used as smoke free fuel. Lignite (soft coal) 70 3. Anthracite (hard coal) 90 It is clear that peat is the most inferior quality of coal. Whereas anthracite is the most superior quality of coal. Bituminous is most commonly used in households and industry. On strong heating. Coal is a complex mixture of compounds of carbon. The big coal mines in our country are at Jharia and Bokaro in Bihar and at Raniganj in West Bengal. which is little less than half of the total requirement of the country. coaltar and coke. obtained after lossing all its volatile constituents during destructive distillation of coal. coal breaks up to produce coal gas. West Bengal. In the last three decades.

The gas is available in Tripura. (v) Residual oil . and some parts of the investment have to be designed from foreign sources. Non-Conventional Energy Sources 5 (b) Hydraulic energy (or) Water power Water power is developed by allowing water to fall under the force of gravity. the generation of water power on a large scale became possible around the beginning of the twentieth century only with the development of electrical power plants or Hydro electric plants were usually of small capacities usually less than 100 KW. it will take about 6-10 years time for planning. It is a product of petroleum mining. as no fuel is required in this case. It occurs deep under the crust of the earth either alone or a long with oil above the petroleum deposits. Non-Conventional Energy Sources 6 (c) Nuclear energy According to modern theories of atomic structure. compensation for damage. The natural gas is now also available as CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) a substitution of petrol in automobiles. involved. There are growing problems on relocation of villages. High capital investment is needed. It is used almost exclusively for electric power generation. selecting the suitable resettlement area and environmental impact. (iii) Natural gas It consists about 95% Methane and rest ethane and propane. Th239. It is used as a domestic and industrial fuel. due to the following problems: 1. in fact. (iii) Kerosene (170 to 250oC) for household and industrial use. Potential energy of water is converted into Mechanical energy by using prime moves known as hydraulic turbines. Heavier unstable atoms such as U235. the electric power will be available to the people in rural areas may not be economical. Jaisalmer. investigation and construction. (a) Lubrication oils (b) paraffin wax and (c) asphalt (vi) Fuel oil (350 to 400oC) for boilers and furnaces. In order to reduce the cost of development several Measures have been considered as follows: (a) Development of low cost turbines and generators. The development rate of hydropower is still low. In developing a project.(ii) Petrol (40oC to 170oC) for light vehicles. Water power is quite cheap where water is available in abundance. Although capital cost of hydro electric power plants is higher as compared to other types of power plants but their operating Costs are quite low. This leads to the development of Mini or Micro hydroelectric projects to supply the electric power to remote areas. off-shore areas of Bombay High and in the Krishna – Godavari delta. (c) Using the appropriate technology and tolerable substandard requirement and project civil work component at the beginning stage. 2. The energy released by the . (iv) Diesel oil (250 to 350oC) for heavy vehicles. Because of long transmission line to the villages with low load factor. liberate large amount of heat energy. The Importance of Micro hydroelectric projects have been observed in some parts of the country with availability of river flow through out the year. 3. (b) Participation of villages in the development and operation of the project. matter consists of minute particles known as atoms.

The Sun’s energy comes from nuclear fusion reaction that take place deep in the Sun. Tamilnadu. Tarapur atomic power station in Maharashtra 2. The heat produced by nuclear fission of the atoms of fissionable material is utilized in special heat exchangers for the production of steam which is then used to drive turbogenerators as in the conventional power plants. Introduction to energy The energy of a body is its capacity to do work. 4. Non-Conventional Energy Sources The sources of energy which are being produced continuously in nature and are in exhaustible are called renewable sources of energy (or) non-conventional energy. Rajasthan 3. CHAPTER – 1 ENERGY SOURCES 1. Some of these sources are: (a) Wind energy (b) Tidal energy (c) Solar energy Non-Conventional Energy Sources 7 (a) Wind energy Winds are caused because of two factors. The presently working power plants are: 1. About 3% of the energy produced in India is obtained from nuclear power plants. The Uranium reserves in the world at present are small. Kalpakkam atomic power station near Madras. Ranapratap sagar atomic power station near Tota. The tidal range is only a Meter. difficulties associated with disposal of radio active waste and shortage of well trained personnel to handle the nuclear power plants. 1. It is measured the total .2.complete fission of one Kg of Uranium (U235). The energy from these reactions flow out from the sun and escape into space. The absorption of solar energy on the earth’s surface and in the atmosphere. which in turn drive electrical generators. 2. A wind mill converts the kinetic energy of moving air into Mechanical energy that can be either used directly to run the Machine or to run the generator to produce electricity. The escaping water is used to drive water turbines.1. They arise twice a day in Mid-Ocean. Hydrogen nucleus fuse into helium nucleus. However there are some limitations in the use of nuclear energy namely high capital cost of nuclear power plants.4.P. limited availability of raw materials. (b) Tidal energy Tides are generated primarily by the gravitational attraction between the earth and the Moon. (c) Solar energy Brief history of solar energy (or) Importance of solar energy: Energy from the sun is called solar energy. is equal to the heat energy obtained by burning 4500 tonnes of coal (or) 220 tons of oil. Basically in a tidal power station water at high tide is first trapped in a artificial basin and then allowed to escape at low tide. 1. Narora atomic power station in U. These reserves are recoverable but are expensive. The rotation of the earth about its axis and its motion around the Sun.

Uranium etc. The commercial sources include the fossil fuels (coal.4. Chemical energy 4. Every thing what happens the world is the expression of flow of energy in one of its forms. These should be used with care and caution to let them last long.A. which. Nuclear energy 6. Solar energy can by used through plants.3. are examples of this type. water (tides).h. oil and natural gas). Though it may by necessary for the economy.4. Gravitational energy The S. Conventional and non-conventional sources energy 1. Secondary Energy sources Secondary fuels produce no net energy. These are also contributing to the . Conventional energy sources Conventional energy sources are: (a) Fossil fuel energy (b) Hydraulic energy (c) Nuclear energy (a) Fossil fuel energy Coal.1. Different forms of energy The different forms of energy are: 1. if exhausted. Their reserves are limited and are considered very precious. Thermal (or) Heat energy 3. Electrical energy 5. 1. animal waste and agricultural wastes. Examples Coal. The energy required to obtain these fuels is much use than what they can produce by combustion or nuclear reaction. Primary Energy Sources Primary energy sources can be defined as sources which provide a net supply of energy Coal. 1. It becomes very essential to use these fuels sparingly. Non-Conventional Energy Sources 2 Secondary sources are like sun. most of the energy requirements are met from commercial sources.I unit of energy is Joule or KJ or Watt. while in an Industrially less developed country like India. and natural gas are called Fossil fuel as these are formed by the decomposition of the remains of dead plants and animals buried under the earth for a long time. Electromagnetic energy 7. Mechanical energy (kinetic and potential) 2. etc.S. the use of commercial and non-commercial sources are about equal. petroleum. while the noncommercial sources include wood.2. 1. wind.. Oil. solar heaters and solar collectors. solar cells. Energy is the primary and most universal measure of all kinds work by human beings and nature. We can broadly categorize these sources as commercial and noncommercial.amount of work that the body can do. Energy sources and their availability Introduction Today every country draws its energy needs from a variety of sources. hydro-electric power and nuclear power. These are non-renewable sources of energy. oil and nuclear energy. In an Industrialized country like U. can not be replenished in a short time. these may not yield net energy. The supply of primary fuels is limited. natural gas.

The efforts are also being made to search oil well in off-shore deltas to Godavari. and (iii) Bombay high (off-shore area) The oil wells of Bombay high are producing about 22 million tons of crude petroleum oil per year. Non-Conventional Energy Sources 4 Some of the crude oil producing locations in our country are: (i) Ankleshwar and Kalol in Gujarat (ii) Rudrasagar and Lakwa in Assam. transportation and electric power generation. Anthracite (hard coal) 90 It is clear that peat is the most inferior quality of coal. it is classified as follows: Type of coal Carbon content (%) 1. (i) Coal Since the advent of industrialization coal has been most common source of energy. coal breaks up to produce coal gas. Lignite (soft coal) 70 3. Bituminous (house hold coal) 80 4. On strong heating. Depending upon the carbon contents of coal. The crude petroleum is heated to a temperature of about 400oC in a furnace and vapors thus formed are passed into a tall fractioning column from near its bottom. (ii) Petrol (40oC to 170oC) for light vehicles.global environmental pollution. and Rajasthan. The crude oil is a complex mixture of several solid liquid gaseous hydrocarbons mixed with water. It is a natural product obtained from oil wells. The petroleum means rock oil. The products obtained from crude petroleum as follows: (i) Petroleum gas (below 40oC) used as LPG. Orissa and Madhya Pradesh. . coaltar and coke. It is normally found under the crust of earth trapped in rocks. Small amounts of nitrogen and Sulphur compounds are also present in coal. In the last three decades. West Bengal. It can be used as smoke free fuel. which is little less than half of the total requirement of the country. Kaveri. the world switched over from Non-Conventional Energy Sources 3 coal to oil as a Major source of energy because it is simpler and cleaner to obtain useful energy from oil. it starts getting cooled gradually. Coal is a complex mixture of compounds of carbon. salt and earth particles. Whereas anthracite is the most superior quality of coal. As the mixture of hot vapours rises in the column. Coke is 98% carbon. obtained after lossing all its volatile constituents during destructive distillation of coal. It is considered as the backbone of the energy sector for its use in industry. hydrogen and oxygen. Petroleum It is a dark coloured. The crude petroleum is refined by the process of fractional distillation to obtain more useful petroleum products. viscous and foul smelling crude oil. ammonia. The big coal mines in our country are at Jharia and Bokaro in Bihar and at Raniganj in West Bengal. Peat 60 2. (ii). It is mainly available in Bihar. Bituminous is most commonly used in households and industry. (iii) Kerosene (170 to 250oC) for household and industrial use.

due to the following problems: 1. (c) Using the appropriate technology and tolerable substandard requirement and project civil work component at the beginning stage. involved. and some parts of the investment have to be designed from foreign sources. Potential energy of water is converted into Mechanical energy by using prime moves known as hydraulic turbines. It is used almost exclusively for electric power generation. The natural gas is now also available as CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) a substitution of petrol in automobiles. Because of long transmission line to the villages with low load factor.(iv) Diesel oil (250 to 350oC) for heavy vehicles. investigation and construction. as no fuel is required in this case. (a) Lubrication oils (b) paraffin wax and (c) asphalt (vi) Fuel oil (350 to 400oC) for boilers and furnaces. Non-Conventional Energy Sources 6 (c) Nuclear energy According to modern theories of atomic structure. (iii) Natural gas It consists about 95% Methane and rest ethane and propane. the electric power will be available to the people in rural areas may not be economical. It occurs deep under the crust of the earth either alone or a long with oil above the petroleum deposits. selecting the suitable resettlement area and environmental impact. In developing a project. High capital investment is needed. Non-Conventional Energy Sources 5 (b) Hydraulic energy (or) Water power Water power is developed by allowing water to fall under the force of gravity. The development rate of hydropower is still low. matter consists of minute particles known as atoms. It is a product of petroleum mining. In order to reduce the cost of development several Measures have been considered as follows: (a) Development of low cost turbines and generators. liberate large amount of heat energy. The heat . Th239. This leads to the development of Mini or Micro hydroelectric projects to supply the electric power to remote areas. it will take about 6-10 years time for planning. 2. Although capital cost of hydro electric power plants is higher as compared to other types of power plants but their operating Costs are quite low. (b) Participation of villages in the development and operation of the project. Heavier unstable atoms such as U235. Jaisalmer. (v) Residual oil . 3. in fact. There are growing problems on relocation of villages. The gas is available in Tripura. off-shore areas of Bombay High and in the Krishna – Godavari delta. The energy released by the complete fission of one Kg of Uranium (U235). compensation for damage. Water power is quite cheap where water is available in abundance. is equal to the heat energy obtained by burning 4500 tonnes of coal (or) 220 tons of oil. The Importance of Micro hydroelectric projects have been observed in some parts of the country with availability of river flow through out the year. It is used as a domestic and industrial fuel. the generation of water power on a large scale became possible around the beginning of the twentieth century only with the development of electrical power plants or Hydro electric plants were usually of small capacities usually less than 100 KW.

The escaping water is used to drive water turbines. CHAPTER – 1 ENERGY SOURCES 1.produced by nuclear fission of the atoms of fissionable material is utilized in special heat exchangers for the production of steam which is then used to drive turbogenerators as in the conventional power plants. About 3% of the energy produced in India is obtained from nuclear power plants. (c) Solar energy Brief history of solar energy (or) Importance of solar energy: Energy from the sun is called solar energy. These reserves are recoverable but are expensive. A wind mill converts the kinetic energy of moving air into Mechanical energy that can be either used directly to run the Machine or to run the generator to produce electricity. Energy is the primary and most universal measure of all kinds work by . It is measured the total amount of work that the body can do. Introduction to energy The energy of a body is its capacity to do work. However there are some limitations in the use of nuclear energy namely high capital cost of nuclear power plants. Tarapur atomic power station in Maharashtra 2. The presently working power plants are: 1. 1. Basically in a tidal power station water at high tide is first trapped in a artificial basin and then allowed to escape at low tide. Tamilnadu.4. They arise twice a day in Mid-Ocean. difficulties associated with disposal of radio active waste and shortage of well trained personnel to handle the nuclear power plants. 4. limited availability of raw materials.1. Non-Conventional Energy Sources The sources of energy which are being produced continuously in nature and are in exhaustible are called renewable sources of energy (or) non-conventional energy. (b) Tidal energy Tides are generated primarily by the gravitational attraction between the earth and the Moon. Hydrogen nucleus fuse into helium nucleus. which in turn drive electrical generators.2. Narora atomic power station in U. The rotation of the earth about its axis and its motion around the Sun. Some of these sources are: (a) Wind energy (b) Tidal energy (c) Solar energy Non-Conventional Energy Sources 7 (a) Wind energy Winds are caused because of two factors. The tidal range is only a Meter. The Sun’s energy comes from nuclear fusion reaction that take place deep in the Sun. The Uranium reserves in the world at present are small. Kalpakkam atomic power station near Madras. 1. Rajasthan 3. 2. Ranapratap sagar atomic power station near Tota.P. The absorption of solar energy on the earth’s surface and in the atmosphere. The energy from these reactions flow out from the sun and escape into space.

hydro-electric power and nuclear power. while the noncommercial sources include wood. Their reserves are limited and are considered very precious. solar heaters and solar collectors. the use of commercial and non-commercial sources are about equal.I unit of energy is Joule or KJ or Watt. natural gas.S. petroleum.1. Oil. Electrical energy 5. 1. (i) Coal . The energy required to obtain these fuels is much use than what they can produce by combustion or nuclear reaction. Energy sources and their availability Introduction Today every country draws its energy needs from a variety of sources. These are non-renewable sources of energy. Different forms of energy The different forms of energy are: 1. Secondary Energy sources Secondary fuels produce no net energy. 1. which. 1.4.4. Thermal (or) Heat energy 3. Though it may by necessary for the economy. oil and natural gas).2. oil and nuclear energy. The supply of primary fuels is limited.h. Nuclear energy 6. Every thing what happens the world is the expression of flow of energy in one of its forms. if exhausted. These should be used with care and caution to let them last long. Examples Coal. wind. Primary Energy Sources Primary energy sources can be defined as sources which provide a net supply of energy Coal. while in an Industrially less developed country like India.. These are also contributing to the global environmental pollution.human beings and nature. Solar energy can by used through plants. can not be replenished in a short time. solar cells. It becomes very essential to use these fuels sparingly.A. Uranium etc. In an Industrialized country like U. Gravitational energy The S. Electromagnetic energy 7. and natural gas are called Fossil fuel as these are formed by the decomposition of the remains of dead plants and animals buried under the earth for a long time. etc. The commercial sources include the fossil fuels (coal. We can broadly categorize these sources as commercial and noncommercial. are examples of this type. Chemical energy 4. these may not yield net energy. Mechanical energy (kinetic and potential) 2. animal waste and agricultural wastes.3. most of the energy requirements are met from commercial sources. Conventional energy sources Conventional energy sources are: (a) Fossil fuel energy (b) Hydraulic energy (c) Nuclear energy (a) Fossil fuel energy Coal. Conventional and non-conventional sources energy 1. water (tides). Non-Conventional Energy Sources 2 Secondary sources are like sun.

Non-Conventional Energy Sources 4 Some of the crude oil producing locations in our country are: (i) Ankleshwar and Kalol in Gujarat (ii) Rudrasagar and Lakwa in Assam. (v) Residual oil . Bituminous (house hold coal) 80 4. Coke is 98% carbon. Bituminous is most commonly used in households and industry. Kaveri. Small amounts of nitrogen and Sulphur compounds are also present in coal. It is mainly available in Bihar.Since the advent of industrialization coal has been most common source of energy. The crude petroleum is refined by the process of fractional distillation to obtain more useful petroleum products. coaltar and coke. hydrogen and oxygen. Petroleum It is a dark coloured. On strong heating. West Bengal. it starts getting cooled gradually. it is classified as follows: Type of coal Carbon content (%) 1. which is little less than half of the total requirement of the country. The petroleum means rock oil. Whereas anthracite is the most superior quality of coal. and (iii) Bombay high (off-shore area) The oil wells of Bombay high are producing about 22 million tons of crude petroleum oil per year. (ii) Petrol (40oC to 170oC) for light vehicles. In the last three decades. Anthracite (hard coal) 90 It is clear that peat is the most inferior quality of coal. The efforts are also being made to search oil well in off-shore deltas to Godavari. Peat 60 2. (ii). Coal is a complex mixture of compounds of carbon. transportation and electric power generation. The crude oil is a complex mixture of several solid liquid gaseous hydrocarbons mixed with water. Orissa and Madhya Pradesh. ammonia. salt and earth particles. (a) Lubrication oils (b) paraffin wax and (c) asphalt . the world switched over from Non-Conventional Energy Sources 3 coal to oil as a Major source of energy because it is simpler and cleaner to obtain useful energy from oil. The crude petroleum is heated to a temperature of about 400oC in a furnace and vapors thus formed are passed into a tall fractioning column from near its bottom. The products obtained from crude petroleum as follows: (i) Petroleum gas (below 40oC) used as LPG. The big coal mines in our country are at Jharia and Bokaro in Bihar and at Raniganj in West Bengal. It is normally found under the crust of earth trapped in rocks. (iv) Diesel oil (250 to 350oC) for heavy vehicles. It can be used as smoke free fuel. obtained after lossing all its volatile constituents during destructive distillation of coal. It is considered as the backbone of the energy sector for its use in industry. viscous and foul smelling crude oil. Depending upon the carbon contents of coal. As the mixture of hot vapours rises in the column. coal breaks up to produce coal gas. Lignite (soft coal) 70 3. and Rajasthan. It is a natural product obtained from oil wells. (iii) Kerosene (170 to 250oC) for household and industrial use.

3. selecting the suitable resettlement area and environmental impact. This leads to the development of Mini or Micro hydroelectric projects to supply the electric power to remote areas. matter consists of minute particles known as atoms. 2. The energy released by the complete fission of one Kg of Uranium (U235). Non-Conventional Energy Sources 5 (b) Hydraulic energy (or) Water power Water power is developed by allowing water to fall under the force of gravity. involved. due to the following problems: 1. There are growing problems on relocation of villages. High capital investment is needed. the generation of water power on a large scale became possible around the beginning of the twentieth century only with the development of electrical power plants or Hydro electric plants were usually of small capacities usually less than 100 KW. the electric power will be available to the people in rural areas may not be economical. as no fuel is required in this case. Because of long transmission line to the villages with low load factor. It is used almost exclusively for electric power generation. (b) Participation of villages in the development and operation of the project. and some parts of the investment have to be designed from foreign sources. It is used as a domestic and industrial fuel. In order to reduce the cost of development several Measures have been considered as follows: (a) Development of low cost turbines and generators. The natural gas is now also available as CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) a substitution of petrol in automobiles. The heat produced by nuclear fission of the atoms of fissionable material is utilized in special heat exchangers for the production of steam which is then used to . off-shore areas of Bombay High and in the Krishna – Godavari delta. Although capital cost of hydro electric power plants is higher as compared to other types of power plants but their operating Costs are quite low. Th239. It occurs deep under the crust of the earth either alone or a long with oil above the petroleum deposits. The gas is available in Tripura. Non-Conventional Energy Sources 6 (c) Nuclear energy According to modern theories of atomic structure.(vi) Fuel oil (350 to 400oC) for boilers and furnaces. in fact. Heavier unstable atoms such as U235. investigation and construction. It is a product of petroleum mining. The Importance of Micro hydroelectric projects have been observed in some parts of the country with availability of river flow through out the year. it will take about 6-10 years time for planning. compensation for damage. The development rate of hydropower is still low. In developing a project. (iii) Natural gas It consists about 95% Methane and rest ethane and propane. liberate large amount of heat energy. (c) Using the appropriate technology and tolerable substandard requirement and project civil work component at the beginning stage. Jaisalmer. Water power is quite cheap where water is available in abundance. is equal to the heat energy obtained by burning 4500 tonnes of coal (or) 220 tons of oil. Potential energy of water is converted into Mechanical energy by using prime moves known as hydraulic turbines.

4. The Sun’s energy comes from nuclear fusion reaction that take place deep in the Sun. 2. They arise twice a day in Mid-Ocean. (b) Tidal energy Tides are generated primarily by the gravitational attraction between the earth and the Moon. Introduction to energy The energy of a body is its capacity to do work. Energy is the primary and most universal measure of all kinds work by human beings and nature. Basically in a tidal power station water at high tide is first trapped in a artificial basin and then allowed to escape at low tide. (c) Solar energy Brief history of solar energy (or) Importance of solar energy: Energy from the sun is called solar energy.1. The tidal range is only a Meter. difficulties associated with disposal of radio active waste and shortage of well trained personnel to handle the nuclear power plants. Some of these sources are: (a) Wind energy (b) Tidal energy (c) Solar energy Non-Conventional Energy Sources 7 (a) Wind energy Winds are caused because of two factors. The presently working power plants are: 1. Tamilnadu. . The Uranium reserves in the world at present are small.P. However there are some limitations in the use of nuclear energy namely high capital cost of nuclear power plants. Tarapur atomic power station in Maharashtra 2. The absorption of solar energy on the earth’s surface and in the atmosphere. These reserves are recoverable but are expensive. Ranapratap sagar atomic power station near Tota. 1. Hydrogen nucleus fuse into helium nucleus. CHAPTER – 1 ENERGY SOURCES 1. which in turn drive electrical generators. Rajasthan 3. Narora atomic power station in U. 4. 1. The rotation of the earth about its axis and its motion around the Sun.drive turbogenerators as in the conventional power plants. About 3% of the energy produced in India is obtained from nuclear power plants. Kalpakkam atomic power station near Madras. Non-Conventional Energy Sources The sources of energy which are being produced continuously in nature and are in exhaustible are called renewable sources of energy (or) non-conventional energy. limited availability of raw materials. The energy from these reactions flow out from the sun and escape into space. The escaping water is used to drive water turbines.2. A wind mill converts the kinetic energy of moving air into Mechanical energy that can be either used directly to run the Machine or to run the generator to produce electricity. It is measured the total amount of work that the body can do. Every thing what happens the world is the expression of flow of energy in one of its forms.

4. are examples of this type. Conventional energy sources Conventional energy sources are: (a) Fossil fuel energy (b) Hydraulic energy (c) Nuclear energy (a) Fossil fuel energy Coal. Their reserves are limited and are considered very precious. Uranium etc. Different forms of energy The different forms of energy are: 1. Primary Energy Sources Primary energy sources can be defined as sources which provide a net supply of energy Coal. Energy sources and their availability Introduction Today every country draws its energy needs from a variety of sources. these may not yield net energy.1. Oil.3. The energy required to obtain these fuels is much use than what they can produce by combustion or nuclear reaction. hydro-electric power and nuclear power. These should be used with care and caution to let them last long. Gravitational energy The S. These are non-renewable sources of energy. solar heaters and solar collectors. 1. Non-Conventional Energy Sources 2 Secondary sources are like sun. It becomes very essential to use these fuels sparingly. the use of commercial and non-commercial sources are about equal. Though it may by necessary for the economy. Nuclear energy 6.4. animal waste and agricultural wastes. Thermal (or) Heat energy 3. oil and natural gas). Electromagnetic energy 7. The commercial sources include the fossil fuels (coal. These are also contributing to the global environmental pollution. natural gas. most of the energy requirements are met from commercial sources. oil and nuclear energy.S.. Mechanical energy (kinetic and potential) 2.A. while in an Industrially less developed country like India. The supply of primary fuels is limited. 1. Electrical energy 5.h. while the noncommercial sources include wood. petroleum. Examples Coal. Chemical energy 4. wind. water (tides). can not be replenished in a short time. the world switched over from Non-Conventional Energy Sources . Conventional and non-conventional sources energy 1. We can broadly categorize these sources as commercial and noncommercial. In an Industrialized country like U.1. Solar energy can by used through plants. solar cells. and natural gas are called Fossil fuel as these are formed by the decomposition of the remains of dead plants and animals buried under the earth for a long time. etc. In the last three decades. which. if exhausted. Secondary Energy sources Secondary fuels produce no net energy.I unit of energy is Joule or KJ or Watt. (i) Coal Since the advent of industrialization coal has been most common source of energy.2.

Bituminous is most commonly used in households and industry. On strong heating. Orissa and Madhya Pradesh. (iii) Natural gas It consists about 95% Methane and rest ethane and propane. viscous and foul smelling crude oil. hydrogen and oxygen. Bituminous (house hold coal) 80 4. Whereas anthracite is the most superior quality of coal. The crude petroleum is refined by the process of fractional distillation to obtain more useful petroleum products. (ii). salt and earth particles. Lignite (soft coal) 70 3. Anthracite (hard coal) 90 It is clear that peat is the most inferior quality of coal. The crude petroleum is heated to a temperature of about 400oC in a furnace and vapors thus formed are passed into a tall fractioning column from near its bottom.3 coal to oil as a Major source of energy because it is simpler and cleaner to obtain useful energy from oil. obtained after lossing all its volatile constituents during destructive distillation of coal. (a) Lubrication oils (b) paraffin wax and (c) asphalt (vi) Fuel oil (350 to 400oC) for boilers and furnaces. (iv) Diesel oil (250 to 350oC) for heavy vehicles. The products obtained from crude petroleum as follows: (i) Petroleum gas (below 40oC) used as LPG. It is mainly available in Bihar. Coke is 98% carbon. Depending upon the carbon contents of coal. it starts getting cooled gradually. (v) Residual oil . (iii) Kerosene (170 to 250oC) for household and industrial use. Peat 60 2. The crude oil is a complex mixture of several solid liquid gaseous hydrocarbons mixed with water. (ii) Petrol (40oC to 170oC) for light vehicles. coaltar and coke. which is little less than half of the total requirement of the country. Petroleum It is a dark coloured. The petroleum means rock oil. The efforts are also being made to search oil well in off-shore deltas to Godavari. Small amounts of nitrogen and Sulphur compounds are also present in coal. ammonia. As the mixture of hot vapours rises in the column. The big coal mines in our country are at Jharia and Bokaro in Bihar and at Raniganj in West Bengal. transportation and electric power generation. It is a natural product obtained from oil wells. it is classified as follows: Type of coal Carbon content (%) 1. Kaveri. Coal is a complex mixture of compounds of carbon. It occurs . It can be used as smoke free fuel. Non-Conventional Energy Sources 4 Some of the crude oil producing locations in our country are: (i) Ankleshwar and Kalol in Gujarat (ii) Rudrasagar and Lakwa in Assam. and (iii) Bombay high (off-shore area) The oil wells of Bombay high are producing about 22 million tons of crude petroleum oil per year. West Bengal. coal breaks up to produce coal gas. It is considered as the backbone of the energy sector for its use in industry. and Rajasthan. It is normally found under the crust of earth trapped in rocks.

Th239. Water power is quite cheap where water is available in abundance. as no fuel is required in this case. 2. due to the following problems: 1. It is used almost exclusively for electric power generation. 3. is equal to the heat energy obtained by burning 4500 tonnes of coal (or) 220 tons of oil. it will take about 6-10 years time for planning. There are growing problems on relocation of villages. Potential energy of water is converted into Mechanical energy by using prime moves known as hydraulic turbines.deep under the crust of the earth either alone or a long with oil above the petroleum deposits. The development rate of hydropower is still low. liberate large amount of heat energy. The gas is available in Tripura. It is a product of petroleum mining. The Importance of Micro hydroelectric projects have been observed in some parts of the country with availability of river flow through out the year. the generation of water power on a large scale became possible around the beginning of the twentieth century only with the development of electrical power plants or Hydro electric plants were usually of small capacities usually less than 100 KW. Although capital cost of hydro electric power plants is higher as compared to other types of power plants but their operating Costs are quite low. High capital investment is needed. in fact. selecting the suitable resettlement area and environmental impact. (b) Participation of villages in the development and operation of the project. It is used as a domestic and industrial fuel. Because of long transmission line to the villages with low load factor. This leads to the development of Mini or Micro hydroelectric projects to supply the electric power to remote areas. Non-Conventional Energy Sources 5 (b) Hydraulic energy (or) Water power Water power is developed by allowing water to fall under the force of gravity. However there are some limitations in the use of nuclear energy namely high capital cost of nuclear power plants. Jaisalmer. matter consists of minute particles known as atoms. involved. the electric power will be available to the people in rural areas may not be economical. The energy released by the complete fission of one Kg of Uranium (U235). (c) Using the appropriate technology and tolerable substandard requirement and project civil work component at the beginning stage. The natural gas is now also available as CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) a substitution of petrol in automobiles. In order to reduce the cost of development several Measures have been considered as follows: (a) Development of low cost turbines and generators. In developing a project. compensation for damage. and some parts of the investment have to be designed from foreign sources. limited availability of raw . investigation and construction. Heavier unstable atoms such as U235. Non-Conventional Energy Sources 6 (c) Nuclear energy According to modern theories of atomic structure. off-shore areas of Bombay High and in the Krishna – Godavari delta. The heat produced by nuclear fission of the atoms of fissionable material is utilized in special heat exchangers for the production of steam which is then used to drive turbogenerators as in the conventional power plants.

The presently working power plants are: 1. 1. The absorption of solar energy on the earth’s surface and in the atmosphere. 1. It is measured the total amount of work that the body can do. About 3% of the energy produced in India is obtained from nuclear power plants.materials. A wind mill converts the kinetic energy of moving air into Mechanical energy that can be either used directly to run the Machine or to run the generator to produce electricity. 2.P. The Uranium reserves in the world at present are small. These reserves are recoverable but are expensive. Ranapratap sagar atomic power station near Tota. Introduction to energy The energy of a body is its capacity to do work. which in turn drive electrical generators. 1. The Sun’s energy comes from nuclear fusion reaction that take place deep in the Sun. Mechanical energy (kinetic and potential) . (c) Solar energy Brief history of solar energy (or) Importance of solar energy: Energy from the sun is called solar energy. Some of these sources are: (a) Wind energy (b) Tidal energy (c) Solar energy Non-Conventional Energy Sources 7 (a) Wind energy Winds are caused because of two factors. Energy is the primary and most universal measure of all kinds work by human beings and nature. 4. They arise twice a day in Mid-Ocean. Tarapur atomic power station in Maharashtra 2. Hydrogen nucleus fuse into helium nucleus. The tidal range is only a Meter. difficulties associated with disposal of radio active waste and shortage of well trained personnel to handle the nuclear power plants. Rajasthan 3.2. Kalpakkam atomic power station near Madras. Tamilnadu. Different forms of energy The different forms of energy are: 1. CHAPTER – 1 ENERGY SOURCES 1. Narora atomic power station in U. Every thing what happens the world is the expression of flow of energy in one of its forms. The rotation of the earth about its axis and its motion around the Sun. The energy from these reactions flow out from the sun and escape into space.4.2.1. (b) Tidal energy Tides are generated primarily by the gravitational attraction between the earth and the Moon. Basically in a tidal power station water at high tide is first trapped in a artificial basin and then allowed to escape at low tide. Non-Conventional Energy Sources The sources of energy which are being produced continuously in nature and are in exhaustible are called renewable sources of energy (or) non-conventional energy. The escaping water is used to drive water turbines.

these may not yield net energy.1. In an Industrialized country like U. which. Non-Conventional Energy Sources 2 Secondary sources are like sun. water (tides).3.S. Secondary Energy sources Secondary fuels produce no net energy.. Electrical energy 5. Primary Energy Sources Primary energy sources can be defined as sources which provide a net supply of energy Coal. (i) Coal Since the advent of industrialization coal has been most common source of energy. 1.I unit of energy is Joule or KJ or Watt. if exhausted. . petroleum. The commercial sources include the fossil fuels (coal. Conventional and non-conventional sources energy 1. Energy sources and their availability Introduction Today every country draws its energy needs from a variety of sources. Though it may by necessary for the economy. The supply of primary fuels is limited. These should be used with care and caution to let them last long. etc.2. We can broadly categorize these sources as commercial and noncommercial.h. These are also contributing to the global environmental pollution. oil and nuclear energy. Oil. oil and natural gas). Their reserves are limited and are considered very precious. are examples of this type. wind. hydro-electric power and nuclear power. while in an Industrially less developed country like India. the use of commercial and non-commercial sources are about equal.4. 1. These are non-renewable sources of energy. Solar energy can by used through plants. and natural gas are called Fossil fuel as these are formed by the decomposition of the remains of dead plants and animals buried under the earth for a long time. solar cells. the world switched over from Non-Conventional Energy Sources 3 coal to oil as a Major source of energy because it is simpler and cleaner to obtain useful energy from oil. solar heaters and solar collectors. Uranium etc. Gravitational energy The S. Thermal (or) Heat energy 3. The energy required to obtain these fuels is much use than what they can produce by combustion or nuclear reaction. Examples Coal. Conventional energy sources Conventional energy sources are: (a) Fossil fuel energy (b) Hydraulic energy (c) Nuclear energy (a) Fossil fuel energy Coal.A. most of the energy requirements are met from commercial sources. animal waste and agricultural wastes. while the noncommercial sources include wood.4. Electromagnetic energy 7. Chemical energy 4. Nuclear energy 6. can not be replenished in a short time. In the last three decades. natural gas. It becomes very essential to use these fuels sparingly.

Lignite (soft coal) 70 3. It can be used as smoke free fuel. Petroleum It is a dark coloured. It is normally found under the crust of earth trapped in rocks. coal breaks up to produce coal gas. On strong heating. (ii). (v) Residual oil . Kaveri. it starts getting cooled gradually. The big coal mines in our country are at Jharia and Bokaro in Bihar and at Raniganj in West Bengal. The petroleum means rock oil. which is little less than half of the total requirement of the country. coaltar and coke. viscous and foul smelling crude oil. (a) Lubrication oils (b) paraffin wax and (c) asphalt (vi) Fuel oil (350 to 400oC) for boilers and furnaces. Depending upon the carbon contents of coal. The crude petroleum is refined by the process of fractional distillation to obtain more useful petroleum products. salt and earth particles. The products obtained from crude petroleum as follows: (i) Petroleum gas (below 40oC) used as LPG. It is considered as the backbone of the energy sector for its use in industry. It is mainly available in Bihar. and Rajasthan. (iv) Diesel oil (250 to 350oC) for heavy vehicles. Peat 60 2. and (iii) Bombay high (off-shore area) The oil wells of Bombay high are producing about 22 million tons of crude petroleum oil per year. ammonia. West Bengal. It is a product of petroleum mining. transportation and electric power generation. Coke is 98% carbon. (iii) Kerosene (170 to 250oC) for household and industrial use. it is classified as follows: Type of coal Carbon content (%) 1. The crude petroleum is heated to a temperature of about 400oC in a furnace and vapors thus formed are passed into a tall fractioning column from near its bottom. The efforts are also being made to search oil well in off-shore deltas to Godavari. It occurs deep under the crust of the earth either alone or a long with oil above the petroleum deposits. Bituminous is most commonly used in households and industry. As the mixture of hot vapours rises in the column. Whereas anthracite is the most superior quality of coal. obtained after lossing all its volatile constituents during destructive distillation of coal. .Coal is a complex mixture of compounds of carbon. Non-Conventional Energy Sources 4 Some of the crude oil producing locations in our country are: (i) Ankleshwar and Kalol in Gujarat (ii) Rudrasagar and Lakwa in Assam. Bituminous (house hold coal) 80 4. It is a natural product obtained from oil wells. Small amounts of nitrogen and Sulphur compounds are also present in coal. hydrogen and oxygen. The crude oil is a complex mixture of several solid liquid gaseous hydrocarbons mixed with water. (iii) Natural gas It consists about 95% Methane and rest ethane and propane. (ii) Petrol (40oC to 170oC) for light vehicles. Orissa and Madhya Pradesh. Anthracite (hard coal) 90 It is clear that peat is the most inferior quality of coal.

The Importance of Micro hydroelectric projects have been observed in some parts of the country with availability of river flow through out the year. difficulties associated with disposal of radio active waste and shortage of well trained personnel to handle the nuclear power plants. There are growing problems on relocation of villages. It is used almost exclusively for electric power generation. liberate large amount of heat energy. Jaisalmer. The natural gas is now also available as CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) a substitution of petrol in automobiles. and some parts of the investment have to be designed from foreign sources. (c) Using the appropriate technology and tolerable substandard requirement and project civil work component at the beginning stage. This leads to the development of Mini or Micro hydroelectric projects to supply the electric power to remote areas. limited availability of raw materials. Because of long transmission line to the villages with low load factor. matter consists of minute particles known as atoms. 2. In order to reduce the cost of development several Measures have been considered as follows: (a) Development of low cost turbines and generators. The energy released by the complete fission of one Kg of Uranium (U235).The gas is available in Tripura. (b) Participation of villages in the development and operation of the project. The heat produced by nuclear fission of the atoms of fissionable material is utilized in special heat exchangers for the production of steam which is then used to drive turbogenerators as in the conventional power plants. off-shore areas of Bombay High and in the Krishna – Godavari delta. . In developing a project. selecting the suitable resettlement area and environmental impact. However there are some limitations in the use of nuclear energy namely high capital cost of nuclear power plants. involved. Non-Conventional Energy Sources 6 (c) Nuclear energy According to modern theories of atomic structure. High capital investment is needed. compensation for damage. the electric power will be available to the people in rural areas may not be economical. The development rate of hydropower is still low. It is used as a domestic and industrial fuel. Heavier unstable atoms such as U235. Non-Conventional Energy Sources 5 (b) Hydraulic energy (or) Water power Water power is developed by allowing water to fall under the force of gravity. Water power is quite cheap where water is available in abundance. in fact. Although capital cost of hydro electric power plants is higher as compared to other types of power plants but their operating Costs are quite low. Th239. the generation of water power on a large scale became possible around the beginning of the twentieth century only with the development of electrical power plants or Hydro electric plants were usually of small capacities usually less than 100 KW. due to the following problems: 1. 3. Potential energy of water is converted into Mechanical energy by using prime moves known as hydraulic turbines. it will take about 6-10 years time for planning. as no fuel is required in this case. investigation and construction. is equal to the heat energy obtained by burning 4500 tonnes of coal (or) 220 tons of oil.

Narora atomic power station in U. 2. The Sun’s energy comes from nuclear fusion reaction that take place deep in the Sun. Chemical energy . 4. These reserves are recoverable but are expensive. 1. The rotation of the earth about its axis and its motion around the Sun.4. The escaping water is used to drive water turbines. Hydrogen nucleus fuse into helium nucleus. Non-Conventional Energy Sources The sources of energy which are being produced continuously in nature and are in exhaustible are called renewable sources of energy (or) non-conventional energy. Tarapur atomic power station in Maharashtra 2.P. 1. A wind mill converts the kinetic energy of moving air into Mechanical energy that can be either used directly to run the Machine or to run the generator to produce electricity.1. Basically in a tidal power station water at high tide is first trapped in a artificial basin and then allowed to escape at low tide. The absorption of solar energy on the earth’s surface and in the atmosphere. Energy is the primary and most universal measure of all kinds work by human beings and nature. Every thing what happens the world is the expression of flow of energy in one of its forms. It is measured the total amount of work that the body can do. 1. Rajasthan 3. Ranapratap sagar atomic power station near Tota. Kalpakkam atomic power station near Madras. CHAPTER – 1 ENERGY SOURCES 1. The presently working power plants are: 1. About 3% of the energy produced in India is obtained from nuclear power plants. Different forms of energy The different forms of energy are: 1. Introduction to energy The energy of a body is its capacity to do work. Tamilnadu. which in turn drive electrical generators. (b) Tidal energy Tides are generated primarily by the gravitational attraction between the earth and the Moon. (c) Solar energy Brief history of solar energy (or) Importance of solar energy: Energy from the sun is called solar energy.2. They arise twice a day in Mid-Ocean. The tidal range is only a Meter. The energy from these reactions flow out from the sun and escape into space. Thermal (or) Heat energy 3. Mechanical energy (kinetic and potential) 2. Some of these sources are: (a) Wind energy (b) Tidal energy (c) Solar energy Non-Conventional Energy Sources 7 (a) Wind energy Winds are caused because of two factors.2.The Uranium reserves in the world at present are small.

hydro-electric power and nuclear power. water (tides). solar cells. most of the energy requirements are met from commercial sources.I unit of energy is Joule or KJ or Watt. Secondary Energy sources Secondary fuels produce no net energy. while the noncommercial sources include wood. In an Industrialized country like U. natural gas. In the last three decades. which. These are non-renewable sources of energy. petroleum. Conventional and non-conventional sources energy 1. if exhausted.4. oil and nuclear energy. are examples of this type. 1. Conventional energy sources Conventional energy sources are: (a) Fossil fuel energy (b) Hydraulic energy (c) Nuclear energy (a) Fossil fuel energy Coal. These are also contributing to the global environmental pollution. etc. Electromagnetic energy 7. Though it may by necessary for the economy.. These should be used with care and caution to let them last long. Primary Energy Sources Primary energy sources can be defined as sources which provide a net supply of energy Coal. Gravitational energy The S.S. Electrical energy 5.h. oil and natural gas). the use of commercial and non-commercial sources are about equal.4. Nuclear energy 6. animal waste and agricultural wastes. Small amounts of nitrogen and Sulphur compounds are also present . We can broadly categorize these sources as commercial and noncommercial. Oil. It becomes very essential to use these fuels sparingly. 1. The commercial sources include the fossil fuels (coal. wind.4. and natural gas are called Fossil fuel as these are formed by the decomposition of the remains of dead plants and animals buried under the earth for a long time. Examples Coal. Their reserves are limited and are considered very precious. Non-Conventional Energy Sources 2 Secondary sources are like sun. these may not yield net energy. can not be replenished in a short time. Energy sources and their availability Introduction Today every country draws its energy needs from a variety of sources.1. while in an Industrially less developed country like India.A. hydrogen and oxygen. (i) Coal Since the advent of industrialization coal has been most common source of energy. The energy required to obtain these fuels is much use than what they can produce by combustion or nuclear reaction.3. Uranium etc. Coal is a complex mixture of compounds of carbon. The supply of primary fuels is limited. the world switched over from Non-Conventional Energy Sources 3 coal to oil as a Major source of energy because it is simpler and cleaner to obtain useful energy from oil. Solar energy can by used through plants. solar heaters and solar collectors.

(iii) Natural gas It consists about 95% Methane and rest ethane and propane. (iii) Kerosene (170 to 250oC) for household and industrial use. The efforts are also being made to search oil well in off-shore deltas to Godavari. The petroleum means rock oil. Anthracite (hard coal) 90 It is clear that peat is the most inferior quality of coal. (iv) Diesel oil (250 to 350oC) for heavy vehicles. It is a natural product obtained from oil wells. The crude petroleum is heated to a temperature of about 400oC in a furnace and vapors thus formed are passed into a tall fractioning column from near its bottom. It is considered as the backbone of the energy sector for its use in industry. transportation and electric power generation. It is mainly available in Bihar. (v) Residual oil . ammonia. West Bengal. (ii). Lignite (soft coal) 70 3. It occurs deep under the crust of the earth either alone or a long with oil above the petroleum deposits. It is normally found under the crust of earth trapped in rocks. Coke is 98% carbon. Bituminous (house hold coal) 80 4. The crude oil is a complex mixture of several solid liquid gaseous hydrocarbons mixed with water. and Rajasthan. Petroleum It is a dark coloured. obtained after lossing all its volatile constituents during destructive distillation of coal. It is used as a domestic and . salt and earth particles. Peat 60 2. (ii) Petrol (40oC to 170oC) for light vehicles. The gas is available in Tripura. On strong heating. Whereas anthracite is the most superior quality of coal. and (iii) Bombay high (off-shore area) The oil wells of Bombay high are producing about 22 million tons of crude petroleum oil per year. Orissa and Madhya Pradesh. Jaisalmer. Non-Conventional Energy Sources 4 Some of the crude oil producing locations in our country are: (i) Ankleshwar and Kalol in Gujarat (ii) Rudrasagar and Lakwa in Assam. The big coal mines in our country are at Jharia and Bokaro in Bihar and at Raniganj in West Bengal. (a) Lubrication oils (b) paraffin wax and (c) asphalt (vi) Fuel oil (350 to 400oC) for boilers and furnaces. It can be used as smoke free fuel. viscous and foul smelling crude oil. coaltar and coke. As the mixture of hot vapours rises in the column. off-shore areas of Bombay High and in the Krishna – Godavari delta. which is little less than half of the total requirement of the country. it is classified as follows: Type of coal Carbon content (%) 1. It is a product of petroleum mining. The crude petroleum is refined by the process of fractional distillation to obtain more useful petroleum products. Bituminous is most commonly used in households and industry. it starts getting cooled gradually. Depending upon the carbon contents of coal.in coal. The products obtained from crude petroleum as follows: (i) Petroleum gas (below 40oC) used as LPG. Kaveri. coal breaks up to produce coal gas.

Although capital cost of hydro electric power plants is higher as compared to other types of power plants but their operating Costs are quite low. Potential energy of water is converted into Mechanical energy by using prime moves known as hydraulic turbines. There are growing problems on relocation of villages. (b) Participation of villages in the development and operation of the project. Water power is quite cheap where water is available in abundance. due to the following problems: 1. (c) Using the appropriate technology and tolerable substandard requirement and project civil work component at the beginning stage. 2. However there are some limitations in the use of nuclear energy namely high capital cost of nuclear power plants. The development rate of hydropower is still low. the generation of water power on a large scale became possible around the beginning of the twentieth century only with the development of electrical power plants or Hydro electric plants were usually of small capacities usually less than 100 KW. Non-Conventional Energy Sources 6 (c) Nuclear energy According to modern theories of atomic structure. In order to reduce the cost of development several Measures have been considered as follows: (a) Development of low cost turbines and generators. Because of long transmission line to the villages with low load factor. Non-Conventional Energy Sources 5 (b) Hydraulic energy (or) Water power Water power is developed by allowing water to fall under the force of gravity. This leads to the development of Mini or Micro hydroelectric projects to supply the electric power to remote areas.industrial fuel. Heavier unstable atoms such as U235. The Uranium reserves in the world at present are small. The Importance of Micro hydroelectric projects have been observed in some parts of the country with availability of river flow through out the year. These reserves are recoverable but are expensive. involved. and some parts of the investment have to be designed from foreign sources. Th239. High capital investment is needed. difficulties associated with disposal of radio active waste and shortage of well trained personnel to handle the nuclear power plants. as no fuel is required in this case. investigation and construction. The heat produced by nuclear fission of the atoms of fissionable material is utilized in special heat exchangers for the production of steam which is then used to drive turbogenerators as in the conventional power plants. it will take about 6-10 years time for planning. The energy released by the complete fission of one Kg of Uranium (U235). the electric power will be available to the people in rural areas may not be economical. 3. The natural gas is now also available as CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) a substitution of petrol in automobiles. The presently working power . compensation for damage. limited availability of raw materials. in fact. In developing a project. selecting the suitable resettlement area and environmental impact. liberate large amount of heat energy. matter consists of minute particles known as atoms. is equal to the heat energy obtained by burning 4500 tonnes of coal (or) 220 tons of oil. It is used almost exclusively for electric power generation.

A wind mill converts the kinetic energy of moving air into Mechanical energy that can be either used directly to run the Machine or to run the generator to produce electricity.P. SOLAR ENERGY 2. 1. The energy from these reactions flow out from the sun and escape into space. Solar energy is some times called radiant energy. The escaping water is used to drive water turbines.4. Hydrogen nucleus fuse into helium nucleus. The Sun’s energy comes from nuclear fusion reaction that take place deep in the Sun. Some of these sources are: (a) Wind energy (b) Tidal energy (c) Solar energy Non-Conventional Energy Sources 7 (a) Wind energy Winds are caused because of two factors.1. and X. Introduction Energy from the sun is called solar energy. 4. It’s diameter is 1.plants are: 1. They arise twice a day in Mid-Ocean.5x108KM. which in turn drive electrical generators. The mean distance between the two is 1. While that of the earth is 1. The tidal range is only a Meter. The absorption of solar energy on the earth’s surface and in the atmosphere.2. The rotation of the earth about its axis and its motion around the Sun. (b) Tidal energy Tides are generated primarily by the gravitational attraction between the earth and the Moon. Rajasthan 3. The energy from these reactions flow out from the sun and escape into space. another 15% is absorbed by the earth atmosphere and the rest is absorbed by the earth’s surface. Basically in a tidal power station water at high tide is first trapped in a artificial basin and then allowed to escape at low tide. (c) Solar energy Brief history of solar energy (or) Importance of solar energy: Energy from the sun is called solar energy. The beam radiation received from the sun on the earth is reflected in to space. About 3% of the energy produced in India is obtained from nuclear power plants. 2. Tamilnadu. This absorbed radiation consists of light and infrared radiation with out which the earth would .Rays. Narora atomic power station in U. Ranapratap sagar atomic power station near Tota. The sun is a large sphere of very hot gases. 1. Tarapur atomic power station in Maharashtra 2. Ultra violet rays. These are different kinds of radiant energy emitted by sun.39x106KM. Hydrogen nucleus fuse into helium nucleus.27x104 KM. The most important are light infrared rays. Non-Conventional Energy Sources The sources of energy which are being produced continuously in nature and are in exhaustible are called renewable sources of energy (or) non-conventional energy. The Sun’s energy comes from nuclear fusion reaction that takes place deep in the sun. Kalpakkam atomic power station near Madras.

The sun is a large sphere of very hot gases. All life on the earth depends on solar energy. This light usually comes from sun. The most important are light infrared rays. Introduction Energy from the sun is called solar energy. Green plants make food by means of photosynthesis. Ultra violet rays. Thus plants are store houses of solar energy. Solar energy is some times called radiant energy. This absorbed radiation consists of light and infrared radiation with out which the earth would be barren. Light is essential from in this process to take place. Plants and animals also need some heat to stay alive. The solar energy that falls on India in one minute is enough to supply the energy needs of our country for one day. While that of the earth is 1. The mean distance between the two is 1.39x106KM. The energy from these reactions flow out from the sun and escape into space. The solar energy that falls on India in one minute is enough to supply the energy needs of our country for one day. Introduction Energy from the sun is called solar energy. and X.1. Animal get their food from plants or by eating other animals that feed on plants. Animal get their food from plants or by eating other animals that feed on plants.39x106KM. This light usually comes from sun. Animal get their food from plants or by eating other animals that feed on plants. Light is essential from in this process to take place. Green plants make food by means of photosynthesis. All life on the earth depends on solar energy.27x104 KM. The Sun’s energy comes from nuclear fusion reaction that takes place deep in the sun.5x108KM.5x108KM. The most important are light infrared rays.be barren. Light is essential from in this process to take place. Hydrogen nucleus fuse into helium nucleus. another 15% is absorbed by the earth atmosphere and the rest is absorbed by the earth’s surface.Rays.27x104 KM. Green plants make food by means of photosynthesis. The beam radiation received from the sun on the earth is reflected in to space. Plants and animals also need some heat to stay alive. The beam radiation received from the sun on the earth is reflected in to space. Solar energy is some times called radiant energy. Ultra violet rays. This absorbed radiation consists of light and infrared radiation with out which the earth would be barren. The solar energy that falls on India in one minute is enough to supply the energy needs of our country for one day. All life on the earth depends on solar energy. These are different kinds of radiant energy emitted by sun. It’s diameter is 1. These are different kinds of radiant energy emitted by sun. This light usually comes from sun. Man has madeSOLAR ENERGY 2. The mean distance between the two is 1. Thus plants are store houses of solar energy. Hydrogen nucleus fuse into helium nucleus.1. It’s diameter is 1. and X. another 15% is absorbed by the earth atmosphere and the rest is absorbed by the earth’s surface. The energy from these reactions flow out from the sun and escape into space. Man has madeSOLAR ENERGY . Plants and animals also need some heat to stay alive. The sun is a large sphere of very hot gases. While that of the earth is 1.Rays. The Sun’s energy comes from nuclear fusion reaction that takes place deep in the sun. Man has madeSOLAR ENERGY 2. Thus plants are store houses of solar energy.

Rays. . The most important are light infrared rays. This absorbed radiation consists of light and infrared radiation with out which the earth would be barren. and X. Introduction Energy from the sun is called solar energy. and X.Rays. Man has madeSOLAR ENERGY 2. The solar energy that falls on India in one minute is enough to supply the energy needs of our country for one day. While that of the earth is 1.27x104 KM. This light usually comes from sun.1. It’s diameter is 1. and X. The Sun’s energy comes from nuclear fusion reaction that takes place deep in the sun. The sun is a large sphere of very hot gases.5x108KM. All life on the earth depends on solar energy. Hydrogen nucleus fuse into helium nucleus.5x108KM. Thus plants are store houses of solar energy. The mean distance between the two is 1.39x106KM. The energy from these reactions flow out from the sun and escape into space. The beam radiation received from the sun on the earth is reflected in to space.Rays. The most important are light infrared rays. another 15% is absorbed by the earth atmosphere and the rest is absorbed by the earth’s surface. These are different kinds of radiant energy emitted by sun. Plants and animals also need some heat to stay alive. Ultra violet rays. Solar energy is some times called radiant energy. Hydrogen nucleus fuse into helium nucleus. Solar energy is some times called radiant energy. The beam radiation received from the sun on the earth is reflected in to space. Ultra violet rays.1. Animal get their food from plants or by eating other animals that feed on plants. Light is essential from in this process to take place. Plants and animals also need some heat to stay alive. Hydrogen nucleus fuse into helium nucleus. While that of the earth is 1. Green plants make food by means of photosynthesis. The mean distance between the two is 1. Animal get their food from plants or by eating other animals that feed on plants. The energy from these reactions flow out from the sun and escape into space. The Sun’s energy comes from nuclear fusion reaction that takes place deep in the sun. This absorbed radiation consists of light and infrared radiation with out which the earth would be barren. Introduction Energy from the sun is called solar energy.2. The solar energy that falls on India in one minute is enough to supply the energy needs of our country for one day.27x104 KM. Introduction Energy from the sun is called solar energy. Thus plants are store houses of solar energy. This light usually comes from sun. Man has madeSOLAR ENERGY 2. All life on the earth depends on solar energy. another 15% is absorbed by the earth atmosphere and the rest is absorbed by the earth’s surface. These are different kinds of radiant energy emitted by sun. The Sun’s energy comes from nuclear fusion reaction that takes place deep in the sun. Green plants make food by means of photosynthesis. The sun is a large sphere of very hot gases. These are different kinds of radiant energy emitted by sun.1. The energy from these reactions flow out from the sun and escape into space. Solar energy is some times called radiant energy. It’s diameter is 1. Ultra violet rays.39x106KM. Light is essential from in this process to take place. The most important are light infrared rays.

Hydrogen nucleus fuse into helium nucleus. Solar energy is some times called radiant energy. another 15% is absorbed by the earth atmosphere and the rest is absorbed by the earth’s surface. The most important are light infrared rays. Introduction Energy from the sun is called solar energy. The most important are light infrared rays. The energy from these reactions flow out from the sun and escape into space. These are different kinds of radiant energy emitted by sun. The beam radiation received from the sun on the earth is reflected in to space.1. The mean distance between the two is 1. The energy from these reactions flow out from the sun and escape into space. It’s diameter is 1. The mean distance between the two is 1. While that of the earth is 1. Light is essential from in this process to take place. Animal get their food from plants or by eating other animals that feed on plants. and X. another 15% is absorbed by the earth atmosphere and the rest is absorbed by the earth’s surface. It’s diameter is 1.The sun is a large sphere of very hot gases. Plants and animals also need some heat to stay alive. The mean distance between the two is 1. Thus plants are store houses of solar energy.39x106KM. All life on the earth depends on solar energy. This light usually comes from sun. While that of the earth is 1. It’s diameter is 1.Rays.27x104 KM. These are different kinds of radiant energy emitted by sun.39x106KM. This absorbed radiation consists of light and infrared radiation with out which the earth would be barren.5x108KM. Animal get their food from plants or by eating other animals that feed on plants. The beam radiation received from the sun on the earth is reflected in to space. This absorbed radiation consists of light and infrared radiation with out which the earth would be barren.27x104 KM.5x108KM. The solar energy that falls on India in one minute is enough to supply the energy needs of our country for one day.Rays. This light usually comes from sun. Green plants make food by means of photosynthesis. Man has madeSOLAR ENERGY 2. Light is essential from in this process to take place. The beam radiation received from the sun on the earth is reflected in to space. Introduction Energy from the sun is called solar energy. Ultra violet rays.5x108KM. The sun is a large sphere of very hot gases. All life on the earth depends on solar energy. While that of the earth is 1. and X. Green plants make food by means of photosynthesis. The solar energy that falls on India in one minute is enough to supply the energy needs of our country for one day. Hydrogen nucleus fuse into helium nucleus. Ultra violet rays.1. All life on the earth depends on solar energy. Plants and animals also need some heat to stay alive. The Sun’s energy comes from nuclear fusion reaction that takes place deep in the sun. Man has madeSOLAR ENERGY 2. The sun is a large sphere of very hot gases. another 15% is absorbed by the earth atmosphere and the rest is absorbed by the earth’s surface. Green plants make food . Solar energy is some times called radiant energy. The Sun’s energy comes from nuclear fusion reaction that takes place deep in the sun. Thus plants are store houses of solar energy.39x106KM.27x104 KM. This absorbed radiation consists of light and infrared radiation with out which the earth would be barren.

Animal get their food from plants or by eating other animals that feed on plants. This light usually comes from sun.5x108KM. This light usually comes from sun.27x104 KM. Light is essential from in this process to take place. The Sun’s energy comes from nuclear fusion reaction that takes place deep in the sun. While that of the earth is 1. The solar energy that falls on India in one minute is enough to supply the energy needs of our country for one day. Thus plants are store houses of solar energy. The solar energy that falls on India in one minute is enough to supply the energy needs of our country for one day. Introduction Energy from the sun is called solar energy. The Sun’s energy comes . Man has madeSOLAR ENERGY 2. another 15% is absorbed by the earth atmosphere and the rest is absorbed by the earth’s surface.Rays. All life on the earth depends on solar energy. Plants and animals also need some heat to stay alive. The solar energy that falls on India in one minute is enough to supply the energy needs of our country for one day. Man has madeSOLAR ENERGY 2. Light is essential from in this process to take place. another 15% is absorbed by the earth atmosphere and the rest is absorbed by the earth’s surface.39x106KM. It’s diameter is 1.Rays. Animal get their food from plants or by eating other animals that feed on plants. Plants and animals also need some heat to stay alive. Man has madeSOLAR ENERGY 2. Solar energy is some times called radiant energy. Thus plants are store houses of solar energy. Light is essential from in this process to take place. Green plants make food by means of photosynthesis. The most important are light infrared rays. Thus plants are store houses of solar energy. The mean distance between the two is 1. Plants and animals also need some heat to stay alive.1. The beam radiation received from the sun on the earth is reflected in to space. Introduction Energy from the sun is called solar energy. Solar energy is some times called radiant energy. These are different kinds of radiant energy emitted by sun. and X. The beam radiation received from the sun on the earth is reflected in to space.5x108KM. Hydrogen nucleus fuse into helium nucleus. Introduction Energy from the sun is called solar energy. This absorbed radiation consists of light and infrared radiation with out which the earth would be barren. The Sun’s energy comes from nuclear fusion reaction that takes place deep in the sun. This absorbed radiation consists of light and infrared radiation with out which the earth would be barren. The mean distance between the two is 1. The energy from these reactions flow out from the sun and escape into space. The sun is a large sphere of very hot gases. and X.1. Animal get their food from plants or by eating other animals that feed on plants. Hydrogen nucleus fuse into helium nucleus. The sun is a large sphere of very hot gases. While that of the earth is 1.by means of photosynthesis. The energy from these reactions flow out from the sun and escape into space. The most important are light infrared rays. These are different kinds of radiant energy emitted by sun. Ultra violet rays. Green plants make food by means of photosynthesis.27x104 KM. Ultra violet rays.1.39x106KM. All life on the earth depends on solar energy. It’s diameter is 1. This light usually comes from sun.

from nuclear fusion reaction that takes place deep in the sun. Hydrogen nucleus fuse into helium nucleus. and X.27x104 KM.Rays. The solar energy that falls on India in one minute is enough to supply the energy needs of our country for one day. While that of the earth is 1. Man has madeSOLAR ENERGY 2. Plants and animals also need some heat to stay alive. The Sun’s energy comes from nuclear fusion reaction that takes place deep in the sun. The mean distance . Introduction Energy from the sun is called solar energy. This absorbed radiation consists of light and infrared radiation with out which the earth would be barren. The sun is a large sphere of very hot gases.39x106KM. The energy from these reactions flow out from the sun and escape into space. It’s diameter is 1. These are different kinds of radiant energy emitted by sun.5x108KM.27x104 KM. These are different kinds of radiant energy emitted by sun. It’s diameter is 1. All life on the earth depends on solar energy. Hydrogen nucleus fuse into helium nucleus. This absorbed radiation consists of light and infrared radiation with out which the earth would be barren. The mean distance between the two is 1. Animal get their food from plants or by eating other animals that feed on plants. Green plants make food by means of photosynthesis. The energy from these reactions flow out from the sun and escape into space. Light is essential from in this process to take place. Solar energy is some times called radiant energy. Solar energy is some times called radiant energy.5x108KM.Rays. Hydrogen nucleus fuse into helium nucleus. The sun is a large sphere of very hot gases. and X. Light is essential from in this process to take place.Rays.1. All life on the earth depends on solar energy. The beam radiation received from the sun on the earth is reflected in to space.39x106KM. The most important are light infrared rays.39x106KM. Solar energy is some times called radiant energy. It’s diameter is 1. This light usually comes from sun. another 15% is absorbed by the earth atmosphere and the rest is absorbed by the earth’s surface.27x104 KM. Thus plants are store houses of solar energy. The most important are light infrared rays. These are different kinds of radiant energy emitted by sun. Ultra violet rays. While that of the earth is 1. Man has madeSOLAR ENERGY 2. The most important are light infrared rays. The mean distance between the two is 1. The beam radiation received from the sun on the earth is reflected in to space. The energy from these reactions flow out from the sun and escape into space. This light usually comes from sun. Ultra violet rays. Green plants make food by means of photosynthesis. Ultra violet rays. Introduction Energy from the sun is called solar energy. and X. Animal get their food from plants or by eating other animals that feed on plants. The solar energy that falls on India in one minute is enough to supply the energy needs of our country for one day.1. Thus plants are store houses of solar energy. Plants and animals also need some heat to stay alive. While that of the earth is 1. The sun is a large sphere of very hot gases. The Sun’s energy comes from nuclear fusion reaction that takes place deep in the sun. another 15% is absorbed by the earth atmosphere and the rest is absorbed by the earth’s surface.

The most important are light infrared rays. While that of the earth is 1. Ultra violet rays. another 15% is absorbed by the earth atmosphere and the rest is absorbed by the earth’s surface. The sun is a large sphere of very hot gases. This absorbed radiation consists of light and infrared radiation with out which the earth would be barren. This absorbed radiation consists of light and infrared radiation with out which the earth would be barren. Light is essential from in this process to take place.1. It’s diameter is 1. Thus plants are store houses of solar energy. The Sun’s energy comes from nuclear fusion reaction that takes place deep in the sun. and X. While that of the earth is 1. Green plants make food by means of photosynthesis. This light usually comes from sun. Green plants make food by means of photosynthesis. Plants and animals also need some heat to stay alive. Light is essential from in this process to take place. Solar energy is some times called radiant energy.between the two is 1. Introduction Energy from the sun is called solar energy. Light is essential from in this process to take place. All life on the earth depends on solar energy. The solar energy that falls on India in one minute is enough to supply the energy needs of our country for one day. Introduction Energy from the sun is called solar energy. The solar energy that falls on India in one minute is enough to supply the energy needs of our country for one day. Thus plants are store houses of solar energy. These are different kinds of radiant energy emitted by sun.1. Solar energy is some times called radiant energy.Rays. Ultra violet rays.39x106KM.27x104 KM.5x108KM. Animal get their food from plants or . The most important are light infrared rays. Hydrogen nucleus fuse into helium nucleus.5x108KM. This light usually comes from sun. The energy from these reactions flow out from the sun and escape into space. and X. It’s diameter is 1. The beam radiation received from the sun on the earth is reflected in to space. Plants and animals also need some heat to stay alive. These are different kinds of radiant energy emitted by sun.Rays.39x106KM. Man has madeSOLAR ENERGY 2. The sun is a large sphere of very hot gases. Green plants make food by means of photosynthesis. The mean distance between the two is 1. Animal get their food from plants or by eating other animals that feed on plants. The Sun’s energy comes from nuclear fusion reaction that takes place deep in the sun. This light usually comes from sun. The energy from these reactions flow out from the sun and escape into space. another 15% is absorbed by the earth atmosphere and the rest is absorbed by the earth’s surface. The beam radiation received from the sun on the earth is reflected in to space. another 15% is absorbed by the earth atmosphere and the rest is absorbed by the earth’s surface. Man has madeSOLAR ENERGY 2. The mean distance between the two is 1.5x108KM. All life on the earth depends on solar energy. All life on the earth depends on solar energy.27x104 KM. This absorbed radiation consists of light and infrared radiation with out which the earth would be barren. Animal get their food from plants or by eating other animals that feed on plants. Hydrogen nucleus fuse into helium nucleus. The beam radiation received from the sun on the earth is reflected in to space.

5x108KM.Rays. SOLAR ENERGY 2.Rays. another 15% is absorbed by the earth atmosphere and the rest is absorbed by the earth’s surface. The most important are light infrared rays. Hydrogen nucleus fuse into helium nucleus. The most important are light infrared rays. The solar energy that falls on India in one minute is enough to supply the energy needs of our country for one day. The Sun’s energy comes from nuclear fusion reaction that takes place deep in the sun. Introduction Energy from the sun is called solar energy.by eating other animals that feed on plants.27x104 KM. and X. These are different kinds of radiant energy emitted by sun. Man has made . All life on the earth depends on solar energy. The mean distance between the two is 1. Animal get their food from plants or by eating other animals that feed on plants. The Sun’s energy comes from nuclear fusion reaction that takes place deep in the sun. These are different kinds of radiant energy emitted by sun. Thus plants are store houses of solar energy. The energy from these reactions flow out from the sun and escape into space. Plants and animals also need some heat to stay alive. The energy from these reactions flow out from the sun and escape into space. Thus plants are store houses of solar energy. Man has madeSOLAR ENERGY 2. The sun is a large sphere of very hot gases. This light usually comes from sun. It’s diameter is 1.27x104 KM. Solar energy is some times called radiant energy. The beam radiation received from the sun on the earth is reflected in to space. The beam radiation received from the sun on the earth is reflected in to space. The sun is a large sphere of very hot gases. Introduction Energy from the sun is called solar energy. This light usually comes from sun. The solar energy that falls on India in one minute is enough to supply the energy needs of our country for one day. Solar energy is some times called radiant energy. Green plants make food by means of photosynthesis. It’s diameter is 1. Hydrogen nucleus fuse into helium nucleus. The mean distance between the two is 1. Plants and animals also need some heat to stay alive. Thus plants are store houses of solar energy. Light is essential from in this process to take place.5x108KM. Ultra violet rays. Green plants make food by means of photosynthesis. Light is essential from in this process to take place. Animal get their food from plants or by eating other animals that feed on plants. and X.39x106KM.1. another 15% is absorbed by the earth atmosphere and the rest is absorbed by the earth’s surface. This absorbed radiation consists of light and infrared radiation with out which the earth would be barren. All life on the earth depends on solar energy. Plants and animals also need some heat to stay alive.1. The solar energy that falls on India in one minute is enough to supply the energy needs of our country for one day.39x106KM. This absorbed radiation consists of light and infrared radiation with out which the earth would be barren. While that of the earth is 1. Ultra violet rays. While that of the earth is 1.