Electrical job Questions:Thermal Power Plant (Set 1

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What are the main circuits in the Thermal Power Plant? Answer:Thermal Power plant consists of four main circuits, they are:
• • • •

Feed water and steam flow circuit Coal and ash circuit Air and gas circuit Cooling water circuit

Steam power plant works on which cycle? Answer: Steam power plant works on the principle of Rankine Cycle What is the Thermal efficiency of steam power plant? Answer: Thermal efficiency of steam power plant is defined as the ratio of heat equivalent of mechanical energy transmitted to the turbine shaft to the heat of combustion. Generally Thermal efficiency of the steam power plant will be in the range of 30-35% What is the overall efficiency of the Thermal Power Plant or Steam Power Plant? Answer: Overall efficiency of the system is defined as the ratio of heat equivalent of electrical output to the heat of combustion. Generally Overall efficiency of the steam plant will always be less than the thermal efficiency of the steam plant, it will be of the order of 29-33% Overall efficiency of steam plant is determined by multiplying the thermal efficiency of the plant with efficiency of the generator (electrical efficiency) Why the Thermal efficiency of the steam power plant is quite low? Answer: In Steam power station, more than 50% of the total heat of combustion is lost as heat rejected to the condenser and the loss is unavoidable as the heat energy cannot be converted in to mechanical energy with out a drop in temperature. Steam in the condenser is at lowest temperature. This is the reason that the thermal efficiency of the power plant is quite low. On what factors efficiency (thermal) of the steam plant depends? Answer: Efficiency of the thermal plant depends on three factors, they are 1. pressure of steam entering the turbine

temperature of the steam entering the turbine 3. so pressure in the condenser is kept as low as possible. These gases are removed in the deaerator by heating the feed water to saturation temperature through the bled steam from the turbine. Why cooling towers require in the Steam power plant ? Answer: Cooling towers cool the warm water discharged from the condenser and feed the cooled water back to the condenser. There are two types of cooling methods provided in the cooling towers.The purpose of the deaerator is to reduce the dissolved oxygen content in the condensate ( feed water) by increasing its temperature. pressure in the condenser Thermal efficiency increases with increase in temperature and pressure of the steam entering the turbine. as . Thermal efficiency is effectively increased by decreasing the pressure in the condenser. Thermal efficiency also increases by reheating the steam between turbine stages Interview Questions:Thermal Power Plant (set 2) Why Thermal Power Plants are always situated by the side of rivers or lakes? Answer: Thermal Power Plants are situated close to the rivers or lakes because to meet the large quantity of the water requirement. The solubility of the gases in the water decreases with increase in the temperature and becomes zero at boiling point or saturation point. Water is required in the steam power plants • • • • steam in the boiler for cooling purposes such as in condensers as carrying medium such as in disposal of ash for drinking purpose What is the purpose of deaerator in steam power plant? Answer: The presence of dissolved gases like oxygen and carbon dioxide in water makes the water corrosive. as they react with metal and forms iron oxide.2. they can be either wet type or dry type Wet type Cooling towers: In wet cooling towers warm water from the condenser are made to spray on slats or horizontal bars and air is passed from bottom. For this reason high temperature and pressure are used.

Gas turbine has a compressor to compress the combustion air. What is operating pressure? The amount of pressure nearest the point of performing work at the output end of a pneumatic system. Steam turbine is just has a turbine section to extract the work from steam. especially in a boiler. Construction. . operation of a gas turbine are entirely different to steam turbine.the water splashes down from one slat to other due to gravity air and water mixes and heat is rejected in to the air Dry type Cooling tower: Dry type towers are employed where the cooling water is not available in plenty. They raise the temperature of the feed water before it enters the economizer What is the differences between gas turbine and a steam turbine? Gas turbine works on Bryton cycle where as steam turbine works Rankine cycle. What are the safety valves? How many on each boiler? A valve opening automatically to relieve excessive pressure. Heat is rejected to air as water is cooled Why are feed water heaters are used? Answer:Regenerative Feedwater heaters are employed in steam power plants to improve the cycle efficiency. The system operating pressure is used to specify the capability of valves and actuators. There are normally two to six safety valves provided in the drum depending upon the capacity. Also it increases the steam flow rate and reduces the steam flow to the condenser. In dry type warm water from condensate is made to flow through the finned tubes over which cooling air is passed. a combustion chamber to burn the fuel and a turbine section to extract the work for burning fuel.

Sentinel valves do not relieve the pressure of the system. The reheater pipes both at the inlet and outlet side will also have safety valves which can range from two to eight both in the inlet and outlet of the reheater put together. What is the function of Hydrogen seals work on a generator? Provide a seal between the generator housings and rotor shaft to maintain the pressurized hydrogen gas inside the generator. a relief valve (if installed) will lift to protect the system or component. action must be taken quickly to secure the piece of equipment or system to reduce the pressure. If a relief valve is not installed. If the situation causing the sentinel valve to lift is not corrected. What is the consequence of not maintaining hydrogen (or air) pressure in generator casing at a value above atmospheric pressure when seal oil system is in service? Failure to do so will cause excessive seal oil to be drawn into the generator. What is a sentinel valve? Sentinel valves are simply small relief valves installed in some systems to warn of impending over pressurization. Which two seal oil pumps are driven from the same motor? Main seal oil pump and re-circular seal oil pump. How is the excess discharge pressure prevented? Pressure relief valves on the discharge side of each seal oil pump relieves back to seal oil system.The super heater outlet will have one to three safety valves on either side of the boiler. Also. . There will be an electromatic relief valve on the super heater pipe in addition. both are driven by Main seal oil pump motor. This valve will be set at lower pressure than the lowest set safety valve on the super heater. When does Emergency Seal Oil Pump automatically start? When its pressure switch senses Main Seal Oil Pump discharge pressure reduced to 78 PSI. provides a trap-vent system to prevent the release of hydrogen into the turbine generator lube oil system and building atmosphere.

the feed water coming to the economizer is heated using (a) H. P=VI SIN ph 2. so at one time voltage lead the current and at other intent current leads the voltage. these are called the leading and legging component of current. flue gases because flue gases from bioler used to pass from economiser. Because the economizer is placed in flue gas path. the power factor is the cos of the angle between e and i. steam (b) L. P=VI COS ph 2.P.i.In this the feed water is heated by absorbing the heat from flue gas.e. Active Component i. air preheater economiser having thin walld pipe in it when ever feed water flow through it some part of heat of flue gases excerted by them Related Answered Questions 1...P.u will get power factor accurately. steam (c) direct heat in the furnace (d) flue gases The answer is Flue gases.In a thermal power plant. Why power factor using cos theta angle? power = ie cos (theta). as i have shown the two components of the current I COS ph and I SIN ph. Actually Power Has two components : 1.. Reactive power because in transmission lines having reactive elements . so the feed water is coming from the HP heater to the Economizer. As leading component helps to reducing the our electricity bill so we try to improve it and try minimize the reactive component. As you know cos theta is what its the angle between the voltage and current. Reactive component i. if you give some values of power. the dot product of current and voltage in an ac circuit. the feed water In a thermal power plant.e.e.

power is generated. the generation takes place by synchronous generators. we use active power so the power factor using cos theta as we know the power mainly depends on resistive elements hence from impedance p. . For transferring the power reactive acts as an envolope. Read more about power triangle. When the rotor is fed with a DC field. Without this power can not be send. that's why it's called reactive power. Power triangle is form by three types of power viz active. real power reduces and reactive power is increased because apparent power has to be maintained constant.so it need little amount. What is the formula for power gain when input gain & output gain is given? power gain=output gain/input gain 4. It is the reason why power factor is cos theta. Why power factor using cos theta angle ? the active power is expressed in terms of cos theta the reactive power is expressed in terms of sin theta reactive power is used to transfer the active power. ie reducing capacitive power factor.e ratio of active power to total power so p. In short.f is in cos angle Literally watt power factor means the factor of real use full power that is going to transmit from the total apparent power produced so that is why it is the ratio of real power to complex power which can b taken as cosine of angle ratio from power triangle. 3. The purpose of this power is to just create a magnetic field & not to do any physical work.f depends on cos angle among total power some power is useful called active power or real power which interms of cosine angle p_total=vi p_active=vi cos(angle) as power factor is fraction total power is useful i. (this posibility is neglegible) In most of the power stations. reactive and apparent power. It is also useful to maintain the secondary terminal voltage when it becomes more than sending end voltage.Inductive load is reactive sink which has to be provided. It means all three power are dependent to each other. While using more inductive load. all the field windings generate reactive power which get transmitted into the transmission system. The synchronous generators are doubly excited in nature.

. printf("enter the number").void main(){ int n. 5. So the operating angles are 30 to 45 degrees. How to find whether the given number is a power of 2 in single step (without using loops)? Powers of 2 will have msb as 1 and all other bits as 0.. scanf("%d"..&n). power_of_two(n).} this is based on binary numbers Code #include<stdio. Finding a number which is a power of 2in a single step. So practically operating generator at 90 degrees is not possible..if we perform the same operation we get non-zero value :) Code 1.by taking its preceding number (i. power factor(cos )=R/Z.n-1) and performing &(and) operation we get zero.h>#include<conio. We wont allow the generator to operate at its maximum power transfer such as 90 degrees. power_of_two(n).h>int power_of_two(int). What should be power angle for 11kv AC generation ? For 600 MW Generation Purpose..and for numbers which are not.h>int power_of_two(int).getch(). But we have the loads as lagging reactive power loads. #include<stdio. At this the reactive power supplied by generator is the leading reactivepower. printf("enter the number").void main(){ int n. else printf("it is not power of two"). scanf("%d".}int power_of_two(int n){ if((n&(n-1))==0) .... This can be checked by leftshifting the number by 1 and checking if the result is 0 ..e.h>#include<conio.&n). It will be 30 to 45 degrees.bcz in impedence triangle(cos=b/h) R(resistance) is in the base and imepedence is hypotaneous. if((b<<1)==0) "power of two" let us consider the binary numbers ex:let n=8 let n=6 1000 0110 n-1=7 n-1=5 0111 0101 n&(n-1) n&(n-1) 1000 0110 0111 0101 0000 0100 with this example we can infer that for the number which is power of two. THATS WY WE are using cos in the power factor notation. 6.}int power_of_two(int n){ if((n&(n-1))==0) printf("the number is power of two").

where s=slip. On what basis is the power rating of the generator decided?? For any electrical equipment the power rating is decided by the thermal rating. In olden days when the electricity becomes popular.printf("the number is power of two"). 9. else of two"). or The temperature withstanding capability of the machine. For generator the power rating depends on temperature. How does a generator generate reactive power. The reactive power flow will be from high voltage terminal to low voltage terminal irrespective of real power flow direction. printf("it is not power What is slip power and slip recovery ? SLIP-POWER: A PART OF THE AIR-GAP POWER WHICH IS NOT CONVERTED INTO MECHANICAL POWER IS CALLED SLIP POWER. The generator generates reactive power if the flux is more than the rated one.getch(). Nowadays that thought has changed and we are using 400 V instead of 440 V. So in order to get 100 at the load point they started sending 110 from supply side. the people had a misconception that in the transmission line there would be a voltage loss of around 10%. 10. It has nothing to do with form factor (1.11). Pg= air-gap power SLIP RECOVERY: THE AIR GAP POWER WHICH IS GETTING WASTED IN ROTOR IS FED BACK TO THE SUPPLY MAINS THIS IS CALLED SLIP RECOVERY 8. or 230 V instead of 220 V. . This is the reason. Does it absorb reactive power when ever it is needed ? The "reactive power" is mainly related with flux in the machine.} 7. volume of rotor. IT IS REPRESENTED BY sPg. Why transmission power is rated in multiple of eleven ? The reason is some thing historical.

transformers. To bring all the ratings into common platform we use pu concept in which. now a days.trams.otherwise it's not possible to ionise the particles in tube. the turbine which is coupled with the generator generates the electricity . useful flux & power factor of a transformer. Noise power output PF card function Transformer reactive power Session and call transaction method Thermal power plant What are the process & guidelines to prepare stock transfer invoice from one plant to other plant having same vendor code? Interview question:what is electric traction? Answer:Traction means using the electric power for traction system i. loads) with different ratings (in MVA and KV). basically dc motors areused for electric traction systems. for railways. light. then all other component ratings will get back into this basis.e. Interview question:what is "pu" in electrical engg? Answer:Pu stands for per unit and this will be used in power system single line diagram there it is like a huge electrical circuit with no of componenets (generators. Interview question:How can you start-up the 40w tube lite with 230v AC/DC without using any choke/Coil? Answer:It's possible by means of Electronic choke. with normal voltage. magnetic traction is also used for bullet trains. electric traction means use of the electricity for all these . Related Unanswered Questions • • • • • • • • • • Why the reactive component is generated in power system? Power measurement Fisher effect and the purchasing power parity Relation between mutual flux . in general largest MVA and KV ratings of thecomponent is considered as base values.The generator reactive power mainly depends on excitation. (p.Those values are called as pu values. Interview question:Operation carried out in Thermal power station? Answer:The water is obtained in the boiler and the coal is burnt so that steam is obtained this steam is allowed to hit the turbine . trolleys etc.u=actual value/base value).

Just as a battery converts relatively small amounts of chemical energy into electricity for temporary or intermittent use. and finally electric energy for continuous use and distribution across a wide geographic area.So if any malfunction happen the fuse connected in the particular control circuit alone will blow off. the FFPP converts the energy stored in fossil fuels such as coal. or natural gas successively into thermal energy.for as we decrese the speed the electronic reg. oil. power losses are lessi.e. Usually.Interview question:why link is provided in neutral of an ac circuit and fuse in phase of ac circuit? Answer:Link is provided at a Neutral common point in the circuit from which various connection are taken for the individual control circuit and so it is given in a link form to withstand high Amps. electronic regulator and ordinary rheostat regulator for fans? Answer:The difference between the electroic and ordinary regulator is that in electronic reg. give the power needed for that perticular speed but in case of ordinary rh type reg.In electronic regulator triac is employed for speed cntrl. btwn.by varying the firing angle speed is controled but inrheostatic ctrl resistance is decreased by steps to achieve speed control. which are under compressive or tensile stress. The turbine shaft is coupled to a generator shaft. Mechanical Engineering Questions and Answers: 36 :: How does a Coal Power station produce electricity? A fossil fuel power plant (FFPP) (also known as steam electric power plant in the US. The steam is then used to drive steam turbines (mechanical energy). the power wastage is same for every speed and no power is saved. 37 :: What is a cotter joint? These types of joints are used to connect two rods.e load) only. thermal power plant in Asia. The ends of the rods are in the manner of a socket and shaft that fit together and the cotter is driven into a slot that is common to both pieces drawing them tightly . the coal is utilized to convert water into steam in boilers (thermal energy). mechanical energy. which generates electricity. or power station in the UK) is an energy conversion center designed on a large scale for continuous operation. Interview question:what is the diff. But in the case of Fuse in the Phase of AC circuit it is designed such that the fuse rating is calculated for the particular circuit (i.

. The tensile strength of the steel is proportionate to the strength needed to offset the stress on the material divided by the number of joints employed. Usually solder is a wire with a rosin core used for soldering. The rosin core acts as a flux.2869 (J/g K) = 286.9 (J/kg K) 40 :: What is the alloy of tin and lead? A tin and lead alloy is commonly called solder. 38 :: What are the thermal conductivity properties of brass? 109 W/ (m*K) @ 300K 39 :: What is the gas constant R for air? Air gas constant is Rair=R/28.together.97=0.

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