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Course Director: Motoc Daniela MD, PhD firstname.lastname@example.org
1) Attend lectures 2) Readings a) Class handouts – required readings b) Textbooks i) Medical Physiology by Boron and Boulpaep ii) Physiology by Berne and Levy
iii) Textbook of Medical Physiology by Guyton
iv) Review of Medical Physiology (Lange series) by Ganong
AP Biology . • Pathophysiology: – How physiological processes are altered in disease or injury.Human Physiology • Study of how the human body functions.
3) Understanding from the whole human body level to the molecular level AP Biology . volume and pressure of the extracellular fluid.Goal of this course: 1) To understand cellular physiology 2) To understand how each organ system works to maintain the composition.
What is Physiology? Focuses on homeostasis.set points effectors – efferent pathways How do these systems respond to perturbations in order to return to normal? AP Biology . the maintenance of important properties of living organisms in a narrow range in the face of significant environmental fluctuations Examples of properties blood pressure ionic composition of blood osmolarity of blood oxygen and carbon dioxide content of blood acid-base balance of blood glucose concentration of blood body temperature Goals are to identify the processes that control and regulate the important properties of living systems sensors – afferent pathways integrating centers .
Physiology is Different Than Histology or Anatomy Concepts vs Memorization like physics there are things to memorize but it is the concepts that are essential you must put in the intellectual effort to understand the concepts you must think about the ideas to become comfortable with them do not expect that you will learn physiology by cramming for exams Dynamic vs Static subject new discoveries new insights so what you learn today may need to be revised in the future AP Biology .
Brown Fat Shivering decreased .What is Physiology? Focuses on homeostasis. the maintenance of important parameters in living organisms in a narrow range (in the steady state) in the face of significant environmental fluctuations Example: body temperature Sweat Ducts elevated Sweating Core Body Temperature Sensors CNS Integrating Center normal range AP Biology Skeletal Muscle.
arterial or venous blood pressure at molecular level need to know potential targets that can be modulated AP Biology .Physiology is the Basis of Medicine many diseases cause organ dysfunction medicine tries to correct dysfunction or minimize its effects trying to restore system towards normal homeostatic setpoint need to understand physiological parameters that can be manipulated Example – Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) leads to pump failure – inability to maintain adequate level of circulation need to know causes of failure some may be reversible others irreversible if irreversible what else can be done to maximize pumping minimize symptoms changes in blood volume.
Chemical Composition of the Body AP Biology .
Elements • Four elements important to living organisms – Carbon (C) – Nitrogen (N) – Oxygen (O) – Hydrogen (H) AP Biology .
Four main classes of organic molecules • • • • Lipids Carbohydrates Proteins Nucleic Acids AP Biology .
AP Biology .Lipids • • • • • GR: Lipos=Fat Diverse group of molecules. Insoluble in polar solvents (H20). Hydrophobic (nonpolar) Consist primarily of hydrocarbon chains and rings.
Lipids • • • • • • • Hydrocarbons Fatty acids Triglycerides Ketone Bodies Phospholipids Steroids Prostaglandins AP Biology .
hydrogen and oxygen. • CH20 • General formula: – CnH2nOn • -ose denotes a sugar molecule AP Biology .Carbohydrates • Organic molecules that contain carbon.
Carbohydrates • Supply energy – Glucose – Complex carbohydrates • Provide structural support – cellulose • Part of plasma membrane • Monomer: monosaccarides AP Biology .
fructose and galactose • Characteristics – Soluable – Sweet – Alcoholic fermentation AP Biology .Carbohydrates • Monosaccharide: the “simple sugars” – Pentoses (5-carbons): • Ribose: in RNA • Deoxyribose: in DNA – Hexoses (6-carbons):structural isomers • Glucose.
• Sucrose – Glucose and fructose • Maltose – Glucose and glucose • Lactose – Glucose and galactose AP Biology .Carbohydrates • Disaccharide: – 2 monosaccharides joined covalently.
– General formula: (C6H10O5)n – Characteristics: • Devoid of taste • Do not form solutions • Iodine test – Iodine +starch+blue AP Biology .Carbohydrates • Polysaccharides: – Many monosaccharides joined covalently.
unbranched chains AP Biology .Polysaccarides • Kinds: – Starch • Glucose subunits • branched – Dextrins – Glycogen (animal starch) • Glucose subunits • Branched – Cellulose • Glucose subunits • Long.
CTs • Functional: – Enzymes. Hb. hormones. etc! AP Biology .Proteins • General Information: – GR: proteios=first rank – ~50% of the organic material of the body – Functions • Structural: – Cell structures.
– Amino Acid structure • amino group (NH2) • carboxylic acid group (COOH) • Radical group (R): functional group • H AP Biology .Proteins • Protein Structure – Large molecules (polymers) composed of amino acid sub-units (monomers).
Proteins • 20 different standard amino acids. – Based on the properties of the functional group – E.g.: AP Biology .
Proteins • Dipeptide: 2 amino acids • Tripeptide: 3 amino acids • Polypeptide: many amino acids – Number of amino acids varies – Up to 100 aa • Protein – Over 100aa – Great variety! AP Biology .
hormone • Lipoproteins: Lipid and protein – Membranes.Conjugated proteins • Protein combined with another type of molecule • Glycoproteins: carbohydrate with protein – Membranes. cytochromes AP Biology . blood plasma • Hemoproteins: iron and protein – Hemoglobin.
Nucleic Acids • Include the macromolecules: – DNA: deoxyribonucleic acid – RNA: ribonucleic acid • Involved in heredity and genetic regulation • Are polymers: – Monomeric subunit:nucleotides – Bonded together in a dehydration synthesis reaction AP Biology .
Nucleic Acids AP Biology .
Nucleotides • Structure of a nucleotide: 3 subunits – Pentose sugar – Phosphate group – Nitrogenous base • Purines: two rings – Guanine – Adenine • Pyrimidines: one ring – Cytosine – Thymine – Uricil AP Biology .
Nucleotide Structure AP Biology .
DNA • Huge molecules with simple structure • Big time data storage! • Structure – Nucleotides • Pentose sugar: Deoxyribose • Bases: – Purines: G and A – Pyrimidines: C and T – Form double-stranded helix AP Biology .
DNA AP Biology .
RNA • Means by which DNA directs cellular activities • Structure – Pentose sugar: ribose – Bases: uracil (not thymine) – Single stranded • Three main types – Messenger RNA (mRNA) – Transfer RNA (tRNA) – Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) AP Biology .
DNA vs RNA AP Biology .
each type of cells has a special function. – – – – – > 100 trillion cells in body. highly organized. variety of shapes & sizes. AP Biology . very small (10-5 m in diameter).Cell • Basic living unit of structure & function of the body.
Primary Tissues • 4 Different Primary Tissues: – Muscle – Nervous – Epithelial – Connective AP Biology .
• 3 Types of Muscle Tissue: – Skeletal – Cardiac – Smooth AP Biology .Muscle Tissue • Specialized for contraction.
Epithelial Tissue • Types of Epithelial Tissue: – Cells that form membranes: • Squamous • Columnar • Cuboidal – Exocrine glands – Endocrine glands AP Biology .
• 4 Types of Connective Tissue: – Connective tissue proper – Cartilage – Bone – Blood AP Biology .Connective Tissue • Large amounts of extracellular (ECF) material in the spaces between connective tissue cells.
– Capsules and sheaths AP Biology .Connective Tissue Proper • Loose connective tissue: – Scattered collagen and tissue fluid. • Collagen oriented in same direction. • Dermis of skin • Dense fibrous connective tissue: – Regular arranged. • Resists forces applied in many directions. – Tendons – Irregularly arranged.
AP Biology . – Serve different functions of the organ.Organs • Organs: – Composed of at least two primary tissues.
Systems • Organs that are located in different regions of the body and perform related functions. • Examples: – Skeletal system – Cardiovascular system – GI system AP Biology .
– deliver end products into their surrounding fluid. AP Biology . – almost all have the ability to reproduce.Cell • All Cells share certain characteristics: – general cell structure & components. – general mechanisms for changing nutrients to Energy.
Cell (continued) • Great diversity of function. • 3 principal parts: – Plasma membrane. – Cytoplasm and organelles. – Organ physiology derived from complex functions of the cell. AP Biology . – Nucleus.
AP Biology .General Cell structure: o The cell has two major compartments: the nucleus & the cytoplasm. The cytoplasm contains the major cell organelles & a fluid called cytosol.
jellylike substance b/w cell membrane & nucleus in which organelles are suspended Double-layered membrane that surrounds nucleus.Chromatin AP Biology Contains genetic code that determines which proteins (including enzymes) will be manufactured by the cell . Cytoplasm Nucleus: .Nuclear envelope .General Cell Structure & Function Component Cell membrane Structure Membrane composed of double layer of phospholipids in which proteins are embedded Fluid. composed of protein & lipid molecules Dense nonmembranous mass composed of protein & RNA molecules Fibrous strands composed of protein & DNA Function Surrounds. controls passage of materials into & out of cell Serves as matrix substance in which chemical reactions occur.Nucleolus Supports nucleus & controls passage of materials b/w nucleus & cytoplasm Produces ribosomal RNA for ribosomes . holds cell together & gives its form.
Cytoplasm and Organelles AP Biology .
Nucleoli (continued) AP Biology . Organelles.Cytoplasm.
Highly organized structure with microtubules and microfilaments that function as cytoskeleton. Actin and myosin (microfilaments).Cytoplasm and Cytoskeleton • Cytoplasm: – – – Jelly-like matrix within the cell. • Cytoskeleton: – – AP Biology . Includes organelles and cytosol. Spindle apparatus (microtubules).
Cytosol is the term used to describe fluid portion of the cytoplasm.Cytoplasm • The aqueous content of a cell (fluid. • • Serves as matrix substance in which chemical reactions occur. AP Biology . jellylike substance). that lies beetwen cell membrane and nucleus in which organelles are suspended.
AP Biology ..Organelles • Subcellular structures within the cytoplasm that perform specific functions. o Mammalian cell showing organelles common to all cells and specialized structures (e.g. cilia) found only in some cells.
Secretes lipids & glycoproteins Release energy from food molecules & transform energy into usable ATP Digest foreign molecules & damaged organelles .Cytoplasmic Organelles: Structure & Function Component Endoplasmic reticulum Ribosomes Structure System of interconnected membrane-forming canals & tubules Granular particles composed of protein & RNA membranous sacs Function Agranular (smooth) ER metabolizes nonpolar compounds & stores Ca2+ in striated muscle cells. granular (rough) ER assists in protein sysnthesis Synthesize proteins Golgi complex Cluster of flattened Mitochondria Lysosomes AP Biology Membranous sacs w folded inner partitions Membranous sacs Synthesizes carbohydrates & packages molecules for secretion.
transport materials within the cytoplasm Move particles along cell surface. or move the cell Thin.Cytoplasmic Organelles: Structure & Function (continued) Component Peroxisomes Centrosome Vacuoles Microfilaments & microtubules Structure Spherical membranous vesicles Function Contain enzymes that detoxify harmful molecules & break down hydrogen peroxide Nonmembranous mass Helps to organize spindle fibers & distribute of 2 rodlike centrioles chromosomes during mitosis Membranous sacs Store & release various substances within the cytoplasm Support cytoplasm & fx as cytoskeleton. hollow tubes Minute cytoplasmic projections that extend from the cell surface Cilia & flagella AP Biology .
Enclosed by inner & outer membrane (nuclear envelope). Largest of organelles. AP Biology . – Selective active transport of proteins & RNA.Cell Nucleus • • • • • Is a large spheroid body. – Outer membrane is continuous w ER. • Nuclear pore complexes fuse inner & outer membranes together. Contains the genetic material (DNA). Most cells have a single nucleus.
Cell Nucleus AP Biology .
• Chromatin: – Threadlike material that makes up chromosomes.Cell Nucleus (continued) • Nucleoli: – Dark areas within the nucleus. AP Biology . not surrounded by membrane. – Centers for production of ribosomes.
AP Biology . 10 nanometer thick. Separates cell s internal structures from extracellular environment. Not solid. holds cell together and gives its form. controls passage of materials into and out of cell.Plasma membrane: • • • • Surrounds. • Is selectively permeable. • Participates in intracellular communication.
Plasma (Cell) Membrane Composed of: – Double layer of phospholipids (hydrophobic/ hydrophilic parts). – Proteins span. AP Biology . or partially span the membrane. – Negatively charged carbohydrates attach to the outer surface.
The Cell Membrane AP Biology .
General composition of cell membrane • Proteins …………………….Phospholipids … 25% .Cholesterol ……. 12% . 41% .Glycolipids …….. 55% • Lipids ……………………….. 4% Lipids • Carbohydrates …………… 3% AP Biology .
Glycerol head that contains phosphate gp (polar & hydrophilic). AP Biology .soluble ions. b.Cell membrane phospholipids • Consists of: a. • The hydrophobic parts restricts the passage of H20 & H20. 2 fatty acid tails (nonpolar & hydrophobic).
Phospholipid bilayer • Phospholipids – Are the most abundant lipid in the plasma membrane – Are amphipathic. containing both hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions • Scientists studying the plasma membrane – Reasoned that it must be a phospholipid bilayer AP Biology .
Phospholipid bilayer (cross section) WATER Hydrophilic head Hydrophobic tail WATER AP Biology .
Phospholipids • Fatty acid tails – hydrophobic • Phosphate group head – hydrophilic • Arranged as a bilayer Phosphate Fatty acid AP Biology .
Membrane fat composition varies
• Fat composition affects flexibility
– membrane must be fluid & flexible – % unsaturated fatty acids in phospholipids • keep membrane less viscous • cold-adapted organisms, like winter wheat – increase % in autumn – cholesterol in membrane
The Fluidity of Membranes:
• Phospholipids in the plasma membrane
– Can move within the bilayer
• The type of hydrocarbon tails in phospholipids
– Affects the fluidity of the plasma membrane
• The steroid cholesterol
– Has different effects on membrane fluidity at different temperatures
The fluidity of membranes
Lateral movement (~107 times per second)
Flip-flop (~ once per month)
(a) Movement of phospholipids
Unsaturated hydrocarbon tails with kinks
Saturated hydroCarbon tails
(b) Membrane fluidity
(c) Cholesterol within the animal cell membrane
The Permeability of the Lipid Bilayer • A cell must exchange materials with its surroundings. a process controlled by the plasma membrane • Membrane structure results in selective permeability – Hydrophobic molecules • Are lipid soluble and can pass through the membrane rapidly – Hydrophilic molecules • Do not cross the membrane rapidly AP Biology .
S.More than lipids… • In 1972. Nicolson proposed that membrane proteins are inserted into the phospholipid bilayer AP Biology .J. Singer & G.
A Mosaic of Membrane Proteins • A membrane – Is a mosaic of different proteins embedded in the fluid matrix of the lipid bilayer AP Biology .
. 2.embedded in one side (face) of the membrane. Peripheral proteins: / external or extrinsic proteins . . . AP Biology .provide structural channels or pores.Cell membrane proteins 1. .bind w substances to be transported.span the membrane.carrier proteins.transport proteins.include hormone receptors and cell surface antigens. Integral proteins: / Internal or intrinsic proteins . .
Membrane is a collage of proteins & other molecules embedded in the fluid matrix of the lipid bilayer Extracellular fluid Glycolipid Glycoprotein Phospholipids Cholesterol Peripheral protein AP Biology Transmembrane proteins Filaments of cytoskeleton Cytoplasm .
in cross section Fibers of extracellular matrix (ECM) Glycoprotein Carbohydrate Glycolipid EXTRACELLULAR SIDE OF MEMBRANE Microfilaments of cytoskeleton Cholesterol AP Biology Peripheral protein Integral protein CYTOPLASMIC SIDE OF MEMBRANE .The detailed structure of an animal cell s plasma membrane.
Why are proteins the perfect molecule to build structures in the cell membrane? AP Biology .
Classes of amino acids What do these amino acids have in common? AP Biology nonpolar & hydrophobic .
Classes of amino acids What do these amino acids have in common? AP Biology polar & hydrophilic .
Proteins domains anchor molecule • Within membrane – nonpolar amino acids • hydrophobic • anchors protein into membrane • On outer surfaces of membrane – polar amino acids • hydrophilic • extend into extracellular fluid & into cytosol Polar areas of protein AP Biology Nonpolar areas of protein .
General functions of cell membrane proteins
1. Provide structural support. 2. Transport molecules across the membrane. 3. Enzymatic control of chemical reactions at cellular surface. 4. Some fx as receptors for hormones. 5. Some fx as regulatory molecules, that arrive at outer surface of the membrane. 6. Some serve as markers (antigens), that identify blood & tissue type of an individual.
Functions of Membrane Proteins
Outside Plasma membrane Inside Transporter Enzyme activity Cell surface receptor
Cell surface identity marker
Attachment to the cytoskeleton
Major functions of membrane proteins
(a) Transport. (left) A protein that spans the membrane may provide a hydrophilic channel across the membrane that is selective for a particular solute. (right) Other transport proteins shuttle a substance from one side to the other by changing shape. Some of these proteins hydrolyze ATP as an energy source to actively pump substances across the membrane. ATP (b) Enzymatic activity. A protein built into the membrane may be an enzyme with its active site exposed to substances in the adjacent solution. In some cases, several enzymes in a membrane are organized as a team that carries out sequential steps of a metabolic pathway. Enzymes
Signal transduction. A membrane protein may have a binding site with a specific shape that fits the shape of a chemical messenger, such as a hormone. The external messenger (signal) may cause a conformational change in the protein (receptor) that relays the message to the inside of the cell.
Some glyco-proteins serve as identification tags that are specifically recognized by other cells. such as gap junctions or tight junctions (f) Attachment to the cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix (ECM). Proteins that adhere to the ECM can coordinate extracellular and intracellular changes .(d) Cell-cell recognition. Glycoprotein (e) Intercellular joining. a function that helps maintain cell shape and stabilizes the location of certain membrane proteins. Membrane proteins of adjacent cells may hook together in various kinds of junctions. Microfilaments or other elements of the cytoskeleton may be bonded to membrane proteins. AP Biology .
Overview of major functions of membrane proteins: – – – – – – Transport Enzymatic activity Signal transduction Cell-cell recognition Intercellular joining Attachment to the Extracellular Matrix (ECM) AP Biology .
Synthesis and Sidedness of Membranes • • • Membranes have distinct inside and outside faces This affects the movement of proteins synthesized in the endomembrane system Membrane proteins and lipids – Are synthesized in the ER and Golgi apparatus 1 Transmembrane glycoproteins Secretory protein Glycolipid Golgi 2 apparatus Vesicle 3 4 Secreted protein Plasma membrane: Cytoplasmic face Extracellular face Transmembrane glycoprotein Membrane glycolipid AP Biology .
.Cell membrane carbohydrates • Primarily attached to the outer surface of the membrane as: .Glycolipids …… (1/10). AP Biology .Glycoproteins … (most of it).
Attach cells to each other.General functions of cell membrane carbohydrates 1. 2. 3. Some enter in immune reactions. Act as receptor substances. AP Biology . 4. Give most of cells overall surface charge. which affects the interaction of regulatory molecules of the membrane.
The Role of Membrane Carbohydrates in CellCell Recognition • Cell-cell recognition – Is a cell s ability to distinguish one type of neighboring cell from another • Membrane carbohydrates – Interact with the surface molecules of other cells. facilitating cell-cell recognition AP Biology .
HLA SYSTEM).Membrane carbohydrates • Play a key role in cell-cell recognition – ability of a cell to distinguish one cell from another • antigens – important in organ and tissue development – basis for rejection of foreign cells by immune system (ex. AP Biology .
Transport through the Cell Membrane AP Biology .
enter through proteins of the cell membrane. • Water-soluble substances. enter directly into cell membrane through the lipid bilayer. e. • Lipid or fat-soluble substances. OH. e. O2.Transport through the Cell Membrane • Cell membrane is selectively permeable to some molecules & ions. glucose. water. nucleic acids. CO2. ions.g. AP Biology .g. – Not permeable to proteins. & other molecules.
Bilayer is Not as Rigid or Static as it is Usually Depicted Importance of thermal motion at the molecular level AP Biology Life is dynamic – constant fluctuations .
AP Biology . – Active transport: – Requires ATP. – Passive transport: – Does not require metabolic energy (ATP).Categories of transport through Cell Membrane – Carrier mediated transport: – Non-carrier mediated transport.
Types of membrane transport 1. (to region of higher conc) o • doesn t require metabolic energy. Active transport o net movement across a membrane that occurs against conc gradient. AP Biology Requires metabolic energy (ATP). & involves specific carrier proteins. (down conc gradient) 2. . Diffusion (passive transport) • net movement of molecules & ions across a membrane from higher to lower conc.
Active transport a. Primary active transport.Types of membrane transport 1. 2. (Carriermediated) c. Diffusion (passive transport) a. Secondary active transport. b. Facilitated diffusion. AP Biology . Osmosis. b. Simple diffusion.
simple diffusion b. Diffusion (passive transport) • Random movement of substance through the membrane. either directly or in combination w carrier protein down an electrochemical gradient. facilitated diffusion c. osmosis AP Biology . a.1.
Diffusion (passive transport) • 2nd Law of Thermodynamics governs biological systems – universe tends towards disorder (entropy) • Diffusion – movement from high → low concentration AP Biology .
Diffusion • Move from HIGH to LOW concentration – passive transport – no energy needed movement of water AP Biology diffusion osmosis .
proteins amino acids lipids salts. O2. H2O NO! OUT OUT IN waste ammonia salts CO2 H 2O products AP Biology cell needs materials in & products or waste out .Diffusion across cell membrane • Cell membrane is the boundary between inside & outside… – separates cell from its environment Can it be an impenetrable boundary? IN food carbohydrates sugars.
proteins .Diffusion through phospholipid bilayer • What molecules can get through directly? – fats & other lipids lipid salt inside cell NH3 • What molecules can NOT get through directly? – polar molecules • H2O – ions outside cell AP Biology sugar aa H 2O • salts. ammonia – large molecules • starches.
Channels through cell membrane • Membrane becomes semi-permeable with protein channels – specific channels allow specific material across cell membrane inside cell H 2O aa sugar NH3 AP Biology salt outside cell .
Facilitated Diffusion • Diffusion through protein channels – channels move specific molecules across cell membrane facilitated = with help – no energy needed open channel = fast transport high low AP Biology The Bouncer .
The Special Case of Water Movement of water across the cell membrane AP Biology .
Osmosis is diffusion of water • Water is very important to life. so we talk about water separately • Diffusion of water from high concentration of water to low concentration of water – across a semi-permeable membrane AP Biology .
Concentration of water
• Direction of osmosis is determined by comparing total solute concentrations – Hypertonic - more solute, less water – Hypotonic - less solute, more water – Isotonic - equal solute, equal water
water net movement of water
Managing water balance
• Cell survival depends on balancing water uptake & loss
Managing water balance
– animal cell immersed in mild salt solution • example: blood cells in blood plasma • problem: none – no net movement of water » flows across membrane equally, in both directions – volume of cell is stable
Managing water balance • Hypotonic – a cell in fresh water • example: Paramecium • problem: gains water. swells & can burst – water continually enters Paramecium cell • solution: contractile vacuole ATP – pumps water out of cell – ATP – plant cells • turgid AP Biology freshwater .
Aquaporins 1991 | 2003 NOBEL P. • Water moves rapidly into & out of cells – evidence that there were water channels AP Biology .
GHEORGHE BENGA UMF Cluj Napoca Peter Agre AP Biology John Hopkins Roderick MacKinnon Rockefeller .
• Requires metabolic energy (ATP). against electrochemical gradient (from lower to higher conc).e. i. • Involves net transport (uphill). AP Biology .Active transport: • Protein-Carrier mediated transport.
Active Transport • Cells may need to move molecules against concentration gradient – shape change transports solute from one side of membrane to other – protein pump conformational change – costs energy = ATP low ATP high AP Biology The Doorman .
Primary active transport II. Secondary active transport AP Biology .Types of active transport I.
I. Some of these carriers transport only one molecule or ion for another. Molecule or ion binds to “recognition site” on one side of carrier protein. Binding stimulates phosphorylation (breakdown of ATP) of carrier protein. – Hinge-like motion releases transported molecules to opposite side of membrane. AP Biology • . Carrier protein undergoes conformational change. Primary Active Transport • • • • Energy is supplied directly from hydrolysis of ATP for the fx of the protein carriers.
Primary active transport of hydrogen ions (H+/K+ ATPase) AP Biology . Sodium-Potassium pump (Na+/K+ pump). Primary active transport of calcium (Ca2+ ATPase). c. b.Primary active transport (continued) • Examples: a.
g. & in intestines. AP Biology . in basolateral membrane of the kidneys. e. • Energy dependent transport. because both ions are moved against their conc gradient.Sodium-Potassium pump (Na+/K+ pump): • Present in most cell membranes.
– Regulates resting calorie expenditure & BMR. – Promotes osmotic flow.Na+/K+ Pump • Is also an ATP enzyme that converts ATP to ADP and Pi. – Involvement in electrochemical impulses. • 2 3 AP Biology . – Actively extrudes 3 Na+ & transports 2 K+ inward against conc gradient. Steep gradient serves 4 fxs: – Provides energy for “coupled transport” of other molecules.
coupled to the transport of another solute down an electrochemical gradient. AP Biology • • . Hydrolysis of ATP by Na+/K+ pump required indirectly to maintain [Na+] gradient. Secondary active transport: (Coupled Transport) • Transport of one or more solutes against an electrochemical gradient.II. Energy needed for “uphill” movement obtained from “downhill” transport of Na+.
the process is called either: countertransport or antiport . the coupled transport is called either: cotransport or symport .Secondary Active Transport (continued) • If the other molecule or ion is moved in the same direction as Na+ (into the cell). If the other molecule or ion is moved in the opposite direction as Na+ (out of the cell). • AP Biology .
a.Na+– glucose Co transport .g. Co-transport (Symport) • • All solutes move in the same direction → to the inside of the cell e. .Na+– amino acid Co transport In the intestinal tract. & kidney s brush borders. • AP Biology .
Na+– glucose Co transport AP Biology .
.Cl-– HCO3.b. AP Biology .g.Ca2+– Na+ exchange … (present in many cell membranes) .Na+– H+ exchange in the kidney . e. Counter transport (Antiport) • • Na+ is moving to the interior causing other substance to move out.exchange across RBCs.
Active transport • Many models & mechanisms ATP ATP AP Biology antiport symport .
Transport summary simple diffusion facilitated diffusion active transport AP Biology ATP .
How about large molecules? Bulk transport • Bulk transport across the plasma membrane occurs by exocytosis and endocytosis AP Biology .
fuses. AP Biology . pinches off and forms vesicle.Bulk Transport • Receptor-mediated endocytosis: – Interaction of molecules in ECF with specific membrane receptor proteins. – Membrane invaginates. – Vesicle enters cell. – Proteins and other molecules to be secreted are packaged in vesicles by Golgi complex. • Exocytosis: – Process by which cellular products are secreted into extracellular environment. – Vesicles fuse with plasma membrane and release contents into extracellular environment.
• Endocytosis Phagocytosis: – – – – Phagocytic cells use pseudopods to surround and engulf particles. Pinocytosis: • Nonspecific process. vesicle containing ECF pinches off. and surround ingested particle (food vacuole). AP Biology . Protects from invading organisms. and vesicle enters cell. fuse. • Lysosomes digest food vacuole. • Plasma membrane invaginates. fuses. Removes debris. Pseudopods join.
Endocytosis fuse with lysosome for digestion phagocytosis pinocytosis non-specific process receptor-mediated endocytosis AP Biology triggered by molecular signal .
PINOCYTOSIS Plasma membrane 0. In pinocytosis.5 µm Pinocytosis vesicles forming (arrows) in a cell lining a small blood vessel (TEM) Vesicle AP Biology . PHAGOCYTOSIS EXTRACELLULAR FLUID CYTOPLASM Pseudopodium 1 µm Pseudopodium of amoeba Food or other particle Food vacuole Bacterium Food vacuole An amoeba engulfing a bacterium via phagocytosis (TEM). but the molecules dissolved in the droplet. Because any and all included solutes are taken into the cell. the cell gulps droplets of extracellular fluid into tiny vesicles. pinocytosis is nonspecific in the substances it transports.Exploring Endocytosis in Animal Cells In phagocytosis. The particle is digested after the vacuole fuses with a lysosome containing hydrolytic enzymes. It is not the fluid itself that is needed by the cell. a cell engulfs a particle by wrapping pseudopodia around it and packaging it within a membraneenclosed sac large enough to be classified as a vacuole.
the coated pit forms a vesicle containing the ligand molecules. the receptors are recycled to the plasma membrane by the same vesicle. The receptor proteins are usually already clustered in regions of the membrane called coated pits. Plasma membrane 0. RECEPTOR-MEDIATED ENDOCYTOSIS Coat protein Receptor Coated vesicle Ligand Coated pit Coat protein A coated pit and a coated vesicle formed during receptormediated endocytosis (TEMs). Extracellular substances (ligands) bind to these receptors. which are lined on their cytoplasmic side by a fuzzy layer of coat proteins. even though those substances may not be very concentrated in the extracellular fluid. When binding occurs. Notice that there are relatively more bound molecules (purple) inside the vesicle. After this ingested material is liberated from the vesicle. but other molecules (green) are also present. Embedded in the membrane are proteins with specific receptor sites exposed to the extracellular fluid.Receptor-mediated endocytosis enables the cell to acquire bulk quantities of specific substances.25 µm AP Biology .
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