# Chapter 3 - Developing the Plan (Part 2) Chapter 4 - Data Step

ME 202
Fall 2011

ME 202 (Fall 2011)

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We looked at the following sub-stages in past lectures: Deﬁning the study units and population Determining what variates will be measured Specifying the sampling protocol We will now address the ﬁnal two sub-stages of the plan: Deﬁning and assessing the measurement systems Planning for data collection ME 202 (Fall 2011) 2/ 10 2 / 10 .Introduction Developing the Plan Recall that in the plan stage. we would like to determine procedures for carrying out the study and collecting the data.

Possible attributes of interest include the average measurement error or standard deviation (or diversity) of the measurement error. methods. We can use a separate PPDAC cycle to investigate the measurement system by itself: A unit is the act of taking a single measurement. ME 202 (Fall 2011) 3/ 10 3 / 10 . material. Deﬁnition: Measurement error is the difference between the measured value and the true value of a variate.Deﬁning and assessing the measurement systems The measuring process A measurement system or process is the combination of instruments (or gauges). environment and people/operators that are used to produce the measured value of a variate on a sampled unit. The response variate is a measured value.

2 of Chapter 1 Revisited Recall the example where a micrometer is used to measure the diameter of a ground shaft. ME 202 (Fall 2011) 4/ 10 4 / 10 .Deﬁning and assessing the measurement systems Example 1. The following is a ﬁshbone diagram for the measurement system.

Planning for data collection Preparing for the data stage Address various questions regarding the collection of the data. Who will collect the sample and make the measurements? What might go wrong? What can we do to avoid this? When will the sample be collected and the measurements made? How will we record the data in an effective and efﬁcient manner? ME 202 (Fall 2011) 5/ 10 5 / 10 . For example.

The Data Stage The data stage This stage may be costly and time-consuming. At all points in this stage. ME 202 (Fall 2011) 6/ 10 6 / 10 . it is important to continuously monitor the data collection process to ensure that everything goes according to the plan. Steps: Execute the plan. we must record any departures from the plan. As such. Monitor the data as it is collected. Store the data. Examine the data.

Distinguish complete. Select the sample of units according to the sampling protocol and record any departures. Record time/order of each measurement. Measure variates on each unit. and missing measurements. Follow measurement systems protocols. Record the gauge. set the explanatory variate values.The Data Stage Execute the plan If the plan is experimental. incomplete. Record the measurer. ME 202 (Fall 2011) 7/ 10 7 / 10 .

negative values for a variate which is always positive) Across the units.g. It is not recommended that you represent missing values using numerical values. are there any missing values? (You can represent missing data values using "NA" or "NaN". between measurements and the measurer. measurements and the gauge used. letter values instead of numerical values) is the range of data values logically consistent? (e. 99. 0. ME 202 (Fall 2011) 8/ 10 8 / 10 .) are there any illegal data types? (e.The Data Stage Monitor the data collection Within each sampled unit. check for unexpected relationships between measurements and time of measurement.g. etc. e.g.

Some useful graphical tools include scatter plots. Is the data logically consistent with any prior information? Look for extreme observations (sometimes called outliers) which seem to be away from the bulk of the data. We can perform. stem and leaf diagrams.The Data Stage Examine the data Conduct visual and graphical checks to look for patterns of internal consistency. histograms. ME 202 (Fall 2011) 9/ 10 9 / 10 . a joint examination (look at multiple variates at once) or a conditional examination (look at one or multiple variates which are organized according to the value of another variate). time series plots and conditional displays. a marginal examination (look a one variate at a time). for example. box plots.

Store the data in a format that is compatible with the statistical software used in the analysis stage.The Data Stage Store the Data Store the data in an efﬁcient manner so that it can be accessed and used easily in the analysis stage. ME 202 (Fall 2011) 10/ 10 10 / 10 .