Welcome to the Physiology Course!

Course Director: Motoc Daniela MD, PhD motocdana2005@yahoo.com

Course Requirements/Recommendations:
1)  Attend lectures 2)  Readings a)  Class handouts – required readings b)  Textbooks i)  Medical Physiology by Boron and Boulpaep ii)  Physiology by Berne and Levy

iii)  Textbook of Medical Physiology by Guyton
iv)  Review of Medical Physiology (Lange series) by Ganong

AP Biology


AP Biology

AP Biology . •  Pathophysiology: –  How physiological processes are altered in disease or injury.Human Physiology •  Study of how the human body functions.

Goal of this course: 1) To understand cellular physiology 2) To understand how each organ system works to maintain the composition. 3) Understanding from the whole human body level to the molecular level AP Biology . volume and pressure of the extracellular fluid.

What is Physiology? Focuses on homeostasis.set points effectors – efferent pathways How do these systems respond to perturbations in order to return to normal? AP Biology . the maintenance of important properties of living organisms in a narrow range in the face of significant environmental fluctuations Examples of properties blood pressure ionic composition of blood osmolarity of blood oxygen and carbon dioxide content of blood acid-base balance of blood glucose concentration of blood body temperature Goals are to identify the processes that control and regulate the important properties of living systems sensors – afferent pathways integrating centers .

Physiology is Different Than Histology or Anatomy Concepts vs Memorization like physics there are things to memorize but it is the concepts that are essential you must put in the intellectual effort to understand the concepts you must think about the ideas to become comfortable with them do not expect that you will learn physiology by cramming for exams Dynamic vs Static subject new discoveries new insights so what you learn today may need to be revised in the future AP Biology .

Brown Fat Shivering decreased . the maintenance of important parameters in living organisms in a narrow range (in the steady state) in the face of significant environmental fluctuations Example: body temperature Sweat Ducts elevated Sweating Core Body Temperature Sensors CNS Integrating Center normal range AP Biology Skeletal Muscle.What is Physiology? Focuses on homeostasis.

Physiology is the Basis of Medicine many diseases cause organ dysfunction medicine tries to correct dysfunction or minimize its effects trying to restore system towards normal homeostatic setpoint need to understand physiological parameters that can be manipulated Example – Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) leads to pump failure – inability to maintain adequate level of circulation need to know causes of failure some may be reversible others irreversible if irreversible what else can be done to maximize pumping minimize symptoms changes in blood volume. arterial or venous blood pressure at molecular level need to know potential targets that can be modulated AP Biology .

Chemical Composition of the Body AP Biology .

Elements •  Four elements important to living organisms –  Carbon (C) –  Nitrogen (N) –  Oxygen (O) –  Hydrogen (H) AP Biology .

Four main classes of organic molecules •  •  •  •  Lipids Carbohydrates Proteins Nucleic Acids AP Biology .

Insoluble in polar solvents (H20). Hydrophobic (nonpolar) Consist primarily of hydrocarbon chains and rings. AP Biology .Lipids •  •  •  •  •  GR: Lipos=Fat Diverse group of molecules.

Lipids •  •  •  •  •  •  •  Hydrocarbons Fatty acids Triglycerides Ketone Bodies Phospholipids Steroids Prostaglandins AP Biology .

Carbohydrates •  Organic molecules that contain carbon. •  CH20 •  General formula: –  CnH2nOn •  -ose denotes a sugar molecule AP Biology . hydrogen and oxygen.

Carbohydrates •  Supply energy –  Glucose –  Complex carbohydrates •  Provide structural support –  cellulose •  Part of plasma membrane •  Monomer: monosaccarides AP Biology .

fructose and galactose •  Characteristics –  Soluable –  Sweet –  Alcoholic fermentation AP Biology .Carbohydrates •  Monosaccharide: the “simple sugars” –  Pentoses (5-carbons): •  Ribose: in RNA •  Deoxyribose: in DNA –  Hexoses (6-carbons):structural isomers •  Glucose.

•  Sucrose – Glucose and fructose •  Maltose – Glucose and glucose •  Lactose – Glucose and galactose AP Biology .Carbohydrates •  Disaccharide: – 2 monosaccharides joined covalently.

Carbohydrates •  Polysaccharides: – Many monosaccharides joined covalently. – General formula: (C6H10O5)n – Characteristics: •  Devoid of taste •  Do not form solutions •  Iodine test – Iodine +starch+blue AP Biology .

unbranched chains AP Biology .Polysaccarides •  Kinds: –  Starch •  Glucose subunits •  branched –  Dextrins –  Glycogen (animal starch) •  Glucose subunits •  Branched –  Cellulose •  Glucose subunits •  Long.

CTs •  Functional: – Enzymes. etc! AP Biology . Hb.Proteins •  General Information: – GR: proteios=first rank – ~50% of the organic material of the body – Functions •  Structural: – Cell structures. hormones.

– Amino Acid structure •  amino group (NH2) •  carboxylic acid group (COOH) •  Radical group (R): functional group •  H AP Biology .Proteins •  Protein Structure – Large molecules (polymers) composed of amino acid sub-units (monomers).

: AP Biology .g.Proteins •  20 different standard amino acids. – Based on the properties of the functional group – E.

Proteins •  Dipeptide: 2 amino acids •  Tripeptide: 3 amino acids •  Polypeptide: many amino acids –  Number of amino acids varies –  Up to 100 aa •  Protein –  Over 100aa –  Great variety! AP Biology .

Conjugated proteins •  Protein combined with another type of molecule •  Glycoproteins: carbohydrate with protein –  Membranes. cytochromes AP Biology . blood plasma •  Hemoproteins: iron and protein –  Hemoglobin. hormone •  Lipoproteins: Lipid and protein –  Membranes.

Nucleic Acids •  Include the macromolecules: –  DNA: deoxyribonucleic acid –  RNA: ribonucleic acid •  Involved in heredity and genetic regulation •  Are polymers: –  Monomeric subunit:nucleotides –  Bonded together in a dehydration synthesis reaction AP Biology .

Nucleic Acids AP Biology .

Nucleotides •  Structure of a nucleotide: 3 subunits –  Pentose sugar –  Phosphate group –  Nitrogenous base •  Purines: two rings –  Guanine –  Adenine •  Pyrimidines: one ring –  Cytosine –  Thymine –  Uricil AP Biology .

Nucleotide Structure AP Biology .

DNA •  Huge molecules with simple structure •  Big time data storage! •  Structure –  Nucleotides •  Pentose sugar: Deoxyribose •  Bases: –  Purines: G and A –  Pyrimidines: C and T –  Form double-stranded helix AP Biology .

DNA AP Biology .

RNA •  Means by which DNA directs cellular activities •  Structure –  Pentose sugar: ribose –  Bases: uracil (not thymine) –  Single stranded •  Three main types –  Messenger RNA (mRNA) –  Transfer RNA (tRNA) –  Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) AP Biology .

DNA vs RNA AP Biology .

Cell •  Basic living unit of structure & function of the body. highly organized. AP Biology . variety of shapes & sizes. –  –  –  –  –  > 100 trillion cells in body. very small (10-5 m in diameter). each type of cells has a special function.

Primary Tissues •  4 Different Primary Tissues: – Muscle – Nervous – Epithelial – Connective AP Biology .

•  3 Types of Muscle Tissue: – Skeletal – Cardiac – Smooth AP Biology .Muscle Tissue •  Specialized for contraction.

Epithelial Tissue •  Types of Epithelial Tissue: – Cells that form membranes: •  Squamous •  Columnar •  Cuboidal – Exocrine glands – Endocrine glands AP Biology .

•  4 Types of Connective Tissue: –  Connective tissue proper –  Cartilage –  Bone –  Blood AP Biology .Connective Tissue •  Large amounts of extracellular (ECF) material in the spaces between connective tissue cells.

Connective Tissue Proper •  Loose connective tissue: –  Scattered collagen and tissue fluid. –  Tendons –  Irregularly arranged. –  Capsules and sheaths AP Biology . •  Resists forces applied in many directions. •  Dermis of skin •  Dense fibrous connective tissue: –  Regular arranged. •  Collagen oriented in same direction.

– Serve different functions of the organ. AP Biology .Organs •  Organs: – Composed of at least two primary tissues.

•  Examples: – Skeletal system – Cardiovascular system – GI system AP Biology .Systems •  Organs that are located in different regions of the body and perform related functions.

–  deliver end products into their surrounding fluid. –  almost all have the ability to reproduce. AP Biology .Cell •  All Cells share certain characteristics: –  general cell structure & components. –  general mechanisms for changing nutrients to Energy.

–  Nucleus. –  Organ physiology derived from complex functions of the cell. –  Cytoplasm and organelles. AP Biology .Cell (continued) •  Great diversity of function. •  3 principal parts: –  Plasma membrane.

General Cell structure: o  The cell has two major compartments: the nucleus & the cytoplasm. AP Biology . The cytoplasm contains the major cell organelles & a fluid called cytosol.

Nuclear envelope . composed of protein & lipid molecules Dense nonmembranous mass composed of protein & RNA molecules Fibrous strands composed of protein & DNA Function Surrounds.Nucleolus Supports nucleus & controls passage of materials b/w nucleus & cytoplasm Produces ribosomal RNA for ribosomes . Cytoplasm Nucleus: . controls passage of materials into & out of cell Serves as matrix substance in which chemical reactions occur.Chromatin AP Biology Contains genetic code that determines which proteins (including enzymes) will be manufactured by the cell .General Cell Structure & Function Component Cell membrane Structure Membrane composed of double layer of phospholipids in which proteins are embedded Fluid. holds cell together & gives its form. jellylike substance b/w cell membrane & nucleus in which organelles are suspended Double-layered membrane that surrounds nucleus.

Cytoplasm and Organelles AP Biology .

Cytoplasm. Nucleoli (continued) AP Biology . Organelles.

Highly organized structure with microtubules and microfilaments that function as cytoskeleton. Spindle apparatus (microtubules). •  Cytoskeleton: –  –  AP Biology . Includes organelles and cytosol. Actin and myosin (microfilaments).Cytoplasm and Cytoskeleton •  Cytoplasm: –  –  –  Jelly-like matrix within the cell.

AP Biology . jellylike substance). Cytosol is the term used to describe fluid portion of the cytoplasm.Cytoplasm •  The aqueous content of a cell (fluid. that lies beetwen cell membrane and nucleus in which organelles are suspended. •  •  Serves as matrix substance in which chemical reactions occur.

g.. cilia) found only in some cells. AP Biology . o  Mammalian cell showing organelles common to all cells and specialized structures (e.Organelles •  Subcellular structures within the cytoplasm that perform specific functions.

Secretes lipids & glycoproteins Release energy from food molecules & transform energy into usable ATP Digest foreign molecules & damaged organelles . granular (rough) ER assists in protein sysnthesis Synthesize proteins Golgi complex Cluster of flattened Mitochondria Lysosomes AP Biology Membranous sacs w folded inner partitions Membranous sacs Synthesizes carbohydrates & packages molecules for secretion.Cytoplasmic Organelles: Structure & Function Component Endoplasmic reticulum Ribosomes Structure System of interconnected membrane-forming canals & tubules Granular particles composed of protein & RNA membranous sacs Function Agranular (smooth) ER metabolizes nonpolar compounds & stores Ca2+ in striated muscle cells.

transport materials within the cytoplasm Move particles along cell surface. or move the cell Thin.Cytoplasmic Organelles: Structure & Function (continued) Component Peroxisomes Centrosome Vacuoles Microfilaments & microtubules Structure Spherical membranous vesicles Function Contain enzymes that detoxify harmful molecules & break down hydrogen peroxide Nonmembranous mass Helps to organize spindle fibers & distribute of 2 rodlike centrioles chromosomes during mitosis Membranous sacs Store & release various substances within the cytoplasm Support cytoplasm & fx as cytoskeleton. hollow tubes Minute cytoplasmic projections that extend from the cell surface Cilia & flagella AP Biology .

Most cells have a single nucleus. •  Nuclear pore complexes fuse inner & outer membranes together. Largest of organelles. Enclosed by inner & outer membrane (nuclear envelope). Contains the genetic material (DNA). –  Selective active transport of proteins & RNA. –  Outer membrane is continuous w ER.Cell Nucleus •  •  •  •  •  Is a large spheroid body. AP Biology .

Cell Nucleus AP Biology .

AP Biology . not surrounded by membrane.Cell Nucleus (continued) •  Nucleoli: –  Dark areas within the nucleus. –  Centers for production of ribosomes. •  Chromatin: –  Threadlike material that makes up chromosomes.

•  Is selectively permeable. holds cell together and gives its form. •  Participates in intracellular communication. AP Biology . Separates cell s internal structures from extracellular environment. Not solid. controls passage of materials into and out of cell.Plasma membrane: •  •  •  •  Surrounds. 10 nanometer thick.

AP Biology . or partially span the membrane. –  Negatively charged carbohydrates attach to the outer surface.Plasma (Cell) Membrane Composed of: –  Double layer of phospholipids (hydrophobic/ hydrophilic parts). –  Proteins span.

The Cell Membrane AP Biology .

. 4% Lipids •  Carbohydrates …………… 3% AP Biology .Phospholipids … 25% .. 55% •  Lipids ………………………. 12% .General composition of cell membrane •  Proteins …………………….Glycolipids ……. 41% .Cholesterol …….

Cell membrane phospholipids •  Consists of: a.soluble ions. AP Biology . Glycerol head that contains phosphate gp (polar & hydrophilic). 2 fatty acid tails (nonpolar & hydrophobic). b. •  The hydrophobic parts restricts the passage of H20 & H20.

containing both hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions •  Scientists studying the plasma membrane –  Reasoned that it must be a phospholipid bilayer AP Biology .Phospholipid bilayer •  Phospholipids –  Are the most abundant lipid in the plasma membrane –  Are amphipathic.

Phospholipid bilayer (cross section) WATER Hydrophilic head Hydrophobic tail WATER AP Biology .

Phospholipids •  Fatty acid tails –  hydrophobic •  Phosphate group head –  hydrophilic •  Arranged as a bilayer Phosphate Fatty acid AP Biology .

Membrane fat composition varies
•  Fat composition affects flexibility
–  membrane must be fluid & flexible –  % unsaturated fatty acids in phospholipids •  keep membrane less viscous •  cold-adapted organisms, like winter wheat –  increase % in autumn –  cholesterol in membrane

AP Biology

The Fluidity of Membranes:
•  Phospholipids in the plasma membrane
–  Can move within the bilayer

•  The type of hydrocarbon tails in phospholipids
–  Affects the fluidity of the plasma membrane

•  The steroid cholesterol
–  Has different effects on membrane fluidity at different temperatures

AP Biology

The fluidity of membranes

Lateral movement (~107 times per second)

Flip-flop (~ once per month)

(a) Movement of phospholipids



Unsaturated hydrocarbon tails with kinks

Saturated hydroCarbon tails

(b) Membrane fluidity


AP Biology

(c) Cholesterol within the animal cell membrane

a process controlled by the plasma membrane •  Membrane structure results in selective permeability –  Hydrophobic molecules •  Are lipid soluble and can pass through the membrane rapidly –  Hydrophilic molecules •  Do not cross the membrane rapidly AP Biology .The Permeability of the Lipid Bilayer •  A cell must exchange materials with its surroundings.

Nicolson proposed that membrane proteins are inserted into the phospholipid bilayer AP Biology .More than lipids… •  In 1972. Singer & G. S.J.

A Mosaic of Membrane Proteins •  A membrane –  Is a mosaic of different proteins embedded in the fluid matrix of the lipid bilayer AP Biology .

.provide structural channels or pores. .transport proteins.include hormone receptors and cell surface antigens.bind w substances to be transported. 2. Integral proteins: / Internal or intrinsic proteins . .span the membrane.Cell membrane proteins 1. Peripheral proteins: / external or extrinsic proteins . . . AP Biology .carrier proteins.embedded in one side (face) of the membrane.

Membrane is a collage of proteins & other molecules embedded in the fluid matrix of the lipid bilayer Extracellular fluid Glycolipid Glycoprotein Phospholipids Cholesterol Peripheral protein AP Biology Transmembrane proteins Filaments of cytoskeleton Cytoplasm .

The detailed structure of an animal cell s plasma membrane. in cross section Fibers of extracellular matrix (ECM) Glycoprotein Carbohydrate Glycolipid EXTRACELLULAR SIDE OF MEMBRANE Microfilaments of cytoskeleton Cholesterol AP Biology Peripheral protein Integral protein CYTOPLASMIC SIDE OF MEMBRANE .

Why are proteins the perfect molecule to build structures in the cell membrane? AP Biology .

Classes of amino acids What do these amino acids have in common? AP Biology nonpolar & hydrophobic .

Classes of amino acids What do these amino acids have in common? AP Biology polar & hydrophilic .

Proteins domains anchor molecule •  Within membrane –  nonpolar amino acids •  hydrophobic •  anchors protein into membrane •  On outer surfaces of membrane –  polar amino acids •  hydrophilic •  extend into extracellular fluid & into cytosol Polar areas of protein AP Biology Nonpolar areas of protein .

General functions of cell membrane proteins
1. Provide structural support. 2. Transport molecules across the membrane. 3. Enzymatic control of chemical reactions at cellular surface. 4. Some fx as receptors for hormones. 5. Some fx as regulatory molecules, that arrive at outer surface of the membrane. 6. Some serve as markers (antigens), that identify blood & tissue type of an individual.
AP Biology

Functions of Membrane Proteins
Outside Plasma membrane Inside Transporter Enzyme activity Cell surface receptor

AP Biology

Cell surface identity marker

Cell adhesion

Attachment to the cytoskeleton

Major functions of membrane proteins
(a) Transport. (left) A protein that spans the membrane may provide a hydrophilic channel across the membrane that is selective for a particular solute. (right) Other transport proteins shuttle a substance from one side to the other by changing shape. Some of these proteins hydrolyze ATP as an energy source to actively pump substances across the membrane. ATP (b) Enzymatic activity. A protein built into the membrane may be an enzyme with its active site exposed to substances in the adjacent solution. In some cases, several enzymes in a membrane are organized as a team that carries out sequential steps of a metabolic pathway. Enzymes


Signal transduction. A membrane protein may have a binding site with a specific shape that fits the shape of a chemical messenger, such as a hormone. The external messenger (signal) may cause a conformational change in the protein (receptor) that relays the message to the inside of the cell.



AP Biology

(d) Cell-cell recognition. AP Biology . such as gap junctions or tight junctions (f) Attachment to the cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix (ECM). Glycoprotein (e) Intercellular joining. a function that helps maintain cell shape and stabilizes the location of certain membrane proteins. Some glyco-proteins serve as identification tags that are specifically recognized by other cells. Proteins that adhere to the ECM can coordinate extracellular and intracellular changes . Microfilaments or other elements of the cytoskeleton may be bonded to membrane proteins. Membrane proteins of adjacent cells may hook together in various kinds of junctions.

Overview of major functions of membrane proteins: –  –  –  –  –  –  Transport Enzymatic activity Signal transduction Cell-cell recognition Intercellular joining Attachment to the Extracellular Matrix (ECM) AP Biology .

Synthesis and Sidedness of Membranes •  •  •  Membranes have distinct inside and outside faces This affects the movement of proteins synthesized in the endomembrane system Membrane proteins and lipids –  Are synthesized in the ER and Golgi apparatus 1 Transmembrane glycoproteins Secretory protein Glycolipid Golgi 2 apparatus Vesicle 3 4 Secreted protein Plasma membrane: Cytoplasmic face Extracellular face Transmembrane glycoprotein Membrane glycolipid AP Biology .

Cell membrane carbohydrates •  Primarily attached to the outer surface of the membrane as: .Glycoproteins … (most of it). .Glycolipids …… (1/10). AP Biology .

General functions of cell membrane carbohydrates 1. 2. Attach cells to each other. Act as receptor substances. 4. Some enter in immune reactions. 3. which affects the interaction of regulatory molecules of the membrane. Give most of cells overall surface charge. AP Biology .

facilitating cell-cell recognition AP Biology .The Role of Membrane Carbohydrates in CellCell Recognition •  Cell-cell recognition –  Is a cell s ability to distinguish one type of neighboring cell from another •  Membrane carbohydrates –  Interact with the surface molecules of other cells.

AP Biology .Membrane carbohydrates •  Play a key role in cell-cell recognition –  ability of a cell to distinguish one cell from another •  antigens –  important in organ and tissue development –  basis for rejection of foreign cells by immune system (ex. HLA SYSTEM).

Transport through the Cell Membrane AP Biology .

g. nucleic acids. ions. enter through proteins of the cell membrane.g. glucose. & other molecules. water. CO2. OH.Transport through the Cell Membrane •  Cell membrane is selectively permeable to some molecules & ions. e. O2. •  Lipid or fat-soluble substances. AP Biology . •  Water-soluble substances. –  Not permeable to proteins. e. enter directly into cell membrane through the lipid bilayer.

Bilayer is Not as Rigid or Static as it is Usually Depicted Importance of thermal motion at the molecular level AP Biology Life is dynamic – constant fluctuations .

–  Active transport: –  Requires ATP. AP Biology . –  Passive transport: –  Does not require metabolic energy (ATP).Categories of transport through Cell Membrane –  Carrier mediated transport: –  Non-carrier mediated transport.

& involves specific carrier proteins. AP Biology Requires metabolic energy (ATP).Types of membrane transport 1. (down conc gradient) 2. Diffusion (passive transport) •  net movement of molecules & ions across a membrane from higher to lower conc. (to region of higher conc) o  •  doesn t require metabolic energy. . Active transport o  net movement across a membrane that occurs against conc gradient.

Types of membrane transport 1. Secondary active transport. (Carriermediated) c. AP Biology . 2. Active transport a. Simple diffusion. b. Diffusion (passive transport) a. b. Osmosis. Facilitated diffusion. Primary active transport.

Diffusion (passive transport) •  Random movement of substance through the membrane. facilitated diffusion c.1. simple diffusion b. either directly or in combination w carrier protein down an electrochemical gradient. a. osmosis AP Biology .

Diffusion (passive transport) •  2nd Law of Thermodynamics governs biological systems –  universe tends towards disorder (entropy) •  Diffusion –  movement from high → low concentration AP Biology .

Diffusion •  Move from HIGH to LOW concentration –  passive transport –  no energy needed movement of water AP Biology diffusion osmosis .

proteins amino acids lipids salts.Diffusion across cell membrane •  Cell membrane is the boundary between inside & outside… –  separates cell from its environment Can it be an impenetrable boundary? IN food carbohydrates sugars. O2. H2O NO! OUT OUT IN waste ammonia salts CO2 H 2O products AP Biology cell needs materials in & products or waste out .

ammonia –  large molecules •  starches.Diffusion through phospholipid bilayer •  What molecules can get through directly? –  fats & other lipids lipid salt inside cell NH3 •  What molecules can NOT get through directly? –  polar molecules •  H2O –  ions outside cell AP Biology sugar aa H 2O •  salts. proteins .

Channels through cell membrane •  Membrane becomes semi-permeable with protein channels –  specific channels allow specific material across cell membrane inside cell H 2O aa sugar NH3 AP Biology salt outside cell .

Facilitated Diffusion •  Diffusion through protein channels –  channels move specific molecules across cell membrane facilitated = with help –  no energy needed open channel = fast transport high low AP Biology The Bouncer .

The Special Case of Water Movement of water across the cell membrane AP Biology .

Osmosis is diffusion of water •  Water is very important to life. so we talk about water separately •  Diffusion of water from high concentration of water to low concentration of water –  across a semi-permeable membrane AP Biology .

Concentration of water
•  Direction of osmosis is determined by comparing total solute concentrations –  Hypertonic - more solute, less water –  Hypotonic - less solute, more water –  Isotonic - equal solute, equal water

water net movement of water

APhypotonic Biology


Managing water balance
•  Cell survival depends on balancing water uptake & loss

AP Biology



Managing water balance
•  Isotonic
–  animal cell immersed in mild salt solution •  example: blood cells in blood plasma •  problem: none –  no net movement of water »  flows across membrane equally, in both directions –  volume of cell is stable

AP Biology

Managing water balance •  Hypotonic –  a cell in fresh water •  example: Paramecium •  problem: gains water. swells & can burst –  water continually enters Paramecium cell •  solution: contractile vacuole ATP –  pumps water out of cell –  ATP –  plant cells •  turgid AP Biology freshwater .

•  Water moves rapidly into & out of cells –  evidence that there were water channels AP Biology .Aquaporins 1991 | 2003 NOBEL P.

GHEORGHE BENGA UMF Cluj Napoca Peter Agre AP Biology John Hopkins Roderick MacKinnon Rockefeller .

Active transport: •  Protein-Carrier mediated transport.e. i. •  Involves net transport (uphill). AP Biology . against electrochemical gradient (from lower to higher conc). •  Requires metabolic energy (ATP).

Active Transport •  Cells may need to move molecules against concentration gradient –  shape change transports solute from one side of membrane to other –  protein pump conformational change –  costs energy = ATP low ATP high AP Biology The Doorman .

Secondary active transport AP Biology .Types of active transport I. Primary active transport II.

–  Hinge-like motion releases transported molecules to opposite side of membrane. Some of these carriers transport only one molecule or ion for another.I. Binding stimulates phosphorylation (breakdown of ATP) of carrier protein. Primary Active Transport •  •  •  •  Energy is supplied directly from hydrolysis of ATP for the fx of the protein carriers. Carrier protein undergoes conformational change. AP Biology •  . Molecule or ion binds to “recognition site” on one side of carrier protein.

Primary active transport of calcium (Ca2+ ATPase). Primary active transport of hydrogen ions (H+/K+ ATPase) AP Biology . c.Primary active transport (continued) •  Examples: a. Sodium-Potassium pump (Na+/K+ pump). b.

in basolateral membrane of the kidneys.Sodium-Potassium pump (Na+/K+ pump): •  Present in most cell membranes. AP Biology . •  Energy dependent transport. & in intestines. because both ions are moved against their conc gradient. e.g.

–  Promotes osmotic flow. –  Actively extrudes 3 Na+ & transports 2 K+ inward against conc gradient.Na+/K+ Pump •  Is also an ATP enzyme that converts ATP to ADP and Pi. •  2 3 AP Biology . –  Regulates resting calorie expenditure & BMR. Steep gradient serves 4 fxs: –  Provides energy for “coupled transport” of other molecules. –  Involvement in electrochemical impulses.

coupled to the transport of another solute down an electrochemical gradient.II. Hydrolysis of ATP by Na+/K+ pump required indirectly to maintain [Na+] gradient. Energy needed for “uphill” movement obtained from “downhill” transport of Na+. AP Biology •  •  . Secondary active transport: (Coupled Transport) •  Transport of one or more solutes against an electrochemical gradient.

Secondary Active Transport (continued) •  If the other molecule or ion is moved in the same direction as Na+ (into the cell). •  AP Biology . If the other molecule or ion is moved in the opposite direction as Na+ (out of the cell). the coupled transport is called either: cotransport or symport . the process is called either: countertransport or antiport .

Co-transport (Symport) •  •  All solutes move in the same direction → to the inside of the cell e. & kidney s brush borders. . •  AP Biology .a.Na+– glucose Co transport .g.Na+– amino acid Co transport In the intestinal tract.

Na+– glucose Co transport AP Biology .

exchange across RBCs.b. Counter transport (Antiport) •  •  Na+ is moving to the interior causing other substance to move out.Na+– H+ exchange in the kidney . . AP Biology . e.Ca2+– Na+ exchange … (present in many cell membranes) .Cl-– HCO3.g.

Active transport •  Many models & mechanisms ATP ATP AP Biology antiport symport .

Transport summary simple diffusion facilitated diffusion active transport AP Biology ATP .

How about large molecules? Bulk transport •  Bulk transport across the plasma membrane occurs by exocytosis and endocytosis AP Biology .

AP Biology . •  Exocytosis: –  Process by which cellular products are secreted into extracellular environment. fuses. –  Vesicles fuse with plasma membrane and release contents into extracellular environment. –  Proteins and other molecules to be secreted are packaged in vesicles by Golgi complex. pinches off and forms vesicle.Bulk Transport •  Receptor-mediated endocytosis: –  Interaction of molecules in ECF with specific membrane receptor proteins. –  Membrane invaginates. –  Vesicle enters cell.

fuse. Pseudopods join. •  Plasma membrane invaginates.•  Endocytosis Phagocytosis: –  –  –  –  Phagocytic cells use pseudopods to surround and engulf particles. AP Biology . Protects from invading organisms. vesicle containing ECF pinches off. and surround ingested particle (food vacuole). Pinocytosis: •  Nonspecific process. Removes debris. and vesicle enters cell. fuses. •  Lysosomes digest food vacuole.

Endocytosis fuse with lysosome for digestion phagocytosis pinocytosis non-specific process receptor-mediated endocytosis AP Biology triggered by molecular signal .

PHAGOCYTOSIS EXTRACELLULAR FLUID CYTOPLASM Pseudopodium 1 µm Pseudopodium of amoeba Food or other particle Food vacuole Bacterium Food vacuole An amoeba engulfing a bacterium via phagocytosis (TEM). but the molecules dissolved in the droplet. the cell gulps droplets of extracellular fluid into tiny vesicles.5 µm Pinocytosis vesicles forming (arrows) in a cell lining a small blood vessel (TEM) Vesicle AP Biology . In pinocytosis.Exploring Endocytosis in Animal Cells In phagocytosis. The particle is digested after the vacuole fuses with a lysosome containing hydrolytic enzymes. pinocytosis is nonspecific in the substances it transports. Because any and all included solutes are taken into the cell. It is not the fluid itself that is needed by the cell. a cell engulfs a particle by wrapping pseudopodia around it and packaging it within a membraneenclosed sac large enough to be classified as a vacuole. PINOCYTOSIS Plasma membrane 0.

The receptor proteins are usually already clustered in regions of the membrane called coated pits. When binding occurs. even though those substances may not be very concentrated in the extracellular fluid. RECEPTOR-MEDIATED ENDOCYTOSIS Coat protein Receptor Coated vesicle Ligand Coated pit Coat protein A coated pit and a coated vesicle formed during receptormediated endocytosis (TEMs). Notice that there are relatively more bound molecules (purple) inside the vesicle. After this ingested material is liberated from the vesicle. Plasma membrane 0. but other molecules (green) are also present.25 µm AP Biology . Extracellular substances (ligands) bind to these receptors. the coated pit forms a vesicle containing the ligand molecules. the receptors are recycled to the plasma membrane by the same vesicle. Embedded in the membrane are proteins with specific receptor sites exposed to the extracellular fluid.Receptor-mediated endocytosis enables the cell to acquire bulk quantities of specific substances. which are lined on their cytoplasmic side by a fuzzy layer of coat proteins.

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