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MATRIX ALGEBRA

g 0 +bg

0 1 0

) ( ) ( )

+bg 0 g 0 p ( m 2 c 2+ p 2 ) + b g ( m 2c 2+ p 2) p g ( m 2c 2+ p 2)

1

MATRIX ALGEBRA by J. H. Hetherington Michigan State University 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2. Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3. Matrix Manipulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 4. 2 2 and 3 3 Determinants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Acknowledgments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4

ID Sheet: MISN-0-301 THIS IS A DEVELOPMENTAL-STAGE PUBLICATION OF PROJECT PHYSNET The goal of our project is to assist a network of educators and scientists in transferring physics from one person to another. We support manuscript processing and distribution, along with communication and information systems. We also work with employers to identify basic scientic skills as well as physics topics that are needed in science and technology. A number of our publications are aimed at assisting users in acquiring such skills. Our publications are designed: (i) to be updated quickly in response to eld tests and new scientic developments; (ii) to be used in both classroom and professional settings; (iii) to show the prerequisite dependencies existing among the various chunks of physics knowledge and skill, as a guide both to mental organization and to use of the materials; and (iv) to be adapted quickly to specic user needs ranging from single-skill instruction to complete custom textbooks. New authors, reviewers and eld testers are welcome. PROJECT STAFF Andrew Schnepp Eugene Kales Peter Signell Webmaster Graphics Project Director

Title: Matrix Algebra Author: J. H. Hetherington, Dept. of Physics, Michigan State Univ., E. Lansing, MI 48824 Version: 3/27/2002 Length: 1 hr; 12 pages Input Skills: 1. Solve a system of simultaneous linear equations (MISN-0-401). Output Skills (Knowledge): K1. Vocabulary: matrix, determinant, inverse of a matrix. Output Skills (Rule Application): R1. R2. R3. R4. Add or multiply given matrices. Determine whether two given matrices are inverses of each other. Evaluate the determinant of a given 2 2 or 3 3 matrix. Write a given system of linear equations in matrix form. Evaluation: Stage 0

External Resources (Required): 1. The Mathematics of Physics and Chemistry by H. Margenau and G. M. Murphy, Second Edition (Van Nostrand: New York, 1956). For availability, see this modules Local Guide.

ADVISORY COMMITTEE D. Alan Bromley E. Leonard Jossem A. A. Strassenburg Yale University The Ohio State University S. U. N. Y., Stony Brook

Views expressed in a module are those of the module author(s) and are not necessarily those of other project participants. c 2002, Peter Signell for Project PHYSNET, Physics-Astronomy Bldg., Mich. State Univ., E. Lansing, MI 48824; (517) 355-3784. For our liberal use policies see: http://www.physnet.org/home/modules/license.html.

MISN-0-301

MISN-0-301

Matrix Algebra is an extremely compact and powerful way of doing much of the mathematics in physics. Almost all of the physics which uses matrix algebra could be done without matrix algebrabut matrix algebra is a much more compact way of doing things. With matrix algebra the theory of linear equations and vector algebra are both combined into one subject.

Multiply columns of the second matrix by rows of the rst matrix. [The product is the rst element of the row times the rst element of the column plus the second element of the row times the second element of the column, and so on.] The results is placed in the row and column of the resultant matrix corresponding to the number of the row of the rst matrix and the number of the column of the second matrix. We illustrate this procedure: 1. Take rst row of A and rst column of B

2. Resources

Study the following readings. The excerpts are from The Mathematics of Physics and Chemistry by H. Margenau and G. M. Murphy, Second Edition (Van Nostrand: New York, 1956), hereafter designated MM. For availability, see this modules Local Guide.

rst column of B:

R1 R2 R3 R4

Readings: Sections 10.0, 10.1 Sections 10.2 Sections 10.3, 10.5, and 10.7 to A = diag(A1 ,A2 . . . ) The transposed matrix. . . to The rule holds for any number of factors. Section 10.6, up to eq. 10-7 Section 10.7 Section 10.3 Section 10.8, up to eq. 10-12, and Section 10.9 .

2. Multiply row and column to obtain a single number: C11 = A11 B11 + A12 B21 + A13 B21 + . . . + A1N BN 1 3. Place this C11 number in the rst row and column of C: ... ... ... ... ...

3. Matrix Manipulation

Note that matrix multiplication as dened in eq. 10-6 of MM is equivalent to this scheme:

A 11 A 21 . . .

A 12 A 22 . . .

B 11 B 21 . . .

B 12 B 22 . . .

MISN-0-301 5. Multiply and obtain: C12 = A11 B12 + A12 B22 + A13 B22 + . . . + A1N BN 2 6. Place in rst row and second column of C: C11 C12 . . . ... ... ... ...

MISN-0-301

Acknowledgments

Preparation of this module was supported in part by the National Science Foundation, Division of Science Education Development and Research, through Grant #SED 74-20088 to Michigan State University.

7. Continue in this fashion until all the elements of the product matrix have been determined. With practice you can easily do this mentally for small (2 2 and 3 3) matrices.

4. 2 2 and 3 3 Determinants

a. Caution: This method does not generalize to larger determinants. (i) 2 2: Take the product on the principle diagonal and subtract the product on the cross diagonal:

a c

b = a d c

b d

a c

b = ad cb d

(ii) 3 3: Take the product on the principle diagonal and subtract the product on the cross diagonal:

a d g

b e h

c f i

a = d g

b e h

c f i

a d g

b e h

c f i

= aei + bfg + dhc ceg bdi hfa The arrows pass through factors of the various terms.

b. Laplaces expansion applied to a 3 3 determinant: a b c d e f g h i =a e h f i b d g f i +c d e g h

MISN-0-301

LG-1

MISN-0-301

PS-1

LOCAL GUIDE

The readings for this unit are on reserve for you in the Physics-Astronomy Library, Room 230 in the Physics-Astronomy Building. Ask for them as The readings for CBI Unit 301. Do not ask for them by book title. 1. a. Multiply: b. Add:

PROBLEM SUPPLEMENT

1 0 b d 2 3 + a b 3 1 2 4 2b 0 = a b 1 4 1 4. Multiply: a. b. a c. 1 d. 2 1 2 1 2a 2 1 2 a b b a a b a 2a b a b a 2 5 1 3 6 1 =? =? cos sin sin cos

1

a b

2. Show that

cos sin

sin cos

5. Use Problem 2 to solve these linear coupled equations for x and y: (cos )x + (sin )y = 1 ( sin )x + (cos )y = 2 Use the matrix inverse method of Sec. 10.9, Margenau and Murphy. 6. Special Matrices: You should know, without actually multiplying, the result of multiplying:

9 10

MISN-0-301

PS-2

MISN-0-301

ME-1

1 0 any matrix A 0 1 any column matrix However, for practice right now, carry out the multiplication explicitly.

MODEL EXAM

1. See Output Skill K1 in this modules ID Sheet.

Brief Answers: 1. a. b. 5 3 2a 0 10 12 3b d

2. Prove that these two matrices are inverses: 1 1 1/2 1/2 and 1 1 1/2 1/2 3. Find the determinants of: (a): 2 3 2 1 and (b): 1 4 3 2 5 3 3 6 1

2. Multiply and get unit matrix: cos sin cos sin sin cos sin cos = = cos2 + sin2 sin cos + cos sin 1 0 0 1 cos sin + sin cos sin2 + cos2

5. Using information from Problem 2, solve the equations: (1/2) x (1/2) y = a (1/2) x + (1/2) y = b

3. a. a2 b2 b. (1)(5)(1) + (2)(6)(1) + (3)(4)(1) (3)(5)(1) (4)(2)(1) (1)(1)(6) = 5 + 12 + 12 15 8 6 = 0 4. a. a column matrix: a(a + 2b) a(b 2a)

b. a row matrix: a(a + 2b) a(b 2a) c. a 1 1 matrix, a scalar: 4 2 4 d. a 2 2 matrix: 1 2 5. The problem can be written: cos sin sin cos x y = 1 2

3. a. 4 b. 5 + 36 + 36 8 18 45 = 77 71 = 6 4. = 5. x y 5 5 4 5 = 1 1 1 4 1 1 2 3 = a b 21 25 = 22 25 a+b a + b

Multiply by inverse (which we know from Problem 2): x cos sin 1 cos = = y sin cos 2 sin x = cos 2 sin ; y = sin + 2 cos 6. Same matrix A or same column matrix. 2 sin +2 cos

x=a+b y = a + b

11

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