Grundlehren der mathematischen Wissenschaften 287

A Series of Comprehensive Studies in Mathematics

Bernard Maskit Kleinian Groups

Springer-Verlag

Grundlehren der mathematischen Wissenschaften 287
A Series of Comprehensive Studies in Mathematics

Editors M. Artin S. S. Chern J. M. Frohlich E. Heinz H. Hironaka F. Hirzebruch L. Hormander S. MacLane C. C. Moore J. K. Moser M. Nagata W. Schmidt D. S. Scott Ya. G. Sinai J. Tits M. Waldschmidt S. Watanabe

Managing Editors M. Berger B. Eckmann

S. R. S. Varadhan

Bernard Maskit

Kleinian Groups
With 67 Figures

Springer-Verlag

Berlin Heidelberg New York London Paris Tokyo

Bernard Maskit Dept. of Mathematics SUNY at Stony Brook Stony Brook, NY 11794
USA

Mathematics Subject Classification (1980): 30F40

ISBN 3-540-17746-9 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg New York ISBN 0-387-17746-9 Springer-Verlag New York Berlin Heidelberg
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Maskit. Bernard. Kleinian groups. (Grundlehren der mathematischen Wissenschaften : 287) Bibliography: p. Includes index.
I Kleinian groups. 1. Title. If. Series QA331.M418 1987 515 87-20632

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To Wilma

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and there is now an active school of research using these methods. Bill Thurston wrought a revolution in the field by showing that one could analyze Kleinian groups using 3-dimensional hyperbolic geometry. one can start with the assumption that. From the point of view of uniformizations of Riemann surfaces. This book was designed to be usable as a textbook for a one year advanced graduate course in Kleinian groups. Some of the basic material developed here in Chapters II. the group represents a finite Riemann surface. and then. Bers' observation has the consequence that the question of understanding the different uniformizations of a finite Riemann surface poses a purely topological problem. but hard to find facts about regular coverings of surfaces. there are many difficulties in the theory caused by the presence of parabolic or elliptic elements in the group. The last two chapters here give a topological description of the set of all (geometrically finite) uniformizations of finite Riemann surfaces. and IV-VII is also useful as foundation for Thurston's work. relatively easy to derive. . The examples range from easy illustrations in the use of combination theorems. The work here shares some foundation with Thurston's methods. one could follow the material in the order given for such a course. groups with an invariant component. specifically with Ahlfors' finiteness theorem. Chapter VIII is a collection of examples of Kleinian groups with diverse properties. For the most part. and then use the finiteness theorem to conclude that the group represents only finitely many finite Riemann surfaces. For groups which uniformize a finite Riemann surface. Chapter III is included as a reference for some more or less well-known. and Bers' observation that their joint work on the Beltrami equation has deep implications for the theory of Kleinian groups and their deformations. Except for Chapters III and VIII. We carefully skirt Ahlfors' finiteness theorem. in the invariant component. it is independent of the conformal structure on the surface. For someone first learning about Kleinian groups. or. bne can either start with the assumption that the group is finitely generated. that is.Introduction The modern theory of Kleinian groups starts with the work of Lars Ahlfors and Lipman Bers. as we do here. but an exploration of his deep and beautiful results lies beyond the scope of this book. using essentially topological techniques. More recently. reach the same conclusion. to fairly complicated constructions of groups with esoteric properties.

which may have something to do with my increased ability to organize myself and my notes.E. and set about rewriting and revising my manuscript. The figures are numbered separately. I also would never have finished this book if it were not for my wife.8. Wilma. Fortunately.. personal computers came into being. This book had its origins in 1970. and slowly expanded the notes until they grew large enough to become seemingly unmanageable. The highest level are the chapters. but there are also some problems that were added on at the end..C. After the general theory for purely lox- odromic groups is clear. a reference to the theorem whose statement appears in Chapter VII. it need not have anything to do with subsection 8 of VIII. and for his help in reading some .E. this is the 8th figure is section E of Chapter VIII. The exercises at the end of each chapter were put in for the usual reasons.". For example. Each subsection contains at most one statement of a theorem. the few formulas are also separately numbered. I profited immensely from the encouragement and advice of many friends and colleagues. and of course they also have names. etc. they progress according to the material in each chapter.. when.. corollary.2. The next level down are the sections. the others do not. these are labelled I through X. so internal references usually do not use the words theorem. who always has a kind word. labelled 1. These are referred to. then one can go back as necessary and fill in the difficulties and complications caused by the presence of elliptic and parabolic elements. Since then I taught a course in Kleinian groups several times. and X become significantly shorter. B. as a Sloan Foundation Fellow at the University of Warwick.VIII Introduction On first reading. A reference to the same theorem from outside Chapter VII is given as "VII. I also wish to thank my long-standing friend and colleague. as Fig. and are quite uneven in terms of difficulty (this is not to say that any of them are deliberately unsolved or unsolvable). and Chapters VI. lemma. 2. Irwin Kra. whose loving patience and quiet support have been a great source of strength. for example. C. and. who both taught me what mathematical research was all about. 3. proposition. Similarly. one should take the point of view that one is only interested in purely loxodromic geometrically finite Kleinian groups. which are labelled A. has been a constant source of encouragement and sound advice. I also underwent some changes in my personal life. The basic organization of the book has three levels.". The lowest level consists of subsections. During the course of the years I was writing and organizing this book. .. I owe a deep debt of gratitude to my teacher. and these also have names. so I bought one. from within Chapter VII. VII. Chapters V and IX almost disappear. section C. I started to write a set of notes. bought a technical word processor. . Some of the subsections in Chapter VIII have names. at just about that time..2. In broad outline. both for his strong encouragement. or lemma. VIII. through all these years. but merely refer to the appropriate subsection. When read from this point of view. Lipman Bers. subsection 2 is given as simply "C. VIII.

who pointed out errors in drafts. I especially wish to thank Bill Abikoff. thanks are due to the National Science Foundation for support during the many years this book was in preparation. Jim Anderson. and helped proofread. I also had help from Gilbert Baumslag with the example of a locally free group.Introduction IX of the preliminary drafts. and Perry Susskind. hopefully none of them serious. Peter Matelski. Stony Brook. it seems to be a general principle that no matter how many times one goes through the manuscript. July 1987 Bernard Maskit . and I hope I have not slighted anyone by failing to mention his or her name. I thank them all.B are essentially due to him. There are many others as well. Andy Haas. who pointed out errors or made suggestions. Blaise Heltai. I had help from many people. one always finds more errors. Of course. in this connection. there are still errors remaining. Ara Basmajian. the contents of section V. Finally. Thanks are also due to Werner Fenchel for teaching me about half-turns.

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. I... I............... Isomorphisms ................ 4 8 11 Commutators ............... III............G.............. Diameter............... II........ Isometric Circles ..... E..........................E.A..........F... Classification of Fractional Linear Transformations . II.H.........D.................. Chapter III.. The Partition of aC .................. Pairs of Regular Coverings . D.. II............. 42 45 46 III...............B..... II............................ ...F.................................................................................................. 1............................................................................................................... Covering Spaces .............. Fundamental Domains ........................................... I.......................................... Exercises .... Exercises ................ II............ III............. Discontinuous Groups in the Plane ...D.......L..................... Branched Regular Coverings ........................................... II....................F........................................................................ B.............. Discontinuous Groups ........... III............... 1 Basic Concepts .......................... Regular Coverings ........ 12 13 Chapter II.... Riemann Surfaces ........................................................ Notes .C........C.................. Area...........E.......... Fractional Linear Transformations I........A............................................ Inequalities for Discrete Groups ..... 41 41 III.. Exercises .......C.....J......... II................................................... K......... 23 25 29 32 35 The Ford Region .................. II........ 15 15 16 18 21 The Limit Set .. 36 37 39 II. 11..........B.............. III................................................ III... Precisely Invariant Sets .............. II..............G... and Convergence ........................... 48 49 51 ..............A. II...................Table of Contents Chapter I........... Coverings ......... Lifting Mappings ........1........... 1 1............. Lifting Loops and Regions . Fractional Reflections .............................

........ IV.......................... The Euclidean Groups ............... Combination Theorems ........... IV..I.......C...................................D................................... Blocks and Spanning Discs ... Combinatorial Group Theory ..........C.......... V............. V.B............. VI............ 134 Chapter VII.. Groups of Isometrics ... Geometrically Finite Groups .................H....F.......B........E.......................................................H...... The Geometric Basic Groups ....... The First Combination Theorem ..................................................... Convex Sets .............. Applications ......... 115 115 Points of Approximation ......................... Groups with Two Limit Points .........J.. 95 99 103 109 Ill Fuchsian Groups .....A......D..B......................... The Second Combination Theorem ....................................... Classification of Elements of I_" .... Special Cases ................. VII........A................... Exercises .................A.................................. The Dirichlet and Ford Regions ...................I . Discrete Groups of Isometrics ................................ The Finite Groups . Chapter V.......................K...................... Notes .....................II ...................... VII...........E.... 84 84 85 87 91 Basic Signatures ...................C............. VII............... IV................. Notes ............ 122 124 128 131 132 VI......................................... 114 Chapter VI.............. VII... 53 53 59 62 65 IV....................D.................. 135 135 139 149 156 160 168 170 ..... Notes ....G..... IV..................................................................................................................... VI................... VII....................................................... Exercises ......................... Exercises .................... Essentially Compact 3-Manifolds .. V.. V.. Hyperbolic Geometry .............. VII....... Combinatorial Group Theory ... IV. Poincare's Polyhedron Theorem .G. 66 68 70 73 78 IV......B... 80 83 IV.............................. IV.. VI........................................... VI............A...............F........................ Fundamental Polyhedrons ............................................. VI....... V...C............................ Notes ................................ Half-Turns ........ IV...E.... The Boundary at Infinity of a Fundamental Polyhedron ................. Exercises ......... Action near the Limit Set .........................E...... V......................... Isomorphisms .F........................................................ Applications to Non-Elementary Groups ...... V............J.............. VII................................G........... IV... V..................XII Table of Contents Chapter IV.................. V...........................F.......G.... The Basic Spaces and their Groups ............... VI........I......D..... V...........

A...................................H.......................................................................... Loxodromic Cyclic Constructions .......... Elliptic Cyclic Constructions ........... Notes ............................ X.......E........................... X........ Quasifuchsian Groups . Strings of Beads ............ Exercises .................................B........................ Groups with Accidental Parabolic Transformations ...................... IX............................................. X............... Exercises ..................................................... X.... IX............K............................... X.....................C......E................................................. VIII.......... X.................................. 314 316 318 X.... Fuchsian Groups Revisited ..............I...................... The Circle Packing Trick ................................F...........I.............................. Index ............... 214 214 216 An Inequality ...................... Chapter X........ Fuchsian Groups of the Second Kind ............................................. VIII......D........ 299 311 Schottky Groups ............ Notes ....................F....... VIII.I....................................... 220 226 232 236 243 246 248 IX................. The Planarity Theorem .... VIII..C..... An Isomorphism Theorem .......... 217 B-Group Basics ........ VIII.............................. 282 291 Existence ............................ Bibliography .. IX........... X............... A Trip to the Zoo ........... Degenerate Groups ....................... IX.. Similarities and Deformations ...................... Signatures ...... B-Groups .................... 249 249 255 258 271 Panels Defined by Simple Loops ......J. IX........... IX.F.... Function Groups ...H..... 319 323 Special Symbols .................................. Simultaneous Uniformization ......... Miscellaneous Examples ....A.. 177 185 188 VIII...................................... Structure Subgroups ...........J... Similarities ................ Decomposition ....G..........C....................... IX.............................................. D........................E.....................................................Table of Contents XIII 171 171 175 Chapter VIII. 200 205 210 212 Chapter IX............................................. Exercises ..... X...... 324 ........................................G............................... VIII..D............... VIII................. X.............................................G.B..H.............. IX.........................A..... Notes ................................................... X......................... IX............................................ VIII. Rigidity of Triangle Groups .......B.....................

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C). We always regard 2 x 2 matrices as being in PGL(2. By making judicious use of our projectivizing factor t.A. Every g e M is either the identity. c. d are complex numbers and the determinant ad . Basic Concepts A. there is an isomorphism between M and PGL(2. We start with some notation. In this case our identification establishes an iso- . For the convenience of the reader. isometrics of hyperbolic spaces will be developed in Chapter IV. an easy calculation shows that composition of maps corresponds to multiplication of matrices. One usually thinks of the transformation g(z) as the matrix Ca db ). Every orientation preserving conformal homeomorphism of t is a fractional linear. More precisely. Q.1. b. I. From here on we regard the matrices (c and (tc td) d) as being the same. a transformation of the form g(z) = (az + b)/(cz + d). or has at most two fixed points. transformation..be 0 0. This transformation is unchanged if we multiply all four coefficients by the same number t # 0.Chapter I. we can ensure that the determinant ad . the projectivized group of non-singular 2 x 2 matrices with complex entries.e. The extended complex plane C U {cc } is denoted by t. or Mbbius. The point of view here is strictly one complex dimensional. i.be = 1. we start from scratch and derive the properties we need. We denote the group of all fractional linear transformations by M. Fractional Linear Transformations In this chapter we review the basic properties of fractional linear transformations. while of course the matrix is changed. where a.

b = 0. Separating this equation into its real and imaginary parts. We now have to solve the equation z = az + b.be = 1. we can also assume that d = 1. The fixed point set of a fractional reflection is either empty. one point. Combining these with the known fixed point at oo. two points. there are two ways to do this. Proof. we get two inhomogeneous linear equations in two unknowns.3. Setting the real part equal to zero. c db c ) and (-c are equal. Fractional Linear Transformations morphism between Rit and PSL(2. We now need to solve the equation 1z12 + dz .. that is.e. We leave it to the reader to work out the rules for translating composition in Q into multiplication of matrices. or a circle in C. Proposition. I A. i. the trace. but its square is.be 0 0. assume that c = 1. one point. We are primarily interested in conjugacy classes of subgroups of M. two points.2. There is no standard terminology in the literature for these transformations.4. As in the orientation preserving case. C). or a line. fractional reflections are somewhat more complicated. and we first assume that g(co) = oc. that c = 0. We next take up the case that c # 0. A. as elements of M. Using homogeneity. tr2(g) = (a + d)2. The trace is not well defined in tfl. Every non-trivial element of IO't has either one or two fixed points. or equivalently. or a circle. we will always write elements of M as matrices with determinant 1. Throughout this book. Every orientation reversing conformal homeomorphism of e is of the form g(z) = (az + b)/(cz + d). ad . so we can always assume that the determinant. Of course. C) there is essentially only one conjugation invariant function. we will call them fractional reflections (we reserve the word reflection for a fractional reflection with a circle of fixed points). but with determinant 1. The solution set is either empty. we obtain a fixed point set that is either one point. tr( ). We regard lines in C as being circles in C which pass through oo.2 1.az . the group of matrices as above. ad . We sometimes call the identity element of a group the trivial element. the coefficients are homogeneous. we get . In SL(2. unless specified otherwise. We denote the group of all fractional linear transformations and fractional reflections by FA. We write the fractional reflection as g(z) _ (az + b)/(cz + d). we write tr2(g) for the square of the trace of g. A.

then rL(z) = a + _p2 (z-a)' If L is the line passing through the point a. we need the corresponding result for circles. not necessarily of positive radius. in the direction arg(z) = 0. or empty. linear equation in two variables. then rL is also sometimes called inversion in L). then the reflection is given by rr. a line. The same argument shows that rL is unique. Then the conjugate point z* = rL(z) Proposition.7. Then r(w) = r o g(z) = g o rL o g-1 o g(z) = g o rL(z) = g(z*) = w*. A. Let r = g o rL o g' be the reflection whose fixed point set is the circle g(L). Then w = g(z) and w* = g(z*) are conjugate points with respect to the circle g(L).S.I. Let g e Q. Observe that ri is in M and has a circle of fixed points. r' is a fractional reflection whose fixed point set is L. A. Let L be a circle in it. It is easy to see that any point. a circle of fixed points. by A. Proof.2z. and let z and z* be conjugate points with respect to the circle L. r' = rL. this can only be a circle. and let z be a point not on L. Right now. Proof. Proposition.4. One easily sees that if g and r are any bijections of a space X. z -. Basic Concepts 3 a circle. All the different possibilities mentioned above do occur. we get one.-1/z have. then r' o rL is orientation preserving. If L is any circle in C. one fixed point. Then there is a unique fractional reflection rL whose fixed point set is L (the transformation rL is called the reflection in L. respectively.a) + a.A.z. In particular. Let L be a circle on C. hence r' o rL = 1. Setting the imaginary part equal to zero. and z . two fixed points. Proposition. Proof. its solution set is either the whole plane. A. . z .(z) = e2`°(z . then g(L) is again a circle. and no fixed points. For if r' is another reflection in L. then x is a fixed point of r if and only if g(x) is a fixed point of g o r o g'. The transformations z .z + 1. if L is a Euclidean circle. Since r' and rL are both involutions. and g is any element of IQ.6. If L is the Euclidean circle with center a and radius p. that is. g(L) is the fixed point set of go rL o g-' . perhaps inconsistent. or pair of points (or empty set) will serve as fixed point set for a fractional reflection. so it is the identity. and has a circle of fixed points.

The unique line between a point in C and the north pole passes through the 2-sphere at exactly one point. with f(zm) = wm. i.. oo. respectively. Let zt be the fixed point of the parabolic element g. Fractional Linear Transformations A. If g is parabolic with fixed point x =1 + px -px2 p 1 . z3 on Q' and any three other distinct points wt.px .2. it suffices to consider the case that wt = 0. this correspondence. The prototypic parabolic transformation is the translation z .e. defines stereographic projection (see also IV. If g has its fixed point at oc. Classification of Fractional Linear Transformations B. and its north pole at the point (0. We think of the 2-sphere as sitting in Euclidean 3-space with its south pole at the origin of the complex plane. and 1. z2. for if we also g in Rit with g(z. It is easy to see that a transformation of the form z --> az + 1 has no finite fixed point if and only if a = 1. w2. Then h = fog of -t has its only fixed point at oo. we can choose matrices for parabolic elements so that tr(g) = 2. then tri(g) = 4. 0.1). 2). there is an element Of course this transformation g is unique. Let f e RA map this triple of points onto oo. There is a bijective conformal map of the extended complex plane onto the 2-sphere known as stereographic projection.z + 1. Proposition.I.B.4 1. w3. then there is a unique complex Proposition. To prove the above statement. Proof. then we write 9=(0 number p 0 0 so that (I.) = have a fractional linear transformation f. w2 = 1. The action of h on d: is triply transitive. I. Every parabolic element of MI is conjugate to the translation z -+ z + 1.B.1) g 1). then f -t o g has at least three fixed points.9. Let z2 be some other point. El B.B. 0. A fractional linear transformation with exactly one fixed point is called parabolic. and maps 0 to 1. and so is the identity. If g is parabolic. In fact. and w3 = oo. and let z3 = g(z2). given any three distinct points zt. which has oc paired with the north pole. In this case. write g(z) = Z2-Z3Z-Zt Z2-Z1 Z-Z3 A.

We can always distinguish between the fixed points of a loxodromic transformation.oc for all z # 0. hence c = p. there is nothing intrinsic in the transformation g to distinguish between its fixed points. For the transformation g(z) = k2z. B. we have limy. we order the fixed points by imposing the requirement that k2 = ele.y. 0 is the repelling fixed point.3.1.4.I.px) _ (1 + px)z + b.-z (see D. then the multiplier is well defined only after we order the two fixed points.px. these include the hyperbolic transformations. . For all the other transformations with two fixed points. The equation for the fixed points. and commutes with z . then we can write g(z) = k2z. When these are different.3). There are two special types of such transformations. has x as its only solution.B.gm(z) .2) g(z) . We remark that (I. then we can write g in the form: z-x g(z) . 0 < B < n. where k = ± i. If g is elliptic. Write the diagonal terms as 1 + px and I . a transformation conjugate to a dilation is called hyperbolic. When k2 = . A 1.X (1. or half-turn. A transformation conjugate to a rotation is called elliptic. A > 0. notice that tr2(g) = (k + k-')'.. The number k2 is called the multiplier of g. then the two choices for the multiplier are k2 = eie and k2 = e-!e. In this form k2 is again called the multiplier. we can distinguish between the fixed points. We know that there is a unique matrix with determinant 1 and trace 2 representing g. 8. where Ik2I > 1. In fact. Similarly. one of them is attracting and the other repelling. We temporarily set aside the involution. the rotations of the form z -+ e'ez. call one of them x and the other Y. Our next goal is to write down normal forms for the transformations with two fixed points. 0 real. and vice versa. and b= -px2. z(cz + 1 . Write g _ l+px c b 1-px Since the determinant is 1. If the transformation g has fixed points at 0 and oo. If g has fixed points at two other points.y -2 k z . so 00 is the attracting fixed point. and y to oo. Note that the attracting fixed point of g is the repelling fixed point of g-'. be = -p2x2. Every fractional linear transformation with two fixed points is conjugate to one with fixed points at 0 and oo. k E C. such a transformation necessarily has the form z -+ k2z. A non-elliptic transformation with exactly two fixed points is called loxodromic. and note that these determine p.1) is called the normal form for a parabolic element with fixed point at x. the transformation z -+ 1/z interchanges 0 and co. Classification of Fractional Linear Transformations 5 Proof. e'° # 1. and the dilations of the form z -+ Az. We conjugate x to 0.

z + 1 and z . For every g e M. but the translation permutes the members of this family. up to multiplication by . and parameter np. choose k = i. and solve (1. It is easy to describe the action of the translation z . in this case the normal form is I. B. If g: 1.1) has the parameter p.3a) oc.yk xy(k . Easy computations involving the normal forms: z . unless g" is the identity. and are of the same type.7. with 0 5 tr2(g) < 4. (iv) tr2(g) is not in the interval [0. is symmetric in x and y.k2z.k) k-' If k2 = -1.1. but not hyperbolic. Proposition. If g has two fixed points and multiplier k2.3b) g _ k 0 x(k-' . then g" has the same two fixed points and multiplier ken. Both the type and trace are conjugation invariant.z + 1. so one expects that there is a relation between them. and g" = 1. (ii) W(g) = 4 if and only if g is either parabolic or the identity.k-')). oo) if and only if g is loxodromic.6 1. If x = oo. (i) Tr2(g) is real. g and g" have the same number of fixed points. then g is necessarily elliptic with multiplier of the form e'". (iii) tr2(g) is real and >4 if and only if g is hyperbolic. 4) g= 1 I x-y i(x + y) 2ixy -2i i(x+y) ) which. if x and y are both (I. . Every line parallel to the real axis is invariant under this action. if and only if g is elliptic. this is well defined up to multiplication by . g and g" have the same number of fixed points. then (1. and x and y are both 0 oo. The family of lines parallel to the imaginary axis is kept fixed as a family.5. Write k2 = k/k-'.k-1) k -k xk-yk-' . If one of the fixed points is at oo. In general.1.6.2) for g(z) to obtain the normal form (1 . Similarly. call the other one x. k 1. then g" is parabolic with the same fixed point. B. if g is parabolic and its normal form (I. to obtain the normal form in this case: (I .4a (i -2ix 13. yield the following. then (k-t 0 y(k and if y = oo. 3) g= x-y I (xk-' . Fractional Linear Transformations Choose a square root k of the multiplier.

but each arc between x and y of each of these circles is also kept invariant. there is the family of orthogonal trajectories to the first family. transforms these two families of circles into two families of circles related to x and Y. each circle of this family is invariant under the elliptic transformation. The circles centered at 0 are now each kept invariant. with each circle in the family being moved along by the transformation to another circle of this family. but each circle in this family is moved along by the transformation into another such circle. The family of orthogonal trajectories. each member of this family is kept invariant by the action. and if C is any circle which has x and y as conjugate points. there is the family of circles passing through x and y.B. but the roles of the families are interchanged. 8. that is. while the rays emanating from the origin are interchanged. An elliptic element of order 2 is called a half-turn. Classification of Fractional Linear Transformations 7 The general parabolic transformation with fixed point x has the same two families.B. The action of the dilation z -+ k2z. the element of M. The Euclidean rotation centered at 0 is of the form z . but no member of this family is kept invariant. This second family of circles is kept fixed as a family. which maps 0 to x and oo to y. The same two families of circles that were used to describe the dilation can also be used to describe the rotation. First. E is the family of circles for which x and y are conjugate points. 8.peiez. That is. p > 0.9. can also be described in terms of a pair of orthogonal families of circles. there is the family of horocycles. this is also a family of tangent circles at x. For the general elliptic transformation with fixed points at x and y. Again. this is a family of tangent circles at x.e" z. The general loxodromic transformation with fixed points at 0 and oa has the form z . not only is each such circle kept invariant by g.10. the family of circles passing through x and y is kept invariant as a family. is elementwise fixed. then C e E. Second. The lines . not only is each such line kept invariant by the transformation. For the general hyperbolic transformation g with fixed points x and y.I. the reflection in C interchanges x and y. k2 > 1. The second family of circles is the family of orthogonal trajectories to the first family. B. but each ray of each line is kept invariant. p # 1. then g keeps each circle passing through its fixed points invariant. We can describe this second family E by noticing that for each circle C e E. The hyperbolic transformation g moves each circle in E to another such circle. The fixed points cut each of these circles into two arcs that are interchanged by g. Note that if g is a half-turn. First. The family of circles centered at the origin is kept invariant as a family. The orthogonal trajectories to this family is the family of Euclidean circles centered at the origin. Each of these circles is mapped by the transformation into another circle in the same family. the family of circles for which x and y are conjugate points. The first family is the family of lines through the origin.

The elliptic transformation with fixed points at 0 and oo keeps every disc {IzI < a} invariant. We can assume that g has fixed points at 0 and co. hyperbolic. and both discs bounded by L. Just as lines in C are special cases of circles. We observed above that a Euclidean line through the origin is invariant under a loxodromic transformation g if and only if g is either hyperbolic or demi-hyperbolic. B. we will use the word "disc" to refer to a topological disc). but the two rays of the line are interchanged. I. or elliptic. The first exception. where L. so also half-planes are special cases of discs (in this chapter. Then there is a circle L through z.8 I. each line through the origin is kept invariant. Let g=(a b d) . A demi-hyperbolic transformation keeps every line through the origin invariant. In the demi-hyperbolic case.z + 1 keeps every half-plane Im(z) > a invariant. then we have in fact shown that there is a whole family of circles which bound invariant discs. when eie = 1. the hyperbolic case. The hyperbolic case is eliminated by hypothesis. The transformation g keeps some disc invariant if and only if tr2(g) >_ 0.11. when e'B = -1 is called demi-hyperbolic. Proof. has already been discussed. is also invariant. are invariant under g. but it interchanges the two rays of each line. Proposition. in general. then the circle on the boundary of the disc. Since it preserves orientation. but there are two exceptions. If g has an invariant disc. every disc is circular.C. Proposition. It remains to show that a transformation g which is loxodromic but not hyperbolic has no invariant disc. If g is parabolic. L passes through the fixed points of g. no one line is kept invariant. The parabolic transformation z . The second exception. Isometric Circles C. B.I. Since the iterates of a point on L accumulate to the fixed points of g. call it L. it keeps neither disc bounded by any of these lines invariant.12. Let g be an element of R with tr2(g) Z 0 and let z be a point which is not fixed by g. The hyperbolic transformation with fixed points at 0 and oo keeps every half-plane bounded by a line through the origin invariant. Fractional Linear Transformations through the origin are also kept invariant as a family. in later chapters.

and r and q are Euclidean motions. and its image I' is the isometric circle of g'. The last equality follows from the fact that q(I) and I' are both circles of the same radius. Since every element of RA is conjugate to one that does not fix oo. Then I is the set of points where Ig'(z)l = Icz + dl-2 = 1. that c 96 0. If r is orientation reversing. then it is necessarily elliptic. and that a' = a/c.I. then r(z) has the form (1. C. The point a = a(g) = g-' (co) is called the center of the isometric circle of g.ifa=x.6) are products of reflections. the family of Euclidean circles centered at a is mapped by g onto the family of Euclidean circles centered at a'. Isometric Circles 9 be some element of btl. 0 .6) In either case. r(z) = k2(z . If r preserves orientation. C3. Since p and q in the above are reflections.4). Proposition. Let q = q(g) be the Euclidean reflection in the perpendicular bisector of the line segment between a and cc. Similarly. the point x = Y (g) = g(oo) is the center of the isometric circle of g-'. and that a' = a(g°' ). note that a = -d/c. it suffices to show that the transformations (1. F. We could also have defined I by taking the derivative: g'(z) = (cz + d)-2.5) and (1. Iki = 1. Proposition. r is a Euclidean motion with fixed points at a' and oo.then q= 1. Set r=r(g)=go(gop)-'. Next observe that r-'(I') = qo pog-'(I') = qo p(1) = q(1) = 1'. We write it in the form (1. IkI=1.t is generated by reflections. The family of circles passing through a and oc is mapped by g onto the family of circles passing through oo and Y. This is left to the reader as an exercise. Every g e M with g(oo) # oo. That is. Proof. Hence the orthogonal trajectories to the first family are mapped by g to the orthogonal trajectories to the second. it suffices to consider only those transformations which do not fix oc. we assume throughout this section that g(oo) 0 ao.a') + a'.1 is called the isometric circle of g.C.2. or equivalently. Note that r-'(oo) = qopog-t(oo) = qo p(a) = q(cc) = oc. It is immediate from the way I and I' are defined that I' = 1(g'). There is a unique circle I = 1(g) in this first family which is mapped by g onto a circle of the same size.5) r(z)=k2(z-x)+a'. Also r-'(a') _ qo pog-'(a) = gopog-'(g(oo)) = gop(oo) = q(a) = a'. where p is reflection in the isometric circle of g. so we can write r(z) in the form (1. centered at Y. Let p = p(g) denote reflection in the isometric circle I of g. can be written in the form g = r o q o p. I and I' have the same radius p = Icl-'.

followed finally by the transla- tion z-z+a/c. diaE(T) = sup Ix . then z . Proposition. In particular. if tr2(g) > 0. and preserves both discs. We know that g has trace 0 if and only if g is a half-turn. and the transformation z -. If c = 0.10 1. This last expression can be read as writing g as a product of first the translation z .4. both of which are invariant under g. we denote the spherical diameter of T by dia(T). Conversely. if T is any set.1/z.Az.11. 0 real). We are primarily interested in the diameter of a set T c C.cI-2z.2. if r is trivial then the line passing through a and a' bounds two discs. where the supremum is taken over all pairs of points x. this is impossible since g is orientation preserving. Fractional Linear Transformations C. dilations (transformations of the form z .) of g(T) is the same as the size of p(T). If tr2(g) = 0. yeT. a e C). diameter. Proof. 0 < A < 1. Proof. C. rotations about the origin (transformations of the form z . L necessarily passes through a and a'. etc. Let g = r o q o p be as in C. then write g(z) = -1 Ic12 1 a CJ \Icl/2 z + d/c + c' where we have used ad .6.e'Bz. there is such a circle L passing through oo. followed by the dilation z . so g = p. which in turn occurs if and only if q = 1.yl. while p reverses orientation. which occurs if and only if g(oo) = g-t(oo). Reflections are orientation reversing. tr2(g) z 0. it is sometimes convenient to have a set of generators in M. If T c C. Hence r preserves L. To prove (ii). . and L passes through its fixed points. If c 0. Both discs bounded by L are invariant under both p and q. write g(z) in the form g(z) = Ialdlla/dl(z + b/a). At is generated by translations (transformations of the form z -+ z + a. or A > 1). then q = 1. Then (i) tr2(g) = 0 if and only if q = 1. we can regard C as the 2-sphere in Euclidean 3-space. the size (area. then there is an invariant circle bounding an invariant disc through every non-fixed point. 1/z. -(IcI/c)2z. Since r is a Euclidean rotation. then the Euclidean diameter. Using stereographic projection. and (ii) tr2(g) is real and positive if and only if r = 1. then the rotation z -. Proposition. Since r and q are both Euclidean motions. CS. r= 1.be = 1.z + d/c. Then by B.

Since g interchanges the fixed points of f. Proof. D. if two transformations both fix 0 and oo. Let b be the distance from at to T. but does not contain a = g-' (oo). there is nothing more to be said. the center of I. g] = 1. the isometric circle of g. .2.. We start with the observation that if [ f. Commutators D. we also have that g interchanges the fixed points of f.D. The second inequality follows from the fact that a lies in p(T). and let T be a closed set which may contain oo. we see that f is also parabolic with fixed point x. and let p be the radius of the isometric circle I of g. and Ip(z) . In the first case. In the second case. from which the first inequality follows. If we place one of the fixed points of f at 1. or else f interchanges these two points. g(z) = -z.al. then p(z) = p2/a = p2z/1212.D.3. The situation is slightly more complicated if g has two fixed points. Commutators 11 C. If g is parabolic with fixed point x. Then dia5(g(T)) < 2p2/8. Proposition. so z and p(z) both lie on the same ray through the origin. and if oo e T. D. p(z) and z both lie on the same ray emanating from a. then p2/6 5 diaE(g(T)). then similarly.a1. We normalize (i. conjugate by an appropriate element of 111) so that g(z) = k2z. If p(z) is reflection in the circle I z I = p. Of course. then fog of -' = g.I . so f keeps invariant the fixed point set of g. We summarize the above information in the following.e.7. where p is the radius of I.al = p2/Iz . Two non-trivial elements f and g of RA commute if and only if either (i) they have exactly the same fixed point set. and T lies outside the circle of radius b centered at a. Let x be the point of T which is closest to a. I. and each interchanges the fixed points of the other. Let g e Rc be such that g(oo) : oo. Proposition. These two transformations do commute. If p is reflection in 1.I. Thus p(T) lies inside the circle of radius p2/b centered at a.g] = f o g o f -tog-' = 1. Then 6 = Ix . Interchanging the roles of f and g. we observe that they generate a non-cyclic group of order four. or (ii) each is elliptic of order 2. then f(z) = 1/z. In this section we find all non-trivial solutions of the equation [f. with Ip(z)I = p2/Izl. then either f also fixes 0 and oo. then they commute. any two parabolic elements with the same fixed point commute. then f also has a fixed point at x.

Then write f = (0 t-1)' g = (0 abt)' and compute a If. Proof.I. A trans- formation with a circle of fixed points is a reflection. q2 is hyperbolic. Proposition. E. Write k = pe'B. we can conjugate by an element of M so that the fixed points of g are at 0 and oo.2.5. For our purposes here. the transformation is parabolic. has a line of solutions if and only if Iki = 1.4. z = kz. we also need sufficient conditions for the commutator of two elements to be parabolic. i. and so that the other fixed point of f is at 0.4. then g2 = 1. In addition to knowing when two elements commute. Fractional reflections are classified by the number of fixed points. If f has exactly two fixed points and f and g share exactly one fixed point. The converse to the above is false. for some k e C. Reflections were discussed in A.E. Write . Then g(z) = kz + 1. If g is semi-parabolic. E. Normalize the group generated by f and g so that the common fixed point is at oo. and observe that g2(z) = p2z. E. Then g(z) = kz..12 1. It is easy to see that the equation for the fixed points of g. Fractional Linear Transformations D. where k e C. For example. and so that g(0) = 1.e. then conjugate g by an element of R so that its fixed point is at x. g] is parabolic.I) 96 0.3. g] _ (0 t0 ) ab1) (tot (a0-1 tot) (0 ab -ab + t2ab 0 (I 1 Since ah(t2 .5. Fractional Reflections E. a transformation with no fixed points is semi-elliptic. set f= 1/2 0 0 _ (5/3 4/3 g 2)' 4/3 5/3)' I. a transformation with exactly two fixed points is semi-hyperbolic. it suffices to notice that if g is a reflection. a transformation with exactly one fixed point is semi-parabolic. If g is semi-hyperbolic. Hence Iki # 1. then the commutator If. D.

If g has no fixed points. E.z3. and so that g(oo) = 0.a)x . so g(z) = k/z. Since g has no fixed points. -fix + (I +a)y=0. then (g(x) . F. This yields the two equations (1 .I. Exercises 13 z = x + iy. If ge kvl.fly= 1. Combining the different cases above. b # 0. Then g(O) = oo.7.e.S.0. . the cross ratio is defined by continuity. Since this pair of equations can have no solution. g(x). We conclude that g2(z) = Ik2Iz + I + k = z + b. and x.Z4 Z3 .Z2. E.13-16). y.I.6. this exercise is left to the reader (F. IF. Let f=ra l\\ c d// ' g=1a' d') c' \ be matrices in SL(2.Z4 and if any one of them is infinite. g(y) are all different from oc. Q. and observe that g2(z) = e2'8z.F. g2 is parabolic. E. An element g E M has an orientation reversing square root in FA if and only if tr2(g) >. k = a + ifi. Proposition.. One can easily classify the fractional reflections up to conjugation in laA. we have shown the following. then conjugate g by an element of F 1l so that g2 has a fixed point at oo. If all the points are finite.g(Y))2 = g'(x)g'(Y)(x . Then tr(ig) + tr(fg-1) = tr(f) tr(g). i. Exercises F. and separate the equation for the fixed points of g into its real and imaginary parts. and k -1. where g' is the derivative of g.2.1 to prove that every g e AA preserves the cross ratio of any four distinct points of C. We conclude that g2 is elliptic except in the case that k is real and negative. Use the result of F. F.Z2 Z3 . arg k # 0.Y)2.Z4) _ Z1 . the cross ratio is defined by 21 . Write k = peie. 1k!2 = 1.Z2 (Z1. in which case g2 = 1.3.

F. If g is a half-turn.. distinct transformations of this form are not conjugate in Q. then the equation fog of -t = gk has a solution only if k = ± 1. F. Let { gm } be a sequence of loxodromic transformations in U with attracting fixed point xm. ym . Every g e RA has a square root in M.6.14 I. Every element of AA can be written as a product of at most four reflections. then the equation f o g of -t = gk always has a solution f in M. find all such solutions f. (b) Find all solutions for k = -1. (a) If g is parabolic. k > 1.C) representing g.5.16.8.kz.17. distinct transformations of this form are not conjugate in Q. and I' of g-t.4. Every element g e M with tri(g) >. Every semi-elliptic transformation is conjugate in ibl to one of the form z . (*) We use the old-fashioned notation A .11. Every reflection in FA is conjugate in FA to z -+ F. (a) If g e RA is loxodromic. F. Assume that xm -+x.y # x. then for any choice of matrix g" in SL(2. and Tm . The isometric circles I of g.g2 = -1.0 has infinitely many orientation reversing square roots.. F.eie/z. Every semi-hyperbolic transformation is conjugate in FA to one of the form z .12.i + 1.7. F. and k 96 0 is an integer.T. Every semi-parabolic transformation is conjugate in R`Fto z . F. they intersect in two points if 0 < Itr2(g)l < 4. F. 0 < 0 5 ir.14. Fractional Linear Transformations F.RA(*) can be written as a product of at most three reflections. F. Then there is a g e RA so that gm(z) -+ g(z) uniformly on compact subsets of C. repelling fixed point y. Every element of FA . they are tangent if jtr2(g)I = 4. F.9. are disjoint if Itr2(g)I > 4.B to denote the set theoretic difference between A and B. they are equal if tr2(g) = 0. F. . F. F. An element g e RA can be written as a product of exactly two reflections if and only if tri(g) > 0.13. (b) For a given k.10.15. and tr2(gm) = Tm.

II. The space of equivalence classes is denoted by Y/G. and is denoted by °Q = °Q(G). The set of points at which the action of G is freely discontinuous is called the free regular set. and fundamental domains. but is primarily concerned with discontinuous groups of fractional linear transformations acting on the extended complex plane.A.1. The set °S2 is clearly G-invariant.2. or equivalent under G. It is also an open subset of X. The neighborhood U is called a nice neighborhood of x. for all non-trivial g e G. Let X be a topological space and let G be a group of homeomorphisms of X onto itself. we will always denote both the original sequence and the subsequence by the same name. if there is a neighborhood U of x. including Jorgensen's inequality. A subset Y c X is G-invariant. that is. or invariant under G. in particular. A. The point of view here is primarily one complex dimensional. . as usual the topology on Y/G is defined by requiring that the natural projection p: Y -+ Y/G is both continuous and open. The group G divides any set Y on which it acts into equivalence classes. Several of the arguments in this and subsequent chapters involve subsequences. We say that the action of G at a point x e X is freely discontinuous. Discontinuous Groups A. A. real higher dimensional discontinuous groups will be discussed in Chapter IV. the limit set.4. Without further mention. x and y are G-equivalent. the Ford region.Chapter II. if U is a nice neighborhood. Another way of saying the same thing is to say that the translates of U by distinct elements of G (also called the G-translates of U) are disjoint. then every point of U lies in 12. A. if g(Y) = Y for all g e G. Discontinuous Groups in the Plane The chapter starts with a discussion of abstract discontinuous groups. so that g(U) fl u = 0. We discuss some inequalities.3. if there is a g e G with g(x) = y.

the closure of V. and all actions are actions on C. and oo. In this chapter we will be concerned primarily with Kleinian groups. A.7. We denote distance on S2 between points or sets by d(-. there is at most one translate of x in V. if necessary. we find the required neighborhoods. respectively. a C. x.. each point of °12 has a nice neighborhood which contains at most one translate of any point). unless specifically stated otherwise. and. C/G is a fairly terrible space. Area. and it is often desirable to have some points conveniently located. Diameter. The process described above is called normalization.I. we can regard the extended complex plane as being the 2-sphere S2. so inside a bounded portion of the plane. and let h e M map each zm onto the corresponding xm. are at the specified points {xm} of C. H. For each g e G with g(U) fl V * 0. Discontinuous Groups in the Plane A.e. 1. so that g(U) fl v = 0 for all g e G. We can choose up to three points zm. and we denote the area of a (measurable) set X by meas(X). We are primarily interested in properties of Kleinian groups that are invariant under conjugation in M. For our purposes. Proposition. ).16 11. we denote the spherical diameter of a set X by dia(X). Since V is nice. located with respect to G. The three specified points of C are usually 0. A subgroup G c AA whose action is freely discontinuous at some point z e C is called a Kleinian group. stereographic projection has bounded distortion of distances. normalized so that the given points {zm) defined with reference to G. In general. hence the spherical diameter of any sequence of them tends to zero.. Since the translates of x cannot accumulate at any point of °Q (i. Let x and y be inequivalent points of °Q. the spherical metric and the Euclidean . only finitely many translates of U intersect V. there is a smaller nice circular neighborhood U' of x with g(U') fl V = 0. After a finite number of such steps. it makes no difference whether we use the actual distance on the sphere or the chordal metric.. and V of y. Except near oc. Instead of referring to the group hGh't. but °Q/G is rather nice. we will refer to this group as being the same group G. also choose an equal number of convenient points.5.6. We need to find neighborhoods U of x. Using stereographic projection. We start by choosing U and V to be disjoint nice circular neighborhoods of x and y. all groups are subgroups of M. °Q/G is a Hausdorff space. Since the G-translates of U are disjoint circular discs. A. and Convergence B. the sum of their spherical areas is less than the area of the 2-sphere. we make V smaller so that no translate of x lies in V. Proof.B.

4. If x e °Q. Let U be a nice neighborhood of a point z e °Q. that is.7. Since g(U) is a circular disc contained in the complement of U. If x e °Q(G). there is a constant K > 0. Since U is nice.B. Since the translates of U are all disjoint. Then p.2) meas(g(U)) K-' dia' g(U). given the bounded set U. Proof. Let be a sequence of distinct elements of the Kleinian group G. the radius of I is Ic1 '. ) and write Y to denote summation over all elements of G. a = g-'(x) 0 U. Every Kleinian group is countable. Theorem. W. From I. there is a constant K > 0. Write the generic element of a Kleinian group G as g= c db ). and Convergence 17 metric are equivalent.6. Diameter. K-'Ix .yl S d(x. Corollary. we have (11.y)sKIx-yl. B.. Choose a nice neighborhood U of co of the form {zf Iz1 > p} U {oo}. then Y' ICI-4 < x. and z is a point of °Q which is not G-equivalent to oo. Then Y_ meas(g(U)) < x. the Euclidean distance from a to U. we can assume that b. Combine B. so that for all x. and let pm be the radius of the isometric circle of g. ye U. is positive. Proposition.2) to obtain ICI-4S bz diaE(g(U)) < Kp2 Y' meas(g(U)) < oo. in fact.1) and (11. -+ 0. Corollary. 13 B. B. where oo a °Q. We formally state this below.3. then Ig'(Z)1` < oc. Corollary. so that (11.2. the sum of the (spherical) areas of the translates of U is finite. we also use ' ( to denote summation over all non-trivial elements of G.5.3 with (II. B. Let G be a Kleinian group. ..1) diaE(g(U)) ? ICI-26-1..II. Note that b < p. and let U be a nice neighborhood of some point z e °Q. Let a be the center of the isometric circle I of some non-trivial element g e G. B.C. Area..

defined by saying that a sequence {gm} of elements of K converges to g e NCO if there are representative matrices in SL(2. converges.S. og. C.G. Let G be a discrete subgroup of ADO.18 11. so that each entry in g`. there is some S > 0. either there are infinitely many of the gm with gm(z) = z. Proposition. a Proof. Proposition.z + 1. Normalize G so that g is either z . Let G be a Kleinian group. Since G is not discrete. Then for every g=(a d)eG.3. with gm . Proof. there is a sequence of elements { gm } of G converging to some element g e M. as complex numbers.2. Let go = g. to the corresponding entry in g. O II. C. c either c = O. Proof.. Since z E °Q. so that Iz-g-t(oo)l>6forallgEG. Q C. Discontinuous Groups in the Plane Proof. C.Then Y Lq"(z)12 Icz + dl-4 = Y lcl 4lz + d/c1-4 :5 6-4 Y ICI -4. or l cl >_ 1. or there are infinitely many translates of z in every neighborhood of z.1.t converges to the identity. Then G is a discrete subgroup of M. The converse to the above is false. Then there is a sequence of distinct elements of G converging to the identity. Assume there is a g e G with 0 < lcl < 1.C. Proposition. In either case. and inductively define gm by gm+t = gm of o gm'. In either case. C). respectively. or of the form z .1. and is not G-equivalent to oc. This topology is equivalent to the topology defined by uniform convergence on compact subsets of C. Let G be a non-discrete subgroup of M. Suppose not. Inequalities for Discrete Groups C. z # °Q. Then there is a sequence { gm } of distinct elements of G. The proposition below is sometimes known in the literature as the ShimizuLeutbecher lemma. gm and g.k2z. Write .4. Some examples will be constructed in VI11. Hence for every point z e C. one easily sees that gm+. The group M has a natural topology. so gm(z) -+ z for every z. where G contains f(z) = z + 1..

.. and g does not keep invariant the fixed point set off Then (11. and will not be discussed here. g> is not discrete. If necessary. c. by <A. and a. B..3) Itr2(f) . Inequalities for Discrete Groups 19 and compute am+1 = I .amcm 2 bm+1 = am cm+1 = cm z dm+l = I + amcm. where f is loxodromic and f and g have exactly one fixed point in common. are elements of G.7.. and a. that is. .. then Jorgensen's inequality reduces to the Shimizu-Leutbecher lemma.4. B. An easy induction argument shows that laml and I dmI are both bounded by K Y 10.41 + Itr[f. hence cm -+0.1. and so that the second fixed point of f is at 0. ). Theorem (Jorgensen [36]). Write f=(k 0) 0 k_1 IkI > 1..II.. If f is parabolic.. then <f. c. Hence {gm} has a convergent subsequence. are subgroups of G. Normalize G = <f..D. c.. a. Proof.. b. We are now in a position to prove the generic case of Jorgensen's inequality. In general.6. {bm}. .. and {dm} are all bounded.212! 1. O C. b. Let f and g generate a discrete subgroup of M. . {cm}.g] . b.. By I. J=o 2- where K = max(lal. C. . in fact gm -+ f. if G is a group where A. we assume that f is loxodromic. . It follows that Icml = Icl2'". replace f by f -1. If f and g are non-trivial elements of I@A. The case where f is elliptic requires more refined techniques.. Proposition.. C. it suffices to assume that g is parabolic.C. g= and compute f-mogo fm = 1 bk -Zm 1 0 l-.1). C. C.g) so that the common fixed point of f and g is at oo. f and g do not share a common fixed point... so that oo is the attracting fixed point off. where f is loxodromic. We conclude that {am}. B. then we denote the subgroup of G generated by A..

so g o f o g-' has a fixed point in common with f.bmcmk-'. we cannot have d = 0. recursively define gm+t = gm of o g.bmcmk. which we have also ruled out. c and d are all 00. Since G is discrete.21 = 12ad .k-'12 < amlbcl(l + amlbcl)Ik . and Itr[f. we choose the inverse matrix to represent f -'.21 = IbcI Ik . Ikl> 1. First. dm+t = amdmk-' . Set go = g. Similarly. and that 1 bmcm 1 < xm I bcl.k-'12. if a = 0. We compute Itr2f-41=1(k+k-')2-41=1k-k-'12.k). (11.k-'12 < am+' lbcl.k-'). write am bm gm = cm dm and observe that am+.k-'I2 = IbmCmlll + bmcmI Ik . and assume a < 1. . Form = 0. Our first goal is to prove that am.k-'I2 <.k-'12 < xmIbcI(1 + Ibcl)lk . or c = 0 implies that f and g have a common fixed point.20 II.4) bm+I = ambm(k-' . cm and dm are all $0. Set a=Itr2(f)-41+Itr[f. Likewise b = 0. there is nothing to prove. we have specifically ruled this out.g] . bm. We compute Ibm+ICm+11= Iambmcmdml Ik . Cm+I = Cmdm(k . then g(co) = 0. b.(k2 + k-2)bc . this can occur only if g o f o g-' and f have the same fixed points. which in turn can occur only if g(0) = oc. = amdmk . Normalize G = <f g> so that f=(o k-. g] is well defined by the convention that whatever matrix we choose to represent f. Observe that a. Discontinuous Groups in the Plane Before going on to the proof of this theorem.g]-21=(1 +Ibcl)Ik-k-'12.).Ibmcml(1 + Ibmcml)Ik . we remark that tr[ f. g=(a d).'.

=fmogol-m= (c'' where a' = a. Observe that a' = a. since f is loxodromic. The next lemma asserts that for m sufficiently large. 0 II.B. A point x is a limit point for the Kleinian group G if there is a point z e °Sl. and d there is an integer m so that 0.IkI2m+2/Icl < IkI2. and cm+t are different from zero follows from (11. and dm+.4). this cannot occur.k) . and the induction hypothesis. b' = bk2m. If we knew that bm and cm were bounded. c' = ck-2m.. we could extract a convergent subsequence. Choose m so that Ikl2m 5 ICI 5 S IkI2. let gm be the element obtained from gm using C. Ic'I 5 1k12.H.bmCmk = k-' + bmcm(k-' . and Ib'I = Ibk2m1 <. For m sufficiently large.D. By (11. and I be l < I k 12. Then g. We first observe fro (11.9. Suppose f_ k 0 0 k-'). dm+1 = (I + bmcm)k-t . The set of limit points is called the limit set.. Since I bmcml . = 0 if and only if dm+t = 0. we can have am+. we can conjugate gm by some power of f so as to achieve this result.4). contradicting the assumption that G is discrete.0.x.D.k'. b. Since am = am and d. with gm(z) . the elements gm are all distinct. = dm. Proof.B. . Ibmcml < IkI2. this can occur only if k° = 1. and d' = d. and d' = d. c. C.5) that there is a subsequence {gm} where the {am} are all distinct. Hence am+.S) am+t =(I +bmcm)k-bmcmk-' =k+bmcm(k-k-) 4k. Also (II. we can extract a subsequence { g. are both 0. Since the entries in the matrices representing g. and there is a sequence {gm} of distinct elements of G. That bm+. where a. The Limit Set D. we can choose a convergent subsequence. Ikl > 1. . The case that Ibl > Ik12 is treated analogously. and is denoted by A = A(G). Then Ic'I = Icl > IkI2. O C. Assume first that Ick-2m1 IkI2m+2. Ib'I 5 1k12. } of distinct elements of G. are uniformly bounded. Lemma. We now complete the proof of Jorgensen's theorem. and g = (c d) are elements of a subgroup G of M. The Limit Set 21 As we saw above.I. a' b' d.

Theorem.x uniformly on compact subsets of C .{ y}. and we might have a subsequence with gm(y) w # x.2. As in I.3. y is clearly a limit point. call it x. In the latter case. if { gm } is a sequence of distinct elements of G. Let {gm}' be a sequence of distinct elements of the Kleinian group G.G.2. We also might have a subsequence with gm(y) . and there are limit points x and y so that gm(z) -+ x uniformly on compact subsets of C .6. hence A is G-invariant.' tends to 0. G-invariant. Normalize G so that oo E °Q. and q and r are Euclidean motions. By definition. that is. there is a point zo E °Q. It follows from the above that the definition of a limit point depends only on the sequence of elements of the group.2. . p D. p D.'(oo) converges to y. and choose a subsequence { gm } so that gm(oo) converges to some point. we say that y is a point of approximation. and gm(zo) -+ x for some zo E °Q. Theorem. with gm(z) -+ x. A is nowhere dense. and let g c.{ y}. and there is a sequence {gm} of distinct elements of G.2 gives no information about the point y. Proof.22 tt. The result now follows from the following observations: the center of the isometric circle of gm tends toy. Normalize G so that zo = oo. and there is a sequence { gm } of distinct elements of G.B. Theorem. These points will be explored further in VI. Since x is a limit point. D. and not on the point in °Q. Proof. then there is a subsequence so that gm(z) x. We remark that D. Now use D. Then there is a limit point y. there are points of °Q in any neighborhood of x e A. A is closed.C. Since x is a limit point. write each gm as r o q o p. Now choose a subsequence so that am = y. Discontinuous Groups in the Plane Since every neighborhood of a point of A contains infinitely many translates of some point. and nowhere dense in C. the common radius of the isometric circles of gm and gp. Let x E A(G). Proof. and so that g. D. so that gm(z) . for all z e °Q. the center of the isometric circle of g. Let x be a limit point of the Kleinian group G. so that x. other than the fact that y is a limit point. Then g o gm(z) g(x). where p is reflection in the isometric circle of gm. We might have y = x. gm maps the outside of its isometric circle onto the inside of the isometric circle of its inverse. Then there is a subsequence {gm}.4. there is a sequence {gm } of distinct elements of G. D.5. Since A fl °Q = 0.x. and there is a point z e °Q.' tends to x. A fl °Q = 0.

and is denoted by Q = Q(G). then the stabilizer of Yin G. Assume that A contains at least three points.k(z) -. Let 6m be the minimal distance from xm to any other xj. we can find a single point z in °Q. then it is perfect. Then {gm. In the special case that Y= {x}. E.x. The Partition oft 23 To show that A is closed.) .k(m)(Z). For any limit point x. and there are two distinct limit points x 1 and x2. D. In general.} of distinct elements of G.2. Proof.E for more information about limit sets of non-elementary Kleinian groups. Note that Stab(Y) is always a subgroup of G. We say that G acts discontinuously at x e X if there is a neighborhood U of x. The Partition of C E.k(m)} is a sequence of distinct elements of G. We can assume without loss of generality that the xm are all distinct and different from x. D. See V. Theorem. xm) < Sm/2. a single point.2.X. For each m.E. either gm(x1) # x. If A contains more than two points. In particular. A Kleinian group whose limit set consists of at most two points is called an elementary group. choose k(m) so that d(gm. so that gm. with gm. let {xm} be a sequence of points of A. Using D. then Stab(x) is just the set of elements of G which have a fixed point at x.8. and we can find sequences {gm. if the group G acts on the space X. Also. a set S is perfect if every point of S is a point of accumulation of other points of S.E.. a set Y is G-invariant if and only if Stab0(Y) = G. and there is a ye A. or just Stab(Y) if there is no danger of confusion. the others are called non-elementary. denoted as StabG(Y). II. for all z 0 y. is defined by Stab6(Y) = {geGIg(Y) = Y}. with gm(z) -4 x.X. and Y c X. or regular set.k(m)(z) .. . there is a sequence {gm} of distinct elements of G. and gm(x2) . We continue with the abstract setting.I. not necessarily distinct from x.II. there is such a sequence. so that g(U) fl u = 0 for all but finitely many g e G. with xm x. Hence there is a sequence of distinct limit points converging to x. The set of points at which G acts discontinuously is called the set of discontinuity. so that gm(x. or gm(x2) # x.x. It is a standard fact about Euclidean space that a perfect subset of the plane (or Euclidean space of any dimension) is not countable. For each m.7. In general.

where w and y are both limit points. so gm(zm) -' w: i. so that g(U) fl u # 0 only for g e H. We now leave the general setting. and (ii) g(Y) fl Y = 0 for all g E G . Proof. then any neighborhood U of z contains infinitely many translates of some point. there are infinitely many translates of U which intersect U. even more simply. there is a subsequence with gm(z) -. . the connected components of 0 are called the components of G. If z is a limit point. then the points {zm} do not accumulate at y. if (i) H = StabG(Y). if x # y. Since every such neighborhood contains a circular neighborhood with the same properties. ES. and gm(zm) -+ x. If x = y. Then n g(U). so there are infinitely many distinct elements g E G with g(U) fl u # 0. Where there is no danger of confusion.H. If Stab(x) is finite and U is precisely invariant under Stab(x).e. Q will have many connected components. For any Kleinian group G. A neighborhood U of a point x E Q is a nice neighborhood if U is precisely invariant under Stab(x). x = w E A. Now assume that x 0 Q. By D.6. A point x e Q(G) if and only if (i) Stab(x) is finite. for the rest of this chapter we assume that G is Kleinian. G has at most countably many components.4. we say that a set Y is precisely invariant under the subgroup H in G. In general. where the intersection is taken over all elements of H. Since Q is open. Then for every neighborhood U of x.. we will simply say that Y is precisely invariant under H. E. or. Proposition. then xeA. we will usually assume that nice neighborhoods are circular. is a neighborhood of x which is precisely invariant under H. and (ii) there is a neighborhood U of x which is precisely invariant under Stab(x). then of course g(U) fl u # 0 only for the finitely many elements of Stab(x). Note that x e °Q if and only if there is a neighborhood U of x which is precisely invariant under the identity in G.24 11.5. we can find a perhaps smaller neighborhood which we still call U. and we can find a sequence of points {zm } so that zm -. E. then H = Stab(x) is surely finite. If G acts discontinuously at x. x. Discontinuous Groups in the Plane E. E.. w uniformly on compact subsets of the complement of y. Since g(U) fl u # 0 for only finitely many g e G. C is the disjoint union of A and S2.7. Proof.3. that Y is precisely invariant. Hence we can rind a sequence of distinct elements { gm } of G. In general. Theorem. Hence Q fl A = 0.

..x. If there is a sequence {g. Proposition.. we lay the analytic foundation for the connection between Kleinian groups and Riemann surfaces. zm. Corollary..(y) -+ x.. then x for all zEQ(G).F.10. that is. F. Let {zm} be a sequence of points of Q . and so that gm(z) -i. The foundation for the connection between Kleinian groups and 3-manifolds appears in chapter IV.. Then.. hence gm(z) .°Q is the fixed point of an elliptic element of G.'. the composite of one of these homeomorphisms. E. where every s E S has a neighborhood U. a single Riemann surface is also a (disconnected) Riemann surface. Riemann Surfaces 25 E. Of course.(y) lies inside the isometric circle of g.°Q is a discrete subset of Q.. when defined. and there is a point y in Q(G) with g.2. and an associated homeomorphism ': U -. we will not distinguish between U and . S is a connected Hausdorff space.8.°Q. that is. for any z e 0. More recently the connections with hyperbolic 3-manifolds have been extensively studied by Thurston and others.F. Since y e Q. or w = x.°S2. For each m. Kleinian groups were studied because of their connection with Riemann surfaces.. is holomorphic. there is a non-trivial element g. Normalize G so that oo c.I. such an object is called a (disconnected) Riemann surface. the center of the isometric circle of g. e Stab(zm). Proof.x. Classically.(z) lies inside the isometric circle of gm'.II./i(U). Choose a subsequence so that zm -+ w. Every point of 0 .C. Q . Since the radii of the isometric circles tends to zero.. y lies outside almost all the isometric circles of the Then g. Riemann Surfaces F. and g. . in either case.' converges to x. Since each g. wE A. A Riemann surface S is a connected 1-dimensional complex manifold. We need a word for the disjoint union of at most countably many Riemann surfaces. so g.9. In order to do local complex analysis. the topological foundation appears in the next chapter. either w = y. with the inverse of another.x uniformly on compact subsets of C . Proposition. II. The homeomorphism ay is called a local coordinate at s. where. we will regard O(U) as being the neighborhood of s. we can choose a subsequence so that the are all distinct. °Q is dense in C.(y) . In this section. Since E.} of distinct elements of the Kleinian group G. has at most two fixed points... z lies outside almost all the isometric circles of the g.. Proof..{ y}.

F. according as the universal covering surface is respectively the sphere. each special point x. is homeomorphic to an annulus. also (the uniformization theorem) every simply connected Riemann surface is conformally equivalent to either the sphere. the interior of U. a Riemann surface by definition has no boundary. or the punctured plane. parabolic. Every Riemann surface is orientable and triangulable. likewise. Every Riemann surface with cyclic fundamental group is conformally equivalent to either the punctured disc. or onto the punctured plane.. a set of the form {zI0 < r. and maps the closure.. A Riemann surface homeomorphic to a compact 2-manifold without boundary is closed. these are called Riemann surfaces of finite type). is either an integer > 2. The complement of the special points on S is denoted by °S.e.S. 5 Izl 5 r2 < oc}).. then a.4. We will also need the following corollary of the uniformization theorem. or hyperbolic. if ate. {zI0 < IzI < co}.. aU.e.. an annulus (i. homeomorphically onto a closed annulus (i. with or without boundary. A marked (disconnected) Riemann surface is a (disconnected) Riemann surface S with a discrete set of special points picked out on it. or hyperbolic. or the disc..26 11. is marked with a symbol a. A marked Riemann surface is elliptic. according as its branched universal covering is the sphere.F). Each marked Riemann surface has a simply connected branched universal covering. The disjoint union of at most finitely many closed Riemann surfaces is a closed (disconnected) Riemann surface. {zI0 < Izi < 1}. As opposed to real 2-dimensional manifolds. F. the disjoint union of at most finitely many topologically finite Riemann surfaces is a topologically finite (disconnected) Riemann surface. A Riemann surface homeomorphic to the interior of a compact 2-manifold. We will need the following facts about Riemann surfaces. In a compact 2-manifold. then the point x. every connected component W of the boundary has a regular neighborhood U.. where each a. Discontinuous Groups in the Plane Two (disconnected) Riemann surfaces are conformally equivalent if there is a biholomorphic homeomorphism between them. We say that is the order. or the disc (see III. the (complex) plane. Thus every boundary component of a topologically finite Riemann surface has a regular neighborhood which is conformally equiv- . the homeomorphism extends continuously to the boundary. or branch number of are sometimes also called 2-orbifolds. parabolic. {z I Izi < 11. One of the basic facts in complex analysis is that there is no holomorphic homeomorphism from the punctured disc onto any annulus. F. a set of the form {z10 < r. where 0..3. = oo. One basic classification of Riemann surfaces is into the three categories: elliptic. is called topologically finite (in some of the literature. where if a. the plane. is the branch number at x. the plane or the disc. is simply deleted from the marked surface. U. < oo. or the symbol Marked Riemann surfaces oo. < Izi < r2}).

) = 1(22). This particular representation makes S into a marked (disconnected) Riemann surface. by I. J is cyclic. Let b be a boundary component of the topologically finite (disconnected) Riemann surface S. If there is a neighborhood of b conformally equivalent to an annulus. two points z.4. Once we have chosen p-' (p(z)). Let G be a Kleinian group. and let S = S2/G.7. neighborhoods which exclude the image of the origin. so that no translate of U intersects V.e. Then S = Q/G is a (disconnected) Riemann surface. m = 1_. of x and y. F. that is. We need to show that if x and y are inequivalent points of 0. and z2 of U are J-equivalent if and only if f(z. and using Liouville's theorem. every non-trivial element of J is elliptic.II.F. or we say that b corresponds to a removed disc. Normalize so that z = 0 and z' = oc.°Q. The special points are the projections of the elliptic fixed points in Q. Then the elements of J are of the form z -+ e2X'M Z. then we say that b bounds a disc in the complement of S. and V of y. the punctured plane can be eliminated by making the regular neighborhood smaller. then we say that b corresponds to a puncture on S. Proof. which is covered once. . if the neighborhood is conformally equivalent to the punctured disc. where f covers its image n times. or we say that S is punctured at b. whose projections are disjoint. only finitely many translates of U' can intersect V'. then p. Let S be a topologically finite (disconnected) Riemann surface. Riemann Surfaces 27 alent to either a punctured disc or an annulus. n}. The boundary components of L/G that are punctures are the special points of order oo. Since pI U is injective. Theorem. it serves as a local coordinate. The image of U under f is again a disc centered at the origin. aG o o ' is an element V' is the required local homeomorphism. The order at the special point x = p(z) is the order of Stab(z). If U and U' are two such neighborhoods which overlap.6. we can choose smaller neighborhoods U and V. Since U' and V' are in Q. so does S. The function f(z) = z" serves as a projection map from U to U/J. then there are neighborhoods U of x. on the overlap of 0 F. We first show that S is Hausdorff. respectively. is just an element of G. Here. the proof is essentially the same as that given in A.D. and let J = Stab(z). Since G has at most countably many components. Since J is finite. so that J = {z -+ e2R'mt"z. and V'. Let G be a Kleinian group. where defined.. Let z e 0 . i. S is analytically finite (or sometimes simply finite) if every boundary component of S has a regular neighborhood conformally equivalent to the punctured disc. except at the origin. let U be a nice neighborhood of z. Let U be a nice neighborhood of such a point z. Since J is finite.. the inverse function qt(s) = of G. there is a common denominator n.op. p-' is well defined on p(U). Similarly. Choose nice neighborhoods U'. the elements of J all have a second fixed point z' in common. On f(U).6. There is no difficulty describing the complex structure at a point of Q.

It will always be clear from the context whether we regard a path. where RIG is a finite Riemann surface. or Jordan curve. or a path where each endpoint is either a special point or a point of some other element of F. and w is locally a homeomorphism of I onto its image. However we require that it can be well defined. (ii) Every compact subset of S meets only finitely many elements (i. and loops. A dissection F of a marked Riemann surface S is a finite or countable collection of proper arcs. or is a point of some other element of F (An endpoint of a proper arc on the boundary of S need not be well defined. and R and d are both G-invariant.) If every connected component of S . or a proper arc. (i) Every connected component of S .. let R be a connected G-invariant subset of Q. curves. An arc is defined almost identically. we leave it to the reader to supply the necessary definitions.R is discrete in A. as a map or as a point set. F. paths. the image of I has measure zero. The arc w is proper if the map w is proper. homeomorphic to an open subset of (C). and curve almost interchangeably. for example.9. the difference can only be a finite set of points. The preimage of a finite set of points in d is of course discrete. Let G be a Kleinian group. (The converse to this statement is false. We think of all of these objects: arcs. except for the fact that w agrees at the endpoints of I.F is planar (i. The important finiteness theorem of Ahlfors asserts that if G is finitely generated. we will use the words arc. Since RIG is already a finite Riemann surface. b] is a closed finite interval. F. where I = [a. Since R c d. obtained by identifying the map with its image. a simple loop is also sometimes called a simple closed curve. . The path w is a loop if w(a) = w(b). they have the following meanings.e. where each endpoint either lies on the boundary of S. The loop w is simple if.A. arcs. Discontinuous Groups in the Plane The Kleinian group G is analytically finite if S = Sl/G is a finite marked (disconnected) Riemann surface. Proposition. paths and loops on S with the following properties.10. and loops) of (iii) Every element of F meets every other element of F in at most finitely many points. there is a conformal embedding of RIG into A/G.9. except that the interval I may be half-open.28 II. see VIII. path. then the dissection is full. Proof.) F. A path or curve is a continuous map w: I -' S. Then the set of points of A . both as maps and as point sets.. w is injective. and let d be the component of G containing R. then it is analytically finite.e. or open.8. or is a special point. Throughout this book. The arc or path w is simple if the map w is injective. (iv) Every element of F is either a simple loop.F is simply connected. paths.

is g'. Also (s')' = s. there is a g e G. For analytic purposes. the sides of D accumulate only at limit points. that is. in general. with g(z) e b. it would be a burden to require this. Let D = D fl Q. is to draw a picture of DIG which somehow illustrates the action of G. a Kleinian group. in some sense. Let D* be D factored by this equivalence relation. from s' to s. that no two points of D are G-equivalent. G. A fundamental domain D for the Kleinian group (or discontinuous subgroup of a) G is an open subset of Q satisfying the following. and there is a side pairing transformation g. with g(s) = s. The identifications of the sides induce an equivalence relation on B. then the spherical diameter. and the side pairing transformation. with g(s) = s'. g2 = 1.G. g-' = g.G. but for some situations. an equivalent statement is that Sl c U g(D). The closest we can come to this. G. G. if x and y lie on sides of D.I. that is. (iii) The boundary of D consists of limit points of G. Note that if there is a sides. we define several different objects. . An interior point is equivalent only to itself. There is no one concept which works well for all purposes. not necessarily distinct from s. dia(sm) . where the union is taken over all elements of G. G. in Q. (v) If {sm} is a sequence of sides of D. if s is a side of D. and a finite or countable collection of curves. (vi) Only finitely many translates of D meet any compact subset of Q.4. except perhaps for one or both of its endpoints. Fundamental Domains 29 II.6. with g(x) = y. Fundamental Domains G. contains one point from each equivalence class in S2.S. (iv) The sides are paired by G. one usually only requires that the 2-dimensional measure of a7D be zero.2. then x and y are equivalent. then there is a side s'. and there is a non-trivial element g E G. called a side pairing transformation. illustrates the topology of Q/G.0. that the projection map p is injective on D. The first condition says that D is disjoint from all its translates. equiv- alently. which. For aesthetic reasons. one would like the sides of D to be circular arcs. The second condition says that p maps D fl Sl onto DIG. roughly speaking. the intersection of the curve with Q is called a side of D. or. and side pairing transformation g. then since the side pairing transformation from s' to s is g'.3. or describe. each curve lies. G. and which. (i) D is precisely invariant under the identity in G. or equivalently.II. One cannot easily draw a picture of. (ii) For every z e 0. The usual picture is given by a fundamental set or fundamental domain.

G. In this case. Then choose p. so that the ball of radius p about x is a nice neighborhood of x. and which also lies inside the disc of radius p. restricted to the projection of U U U'. and choose y. Note that Visa neighborhood of x. The endpoints of the sides that lie in 0 are called vertices. Theorem. or to any other fixed point of g. and x is equivalent only to itself. Q/G is a homeomorphism. Hence the projection p provides a natural map of D* into Q/G: we call this map tp. Since s divides V into two parts. Let V = U U g(U). which also lies in U. and the path connecting them. This is an immediate consequence of condition (vi. Let V = U U g-' (U'). where s and s' both lie on the boundary of the same local component of D near x (see K. Since D is open. except that we choose y2 = g(y. and y2 on s. inside D. is equivalent only to g(z).) G. let S be the minimum distance from x to any vertex of D. For each vertex x. ). there is a unique other side s. or to any limit point of G. let 8(8') be the minimum distance from x(x') to x'(x).s are G-equivalent. V is a nice neighborhood of x. V is a nice neighborhood of x. Choose some number p < min(S. or to any vertex of D. except for x. We know that every point of D n u. The sides of D are also paired at the vertices. where y. Condition (ii) states that tp is surjective. is a homeomorphism. Lemma. or to any limit point of G. If x' j4 x. or to any fixed point of g. By condition (v). The points of u fl D are equivalent only to themselves. Connect y. and side s ending at x. If x is an interior point of a side s. Then V is a precisely invariant neighborhood of x. this defines a neighborhood U' of x' in D. Choose points y. S and 6' are both positive.B. except for its endpoints. tp I D is a local homeomorphism.30 11. Let x' = g(x). Also. and y2 lie on different sides of x on s. or D n U'. and a side s'. Since no two points of V . with g(x) = y. every point of s fl U is equivalent only to the corresponding point of s' fl U'. one of which is precisely invariant under the identity. Proof. each point z of s fl U. then g2 = 1. This path defines a neighborhood U of x in D. Similarly choose a path connecting 9(Y 1) to g(y2). and condition (i) states that tp. 8')/2. If x is an interior point of s. This again defines a neighborhood U of x in D. no two points of V are G-equivalent.7. and since V is contained in the ball of radius p. Hence tp. is equivalent only to itself. and g(x) = x. and y2. to: D* -. so that g(s) = s'. If x is a point of D'. then there is a side pairing transformation g. It follows that tpI U is a homeomorphism. then there are at most finitely many points of D equivalent to x. O Proof. when restricted to D. Discontinuous Groups in the Plane Observe that x and y are equivalent points of D if and only if there is an element g E G. to y2 by some path which lies. as above.19). and they both lie inside the disc of radius p about x. is injective. .

the corresponding closed region lies in a nice neighborhood of xm. V' is a neighborhood of x. modulo the identification of s. We might have that o g-1 is a non-trivial element of Stab(x). for every m. The result now follows from G. on sm. of a side pairing transformation g. Let si be the paired side. be the corresponding side pairing transformation.) ym = gm(ym) on and choose a path T. Hence there is a point of D mapped by g to a point of the neighborhood of y constructed above. on a side s. where x' is the endpoint paired with x. ). g ' (U2 ).. but they need not rill out a neighborhood of x. The obvious homeomorphism from V. If there are two regular points x and y on OD that are G-equivalent. The projection U.10. or It 'I V = 1. goes from y. as an endpoint..9. it remains to show that it is injective. Hence cp(x) = sp(y). Proof.).II. Note that gl' (D) abuts D along s. Since no two points of D are equivalent. Then there is another side s2 # s'1 which has x2 as an endpoint.' (D) along need g i' (s2 ). Let V' be the union of V. or z is the fixed point.. 0 . where g(s) = s. and so that the U. mappings. Fundamental Domains 31 Now let x = x. bounded by s. We conclude that V' is a nice neighborhood of x. and to Y. We construct a neighborhood of x by choosing points ym. then there is a g e G mapping a neighborhood of x onto a neighborhood of y. and let g. with g2(s2) = s2. rm. that is. The different sets must be disjoint. except along their boundaries.-` 1 o. (z. Let x2 = g&.. we showed that if D is a fundamental domain for G.. it is obvious that the projection of s is a proper arc on D*. = s. o g ' not be a neighborhood of x. g must be one of the products of side pairing transformations mentioned in the construction above. let s' be the paired side. G. There is nothing to prove unless s has a limit point for an endpoint. Then there is a sides. Then p(s) is a proper arc on S = Q/G.-110 h(sl) emanating from x. of U. and the points of s are paired only with those of s'. Since x' is unique. Proposition. then either z is a vertex.' o g2' (D) abuts g... We have shown that cp is surjective and a local homeomorphism. As part of the proof above. 0 G. is obviously a neighborhood of the projection of x in D*. to y.G. and sm lies in D. Let s be a side of a fundamental domain D . Set x3 = 82(x2). By G. this process ends after a finite number of steps. which has x.for the Kleinian group G. . etc. Also. and z is a special point in D. as above. There is a corresponding side s2. be a vertex. from so that the open sector shaped region Um. Since h(V) abuts V along h(s. Stab(x) = <h>. onto V'/<h> is cp I U. and side pairing transformation g2. together with all the distinct translates of V under powers of h. so that s. Since D is precisely invariant under the identity. onto some arc h = g. mapping s. Let x be this endpoint... either hm(V) is disjoint from V. the union V.8. g. of the union of the Um. onto s. there is a first integer n. . etc. Also g. However. with h(s. are all disjoint. )..7._. since V is precisely invariant under the identity in G.

The Ford region is only defined for Kleinian groups with this restriction. is defined to be the interior of n D9. Corollary. There is no restriction on the topology of a fundamental set. H. A simple case of this procedure is illustrated in Figures VIII.1 1. the two parts are then joined by the transformation j).3. for obtaining one fundamental domain from another. G. For an arbitrary element g e G. . where D has exactly one connected component for each connected component of S = Q/G. H.12.8 is cut along the dotted line. A fundamental set is a subset of °Q which contains exactly one point from each equivalence class of points of °Q. where g' is the derivative of g.32 II. Da= {zECJIg'(z)I < 1}U{oo}. The Ford region D is a fundamental domain for G. or Ford fundamental domain D.H. It is easy to check that D* is again a fundamental domain for G. Let D* = (D . Discontinuous Groups in the Plane G. There is a technique. and the set of elliptic fixed points in Q.13. It is often convenient to work with fundamental sets. which of necessity contain no elliptic fixed points. connecting x to y.C. Let D be a fundamental domain. Let D be a fundamental domain for the Kleinian group G. let s' be the paired side.C. Theorem. obtained by cutting along v. that is. VIII. choose s to be the side on the boundary of R'). which we assume here to be connected. The Ford region. Then the projection of the sides of D forms a dissection of each component of S. where the intersection is taken over all non-trivial elements of G. Let s be the side on which x lies. We can complete a fundamental domain D to a fundamental set by adding some number of points of r?D to D. G. Throughout this section we assume that G is a Kleinian group and that oo is a point of °Q. (if x is a vertex. H.2. A fundamental set for G whose interior is a fundamental domain is called a constrained fundamental set. let Da be the outside of the isometric circle of g. and let v be a path in D. and let g mapping s to s' be the side pairing transformation. it can also be defined for discontinuous groups containing orientation reversing elements.8-9 (the domain in Fig.I. where v divides D into two regions R and R'. called cutting and pasting. and then pasting along g(s fl R'). A is the union of the limit set A. The Ford Region H.R') U g(R'). and with the complement A of °Q. let x and y be two points on 8D. with only its endpoints on the boundary.

in particular. which in turn is contained inside the isometric circle of g'. for all g e G. We have shown that f(s) is also a side of D. Since z e Q. then 0.6) still holds. Since oo e 'Q. Let z be some point of Q. The Ford Region 33 Proof. it follows again that w e D. H. and I f'(z)I = 1. Hence w lies on at most finitely many isometric circles. and since the centers are all translates of oo. for all g # f ''. Then for all but finitely many g e G. some of which may lie on isometric circles. for any 6 > 0 there are at most finitely many . H. For an arbitrary z on s. each side of D lies on the isometric circle of a unique element of G. We know that every non-trivial g e G maps the outside of its isometric circle onto the inside of the isometric circle of g-'. this concludes the proof of (iv).S. they accumulate only at limit points.. 1. z lies on at most finitely many isometric circles. or g = f -'. then equality in (11.6) Ig'(w)I = Ig'(f(z))I = I(gof)'(z)I/If'(z)I 5 1. Condition (vi) follows from the observation that g(D) c g(D9).7. any sequence of sides can accumulate only at limit points. Since the diameter of a sequence of distinct isometric circles tends to zero. Let w = f(z).Da. Otherwise there is an element f e G with If '(z) I maximal among all elements of G (see B. where s lies on the isometric circle of f.6) can hold for only finitely many g e G. different elements of G have different centers of their isometric circles. The boundary of D consists of some arcs of isometric circles. this yields condition (v) for a sequence of sides lying on different isometric circles.6 that the radii of the isometric circles tend to zero. The radius of these isometric circles tends to zero. Let w = f(z). (11. this is condition (i) of G.H. there can be at most a finite number of other isometric circles on which z lies.} is a sequence of distinct elements of G. Assume that z is a point of s that lies on no isometric circle other than s. Also. We have also shown that if (g. Exactly as in (11. Let z be a point on a side s of D.. Then Ig'(z)I < 1 for all g different from both f and the identity. H. It follows that g(D) n D = 0. We now prove (ii). and we can have equality only for g = 1. There is nothing to prove if z is G-equivalent to cc. observe that Ig'(w)I 5 1. We conclude that w lies in D. (11. so w lies on the boundary of D.II. of course a sequence of sides on the same isometric circle has diameter tending to zero. and limit points. the proof holds for all points of 0).6). there are at most a discrete set of points in the relative interior of s which lie on more than one isometric circle.4. and lies outside all others. We know from B.6. Since w e 0. and observe that for an arbitrary g e G. Since z e Q. hence g(D) lies inside the isometric circle of g-'. z c. The sides of D are these arcs of isometric circles.

. w. The set of points which lie on at least three isometric circles is countable and discrete in Q.6). there must be one. Q H.w. In this section we observe that there may indeed be such points. where y lies outside or on all isometric circles of G. if Ig'(w)I <I for all nontrivial ge G. and z . In the argument above. G-equivalent to x. Hence there is an element heG with I d I = Ih'(0)I-'I2 maximal. Then there is a point y. Hence. Proof.z + i. Let the Kleinian group G he normalized so that ao e . lying in the closure of p(D). conjugated by the transformation z .7. h(0) lies outside or on all isometric circles of G. Using (11.) In this group. for it is an isolated point of n . and there is a sequence of distinct elements {gm} in G. Let x be a fixed point of a parabolic element of G.e. we looked at isolated points which are not in the closure of D. Of course. Then there is a sequence of points {zm} in D. but which are inn Dg. On the other hand. Discontinuous Groups in the Plane g E G with lg'(w)I z S. since h(0) is a parabolic fixed point. Let G be the group generated by f(z) = z/(z + 1). then w must lie on the intersection of at least three isometric circles. so that x = 0. with gm(zm) . which we assume to be p(w).34 11. Choose a subsequence as in D. Then by B.B. Ca g= compute (d2 * gofog -1 = * * Let (gm) be any sequence of elements of G with distinct lower right entries dm. Normalize G so that oo is still in °Q.1/z. if there is an h e G with Ih'(w)I = I and w does not lie in D. so p(D) misses at most countably many points of Q/G.Q. we conclude that Ig'(h(0))I S 1 for all g e G.5. Then for any d I e G. (This is the familiar group generated by z . we know that h(0) actually lies on the isometric circles of all powers of h.. E Idml-8 < cc.z + 1. the origin is an isolated limit point which lies on all isometric circles. Since dia(gm(D)) -+0. contradicting our assumption that w E Q. so weal.2. and so that f(z) _ z/(z + 1) E G. then the same inequality holds for all points near w.5g. in this case. 0 H. If there are any such points. Proposition. we conclude that such a point is in D. i. and g(z) = z/(iz + 1).

An open. Let T be a (J. Hence g e J.g(x) a Do fl T = D fl T Hencej(x) = f o g(x). G)-panel. Set Jef Then T is precisely invariant under J in G. Proof.4. If T is precisely invariant under J. Proposition. It is immediate from the definition that T is J-invariant. Also each connected component of a fundamental domain is a (I. (T) and g2(T) are either equal or disjoint. I. Since x. Let D be a fundamental set for the Kleinian group G.j(x) = j' o g(x).I1. and a point x e T so that g(x) a T. so that Do fl T = D fl T is a fundamental set for the action of J on T Proof. Proposition. If there is a g e G. and let J be a subgroup of G. Since two points of T are J-equivalent if and only if they are G-equivalent. and let T lie over Y. is called a panel. Precisely Invariant Sets 35 II. connected.I. that is. 1. The simplest example of a panel is a nice neighborhood of a point in 0. Next assume that there are such fundamental sets Do and D. it is the identity. An important restatement of the above is as follows. G)-panel. Then T is precisely invariant under Stab(T) in G. They are equal if and only if g. let A be some subset of D. where T is precisely invariant under its stabilizer. let Y be a connected subset of Q/G. then let E be a fundamental set for the action of J on T.I. j(x). that is. if T is any connected subset of Q. Since j -' o j' o g fixes a point of D. if we need to be even more explicit. or G-panel. E can also be extended to a fundamental set D for G. G}-panel.2. non-empty subset T of 0. Another procedure is given in the following.I. and g2 lie in the same left coset of J. then T is a connected component of p-'(p(T)). and g2 are elements of G. start with a connected set Y in Sl/G. then find elements j and j ' in J. that is. T = U j(A). Precisely Invariant Sets I. If g. and j ' o g(x) are all G-equivalent. . and a point x e T. a (J. Let G be a Kleinian group. and j -' o j' o g = 1. and let Do be any fundamental set for J containing E. there is a j e J so that g2 = g. 0i. Conversely. Suppose there is age G. 13. There are two standard procedures for obtaining precisely invariant sets. A subset T e °Q(G) is precisely invariant under J if and only if there are fundamental sets Do for J and D for G. which is precisely invariant under its stabilizer. T is a connected component of p-'(Y). with g(x) e T Then there are elements j and j' e J with j(x) and f. and let T be a connected component of p"'(Y). then g. so thatj(x) and j ' o g(x) both lie in D. where J = Stab(T). One is described above. or.

is precisely invariant under (J. and there is a point x e B.. g e H.. g(Tk) fl T.6. Suppose that B e °Q(G) is precisely invariant under J in H. qp preserves elliptic elements. The minimal rotations are the elements z . Since B C_. and f : X .. More generally. which in turn is a subgroup of the Kleinian group G.°Q. .. so that x = h(z) and g(x) = h'(z'). . but for k # m. a panel. if each T. The geometric generators are distinguished by the fact that they maximize tr2(h) among all non-trivial elements of H.J. We normalize H so that it has fixed points at 0 and oc.3. so that g(x) a B.1. Of course.. J. and there are points z. Let cp: G . . and for all g e G. i.. Let H be an elliptic cyclic group of finite order q. Then B is precisely invariant under J in G. then we say that f induces the isomorphism gyp. This yields go h(z) = h'(z').C. Discontinuous Groups in the Plane 1. hence g o h = h'. and if T. so z = z'. Let J be a subgroup of H. Since B is precisely invariant under J in H.G* is called a deformation if there is a homeomorphism f : C . then every element of H is of the form z e""P"'z. (p preserves the order of each elliptic element. Suppose there is an element g e G. is a connected component of p-' (Ym). one often requires the mapping fin a deformation to be quasiconformal. Then there are elements h. Y are disjoint connected subsets of Q/G. . In general. An isomorphism (p: G . z E °Q. If Y. h' in H. From a purely algebraic point of view. g e J. Proposition. From a topological point of view.. we say that (T. Proof. it surely is J-invariant.X* is such that f o g o f -I(x) = cp(g) (x).e. then not only is each T. . Since an element of G has finite order if and only if it is elliptic. and if for m : k.G* be an isomorphism between Kleinian groups. H.. if X is Ginvariant. The minimal rotations are called the geometric generators of H. is precisely invariant under Jm. For reasons having to do with Teichmiiller spaces and deformation spaces of Kleinian groups. Then since B is precisely invariant under J in H. in G.36 11. We also refer to the mapping f as the deformation. the minimal rotations.. = 0 for all Y E G. and for all z e C. J. with f o g of -' (z) = tp(g)(z) for all g e G.. so that every point of B is H-equivalent to some point of D.a±2 hi z. g(Tm)fl Tk = Q. and suppose there is a fundamental set D for G. z' in D. there are in general several possible choices of a generator for H.. Isomorphisms J..5. there are two distinguished generators.2. 1.

and (iii) if Y c X is precisely invariant under H c G. then f(Y) is precisely invariant under f. for every elliptic element in particular..2. The action of G is freely discontinuous at x e X if and only if Stab(x) = 1. In general.K. (p maps geometric generators of elliptic cyclic subgroups onto geometric generators. where f induces the isomorphism f*: G .3. e2"'P/Q. (H) in 0. Regard G as a topological space with the discrete topology (i. and let f be a homeomorphism from X onto some open set in C. Let h = e2x"9z be a geometric generator of H. H acts on G by right (or left) multiplication. e4"iP/". H. and so that f(1) = 1. let H be a maximal elliptic cyclic subgroup of G. and if tr2((P(h)) = tr2(h) for every elliptic h e G. in order. Also. The following is an easy exercise in the use of homeomorphisms which induce isomorphisms. Exercises K.K. Let G be a finite group of homeomorphisms acting on a Hausdorff space X. For the second statement. f(C) passes through the points 1. Since f(C) is a simple H-invariant loop. The first statement follows at once from the fact that parabolic elements.. an isomorphism cp between Kleinian groups is called typepreserving if both cp and cp-' preserve parabolic elements. Then (i) f(X) c DA. Let 47: G -+ G* be a deformation. K. Normalize both G and G* so that H and 4p(H) both have their fixed points at 0 and oo.H. Then. have exactly one fixed point. (ii) f(X) is is-invariant. so that for all . are both H-invariant. Then H = qp(H). JS. If G is a Kleinian group with 0 and oc both in 'Q. Proposition. K. This action of H is freely discontinuous at every g e G. every subset of G is open). . Exercises 37 J. Then g e G is parabolic if and tr2((p(g)) = tr2(g). Also the unit circle C. Proposition..I. only if cp(g) is parabolic..e. Let X e Q(G) be G-invariant.C. by definition. J. Let G be an abstract group.6. and assume that gp(h)(z) = 2xipiq z. then there is a positive constant K. and its image under f. Let G.4. ( be Kleinian groups. this is possible only if p= ±1. and let H be a subgroup. Proof.

K. K. If G is non-elementary.8. K.6. (i) Each curve in !'o is properly embedded in S.1 1. K. where every element of G has the same two fixed points.9. then 4(G) is uncountable. Let G be a group of real translations.5. K. and every element of G is loxodromic. Then the Ford region for G has exactly two sides. Then G is Kleinian if and only if it is cyclic. Discontinuous Groups in the Plane g=(c b d) lal < K lbl < Kz lcl < K31d1 s K41al. that is. K. Let x be a fixed point of a loxodromic element of a Kleinian group. G is Kleinian if and only if it is cyclic. 9 real. K.7. (ii) Each compact subset of S meets only finitely many elements of !'o. call them x and y. b) 1 i)' and 2 I 1 1 1)' c) ( -2). Let G be a subgroup of NA. Then x is a point of approximation. Let G be a group of rotations. that is. note the determinant). G is Kleinian if and only if it is finite and cyclic.4. Construct the Ford region for the group generated by /1 a) I 0) . a real.38 11. where one fixed point of g is in Q and the other in A. K. every element of G is of the form z -+ ei0z.13. Then there is a full dissection F of S.12. Construct a Kleinian group G containing an elliptic element g. (iii) The union of the elements in !'o does not disconnect S. The Ford region for the group generated by has more than two sides (again. every element of G is of the form z . Let S be a Riemann surface. 1 d) (-1 1 ) (note that the matrix in d) has determinant 0 1). .z + a. K.10. and let Fo be a finite or countable collection of curves on S satisfying the following. Let G be a hyperbolic cyclic Kleinian group with fixed points at ± 1. K. where Fo c T.

L. and z z + i. The usual terminology for what we call "free discontinuity" is either "discontinuity" or "proper discontinuity". Suppose there is a connected component Do of D so that every side of Do is paired with another (or the same) side of Do. K. Then do. g(A0) = Ao for all g e G).1.I. K. H. A. the component of G containing Do. Then cp is a deformation. Let cp be an isomorphism between parabolic cyclic Kleinian groups. where G is hyperbolic. The precise definition of "Kleinian group" has varied with time. but the terminology is not standard. or Euclidean n-space can be found in Wolf [99].z + 1. (Compare with V. K. Construct a fundamental domain D for the group generated by the transformations z .21).17. in which a "Kleinian group" is any discrete group of motions of hyperbolic n-space. see for example. In this modem terminology. K. and G* is loxodromic but not hyperbolic.e. Let G and G* be cyclic Kleinian groups. Discontinuous groups of quasiconformal mappings have .18. C) whose limit set is all of C).15. with non-trivial normal subgroup H. and so that these side pairing transformations generate G. so that A(H) # A(G). In the modern definition. K. where the origin is a vertex at the end of four distinct sides of D. Let D be a fundamental domain for the Kleinian group G. Tukia [94]).5. Notes A. K. a discussion of the discrete groups of motions of the n-sphere. There are many generalizations of the notion of a Kleinian group.14. Construct a Kleinian group G. Then A(H) = A(G).16. what we here call a "Kleinian group" is called a "Kleinian group of the second kind" ("Kleinian group of the first kind" refers to a discrete subgroup of PSL(2.H. is G-invariant (i..19.C be a deformation of G onto G*. Notes 39 K. a "Kleinian group" is any discrete subgroup of PSL(2.20. C) (there is an even more modern definition. Then cp is a deformation. The definition used here is a bit old-fashioned. Let H be a subgroup of finite index in the Kleinian group G. Let f : C . discrete groups of isometries of hyperbolic space are discussed in Chapter IV. Let qp be an isomorphism between loxodromic cyclic Kleinian groups. Show that f is not differentiable at the fixed points of G.L.

7. Springer [86]. 333-338]. 104-108]. and Wielenberg [97]. F. A generalization can be found in Brooks and Matelski (19]. Discontinuous Groups in the Plane been studied by Gehring and Martin [27].7. a proof can be found in Kra [43 pg. Kulkarni [47].I. C. More general topological groups of mappings have been studied by Floyd [25]. 45-54].40 II. A discussion of the different topologies on M can be found in Beardon [11 pg. A generalization can be found in Apanasov [9]. [95] and others. Leutbecher [49]. Tukia [93]. or any other textbook on Riemann surfaces. C. Shimizu [85]. and others. Basic facts about Riemann surfaces can be found in Ahlfors-Sario [8]. F. Ahlfors' finiteness theorem appeared in [4]. CS.2. Farkas-Kra [23]. See also (I I pg. .

A covering p: (ate. xO) maps the space X into the space X. a regular covering. go) -+ (X..9 is the covering space.x. xO) is a surjection where every point x e X has a neighborhood Ux so that p-'(Ux) is a disjoint union of open sets V.x is a homeomorphism onto Ux. in fact. and p is the projection. A map f : (7. but not so will known facts about regular coverings. The space..°d/StabG(°d) is a covering.F. go) .A. pl Va. X is the base. Every path w on X. If G is Kleinian. w = p o w). starting at any point x. . and maps the point x'O E A .2. can be taken to be two. for most of our purposes. and a proof of the branched universal covering surface theorem. where for each a. There is also a discussion of branched regular coverings. all spaces are connected manifolds of some fixed dimension. and °d is a connected component of °Q. then the natural projection p: °A -. the set {p-' (x) } is the fiber over x. once we specify the starting point x in the fiber over x.Chapter III. these are discussed in III. is called a 1ft of w. Covering Spaces This chapter is primarily a review of standard covering space theory. If x is any point of X. The points to and xO = p(XO) are called the base points. A.A/Stab(A) is a branched regular covering. Coverings A. to the point xO a X. including some easy. III.e.(X. and give no proofs. AA The relationship between coverings and Kleinian groups is given by the following obvious fact. The natural projection p: A . A.4. We assume the reader is familiar with this basic material.I. we set the notation and review the basic definitions and facts about coverings. In this section. can be lifted uniquely to a path w on 9 (i. which. Throughout this chapter. in dimension two.

are also homotopic. Then the coverings p: (A. both starting at x. B. Given a subgroup H of n. xo) be a regular covering and let x'. xo) are coverings with defining subgroups M and N. xo) with defining subgroup H. x2o) .5. Jt0) -+ (X. Covering Spaces If w. if p: (A'. is the loop obtained by first traversing w.w2. xo) is injective. if w. go) (X. The multiplication defined by [w. where p = q o r. . and w2 are loops on A' at x. xo) and q: (A. The covering corresponding to the identity subgroup is called the universal covering. Proposition. go) .) --+ (X. a. ] [w2] = [w. so this is the universal covering.: n. (X. Let w be some loop on X at xo.(A. xo). if and only if [w] E N. and w2 = p o w2 are homotopic. w2] is the multiplication in the fundamental group. then the lifts w. (X.I. we denote the homotopy class of w by [w]. Regular Coverings B.(A.B. If p: (A'. = p o w.6. Two coverings with the same defining subgroup are called equivalent. then they are homotopic if and only if their projections w.(X. . (A'. (X.2. then the defining subgroup for this covering is trivial. III. the defining subgroup of the covering based at z. x`. go) -+ (X. J20). and w2 are homotopic paths on X.n.to) with p = q o r if and only if M c N. xo). A. The subgroup (9. In particular. then there is a homeomorphism r: (A'. xo).. (X. xo) and p: (2. starting at the same point z E p-I (x). xo) have the same defining subgroup. Let p: (2. go) -+ (X. on X at xo. this product is written as w. if two coverings p: (A'. We will usually not distinguish between equivalent coverings. )20) -+ (X. be a point in the fiber over xo.. . and w2. and q: (A. and then w2. respectively. go)) c n. xo) is a covering where the covering space A' is simply connected.42 M. An equivalent way of saying the above is that the natural induced homomorphism p. A.7. go) . In particular. A covering whose defining subgroup is normal is called a regular or normal covering. and w2.. The product of two loops w. Conversely.(X. A. xo) are equivalent. go) -+ (X. then w lifts to a loop starting at R. go) . For any loop w on X at xo. there is a covering p: (X. 20) .. then there is a covering r: ('. xo) is called the defining subgroup of the covering. the universal covering space is simply connected. Proof.

zo) -+ (X.) = p(x2). w lifts to a loop starting at go if and only if v . i. Since w lifts to a loop starting at z. xo). xo).6. either on 9 or on X.[v-'] e No. Q BS. Then there is a group G of homeomorphisms of 9 onto itself. then there is a canonical isomorphism 0: n1(X.w. [v. for every z in the fiber over xo.4. Let v = p o v' so that v is a loop on X based at xo. then the covering is regular. v w v-1 lifts to a loop starting at go if and only if w lifts to a loop starting at x.xo) and n. Since the lift of a loop is unique. Proof.e. Let v be the lifting of v starting at go. Let p: )Z -. that is. there is a homeomorphism g = gX: 2 -+ 2. B.B. and z2 are G-equivalent. Observe that w lifts to a loop starting at z if and only if v w . Where convenient. the defining subgroup for the covering. xo) be a covering. . Then w lifts to a loop starting at some point in the fiber over x if and only if w lifts to a loop starting at any other point in the fiber over x. 0 B. and the corresponding regular covering p: 9 .III. and let x be the endpoint of v. and p o g = p. and let w be a loop on X based at some point x.2. a regular covering is well defined independent of base point.(X) is well defined independent of base point on X. where °Q(G) = 9.[w] . this same relation holds for every g e G. is G-equivalent to k2 if and only if p(z. If every loop based at xo. and xo = p(go) on X. then p(AI) = p(z2). then there is an isomorphism between n1(X. Regular Coverings 43 Choose a path v from go to z. and simply refer to a regular covering p: 2 -. go) . where g(go) = x. It follows at once that if x. . If x. No = N1. Since the generators of G satisfy p o g = p. Let p: ()7.(X. Corollary. By B. [w] a No if and only if [v] . Let p: (9. xo)/N -+ G. Let G be the group generated by all these transformations g1. and let [w] be some element of N. x 1)..3. go on . is some point of X. .9. More precisely.v-1 also lifts to a loop starting at go. a normal subgroup of n.X. we will drop the base points. X be a regular covering with defining subgroup N. Proof.v-1]eN.X is well defined independent of base point on 9. B.w . this isomorphism is canonical up to an inner automorphism. (X. with defining (normal) subgroup N. Since No is normal in n. Theorem. Proposition. and X.v-' lifts to a loop starting at go. xo) be a regular covering. if we choose base points. also lifts to a loop starting at any other point x` in the fiber over xo. (X. Let [v] be some element of n 1(X. We have shown that [w] a No if and only if [w] a N1. which lifts to a loop starting at go. The converse to the above is also true. In particular. Further.

starting at xo.. Hence 0([w. so k([wl])(22) is the endpoint of'([w1])(w2)' which is the endpoint of the lift of w2.. Let z.(D°) is infinite cyclic. hence they have the same endpoint. then we change ds by an inner automorphism. B.. The element gz e G maps go to 2. m}. and observe that O([wl]) maps go to x. and x2 be two points of $.m. n e Z}. i.. Set 0([w]) = gX.. is the endpoint of the lift of wm. This deck group has the natural geometric generator . and there are two elements g and g' of G. Then 7r. for if w. g'(zl) is the endpoint of the lifting of w. Let w be a loop on X at xo. Of course. Similarly. be any point of J''.. starting at g'(x).44 III. g(21) = g'(x. Hence an element of G with one fixed point is the identity. It is easy to see that if we change base points. It follows at once from the definition of covering.e2i'0lmC' p = 1. and the deck group is the group of rotations {C . Let w be a path from x. the kernel of cb is N. starting at X. where p(x". Then g(x1) is the endpoint of g(w). to the base point xo. and the group of deck transformations is the group of translations {lC .) = p(x2). Let x. or group of deck transformat ions.])(x2). starting at x. It also follows that every element of G is one of the generators gX. that the action of G on 9 is freely discontinuous. This is well defined.. hence gx(w) = iv'. let w be its lift. P([wl])odP([w2])(20) _ 0([wi ' w2])(xo). is homotopic to w. Let D° be the punctured unit disc {zI0 < I z I < 1}. look at the lift w2 of w2. Covering Spaces Now suppose there is a point 2 e X. then their lifts are homotopic. starting at xo. starting at g(x). 0 < t < 1.e. where A.7. We conclude that 0([w1])(22) is the endpoint of the lift of w. where the projection map is p(C) = e2`K. i.e.])o0([w2])(xo) = P([w. We now define the homomorphism 0: n. starting at xa.(X. w2. Then 0([w. starting at 2. The group G defined above is called the deck group. We have shown that two points of I are G-equivalent if and only if their projections to X are equal.8. but the isomorphism 0 depends on the choice of base points. an element [w] a rt 1(X. i. and let w be a path from 2 to x`1. B. The covering of D° corresponding to the subgroup Z.) = x2.. with g(A) = g'(x). so gj(x. Then the endpoint x of w' is some point in the fiber over the base point xo.e. x0) is in the kernel of 0 if and only if w lifts p to a loop. we choose the generator to be the loop w(t) = 1/2 e2st. starting at xo. To find 0([w1])(22). G acts freely on X.xo)-'G.. and let w' be the lift of w = p(w). and maps w-' to the lift of w-'.).C + n. We conclude this section with a simple example. The projection map is p(C) = C. ]) o o([w2]) = 0([14'1 ] [w2])Of course. The universal covering of D° is the upper half plane 112. The deck group depends only on the regular covering. and let x be the endpoint of w. is D° itself. (w')-' is the lift of w-1. which in turn is the endpoint of the lifting of w = p(w). starting at x"2. Since g(x) = g'(x).

Somewhat more generally. fl wm. Choose spurs v and vm. Proposition. Proof. Throughout this section. Proposition. i.C. wl.' and v2 w2 v2' are homotopic. where r has . for w and wm.. Let 13 be a connected component of p-'(D).. Proposition. wk. Since they are G-equivalent. so w lifts to a loop.. Then there are two distinct G-equivalent points x and a' in B.. Proposition. v. Let D be an open connected subset of X. C. x0). Then w° lifts to a loop if and only if w$ lifts to a loop. Lifting Loops and Regions 45 g(C) = e2i"mC with the property that there is a path w connecting the base point zo to g(x'0). and w2 are freely homotopic if there is a spur vm for wm. where the starting point of w is at x'.. Two loops w..J.2). w' lifts to a loop if and only if wg lifts to a loop.. (X. Let w be a loop on X. Lifting Loops and Regions C. we say that the loop w is freely homotopic to the product of loops. Let F he a full dissection of each component of °S. III.3.C. wk be loops on X. where for in > 0. so does each vm wm v-'. respectively. [vm wm um' ] is trivial. w. Hence in n I (X)/N. C. so that v.. A spur for w is a path v.e.I. to z'. Hence v w v-' lifts to a loop. this says that [v w v-' ]' = { fl [vm wm v. C. Let G be a Kleinian group. and xo = p(zo) be given base points.4. with defining subgroup N. where for m > 0. [v w v-']2 = [v wo v-')2. and each wm lifts to a loop. p: 2 . Then B is precisely invariant under the identity in G. Then (v w v-' )' is homotopic to v w° v-'. which is homotopic to { n (vm wm In 7t. The following proposition is essentially immediate from the definitions. if there are spurs v and vm.A' ] }'. and group of deck transformations G. p(z) = p(x"). wm lifts to a loop. Then w = p(iv) is a loop in D that does not lift to a loop. Also let zo C-. so that v w v-' is homotopic to C. Proof. Let w be a path in B from . If w is freely homotopic to the product [I wm.2. where p(w) is a simple loop (see II. . then w lifts to a loop.S. Proof.. Let w be freely homotopic to the product wo w. where every loop in D lifts to a loop in R.X is some given regular covering.9. where °S = °D/G is a finite (disconnected) Riemann surface. Let wo.HI. starting at xo and ending at x'. Since each wm lifts to a loop. Suppose not.

Hence. and qp.(N) a M. not only do we know that ip is a homeomorphism of A" onto ?.F'. Then there is an element g e G with g(zo) = R. and q : (X. Let x be some point in the fiber over xo.n1(Y. and preserve base points. respectively. Since the maps are all continuous. Covenng Spaces only finitely many elements. and let H be the group of deck transformations on V. A lift of rp is a map 0: (9.(f. Proposition. D. 0 D. If fl' is some other path from go to x.(Y yo).yo) Proposition.xo) . then for every loop w on 9 at go. There is also an element h = ip * (g) e H mapping 9 = 0(20) to Cp(R). Then D is a fundamental domain for G.2`.3.(N) c M.(N) = M. 0 * : G -+ H is an isomorphism. Draw a path u from . We assume further that the coverings p and q are regular. and define ip(2) to be the endpoint of the lift of qp o p(v). Hence ep. there are induced homomorphisms of fundamental groups: q.2O to . then w = v (v')-' is a loop on . We continue with the assumptions that cp is a homeomorphism.: ni(X.(X.(N) c M. Since the projections are local homeomorphisms.. cp. it is immediate from the definition that cp o p = q o Co.: n1(1' Yo) --+ n. Since every element of N can be obtained as the projection of a loop in 9. cp o p(%) is a loop on Y at yo that lifts to a loop.I. Proof. Let G be the group of deck transformations on R. ip(w) is again a loop. III. but we also have shown that two points of R project to the same point of X if and only if their images under ip project to the same point of Y. In the above.(N) = M. Then there is a subcollection F' of curves. starting at Yo. For each connected component Y of S . Throughout this section.46 III. note that if cp is a homeomorphism.) . and cp. then since . [ p(w)] a M. xo) -+ (Y. and ep.D. p: ()?. Let D be the union of all the sets A. then we can equally well construct the inverse of Co. xo) and q: (?. Hence ep is well defined. Lifting Mappings D. in this case. . Conversely. yo) are coverings with defining subgroups N and M. and let R be a point of 9. If the lift 0 exists.2. go) . yo) is some continuous map. Yo) with (p o p = q o ip.9 at go whose projection determines some element of N. let A be a connected component of p-' (Y).(N) a M.(Y. $ c. assume that ep. so that the following holds. There is a lift ip of (p if and only if 4p. ip is continuous. zo) .

There is one important special case of the above. We have assumed that cp(xo) = xo. xo)/N -4 G. if p: X . and ip o g(x'o) = 0(2). and let g(x`o) = Sc. starting at the endpoint of U. respectively. and that occurs when qP is homotopic to the identity. Proposition. Then 0([w]) is the element of G mapping xo to z.Cois aliftof cp. and rp* o 0([w]) is the element of G which maps go to the endpoint of 0(0). it follows that CO* is a homomorphism. For any x e X. xo)/N. Denote the class of [w] in n. Draw a path w from go to R. there is a canonical isomorphism 0: n. Since it is invertible.(N) = N. it is an isomorphism. starting at go. Also. and let w be the lift of w to X starting at x`o. where I is the unit interval. where cp.D. 0 .. and we have defined the lift Co so that ip(zo) = x'o. 0 D. there is an induced isomorphism rp. so is ip *. [tp(w)]. let w be a path from z to go. and v tp(w). Let g e G.4. ip * = 0 o (p o 0-'. X x I be the homotopy. Let w be a loop on X at xo. and assume that 7 = X. That is.e. t e I. We actually need a slightly more general statement. starting at zo. Since ip(w) is the lift of p(w). Hence the lifts of w v. We now specialize even further. with defining subgroup N. and that Y = X. ip* o 0([w]) = -P o O D. Proposition.X be a homeomorphism that is homotopic to the identity. xo )/N -+ n t (X.(N) = N. Then there is a lift ip of tp. mapping the deck group G onto itself. and Co o g o Co' (y'o) = 0og(xo) = iP*(g)o(p(xo) Hence 0*(g) = ipogoCo-1. Then g o 0(zo) = g(2'). and cp: X -+ X is a homeomorphism. Once we have chosen base points. Cp o g o co ' is a homeomorphism of Pthat commutes with the projection q.i. let ip(2) be the endpoint of the lift of 4P o p(w). which is the endpoint of the lift of p(w). and let v be the lift of v. Proof. starting at zo. (X. call the endpoint z. Notice that for any g e G. Let v be the path h(xo. and is the element of G mapping xo to the endpoint of the lift of cp(w). and xo = p(zo)eX. Since ip is bijective. have the same endpoint.v-' is homotopic to w = p(w). Let gyp: X . xo)/N. and it is immediate that Proof. t). starting at zo.: n t (X.. let ip(zo) = ac'. Lifting Mappings 47 Proof. Let h: X x I po(p=cpop. This automorphism ip * is well defined only after we have chosen base points in a X. these endpoints are Cp(2) and g(2'). It is clear that ip is well defined. the loop v cp(w) . Since cp is homotopic to the identity. Since cp. by the same symbol [w]. so that ip commutes with every element of G.5. starting at the endpoint 2' of C. (X.III. then there is a lift ip: X and there is an automorphism ip*.X is a regular covering.

X is also regular. and let J be a subgroup of G. Let g be some element of G. E. This covering however need not be regular. Hence the covering r:9 . starting at some other point z'. Choose base points Ro = r(z0).2. which in turn occurs if and only if g e J. Hence there is an element +P(g) in H. where M c N. X be regular coverings of the same base X.4. Observe that the set of lifts of the projection of this path establishes a one-to-one correspondence between the points in the fiber over x0. Since an element of His determined by its value at any point. Hence if one lift of x is a loop. with q o r = p. then every lift of 0 is a loop. og2(z0) _ 'P(91) o r o 92 (xo) _ V'(900 'P(92) o r(zo). the index is equal to the order of the deck group. (X. it is regular if and only if J is normal in G. E. W(9)or(X0) = ro9(X0) Let g. Since two points of I which project to the same point on A necessarily project to the same point on X. there is also a covering r: (2.48 111. (2). and the points in the fiber over p(x"). We can now state the following corollary to E. i. Observe that q(:t') = goro9(X0) = Po9(xo) = P(Xo) = x0 = q(90).. J is a subgroup of G..9 -.H.A be the natural projection. is given by some j(w). Let p: 9 -+ X and q:. after choosing base points. The cardinality of the fiber over any point is called the index of the covering. respectively. og2)or(zo) = rog. and xo = p(x'o). If a loop w on A lifts to a loop w on k.e. Theorem. and let J be the group of deck transformations on 9 as a covering of A. There is also a covering q: A -+ X. To see this. . An element g e G lies in the kernel of IF if and only if r o g(zo) = r(zo). it is also normal in N. In general. This homomorphism is canonically defined by a choice of base point go on A'. with !(g)(. draw a path w from go to some point x". (X ). starting at some point z. We can look at the above from a slightly different point of view. which we can identify with s. if p: (2. There is a homomorphism IF: G . and g2 be elements of G. Covering Spaces III. Then I(g. P is a homomorphism. i.to) =1t'.9 as a covering of X. 20) -. xo) is a covering. For a regular covering. Since M is normal in n. Let G be the group of deck transformations on .k is regular.I. Pairs of Regular Coverings E. with kernel J. with defining subgroups M and N. the covering r: I . (9_ to). 0 E3. Then. and let r: R . go) . then its lift. E3. Let a2' = rog(zo). j e J. then there is a one-to-one correspondence between the points in the fiber over x0 and the points in any other fiber. Let p: '° -+ X be a regular covering with deck group G. Set k = 2/J.e. where q o r = p. Proof.2. Let H be the group of deck transformations on R.E.

be a spur to wm. Since 0 is a topological disc. In order to define a branched regular covering. The map p: )? -+ X is a branched regular covering with branch points {(2m)}.) . The order of J is equal to the index of the covering r: 9 -+ 8. This covering is equivalent to one of the coverings of a punctured disc.vm']"-'eN. but not freely. the branch number. xo).III.8. with finite deck group Stab(z). A freely acting discontinuous group on 9 makes R` into a regular covering space. Throughout this section.2. }. where the topology is easier. and set °X = p(°I).F. Using this equivalence.wm. so that U is precisely invariant under Stab(z) in G. (ii) For every branch point z. and a group G of homeomorphisms acting on 9. base X. special or ramification points {xm}. and w = p(Q) is called a small loop about x = p(2). it suffices to restrict attention to dimension 2. For our purposes. and the index of J in G is equal to the index of the covering q: X -+ X. then we get a branched regular covering. mentioned in B.{zn. Stab(z) is finite. called a nice neighborhood of x. F. Pick a small loop wm about each special point xm. so is °U. and let v. We are given a space 9. and let U = p(ly). °U is a punctured disc. F3. set 01 = I . where xo = p(x'o). X be the natural projection. if the following hold. Branched Regular Coverings 49 Proposition. This number v is also called the ramification number or order at x = p(x"). if G acts discontinuously. 2. we endow X with the usual identification topology. all spaces are manifolds of dimension 2. F3. of finite index. and hence. III. there is a path w in °0 joining some point z' to g(2'). and let p: 2 -. For each branch point z. Branched Regular Coverings F. Note that w" lifts to a simple loop on 00.-'] _ [vm. covering space 1. (i) p: °A` -4 °X is a regular covering with deck group G. Let 0 be a nice neighborhood of the branch point z. We could also define branched coverings that are not regular. but we have no need of these more general objects. Assume that G acts freely except at a discrete set of points {Xm}. Let 00 = 0 fl 09.4. and projection p. and °U = U fl °X. Then p: 00 -+ °U is a regular covering of °U. we make the following suppositions. so that p is both open and continuous. there is a well defined geometric generator g for Stab(x'). where xm = p(zm). . Set X = A`/G.(°X. and let N be the defining (normal) subgroup for the (regular) covering p: (°1. Then [wm] = [vm (wm)"^' v. or order at z is the order v of Stab(z).F.I. Pick a base point go on °a1. Let vm be the ramification number at xm. F. and there is a topological disc U containing z.

and N is normally generated by these loops. if p: 9 . and simply say that p: 2 . if w is a loop in °X. Set w' = p(w). then by F. and q: °X °X are both regular coverings with defining subgroups N and M.8.X is the branched universal covering. Observe that No depends only on the points xm and their ramification numbers. or of the spurs.°X. X be a branched regular covering. where each vm is a small loop about a special point. when raised to a certain power. where p and q are branched over the same points. Covering Spaces Let No be the smallest normal subgroup of n. x0) be the branched universal covering. N c M. and observe that there is a small loop w about p(z). then since 9 . A branched regular covering p: ` . R is simply connected. Choose base points . Thus there is a covering r: °2 -+ °tS. A loop w on ° homotopically trivial in 2 if and only if [p(w)] a No. Since 9 . Let q: X -* X be a branched regular covering. If 9 is simply connected. go) . every loop in °)7 is homotopically trivial in 9. Theorem.X is the branched universal covering. Then p: °2 . Then there is a branched universal covering p: )7 -i X.6 every loop on °2 projects to a loop in No.xo) containing all these elements [wm]. Corollary. and there is a regular covering r: so that p=qor. Proof. lifts to a loop in both °Jl and °$. such a loop is of course homotopically trivial in 9. then w is freely homotopic to a product ll(vm)°". The projections of small loops about the branch points are precisely the loops that generate No. with p = q or.50 III. and are branched to the same order over each of these points. F. Since a small loop about a special point in X.6. Hence each (vmr" lifts to a power of a small loop about a branch point. so that . we usually shorten this description. Let z be a branch point of order v on X. If No = N. X is the branched universal covering of X. and let w be a small loop about z. F. Proposition. and xo = p(Ao). Let p: 2 -. where [w] a No. and each am is a multiple of the ramification number at that point. F. w is freely homotopic in °J2 to a product of small loops about these branch points.X is the branched universal covering if and only if 2 is simply connected.°2 is a discrete set of points. it is independent of the choices of the particular small loops. Conversely.7.(X.9Q a °2.°2 is a discrete set of points. Proof. then No is the defining subgroup for the covering p: °2 'X. then we say that p: )7 -.6. respectively. Conversely.(°X. is Proof. hence by F. branched at the points {xm } to order {vm}. If w is homotopically trivial in R. Let p: (2.

where U. it is a regular covering.. Then p: Q(G) . Proof. V. To which coverings of C can this mapping be lifted.X if and only if there are positive integers vm so that for every m. of finite index. when raised to some power. and v is the smallest positive integer for which this is true..X is a covering of a torus of finite index. Note that r maps a nice neighborhood of x homeomorphically onto a nice neighborhood of r(z).Q(G)/G is a branched regular covering. Then each connected component V.X is a covering. Exercises G. over xm.3.. then X is also a torus. Hence we can rill in the missing point JCm..°X extends to a branched regular covering. is a covering. is homeomorphic to the punctured disc. G. suppose each of the loops wm. Proposition. Then °X can be embedded in a space X.8.G. lifts to a loop.9. Exorcises 51 [w'] = [w°]. By B. We already know that the statement is true if p extends. and let vm be a spur connecting the base point of wm to some base point x0.. Let p: °R` . but not a covering. G.. we define it to be r(x'). Conversely. the defining subgroup for this covering.5. set °X = X . if p is already defined as a branched regular covering. Give an example of a continuous surjection which is a local homeomorphism. If p: X . of Um. v. Again. if vm is minimal.e. Since A' is simply connected.. find the . Find all branched regular coverings of the 2-sphere that are branched over at most one point. Let U.. G.{0} to itself.G. . F.°X be a regular covering.2. is precisely invariant under a (possibly trivial) finite cyclic subgroup of the deck group. i.' lies in N. two points. be a neighborhood of xm. of the inverse image of Um. III. let {xm} be a discrete set of points of X. Consider the function e= as a mapping of C = C . X. Let wm be a small loop about xm.I. Not every regular covering p: °a1 . and p can be extended to a branched regular covering p: X . Then p1Q. that is. find Q(G). then this subgroup will have order vm. We conclude that r(w) is a small loop about some branch point in X.{xm}. Describe this covering. vm (wm) . It follows that r: X .4.M. We have defined the covering p so that w" lifts to a loop on X. Let G be the Kleinian group generated by g(z) = l/z. p: X -.. G..{xm} is topologically a punctured disc.

z.7. . but for the group generated by z -+ z + I and z -' .1/z and z . Same as G. but for the group generated by z .6. but for the group generated by z .B.1/z and z e2i imnz. G.52 III.5. Same as G. n z 3. Also find an explicit formula for the projection map. G.5. Same as G. find the number and orders of the ramification points. describe Q/G topologically. G.5. Covering Spaces branch points.-z.

The Euclidean and spherical metrics need no further mention.t)} is a vertical line. W. we refer to the t coordinate as the height. The major results are the construction of the Dirichlet and Ford regions. the added point is of course called oo. H" = ((x..t)a0-8"+'IxeIE"-'}. t). t) It = 0). t). and distinguishing the last coordinate as t. A3. combining the first n . as usual.0". t)It > 0).I coordinates as x. Groups of Isometries In this chapter we describe the three basic geometries. elliptic. . but we do need to identify their groups of isometries. The group of isometrics of S"' is the orthogonal group. parabolic.. The Basic Spaces and their Groups A. x"). When we write a point in iE" as (x. we will write a point x e iE" as x = (x 1. and the proof of Poincare's polyhedron theorem. or sometimes as (x. the open unit ball is B" _ {xIIxI < 1}. and primarily hyperbolic. that are important for the theory of Kleinian groups. given by F"-' _ {(x. if it is necessary to use coordinates. We then build some of the theory of discrete groups of isometries in these geometries.Chapter IV. The natural inclusion of Gr` in E". we denote it by O.2. We denote Euclidean n-space by E". so that E"-' = OH". and the upper half space. the (Euclidean) boundary of 0. the line {(0. extends to the one point compactifications. There is also a natural inclusion of U-0" into H"+' defined by 9-U" _ {(x.A.I. A. so that for example. The one point compactification of F" is denoted by E".2. Each of these spaces has a natural metric on it. In F". Unless specifically stated otherwise. we will assume throughout this chapter that n >. The local differential metric on I--0" is given by . . The group A" of isometries of IF" is generated by 0" and the Euclidean translations. the unit sphere is S"-' = {x I I x I = 1).

. In its action on P (or ?-1).2xkxm) m = IXI_8 (IXI4amJakm . We will see in B. H" is a model of We define a group of motions L" of t" by writing down a set of generators. E"-1 Proof. which is also called the Poincare metric.. L" acts as a group of conformal motions. Groups of Isometrics ds2 = (dx2 + hyperbolic n-space. The translations and rotations offer no difficulty. . dt2)/t2. oo .2xjxkIX12 . (iii) Dilations: x Ax. With this metric. (i) Translations: (x.(r(x). oo .oo. that L" is the full group of isometrics of H".. we write a point in L" simply as x.7. An easy computation now yields (dfm)2 = IXI-4 Y (dxm)2. It is clear that every element of L" preserves both H" and its boundary. Y- aXj l3Xk 2xmxj)(IXI2bkm .= 1...4. f = (f1.2bjmXA:x.g"). t). where g(x) = Ax.ifk :0 m).x/1x12. hence 9"2dg. For a dilation g = (g1. A.54 IV. (ii) Rotations: (x. The group L" generated by the elements (i) through (iv) above is sometimes called the (n . we compute Olm/t3xk = 1x1-25km .(x + a. we write a point in 0=" as (x. 0 . For inversion. For the first two sets of generators.2xkxmlxl-4 (as usual.. . Proposition.. bk".oo. a e F"-1.1)-dimensional Mobius group. t) .2xjxkIxI2 + 4XjXk E xm) = Ixl-4ajk. Then afm -afm = Ixl_8 . r e ®n-1. for they preserve dx2 + dt2...andbk". but not as a group of isometries in any metric. (iv) Inversion: x . dg = A2 Y dxM. f").0.=xn2dx"2.ifk=m. ox ..o0 For the remainder of the generators. t). and they preserve the height t. A > 0. oo . t). t) . A # 1.=0.oo.lx 2 . L" acts as a group of isometries on H".2dkmXmxjIXI2 + Ix1-8(IX14bjk .

4. ..x". It obviously suffices to assume that all but one of the a.(x). we assume ak # 0.x"_ lation: t) (r1(x). The transformations (i) through (iv) acting on C = P are just translations.t)-+(X.x". and observe that j o g o j l Pk(t) = C/(ak C + 1)... then Df is a constant multiple of the identity. a = (a1.. We regard L3 as acting on V.r"_t... We use inversion j to define local coordinates near oo.. H" c 00"'Both of these embeddings of E" into E"+t yield the same extension of L" into L"'.Ax. + a"_..x".. We do not require conformal maps to preserve orientation. reflections in lines through the origin. If g is the trans- (x... which has derivative 1 at the origin. and let j(x) = xll x 12 be inversion. then so is g'. + a"_. in this view H" lies in the boundary of H". then Dj is a multiple of an orthogonal matrix. A map f is conformal at oo if f o j is conformal at 0.. There are several embeddings of L" into L"'..-. First.Ln+' so that g'lt" = g.S... If f is a dilation. A.. Using I. It is important to observe that this extension can be viewed in two ways. Let g(x. the differential Df is a scalar multiple of an orthogonal matrix. 11.. then g' is the corresponding dilation x -* Ax in L"+' Similarly.. One can also view the n coordinates of E" as being all but the penultimate coordinate of E"+'. and inversion in the unit sphere. a. the proof that this defines an isomorphic embedding can be found in A. dilations.t) _+(r1. it is easy to see that L3 = IVA.. and there is one natural embedding. t)... hence the differential of j o g o j at the origin is the identity. hence inversion is automatically conformal at 0 and oo. For our present purpose. a differentiable homeomorphism f of Euclidean space is conformal if at each point.).x"_. If g is the rotation: (x1. so rotations and dilations are conformal at oc. we only show that for each g e L". including those which reverse orientation. all the other coordinates are zero). It is an exercise to show that f is conformal if and only if Df preserves the (unoriented) angle between any two tangent vectors.x"_..t) = (x + a.. t). t).. + a1. We use inversion to define local coordinates at cc. in this view. Then g and j both keep Pk invariant.. rotations about the origin. the group of all conformal mappings of C.. and g'(0-0") = 0-0".t). set C = xk + it.. Similarly. The Basic Spaces and their Groups 55 For our purposes. it suffices to show that there is such an extension for each generator g of L". f is conformal at f '(00) if j of is.t). + a. This mapping acts as the identity in the other coordinate directions. if g is inversion. then g' is the translation: (x1. Translations and rotations are Euclidean isometrics. A. = 0. where it acts as a group of conformal motions.. then g' is the rotation: (x1. Inversion commutes with rotations and conjugates a dilation into its inverse dilation.e..A. there is a g' c. Let P.x".I V. we can view the n coordinates of E" as being the first n coordinates of E"+'.C. The only thing left to check is that translations are conformal at oo.. If g is the dilation: x . hence inversion is conformal in P... We showed above that if j is inversion. be the 2-plane spanned by the coordinates xk and t (i. For the moment... so of course they are conformal on E".r"_. . be a translation..6. In Pk..

itself. F. we do not include a proof of Liouville's theorem that every (local) conformal homeomorphism of E"-1 lies in I_" A. 0 A.a. Thus far we have shown that every element of 1L" is both an isometry of l-0". The Euclidean motions in Q_" are Euclidean motions of E". we will see in A.7 that every isometry of I-l" is in d". a".. Groups of Isometrics A.7.. if Ea. and also the full group of conformal maps of E"-1. With one exception. divides Sin+t into two discs. one of these discs is chosen as the positive half.9. = b. the proofs of these facts will be spread out over this and the next section. 11 that distinct elements of L" have distinct actions on ltn-1. 2= 2 are carried over by a dilation into expressions of the same form.. We will show in B. for lower dimensional spheres are intersections of higher dimensional ones. the nested set of spheres is oriented if. . for each m. Y. is a sphere of dimension m. Easy computations show that the equations for a hyperplane. Proposition." . b * 0.e.S. so they preserve both hyperplanes and hyperspheres. - through the origin (i. Any other hyperplane.56 IV. we require that one of them be chosen as positive.a".2. A nested set of spheres in E"-` is a set of spheres So c S. c S"_2i where S.x. The elements of I_" preserve the family of k-spheres in t". If the hypersphere Y(x. Given two oriented nests of spheres So c c S"_2.. 0. = r2).x..n-2. It suffices to consider the case k = n . Each S. Rather than introduce more notation. I. c .1 = 0. = b. then this hypersphere is mapped by 1/2. we also require that one of the two points of So be chosen as the positive half. and for a hypersphere..e. it is immediate that an isometry of H" can have at most one continuous extension to a homeomorphism of P`. Proof. otherwise it is mapped onto the inversion onto the hyperplane hypersphere (r2 2Za". S"_2 divides S"_t = En-1 into two discs. is mapped by inversion onto A hyperplane through the origin.)2 = r2 passes hypersphere b>x"2. Proposition. and a conformal homeomorphism of t"'. we regard Euclidean k-planes in I:" as k-spheres in E". and To c c Tn_2 in t"-`.. Since we will make no use of either the fact or the proof. As in dimension 2. there is an element ge0_" mapping one nest onto the other (i.. Recall that codimension one spheres are called hyperspheres.x. k = 0. we remark here that k" is both the full group of isometries of I-I". is mapped by inversion onto the 0. ..

and so the second basis vector. If the positive half of E"' .S°. Now use the extension given in A.S. It suffices to assume that To c c T"_2 is the standard nest to e . we see that Dg(0) is diagonal. Further.. oo) = (0. If n >.0. then g e I. and g maps the positive half of S.1.I V. (0. co}.Sk_. 0) is also an eigenvector of Dg(0). g' maps the positive half of St . at 0. Dg(0) is a positive multiple of the identity. the first basis vector. If S"_2 is a Euclidean hypersphere. then pick up the above sequence at the third step. Now suppose that g keeps the standard oriented nest invariant.5. Further. and the positive half of Sn_2 . we choose the point I on I-I'. with positive eigenvalue.2. Use A. In E2 = C. .. . and x to 1. with 0 the positive half.t). .2 that maps a triple of distinct points onto {0. 1).A. translate it so that it passes through 0. and g(oo) = oo.-1 onto the positive half of T. We have produced a motion g. The Basic Spaces and their Groups 57 g(SS) = Tm. each of these lines is mapped onto itself.S"_3 to H"-2. . Then g2 ° gt maps Sn_2 to E"-2. and for k > 2. .3. . a translation maps this to a hyperplane through the origin. . g preserves the family of lines through the origin. M-2) and g. We first assume that n >. C I'"-2. (Sn_3) onto while mapping the positive half of g. where to = {0. and a rotation then maps this hyperplane to t". .. Proof. consider the differential Dg(0) at the origin.T°. We continue as above until we reach dimension 2. it is standard to write down an element of I. with positive eigenvalue. then inversion maps it to a hyperplane. and look at its action on the standard orthogonal frame.g'(S.(Sn_2) . Exactly as above.L". If Sn_2 is a Euclidean hyperplane. 0) is an eigenvector of Dg(0).3 mapping the positive half of 9'(S2) .Tm_1). hence . Continuing in this manner. and 112. with the positive half mapped to 0. g preserves I:'.5 to extend h to I_". with positive entries.g1(Sn_3) onto H"-2. Similarly.3. and the positive half of tm+1 . we have found g' c.Sn_2 to H". so that we can regard g2 as an element of I_". and require that g(x) = 1. the positive half of t"-' .S"_2 has not been mapped to H". oo). then g(x) can be chosen arbitrarily on the positive half of T. there is a motion 92 a O" mapping g. 1E2. Sn_3 to !fin-3. and g preserves orientation.. and observe that hog' is the desired map.2. x e E".) onto H2. it is routine to find a fractional linear transformation h' mapping g'(S0) to {0. 1. then follow this sequence of maps with the rotation (x. where g' maps Sk to Ik for k >. . Since g preserves E'. . if x is any point on the positive half of S. (1. t) -+ (x. Since g(0) = 0. if necessary.1.Sn_2 to H"-'. oo}. 00. g is unique once this choice is made. . since g is conformal. For n = 2. maps the positive half of t` . to BIk. g(0. we follow this directly conformal map with the map z -> z so as to obtain h e I. If n = 2.) onto V. a I_" so that 9.Pm is H".0. Infinitesimally. that is. This necessarily maps g'(S.

where giS = 1.58 IV. If g e L". is the reflection in the (n . It is easy to see that L" is generated by reflections. we obtain the same result for any g e V. Then k = go h-' is the identity on t". then by A. ._t. in P+'. that if j denotes reflection in t"-'. Since g(1. i. . g = 1..... t) . and preserves H". has a circle of fixed points and two additional fixed points.9. and so that g' preserves H". For each generator g e L".e. The stabilizer of H" in L"+' is V.11. where S. If g = 1.. Then there is a unique reflection g e L". The family of orthogonal trajectories to the above family is the family of hyperspheres centered at 0. and preserves H"'. Hence there is a reflection in S. Proof. The transformation (x. Proposition. It follows at once from the uniqueness of the reflection. A. it is the identity.. k is the identity on P. by choosing some oriented nest where S = Sn_2. . Consider a 2-plane P passing through 0. We conclude that k is the identity as an element of L"+. passes through S.13. Proof. Since Dg(0) is a positive multiple of the identity. hence g(P) = P. Let S be a hypersphere in t"-'. g' = 1. oo. 0. Since gI P is conformal.. Now g(P) is a 2-sphere passing through 0 and oo. since g preserves each ray through the origin.9..S. identity. then there is a unique n-sphere S. . 0)..t) is a reflection in t". there is an element h e L" so that hl t"-' = g l P-'. regarded as a mapping of E". The extension g' of g is the reflection in S.9. We conclude that g is the identity on every line through 0.12. and g interchanges the two halves of t"-' .0. It is immediate that if g # 1. then j commutes with every element of L".9. glS"-2 is the g preserves §n-2. then g' acts as the identity on P. Denote the stabilizer of H" in L"+' by G. g preserves each ray of each of these lines.9. The circle p fl §"-2 is pointwise fixed by g. It is immediate that L" a G. A. there is an element of L" mapping S onto f"-2. by the uniqueness part of A.5 defines an isomorphic embedding of L" into L"+'.(x._1 and is orthogonal to P. 0. Using composition. 0) = (1.. since g is conformal. 0).. viewed as acting on t". A. Groups of Isometrics g preserves each line in this family. A.10. By the uniqueness statement of A. We are now in a position to show that the extension of A. we have defined a g' e L"+' so that g' J P = g. it also preserves this family. . By A. Proposition.1)-sphere S. If g e G.. and (1. then g' # 1. The uniqueness follows from the uniqueness statement in A. hence it is a 2-plane.

. xn_1. t) .9. one choice standard embedding of HO into 1H"+' is given" by (x 1. We will also sometimes refer to P" as FI" normalized so as to act on B". We know from A. the boundary of B". En. with boundary values g.12 that L" is the stability subgroup of H" in L"+'.1/2).2. Observe that q'' restricted to S"'.. We start with the dilation x . Start with an element g e L". If we compose q-' with the mapping (x.. 1) to a point x e S". The two standard models for hyperbolic n-space are FI" and B". . 1). is as follows. is a conformal map of S"' onto t"'. as a conformal map of S. Call the composed map q-'. q(oo) = (0. then q'' (x) is the point where L intersects lE"'1. has an extension g": E"+` -. B.(x. Even though A.. g and g either both preserve or both reverse orientation). An important application of this remark is that 0" c P". Notice that both choices give us an embedding of L" into L"'.1).B. preserves each half of FD"+' . 0.(x. Our map. Follow this with the translation (x.-.One could equally well define q by drawing the line L from a point x e E"-' to (0. In this projection. Hyperbolic Geometry B.IV. then we invert in the unit sphere.t). t). t . then the translation. g is the image of g under the natural embedding. #(H"+1) = H"+1 By A.1)). (x.I.FI" and preserves parity (that is. t)-'(x1. so that there is a unique element g of L"'. one draws the line L from the north pole. it is sometimes convenient to have an explicit map between them. then we obtain a variation of the usual stereographic projection. Since S is orthogonal to 8H"+1.-. IV. that is. . the natural way to view the embedding of L" into L"' is given above. .9 assures us that there is a homeomorphism in L"+' mapping one onto the other. the natural point of view is as follows. t . From the point of view of Mobius transformations. the plane intersects the sphere at the equator. which is slightly more complicated than necessary. it follows that P" is the stability subgroup of B" in L"+'. then q(x) is the point of intersection of L with S"-' (of course. The group of hyperbolic isometries of B" is defined by P" = qL"q-'. Otherwise the projection is the usual one. acting as a conformal map of ". Hyperbolic Geometry 59 There is another embedding of L" into L"+' that is worth mentioning. there are exactly two choices for g. and the other choice interchanges the two halves of H"+' . From the point of view of intrinsic geometry. B.(x. t) .FI" and reverses parity.x/2. then regard E" as the boundary of FI"+'.x. Extend the embedded H" to a Euclidean sphere S c E"+' Every g E L". so that we now have a map from B" onto FI". so that the composed image of B" is the half-space t > 1. The . t) . . (0. The parity preserving embedding is the standard one.

Note that 0-I" is complete in this metric. Proof. for every m # n. 11 carries over to an inclusion of P" into P"+I B.xt) accomplishes this. p B. x' = (0. Groups of Isometrics The inclusion of L" into 0_"+' given by A. and that x' is higher than x. ®" c P". Proposition. then the hyperbolic length of v is (Y(dvm/ds)z)tn (' 1 ds >_ I dv" f0t v"(s) ds.. If v(s) = (vl (s). that is.e. 1).S. Proposition. P" acts transitively on B".. 0). hence it suffices to show that we can map any point of the form (x. P" in fact acts transitively on the tangent space to B". Equality in the above holds only if dv. and maps (x. In H"...60 IV. x') = log(a). we can assume that x' lies on the same vertical line as x. .5. so we can not only map x to 0. B. o v"(s) Ws The expression on the right is the hyperbolic length of the Euclidean line joining x to x'. in particular. normalized as above. .. The points of OH" = 1'"-' are infinitely far from any interior point... it is the arc between x and x' of the unique (Euclidean) circle passing through these points. equality holds only if v is this straight line.3.. v"(s)) is any path from x to x'. using transitivity of points. the hyperbolic distance d(x.4. 0... we can assume that x = (0.. there is a unique geodesic between x and x'.. We already know that the orthogonal group. to the origin. x > 0.x)/(l . parameterized by the unit interval... The extension of this transformation from P' to P" preserves B". but we can also map an arbitrary direction at x to an arbitrary direction at 0. a) a > 1. p As in dimension 2. . t"-'. 0. the transformation g(t) = (t .. 0) to the origin.. and then using transitivity of directions. Proof. a subset of H" is compact if and only if it is closed and bounded. the geodesics are the arcs of circles orthogonal to the boundary. 0.."/ds = 0. is called the sphere at infinity of the hyperbolic space. An easy computation shows that for x and x'. This follows from the fact that 0" acts transitively on the set of directions at 0. Let x and x' be points of H".. We conclude that for general x and x'. i. For n = 1..0. and orthogonal to 00-0".

Hyperbolic Geometry 61 B. Then there is an element f2 a O" with D(f2 of. Since f2 of.e. Hence g e V. 1_" is the full group of isometries of 0-0". it preserves every hypersphere centered at the origin..7.e. Regard the hyperbolic space as H". and g I L = 1). g interchanges the two half spaces bounded by L. Also. 0 B.IV. we will identify these as hyperbolic lines or planes. the Euclidean k-spheres orthogonal to the boundary are k-planes. One example of this is the following. Let x be a point of H". Theorem. . Where there is some danger of confusion. then for any point x e L. D(f. Proof. The stabilizer of the origin in P" is 0". and D(g-' o g')(x) = 1. Since L and 80. 0 &11. Then there is a unique (hyperbolic) k-plane through x whose tangent space at x is L. since the two geometries are conformally the same.10. o g)(0) is an orthogonal transformation. and preserves every sphere centered at the origin. Corollary. B. reflection in L keeps 1-I" invariant. then there is an element f. i. The isometry f2 of.6. Let g e !" be such that g(0) = 0. and let g be the reflection in this hypersphere. In hyperbolic space (that is. e IP" with f. Similarly. o g)(0) = 1. Let g be some isometry of B".. Proposition. B. and Dg(0) = 1.0" are orthogonal. H" or B"). At the origin in B".B. Then there is a unique reflection g in L (i. and let L be a k-dimensional subspace of the tangent space at x. o g preserves every (Euclidean) ray emanating from the origin. Corollary. for these are hyperbolic geodesics. If g' is another reflection in L. from which it follows that its differential at the origin preserves the length of every tangent vector. then g = 1. o g preserves every ray emanating from the origin. any true statement about planes and angles at a point in Euclidean geometry is also true in hyperbolic geometry. If g(O) # 0. Proposition. complete L to a hypersphere in s". Since f. B. we regard Euclidean circles orthogonal to the boundary as being lines. the two notions of k-plane coincide. Hence the planes in hyperbolic geometry have the same incidence relations as those in Euclidean geometry. hence g = g'. B. Proof. o g is an isometry. o g(O) = 0. Let L be a hyperbolic hyperplane. g-' o g'(x) = x. If x # y are points of hyperbolic space. then the perpendicular bisector of the line segment between x and y is a hyperplane.9. it is the identity. g is a hyperbolic isometry.

Let S be a hyperbolic sphere centered at 0 e B". The set of fixed points of g is the nullspace of I . Let w be the point where the line segment between z and y crosses L.12. Groups of Isometrics Proposition. A sphere centered at any other point is just g(S). By A. x) < d(z. for some g e P. then it is parabolic. the case we are most interested in. Since g(S) does not pass through oo. Classification of Elements of U" C. A sphere is of course the set of points at a given distance from a given point. Then d(x. For n odd. hyperbolic spheres are Euclidean spheres (in general. Reflection in L keeps every point of L fixed and interchanges x and y. g(S) is a sphere in E". an orientation preserving non-trivial element of 0' has exactly one fixed direction."' to an element of 0". C. the fixed point set of a general elliptic element of L" is a hyperbolic k-plane. and has exactly one fixed point on aw. z) = d (x. then it is elliptic.2. this line is the axis of g. Regard g e 0" as a linear transformation acting on E". no point of H can be closer to y than to x. In H" (or in P"). Proposition. let H be the half space containing x. every element of 0" has at least one eigenvalue = ± 1. The classification of the elements of L" is very similar to that of I. If g is elliptic. Proof. this is both a Euclidean and a hyperbolic k-plane. it is a Euclidean sphere.g. y)}.I. Let x # y be points of hyperbolic space. and 0" acts transitively on the directions at 0. For n = 3.B. In B". We conclude that every elliptic element of L" is conjugate in I. W. Proof.8. w) + d(w.8. The . w) + d(w. No point of H is equidistant from x and y. contradicting the fact that there is a unique geodesic connecting x to z. w does not lie on the line between x and z. B. z). then normalize so that g acts on B". L divides hyperbolic space into two half spaces. Since 0" c P". z) = d(y. for some k < n. S is also a Euclidean sphere. Assume there is a point z in H equidistant from x and y. g e 0". Then by B. so by continuity. only the transformations here are somewhat more complicated. Then H = {zI d(z. If g has a fixed point in H". with different centers and radii). This means that an elliptic element g e M has a unique hyperbolic line of fixed points in H3. Therefore.C. and let L be the perpendicular bisector of the line segment joining x to y. Hence every point of L is equidistant from x and y. z) = d (y. and so that a fixed point of g is at 0. Every g e !L" has at least one fixed point in the closure of H". otherwise it is loxodromic.62 IV. if g is not elliptic. Since z e H.

W.C. Classification of Elements of L

63

endpoints of the axis are the fixed points of g on C; one easily sees that this is an elliptic element of M.

C3. Now assume that g e U' is not elliptic. If g has three distinct fixed points, xt, x2, x3, in t"', then consider the circle C determined by these three points. Since g fixes three points on C, it keeps C

invariant. Further, by A.9, gIC = 1. Next let P be the 2-plane in H" whose
boundary is C; observe that since g(C) = C, g(P) = P. Complete P to a Euclidean 2-sphere, and use A.9 again to conclude that g I P = 1. We have shown that if g has three distinct fixed points in OH", then g is elliptic.

C.4. Using A.9, we can map any pair of distinct points on the sphere at infinity to any other such pair. There is clearly a unique line between 0 and oo; hence there is a unique line between any pair of distinct points on the sphere at infinity. Suppose that g E I_" is loxodromic, with fixed points z and z'. Let A be the line in H" joining z to z'; A is the axis of g. Conjugate g by an element of I." so that A is the vertical line {(0, t)I t > 0}; that is, after conjugation, the fixed points of g on the sphere at infinity are at 0 and co. Pick a point x on the axis A of g; then g(x) also lies on A. There is a dilation d, with d o g(x) = x, hence d o g I A = 1. Since D(d o g) (0) is a multiple of an orthogonal transformation, and is the identity in one direction, it is orthogonal. We conclude that there is an orthogonal transformation r, where r fixes the vertical direction, so that r o d o g(0) = 0, and D(r o d o g)(0) = 1. Then g' = r o d o g keeps I-0" invariant, and pointwise fixes A. For any (n - 1)-sphere S, centered at 0, g'(S) is an (n - 1)-sphere centered at 0 (the reflection in g'(S) interchanges 0 and co), of the same Euclidean radius (S and g'(S) both intersect A at the same fixed point

of g'). Since g' keeps B" invariant, g' e P"; by B.9, g' = 1. We conclude that g-t = rod; that is, g is a rotation followed by a dilation. Since rotations and dilations with the same fixed points on the sphere at infinity commute, we can
also regard gas a dilation followed by a rotation. Of course if d is trivial, then g is not loxodromic but elliptic.

CS. As in dimension 2, a loxodromic transformation which is conjugate to a
dilation is called hyperbolic. The dilation x A.2x can be realized as the product of two reflections: first, reflect in the unit sphere, then reflect in the sphere I x I = 7. Conversely, if g is defined as the product of two reflections, in disjoint spheres, then every circle orthogonal to the two spheres is invariant under g; hence g is hyperbolic.

C.6. The last case is that g is parabolic. We normalize so that the fixed point of

g is at co, and we regard g as acting on OH" - {co} = E"'. Then there is a translation f so that f o g(0) = 0; i.e., fog is loxodromic or elliptic with fixed points at 0 and oo. Then fog = rod, where r e O"-t, and d is a dilation or the
identity.

64

IV. Groups of Isometrics

Write g(x) = r o d(x) + b, and use the contracting mapping principle to observe

that since g has no finite fixed point, d must be trivial. Also, regarding r as a linear transformation, and b as a vector, b is not in the range of 1 - r. The range and nullspace of 1 - r are orthogonal, so there are vectors y, and y2 with b = g(O) = (r - 1)(y,) + y2, where (r - 1)(y2) = 0. Now conjugate g by the translation x - x + y,; after this conjugation r(b) = b. Next, conjugate by a dilation so that IbI = 1, and, finally, conjugate by a rotation to obtain the
normal form for a parabolic transformation: g(x) = r(x) + b, where b = (0, 1) and r(b) = b.

C.7. We have shown that if g e L" is non-trivial, then the fixed point set of g, in its action on (?", is either empty, one point, or a sphere of dimension at most n - I (n - 2 if g is orientation preserving). As in dimension 2, if g e 1_" has finite order, then g is elliptic, and if g is an elliptic element of a discrete subgroup of L", then g has finite order. C.8. As in dimension 2, most elements of L" keep no ball in I"-' invariant. If g is elliptic, then we can assume that it is a rotation acting on B". If g keeps

some Euclidean ball on S"' invariant, then g must fix the center of the ball; i.e., g has an eigenvalue equal to + 1. Conversely, if I - g is singular, then g has at least one pair of antipodal fixed points on the sphere at infinity; every
ball on the sphere at infinity, which has one of these points as center, is also kept invariant by g. Therefore, in this case, except perhaps for these two fixed points of g, every point on the sphere at infinity lies on the boundary of an invariant
ball.

If g is loxodromic, then we can assume that the fixed points of g are at 0 and

oo in E"-', and that g = do r, as above. It is clear that the fixed points lie on the boundary of every invariant ball; also, d keeps every hyperplane through the origin invariant. Therefore g keeps a ball in l"-' invariant if and only if
the ball is a Euclidean half-space kept invariant by r; r keeps such a half-space invariant if and only if it fixes the direction orthogonal to the boundary hyper-

plane. We have shown that g keeps a ball invariant if and only if + 1 is an
eigenvalue of r. In this case, the boundary of the invariant hyperplane might be unique. If g is parabolic, then we normalize so that g(x) = r(x) + b, where b = (0, 1) and r(b) = b. Every invariant ball contains oo in its closure, so is a half space. Also, every invariant ball contains a vertical line. If r = 1, then every hyperplane containing a vertical line is invariant. If r # 1, then the invariant half spaces come in parallel families: for each family, the common normal to the boundary lies in the null space of I - r, and is orthogonal to the vertical direction. In this case again, if g has one invariant ball, then for every non-fixed point x on the sphere at infinity, there is an invariant ball whose boundary passes through x.

IV-D. Convex Sets

65

IV.D. Convex Sets
D.I. In this section, we restrict our attention to hyperbolic 3-space, X03, and its boundary V. For a set Y c H3, the convex hull of Y is simply the smallest convex set containing Y. For a set y c E2, the convex hull, K(Y) is the intersection of all the closed half spaces in H3 whose Euclidean boundary, on the sphere at infinity, contains Y If G is a Kleinian group, then the associated convex region K = K(G) is the convex hull of the limit set, A (G).

D.2. Let W be a simple closed curve in S2. Then W divides §2 into two closed topological discs; we label one of these discs as the inside disc, B and the other as the outside disc, B2. Then K(B1) fl K(B2) = K(W). The boundary in 033 of
K(B1) is called the outside boundary of K (W), and the boundary of K(B2) is called

the inside boundary of K(W). The reason for this terminology is that a path in 033 starting in the inside disc and ending in the outside disc enters K(W) through the inside boundary, and leaves K(W) through the outside boundary. To see this, normalize so that W is a bounded curve in V. Then the inside boundary (that is, the boundary of the convex hull of the outside region) is defined by hyperbolic planes whose boundary circles lie inside or on W; Similarly, the outside boundary is defined by hyperbolic planes whose boundary circles lie outside or on W.
If W is a circle, then K(W) is the plane whose Euclidean boundary is W In this case, the inside and outside boundaries coincide. Let H be a closed half space in 0-3, where H contains K(B2); that is, the Euclidean boundary of H does not intersect 92. In H3, H is bounded by a plane P. If P has non-empty intersection with the inside boundary of K(W), then P is called an inside bounding plane for W. The outside bounding planes are defined similarly. Notice that if P is an inside bounding plane, then OP intersects W in at least two points.

D.3. The inside, or outside, boundary of K = K(W) is a union of subsets of boundary planes. Two planes intersect in a line, so in general there are lines of intersection of boundary planes on OK. For general sets, three planes intersect
in a point; however, this does not happen on 3K.
Proposition. Let W be a simple closed curve in §2, and let K = K(W). Let P, and P2 be inside boundary planes of K, where L =P, fl P2 # 0. Then L c OK. Proof. Assume not. Then there is a third boundary plane P3, where P3 intersects L at exactly one point. Normalize so that this point of intersection is at the origin

in 033. The three planes, regarded as Euclidean planes, divide §2 into eight
spherical triangles. One of these triangles, call it T, contains W in its closure. Let C be the circle on §2 passing through the vertices of T, and let S be the hyperbolic plane whose boundary is C. Since the spherical length of any side of T is less

66

IV. Groups of Isometrics

than n, S separates T from the origin. The half space bounded by S and
containing T on its boundary contains K. This contradicts the assumption that
OeOK.

DA One can understand the above as saying that aK consists of some number of faces, including degenerate ones (a degenerate face is just a line). Each face is the intersection of aK with a boundary plane, and is a convex hyperbolic polygon without vertices (see IV.F); this includes the possibility of a degenerate polygon; i.e., a line. Of course, there might be sequences of boundary faces accumulating to a boundary line of some other face. A corollary of the above is that for every point x on OK, there is a complete line containing x, and contained in OK.
D.S. Proposition. Let L be a line in M. Both endpoints of L on l~2 lie on W.

Proof. Let x be an endpoint of L; suppose that x is not on W. Then there is
a circular neighborhood U of x which also does not meet W. Let P be the plane whose boundary at infinity is W. One of the half spaces bounded by P contains W on its boundary; hence it contains K. We conclude that some points of L are not on OK.
D.6. Proposition. Let G be a Kleinian group, and let W be a simple closed curve in Q(G), with closed inside disc B1, and closed outside disc B2. Suppose that Al is

precisely invariant under the subgroup H in G. Then the inside boundary of
K = K(W) is precisely invariant under H in G. Proof. Let g e G. If g e H, then g preserves B1, so it preserves B2; from which it follows that g preserves K(B2); hence it preserves the inside boundary of K(W).

If g#H, set W' = g(W), and call g(B1) the inside of W'. Then g maps the inside boundary of K onto the inside boundary of K' = g(K). A boundary plane for the inside boundary of K is a plane whose boundary at infinity contains B2; that is, the circle at infinity of the boundary of this plane is contained in B1.

Similarly, a boundary plane for K' has, as its boundary at infinity, a circle contained in g(B1) ). Since the inside of W and the inside of W' have disjoint interiors, these two boundary planes can intersect in at most one point on the sphere at infinity, (this is obvious in H', normalized so that oo lies outside both W and W').

W.E. Discrete Groups of Isometries
E.I. A natural topology on L" is the compact-open topology; that is, the topology

of uniform convergence on compact subsets of H", or on t"-1. L" can also be

IV.E. Discrete Groups of Isometrics

67

regarded as a matrix group. L', the orientation preserving half of L2, is canonically isomorphic to PSL(2;li); L3+ is canonically isomorphic to PSL(2;C); also for every n, L"+ is canonically isomorphic to a subgroup of index 2 in SO(n, I),

the group of (n + 1) x (n + 1) matrices, with real entries and determinant 1, which keep invariant the form x; + + X.2 - xn+t .
The different views of L", as acting on H", or on 1'"-1, or as a matrix group, yield equivalent topologies on L". For n = 2 or 3, the equivalence of the matrix topology of PSL with the compact-open topology on P-' is almost immediate. Since we will not use SO(n, 1), we will not prove the equivalence of this topology with the others.
E.2. Proposition. Let { g,.) be a sequence of elements of V. g," -+ g uniformly on compact subsets of H" if and only if gm -+ g uniformly on compact subsets of E"-'

Proof. It suffices to assume that g = 1. Let K be the closed ball of (hyperbolic) radius p about 0, and let z be some point of S"-'. To find gm(z), draw a hyperbolic line L from z through 0, and look at gm(L). Since gm(L) is (hyperbolically)
uniformly close to L in K, it is (Euclideanly) uniformly close to L throughout G3";

hence its endpoints are close to L on all of S"'. Similarly, if gm(z) converges to the identity uniformly on compact subsets of S"-', then gm(z) converges to the identity uniformly on S"-'. Locate a point x of a compact set K c H" by drawing two orthogonal hyperbolic lines, L and M through x; then the point of intersection of gm(L) and gm(M) is g,"(x). The endpoints of g,(L) and and gm(M) are uniformly close to the endpoints of L and M, respectively; hence gm(L) and gm(M) are (Euclideanly) uniformly close to L and M, respectively. Then, since K is compact, their point of intersection is
uniformly close to x.

0

E3. Let X be one of the spaces H" (or, equivalently, a"), S" (or, equivalently, t"), or L", and let G be the group of isometrics of X.
Theorem. Let x be a point of X, and let G be a subgroup of G. G acts discontinuously

at x if and only if G is a discrete subgroup of G.

Proof. If G is not discrete, then there is a sequence of distinct elements {gm} of G, with gm - g e G. Then gm o g-' (x) -' x, so G does not act discontinuously at x. Now assume that G does not act discontinuously at x. Let U be the ball of

radius p about x, and let gm be a sequence of distinct elements of G, with
gm(U)fl u # 0 for every m. Then d(gm(x),x) < 2p; hence there is a subsequence with gm(x) -* y e X. Find an element f e G with f(y) = x. Then f o gm(x) - x.

Normalize so that x = 0. Since the orthogonal group is compact, there is a
subsequence with D(f o gm)(x) -+ g e ®". It follows that f o gm - g. Hence G is not discrete. O

68

IV. Groups of Isometrics

E.4. Corollary. G acts discontinuously at some point of X if and only if G acts discontinuously at every point of X.
E.5. Note that the proof in E.3 is independent of the radius p.
Proposition. If G is a discrete group of isometries of X, then for every x e X, and for every p > 0, the ball of radius p about x contains only finitely many translates
of X.

E.6. As in II.E, there are two equivalent definitions of discontinuity.

Proposition. Let G be a discrete subgroup of G, and let x e X. Then StabG(x) is finite, and there is a number p > 0 so that the ball of radius p about x is precisely invariant under Stab0(x).
Proof. For p' sufficiently small, the ball of radius p' about x contains no translate of x other than x itself. Set p = p'12; then the ball of radius p is precisely invariant under Stab(x). Also observe that by E.3, Stab(x) is finite.
E.7. Another corollary of E.3 is that the set of points of X fixed by some non-trivial element of G is nowhere dense in X. First, by C.2, the set of fixed points of each g e G is a k-plane, with k < n. If the set of these fixed points were dense in some neighborhood U of x, then choose a neighborhood U' e U so that U' is precisely

invariant under Stab(x). If the non-trivial element g e G fixes some point of U', then there are other points of U' that are not fixed by g; hence g e Stab(x). The number of g in Stab(x) is finite, so the fixed points lie on at most a finite set of hyperplanes through x.

W.F. Fundamental Polyhedrons
F.I. We continue the notation of the preceding section: X is one of the spaces
H" (or B"), S" (or E"), or E", and G is its group of isometrics. A hyperplane in X divides it into two half-spaces.

A (convex) polyhedron D in X is the intersection of countably many open half-spaces, where only finitely many of the hyperplanes, defining these halfspaces, meet any compact subset of X. The closure b of D has a natural cell decomposition given by the intersections of the defining hyperplanes. The k-cells in this decomposition are called the k-faces of D, or of D. Also, the codimension one faces are called sides, and the codimension two faces are called edges. Each edge lies in the intersection of exactly two sides. A polyhedron in dimension two is called a polygon; in this case, the codimension two faces are usually called vertices.

with 9202) = s2. (ii) For every x c. F. Fundamental Polyhedrons 69 F. . Another way of expressing condition (iv) is to say that the tesselation of X by translates of D is locally finite. A polyhedron D is a fundamental polyhedron for G if the following hold. = g. Condition (i) then says that no two points in D are equivalent. then the identifications of the sides induce an equivalence relation on b. Like e.) = e. we generate a sequence {em} of edges.4. there is a side s2. and there is a side pairing transformation g with gi (s. The cyclically ordered sequence of edges {e1. a sequence {g. each equivalence class of edges can be cyclically ordered as follows.F. F5. for each edge lies on the boundary of exactly two sides. (i) For every non-trivial g E G. Again. call one of them si. . (e. the sequence of edges is periodic. hence all three sequences are periodic.X. (iv) Any compact set meets only finitely many G-translates of D. and a sequence of pairs of sides. Set e2 = g. with g(x) a D. (e...-'. If D is a fundamental polyhedron. and a side pairing transformation g2. F3. e2 lies on the boundary of exactly two sides. Continuing in this manner.} of side pairing transformations. and there is an element g. h = gk o o g i is called the cycle transformation at e. call the other s2. If condition (ii) holds. a G. (iii) The sides of D are paired by elements of G. Let G be a discrete subgroup of G. but not more than twice. that is. one of them is si.. an edge can appear twice in a cycle.) = s. then in order to check if (iv) holds. ek } is called a cycle of edges. k is the period of the cycle. The element g. Let x be a relative interior point of e and let L be the 2-plane through . then one cycle can be obtained from the other by cyclic permutation and/or by reversing the order in which the edges appear in the cycle.. and (s')' = s. there is a g e G. x . ). for every side s there is a side s'. It lies on the boundary of two sides. Let k be the least period so that all three sequences are periodic with period k (except in the case that X = S". This equivalence relation also defines an equivalence relation on the edges of D.2.(s) = s'.. g(D) n D = 0. Two of these cycles are equivalent if they both contain the same set of edges.. Of course.W. it suffices to prove that every point of D has a neighborhood meeting only finitely many translates of D. These satisfy the conditions: g.y if there is a side pairing transformation g with g(x) = y. Then there is a side si. Start with an edge e. A consequence of condition (iv) is that each point of b is equivalent to at most finitely many other points of D. Since each point of e. is called a side pairing transformation. is equivalent to at most finitely many other points of D. k is the least period of the sequence of pairs of sides). that is. . and D has exactly two sides. . Each edge lies in exactly one equivalence class of cycles. with g. Observe that gk o o g..

the 0 conjugating element is a product of side pairing transformations.. even though Z need not be a manifold.) = 2n/q. We continue with X and G as above. we next see 9i' o92 ' ogi(9i'(D)) = 9i 1 ogz(D). with p(x. s > 1.) = z. F. then continuing around e..6.z') = infd(x.. and the corresponding cycle transformation has order q..+1). We are primarily interested in the distance function d(z. It is easy to see that with this definition of distance. We can reconstruct this distance function in D as follows. Equivalently. Then d(z. we can project this infinitesimal metric to Z = X/G. then we can draw a path from some point 0 in D to x..I.G. or of h-'.. is h ogI'(D). continuing around e.. The cycle transformation at an edge equivalent to e. where the path does not pass through any translate of a codimension s face of D. we can use the natural projection p: X . We look at the trace of the translates of D in L. and so on. `(D) = h-` (D) might not equal D. z') = inf E d(xm. The next translate we see. Assume that G is a discrete subgroup of G. Then h9 = 1. the order q depends only on the equivalence class of the cycle. there is a least positive integer q so that h9(D) = D. We defined the period k so that when we do come back to D. g o** o g.) = p(x. where p(x) = z. However.x')..z') on Z. . That is. we see g i' (D). The two sides of D which meet at an edge e meet at a well defined angle a(e) measured from inside D. The side pairing transformations generate G.70 IV. and define d(z. obtained from following the translates around. and p(x') = z'. F..ek} is a cycle of edges. in any case. the corresponding translate of D. Let x and x' be points of D. p(x... where p(x) = z.xj. then gi o92' ogs'(D). Then there is a conjugate of a side pairing transformation which maps each translate of D along this path to the next translate of D.).xj} in D. rather than the infinitesimal metric. is a power of h-`. is a conjugate of h. x.Z. The space X has a Riemannian metric on it in which G acts as a group of isometries. where the infimum is taken over all finite sets of points {x xi. Eventually we come around back to D. . We have shown that if {e.7... and p(xj) = z'. Proposition. The Dirichlet and Ford Regions G. This distance is defined to be the infimum of the lengths of paths connecting z to z'. If x is any point in X. and p(x') = z'.. then Y a(e. On the other side of e. W. and so on. the space Z = %/G is a complete metric space. and choose a point 0 in X which is not fixed by any non-trivial element of G. Proof. Groups of Isometrics x orthogonal to e.

each side of D corresponds to a unique element of G. for every h.. For each g e G. g-' (0)). D9 = {x e X I d(x. g'(0)) = d(g(x). h(0)) for all h e G. 0) < d(x. Reflection in one of these spheres C interchanges oo and g-'(oo). . i. Theorem. as an element of L"'. g(0)) 5 d(x. and x is some point of D. g(0)) }. Then there is a (not necessarily unique) element g with d(x. hence it lies in D. h(0)) for all h # g.G. It follows from E. h(0)) for all h e G.. Hence g(19) = 19 = 19 Assume first that 19 # 19. centered at 0. Observe that r = g o p o q has fixed points at g(oo) and oo.5 that there are only finitely many translates of 0 within the ball of radius 2p. the perpendicular bisector of the line joining 0 to g(O) is a hyperplane. It follows that g-`(x) lies in D. If g is a non-trivial element of G. then d(g(x). 0) > 2p.. 0). writing an arbitrary element of G as g o h. g(0)) = d(x. and d(x. 19 is called the isometric sphere of g. Also observe that since g(0) = 0 only for g = 1. h(0)) = d(x. it also preserves the hypersphere 19. 0 G3. g o h(0)) = d(g-' (x). r is elliptic.2. and the hyperbolic line in H"I with endpoints at g(oo) and oo is kept pointwise fixed by r. where oQ is not fixed by any element of G. 0) = d(x. 0) < d(x. Proof. i. Then. Assume next that to = 19. so g(C) is a Euclidean sphere centered at g(oo). The Dirichlet region D.e. The Dirichlet and Ford Regions 71 For any non-trivial element g e G. then g(D) n K = 0. Denote reflection in 19 by p. and let q be the reflection in the Euclidean perpendicular bisector of the line joining g-'(oo) to g(oo).W. Set r = go p. g o h(0)) > d(x. Hence there is a unique hypersphere 19 in this family. Hence g-'(x) also lies on a side s' of D. d(g-' (x). To prove condition (ii). is the intersection of all the half spaces D9. 0) = d(x. We conclude that r is a Euclidean rotation centered at g(oo). D is a convex polyhedron.. 0). g(0)) < d(x. Let D9 be the half space of points closer to 0 than to g(0). 0) < d(x. It is clear that the radius of g(C) is a continuous and monotone decreasing function of the radius of C. d(g-' (x). hence g(x) is not in D. d(x. Then there is a unique g e G with x e b.2. Exactly as above. 0) = d(x. let x be some point of X.e. It follows that g-1(s) = s'. It is clear that the isometric sphere is unique. This in condition (i) of F. Since there are only finitely many points of the form g(0) in any compact set. and for any h :A g-'. Then d(g-' (x). g(0)). G. 0) = d(g-' (x). Let G be a discrete subgroup of L"+'. observe that r is a Euclidean rotation centered at g`(oo) = g(oo). viewed as acting on Gz". where p is reflection in 19. so that 19 and g(19) have the same radius. 0) = d(g-`(x). If d(g'(0). The Dirichlet region D is a fundamental polyhedron for G. Hence reflection in g(C) interchanges g(oo) and oo. i. Let K be compact. we can assume that K is the closed ball of radius p about 0. consider the family of Euclidean hyperspheres centered at g-'(oo)..e. Let x be a point of the relative interior of a sides of D.

of course). where s is a Euclidean motion. i. G. Let p be the Euclidean radius of the isometric sphere of g e G. Define h-' as the composition of reflection in P followed by reflection in Q. the perpendicular bisector of the line joining 0 to g-'(0). where p is reflection in I. We write that multiple as IDg(x)l. Let Q be the hyperplane through 0 which is orthogonal to L.r=h-'oge®". where h is hyperbolic and r e O. Since they are disjoint. Then U g(U) is the set of all translates of U under G. Proof. and these sets are mutually disjoint. we could prove that the Ford region is a fundamental domain for G (a concept thus far defined only in dimension two). Y'(dia. where r E 0". the Ford region and the Dirichlet region centered at 0 coincide. Since g can be written as the composition of p and a Euclidean motion.7. D is the Ford region for G.4. and 1B coincide (inside B". G. we do this only for discrete subgroups of P". Proposition.H. As in II. The isometric sphere 1e divides I" into two discs. IDgl > 1. where Stab(0) is trivial. Write g = sop. Dg(x) is a positive multiple of an orthogonal matrix. where U is precisely invariant under the identity in G. and let D be the interior of the intersection of the closures of all the D9. Then IDg-'(x)I _ (Dh-'(x)I = I precisely on Pa. they cannot intersect (to see this. let D9 be the outside of I.(g(U))" < oo. To see this. However. normalize so that L is the line in H" from 0 to oo ). and inside I. Let U be a spherical disc about oo of the form (x e X I I x I > a) U {00 ). we can exclude U and sum the Euclidean volumes of the others. Let G be a discrete subgroup of P".e. G. P9. Write g"' = r-' o h-'. Proof. Proposition. We can write an arbitrary element g E P" as g = h o r. where Stab(0) is trivial then inside B". and the inside. and let P be the perpendicular bisector of L. and p is reflection in the isometric sphere I of g.5. For every point x. If G is a discrete subgroup of P". g # 1.72 IV. Since h-'og(0)=0. draw the hyperbolic line segment L from 0 to g(0). . G. followed by the reflection in a Euclidean hyperplane. Let p be the radius of 1.. the outside which contains oo..p2n<oo. Groups of Isometries We have shown that g = r o q o p. For each g E G. Thus his hyperbolic. Then z. I. is the set of points for which the differential Dg satisfies JDgl = 1.6. and h is the composition of the reflection in Pa. the outside of Ia is the set of points where IDgI < 1. It suffices to show that for every g e G. Since P and Q are both perpendicular to L. and r and q are Euclidean motions.

Proposition. g.} be a sequence of distinct elements of G. choose the subsequence so that the center of the isometric sphere I. g.(1). Apply this to the reflections in the isometric spheres of the elements of G . maps the outside of 1.(0) -. there is a side s'. Then there is a subsequence. Poincare's Polyhedron Theorem H.?: 2.j. a G. Since s and s' are both sides of D. or they lie on opposite sides. and there is an element g. satisfying the following conditions. pzn/&' = 6-" pzn. We continue our assumptions on X and G. with gn.(D) n D # 0. necessarily to x. generated by the identifications of the sides of D. and that D is a fundamental polyhedron for G. G.". (i) g:(s) = s'. onto the inside of I.H. is discrete. where the sides of D are pairwise identified by elements of G. That is. this gives us our third condition: (iii) g. The result now follows from the fact that g".I. As in II.(D) and D either both lie on the same side of s'. Let {g". G. are called the side pairing transformations. Let {g".C. W. our goal is to write down conditions on D to guarantee that the group G.. 6 is the distance from the center of I to aU. E". not necessarily distinct from s.B. Let G be a discrete subgroup of P".H. . or Sn (or 2").} be a sequence of distinct elements of the discrete subgroup G c P". We also assume that n . and p denotes reflection in 1. Poincare's Polyhedron Theorem 73 Observe that the proof of I. then of course. that is. so that gm(z) -' x uniformly on compact subsets of C" . be the isometric sphere of g. then pz/S 5 diaE(p(U)) 5 2pz/b. > F..=gs1.". and so that the center of the isometric sphere 1 also converges. Then dia(Im) -+ 0.7 is independent of dimension. The isometrics g.2. where U contains oo. call it y./. and let I. (u)93.D.W. we assume that for each side s of D. and a point y e Sn-1. if p is the radius of 1.2.(D) fl D = 0. that is. converges to some point. Proof. Corollary. to obtain 00 > (diaE(g(U))" p2. X is one of the spaces H" (or 0").{ y}.9. together with the fact that the radii of these spheres tend to zero. H. If they lie on the same side. The first condition is that the sides of D are paired by elements of G. x e Sn-1.. Assume that we are given a polyhedron D. and G is the group of isometrics of X.

of -1... . so that the projection p: D -+ D* is continuous and open. the condition above guarantees that each cycle is finite. keeps e invariant. ni=. is called a reflection relation. For each edge e = e. If e' is equivalent to e.) and (g2. The relations in G. Continuing as in F. . If this occurs. g2 = g. let {e1. h depends on a choice of a side abutting e.4.5. (iv) For every point z e D*. defined to be the abstract group generated by the side pairing transformations. there is a positive integer t so that h' = 1. The pairs (g.2. factored by this equivalence relation.5. measured from inside D. As in F. and let gl. We endow X* with the . the edges come in cycles. this is the content of H. There is essentially only one cycle relation for each equivalence class of cycles. at the edge e. of the form h' = 1. and side pairing transformations all have period k). Observe that if there is a side s. where each point of D is equivalent only to itself. Exactly as in F. and those translates of D that we know to abut D. = 1.7. H. Our next two conditions are related to the edges. requires that there be only finitely many points in each equivalence class of points of D. Then the cycle transformation h = h(e) = gk o o g. We next consider the equivalence relation on G* x D generated by the following. then the closures of these fit together without overlap. k is chosen to be the least period so that the sequences of edges. to fill out a neighborhood of D. The side pairing transformations induce an equivalence relation on D. Let G be the group generated by the side pairing transformations. ek } be the ordered set of edges in the cycle containing e (as in F. In order to state the last condition. H. and satisfying the reflection and cycle relations.5. x2) are equivalent if there is a side pairing transformation f with f(x1) = x2. p-1(z) is a finite set. are called the cycle relations. as elements of G*. and if. Let X* be G* x D.74 IV.. with the usual topology. There is an obvious homomorphism c: G* -+ G.5. H. pairs of sides. with s' = s. if we choose the other side to start with.6. Groups of Isometrics H3. we let a(e) be the angle. then h(e') is a conjugate of (h(e))I'. except along the translates of the sides.. (v) For each edge e. We require k (vi) E a(em) = 2n/t. We first form the group G*. the relation gs = 1.. Let D* be the space of equivalence classes.5. x. then condition (ii) implies that g. then condition (iv) of F.. we also endow G* with the discrete topology. The conditions listed so far are sufficient to guarantee that if we look only at D.. then we obtain h-` as the cycle transformation. gk be the corresponding side pairing transformations.12. we need the following construction. If D is to be a fundamental polyhedron for G. H..

(Think of a side pairing transformation g as defining "analytic continuation" from b to g(D). We remark that it is not at this point clear that this equivalence relation is locally finite. x) in G* x D which are all identified in X*. z') = inf Z d(xm. That is. where for each a.10. We should also think of X* as the set of translates of b under the group G. there might be infinitely many points of the form (g. then the distance between points of X* is the infimum of the lengths of smooth paths joining them. (x1. It is easy to see that r is well defined and continuous. H. x. with p(x1) = z. P(x. where we regard overlapping. There is a natural map q: X* -. and the known relations of G (i. There is also a map r: X* . . in D.. Once we have established this. where q(x) = z. and q(x') = z'. Let D be a polyhedron with side pairing transformations satisfying conditions (i) through (vii).. x'). other than that given by the identifications of the sides. It is easy to see that this is the natural notion of distance on D*..W. and the reflection relations and cycle relations form a complete set of relations for G.x) = a(g*) (x)...9. is a homeomorphism onto a convex set. defined by r(g*. followed by the projection p from b to D*.X.7).. then X* is the "Riemann surface" of the "function" defined by this analytic continuation..1 1. We use this distance on X* and the projection q to define a distance on D*. that is. Lemma. Then every point z* e D* has a neighborhood U so that q-1(U) is a disjoint union of relatively compact open sets U. then r is the projection from this covering to X.Xk). Our last condition is (vii) D* is complete. H. so that the natural projection from G* x D to X is continuous. our eventual goal is to prove that r is a homeomorphism.). defined by projection on the second factor of G* x D.*. and p(xk) = z' (see F.xj.8. and incidentally.12.) = P(Xm+t ). where the infimum is taken over all finite sets of points Xk. d(z. H. rl U. D*. Theorem. It is easy to see that q is well defined and continuous. the distance d(z. we prove that r is a local homeomorphism. Poincare's Polyhedron Theorem 75 usual identification topology. H. Then G. where these different translates have been sewn together at the sides so that the map r is well defined. as lying on different sheets over X. D is a fundamental polyhedron for G.) H. that a is an isomorphism. In the lemma below. the relations of G*).e. we can use r to lift the local differential metric from X to X*. Let D be a polyhedron with side pairing transformations satisfying conditions (i) through (vi). z') between points of D* is the infimum of the distances d(x. One should view X* as the set of translates of D under G*.H. the group generated by the side pairing trans- formations is discrete.

. be the intersection of the ball of radius S about x. Notice first that G* acts as a group of homeomorphisms on X*... and for each a. J2 = 92 091.xtk)} is a complete set of equivalent points of G* x D. are all disjoint.. ilk = 1.x). let h = g. near (1. with D.13. Since x' is the only other point of D equivalent to x. Let {e1. . and let U = p(V).. these wedges are the sets (1 x V1).. these tk translates of D fit together without overlap. Define the tk elements of G*. Condition (v) also implies that the set of the form U. Condition (vi) asserts that. and there is a side pairing transformation g with g(s) = s'. is a homeomorphism onto a ball of radius 6/2. Set U = p(V). It follows that rJU. is a homeomorphism onto a ball of radius S. and fill out a neighborhood of x in that plane. observe that the sets V. be the minimum of the distance from x. set x' = g(x). It follows from condition (v) that 1. and let t be the order of h. byj1 = 91. We also remark that this lemma asserts that the translates of D. If x x'. j1. If x = x'.. = g* x V.x) in X*.. is a neighborhood of a point of the form (g*. let V be the intersection of the ball of radius 6/2 about x with b. under those side pairing transformations that are known to abut D. let b be the minimum distance from x to any side of D other than s. If x = x'. Note that V and V' are disjoint. and the union of the translates of the closure covers all of X*. no non-trivial translate under G* of 1 x D intersects it. these are disjoint open sets.. then near (1. these are the half balls I x V and g-' x V'. og1 oh". (jrk'-1 x Vk). jtk-1 = 9k-1 o.. rl U. Each connected component U.14. Next let x = x1 be an interior point of an edge et. with D. then let b be the distance from x to the nearest side. and of the distance Let 6 = 1/2 from xto any point xi # and let V. that is..76 IV. Let xm+1 = jm(x1).. and the distance from x' to any side of D other than s'.. the distance from x to any side of D other than s. precisely fill out a neighborhood of D. it is clear that ri U.ek} be the cycle of edges containing e1. of q-' (U) is a union of tk "wedges".. . jk+1 = 91 oh. If x is an interior point of D. lies in the intersection of two sides. and let V be the ball of radius b about x. the preimages of V in X* are precisely the sets of the form U. Set U = U p(Vm). then there is another side s'.ilk.. is a homeomorphism onto a ball of radius 6. Each component U. x). Near (1. let 8. .. each U. H. x) is a neighborhood of (1. these are 1 x V and g' x V. Since every point of V is equivalent only to itself. H.t o o g1 be the cycle transformation at e1. Jk = h. of q-1(U) consists of the union of two half balls.. and that 1 x D is a "fundamental domain" for this action. in the 2-plane orthogonal to e1. Each of the points x. Set U = p(V) U p(V'). If x jA x'. Each edge lies in the intersection of exactly two sides.. . If x is an interior point of a side s of D. let b be the minimum of the distance from x to x'.... and each side uniquely determines its side pairing transformation. .. Groups of Isometrics Proof. Let V (V') be the intersection of the ball of radius 6/2 about x (x').. x).. to any other side of D.

and rI U. and observe that for each a. to any x&. let b. and for each a < b.15. Hence for every component 0.. k # m.16. rIa0. . U. and for every point x. . restricted to any one of them.. and of the distance from x. is relatively compact in X*. hence. We assumed to start with that the sides of D are pairwise identified by elements of G. x). of q-'(0). rIa0. so that our lemma holds.). The boundary of p-'(0) lies entirely in codimension p faces of D. Let b = 1/2 min(b. X2. Let D be a polyhedron with identifications satisfying conditions (i) through (vi). The argument above shows that there are no translates of I x x on I x D in X*. It follows that each component 0. 2 5 p < j3. which is an interior point of a codimension p face of D. be the minimum of the distance from x. let IV. . Let F be a codimension ¢ face.. rl 0. Next suppose that for every p. Then r: X* -+ r(X*) is a covering. Set U = 0 x 0.. Let x = x. x). There is no difficulty showing that the components of q-'(0) are relatively compact. is a homeomorphism. which is convex. Each xm lies in the intersection of some number of sides of D. and let j be an element of G* with x. x. Poincare s Polyhedron Theorem 77 Using the action of G* on X*. for each x. if we show this. at xm. is a homeomorphism. we see that the same statement is true for an arbitrary point of the form (g*. is relatively compact in X*. but a covering of its image.. H.W. Let P be the codimension P face on which xm lies. is not only a local homeomorphism.. (we use the same notation for elements of G and for elements of G*.). and let x be an interior point of F. there is a neighborhood U of p(x). H. is a homeomorphism. Then 0 is the restriction of a neighborhood of z = p(x) to p(F.. and the union of the translates of D covers X. = p(Fm). 0 H.15 that only finitely many translates of 1 x D in X* intersect it at any point. and let F. The argument above is independent of the radius 3. in fact an isometry. and let 0 = U p(19. we showed in H.. Finally. is a homeomorphism onto a product of discs. Once we have proved that r is a homeomorphism. then we will certainly have that a is an isomorphism. to any other side of D. p < p. Corollary. this is equivalent to the statement that the tesselation of X by translates of D is locally finite. from which it will follow that the tesselation of X* by translates of I x D is locally finite. with the ball of radius b about xm. Since ft z 2. no non-trivial translate of D intersects D. be the intersection of F. other than the obvious ones. and that r.) = ..H. Near the point (1. Let 17.17. is easily seen to be the entire ft-sphere of radius S about x. For. and in D.). Let 0 = U p(P. this should cause no confusion). be the ft plane orthogonal to F. be the points of b that are equivalent to x. the image of rIa0. be the intersection of the ball of radius b about xm with F. Our goal is to show that r is a homeomorphism.

There are several special circumstances under which one or more of conditions (i)-(vii) of the preceding section are automatically fulfilled. we can lift w(s) to a path '(s) on X*. Hence w(s). it is easy to see that if x and x' are any two points of U then d(q(x). q o w(s) -+ z. 1. Since D* is complete. 1. we assume throughout this section that we are given a polyhedron with identifications satisfying these three conditions. to X*. Then the identifications of the sides of D generate G. for s sufficiently close to so. We have shown that we can lift the entire geodesic w.12. Continuing with the case that X has dimension 2. In this section. as in H. Hence we can continuously define the lift w(so). and let w be a geodesic emanating from b. r' is well defined in any ball of radius less than it about b. we describe some of these special circumstances. One can prove the same theorem for polyhedra that are not necessarily convex. and the reflection and cycle relations form a complete set of relations for G. observe that condition (v) is a consequence of (vi). Groups of Isometrics 1-1. We remark in conclusion that the convexity of D was used only in the definition of a polyhedron. 0 5 s 5 so. That is. if D has finitely many sides. Choose a sequence {sm) of numbers.19. where sm -+ so.). the main difficulty lies in defining such an object. r(x')).3. H. condition (vi) is used to show that each cycle . q o w(s. In particular. q(x')) 5 d(r(x). Conditions (i)-(iii) are basic. For s sufficiently close to so.18. the segment of w(s) with sm 5 s 5 sm+.. q o w(s) lies in a neighborhood U of z as in H. Corollary. so that for every m. W. Let b be some point in the image of r.I.78 IV.12-15. hence r is a homeomorphism. Parametrize w by arc length s and assume there is some first point so. H. w(sm+i )) < oo. we can locally lift w to X* near b. so that for s < so. lies in an open set of the form U.2. the points q o w(sm) converge to some point z. the lifting of geodesics defines a global inverse to the local homeomorphism r. Let D be a fundamental polyhedron for the discrete group G. but we cannot continuously lift w(s). each edge is just a point.I. the result again follows. On a sphere.+i )) 5 Y d(w(sm). Except on a sphere. Hence Y d(q o 0(s. in dimension 2. lies in one of the relatively compact sets of the form U.20. Special Cases I. in fact. so condition (iv) is automatically satisfied if each cycle of edges is finite. condition (iv) is satisfied. Since r is a local homeomorphism. Using the convexity of r(UQ). In dimension 2.

(vii). other than (v) are satisfied. Since h is orientation preserving. 1. call one of these sides s.. and x. and continue.. It is only in H" that one can have two sides with zero distance between them. we assume that D has only finitely many sides. Proposition. even though they do not intersect. Assume that there is a sequence Ix. If x2 is not also a point of tangency of s. I. in particular h` preserves orientation in that 2-plane. If D is relatively compact in X.. assume that the sum of the angles of the k edges in the cycle containing e is 2n/t. We now assume that X = H". Let g. we also assume that conditions (i) through (vi) are satisfied. gk with h(x) = gk o O g&) = x) then we call x an infinite edge. In dimension 2. we find side pairing transformations g1.. and D. .6.") is a Cauchy sequence. set X3 = 92(X2). then call the other side s2. Proposition. with side pairing transformations. satisfies conditions (i) through (vi) of IV. one can restate the completeness condition in terms of the identifications of those sides that extend to infinity. For finite sided polyhedra. We might have two sides that are tangent at some point x = x1 on the sphere at infinity. . when raised to an appropriate power.S. since e has finite length. Proof. 1.x. where z. Let X have dimension 3. Proposition. Finally. if it is. (that is.. As we have already remarked. D* is compact. h' preserves orientation on e. Assume that the finite sided polyhedron D c H" satisfies (i)-(vi) of IV. and let x2 = g1(x0. h' is the identity. We first assume that every infinite cycle transformation is parabolic. . be the side pairing transformation with g. find the side pairing transformation 92 with g2(s2) = S2. It is easy to see that every polyhedron in l_" satisfying conditions (i)-(vi) also satisfies the completeness condition. and some other side.IV. Let h = 91 o o gk be a cycle transformation at the edge e. Proof. that is equivalent to showing that this power of the cycle transformation is the identity.) of points of D. after a finite number of steps.(sl) = s.H. Proof. and let D c X be a relatively compact polyhedron with orientation preserving side pairing transformations. In the 2-plane orthogonal to e.H. h' I e = 1. = p(x. a point on the sphere at infinity. .. then (vii) is also satisfied. If.H. and we call h the infinte cycle transformation at x. Special Cases 79 transformation. Then (v) is also satisfied. where all conditions of IV. is the identity in the 2-plane orthogonal to the edge. Condition (vii) is also satisfied if and only if every infinite cycle transformation at every infinite edge is parabolic. hence complete. Since D is relatively compact in X.I. there is nothing further to do. there is nothing to prove if X is a sphere. For the remainder of this section. we return to x = x.4.

passes through oo. (gm.) have the same height. A > 1. h = rod. xm). or is an infinite edge. the element gm is some power of the cycle transformation at e. Consider the geodesic in X* (see IV. xm+t and gm(xm+.. Normalize so that x = oo. Since s. if necessary. as in the definition. it is elliptic. Write h = ga o o g.e. Then g. If x is an infinite edge. I.. h e A"+'. for m sufficiently large. Then that cycle transformation is a rotation in 0".H) from (1.Ym+. Exercises J. and d is a dilation. be one of the sides abutting x. where a is some fixed point of t". and h has infinite order. xm) to (gm. A")) on s.. zm+. It is easy to see that there is nothing to prove unless x either lies at the end of an edge. it is vertical.) both lie at the same (hyperbolic and Euclidean) distance from the origin. Thus h is loxodromic. where (gm. d(h(ym). Since the cycle transformation has finite order. the translates of D near x are D.J. the element gm is necessarily a power of the infinite cycle transformation h at x.1. ). Since d(h(ym).e. since {zm } is a Cauchy sequence. then normalize so that x = oo.e.+.) is chosen so that d(zm. then g '(D). hence..7. We conclude that d(zm. Then d(h(ym).. d(zm. and gm(xm+. then g. Let s. 1. Replace h by its inverse. as an element of 1. Let g e IYO denote reflection in C.x. D* is not complete.' o g2' (D).80 IV. i. and let s. using the same notation as above.'. separates D from h(D). )).r(a)I. {xm} is convergent in W. Note that the points h(ym) all lie on a vertical line. for m sufficiently large. {xm} converges in H".. so that d(y) = Ay. and so that h has its second fixed point at 0. We now assume that there is an infinite edge x. . Every circle C in C lies on the boundary of a plane Pin H'. and so that 0 is a fixed point of the cycle transformation stabilizing e.) = d((l. Then.ym+1) dominates the distance on D* between the projection of ym and the projection of ym+. xm+. Since D has only finitely many sides. Hence. xm+. zm+. and so on. hence there is a sequence of points {ym} = ((a. In this case. whose cycle transformation h is not parabolic. it is an element of !A". ym+. and m e Z. Now normalize so that D lies in B". Zm+.) Z d(xm.) Ixm . s. It follows that xm+. x". exactly as with ordinary edges. i. and h keeps E" invariant.) < KA-(m+'). Groups of Isometrics We can assume that all the points xm lie on some side s of D.+1). is the reflection in P. Since h is parabolic.) is less than the integral of the hyperbolic metric along the Euclidean line between these points. where r is a rotation. up to h-'(D). be the other. i. Then. xm+. Since {zm } is a Cauchy sequence. If x is not an infinite edge. then we can assume that all the points xm lie on some edge e.. 0 W.. Let K be the Euclidean distance I a .

J. .S. as an element of L3 is respectively. are x and y. A parabolic element of L" can be written as a product of exactly two reflections if and only if it is a translation. elliptic. then C is a hyperbolic k-sphere (a hyperbolic k-sphere is the intersection of a hyperbolic ball with a hyperbolic k-plane passing through the center of the ball). J..9. and let y e aH". n .2. (Hint: consider only orientation preserving transformations. J.6. as an element of NA. There is a unique geodesic passing through x. J. respectively. and I. hyperbolic or loxodromic. either 1 or 2. and having one endpoint at y. Then j commutes with every element of V. there is an elliptic element of L" whose fixed point set is a k-sphere in t"-'. (b) The elliptic elements of L"+' have codimension one. Consider the transformation g(z) = a + 1 + i. There is a unique geodesic whose endpoints.1)/2. Exercises 81 J. on the sphere at infinity. For every k = 0. (a) Every elliptic element of L3 can be written as a product of at most three reflections. Let x e H".. (c) The parabolic elements of L"+' have positive codimension. (b) There is an elliptic element of L3 which cannot be written as a product of fewer than three reflections. according as n is odd or even. parabolic.11.13.4. If g E M is parabolic. J. Every hyperbolic element of P' can be written.IVJ.9. (a) Show that the (real) dimension of L"+' is l + 2n + n(n . What is the relation between A. J. Let j denote reflection in "-'. J. JS. in the form a2-b2=1. J. n > k.8? J3.12. Every element of L" of finite order is elliptic.14. J. hyperbolic or loxodromic.. then g. Let x # y be two points on OH" = t"-'. as a parabolic element of V. 1.A.) J. Is there an orientation preserving element of L3 which conjugates g into h? . If C is a Euclidean k-sphere whose closure is contained in H". elliptic. There is a parabolic element h e L' in standard form which is conjugate in L3 to g.7.10. for n = 3.2.

x is both open and closed in B". except that for certain m we permit C.5. z .t)It > 1} is precisely invariant under Stab(co) in G. maps the inside of C. to be tangent to C. and (iv) of IV. where every element of G is a translation.. (b) Find a complete set of relations for PSL(2. onto C where g". 16 to prove that if G is a discrete subgroup of L3' containing a parabolic element with fixed point x..23.18.) J.19. J. Let C1. (Hint: see II. G is discrete and free (for n = 3. complex numbers of the form a + ib. and let {g".z + 1.C.15. {zIRe(z) = 1/2}. J.. let g".5. Then G is an Abelian group of rank at most n. . J. A Euclidean ball in H"+' whose boundary is tangent to E" at x is called a horoball at x..82 IV. G is a classical Schottky group of rank k). with Ls+ replaced by V.H are basic in that the other conditions need not make sense without them. Let G be a discrete subgroup of z -+ z + 1. For each m. Conditions (i). J. and J. Let C. and {zIIm(z) = 0}.16. Use Poincare's theorem in H" to show that G = <g1. Let P be the polyhedron formed by the (hyperbolic) lines whose boundaries on the sphere at infinity are the following: {zIIzj = 1}.. Let G be a discrete subgroup of P". . ..16. (ii).. and we require the corresponding g". The Picard group PSL(2.z. C. the set of points z e B" for which g". then there is a horoball at x which is precisely invariant under Stab(x).C.20. (a) Use this polyhedron P to prove that the following elements generate the Picard group: z . Groups of Isometrics J. where G contains the transformation J. a. onto the outside of C. . .. J.2)-spheres in E"-1 with a common exterior. Then {(x. By making appropriate changes in the statement and proof of II.z + i (Hint: use isometric circles to show that P in precisely invariant under the identity)..(z) . be an element of L" mapping C.1). In this case as well.} be a sequence of distinct elements of G. 1(i)) is the subgroup of u consisting of all unimodular matrices whose entries are Gaussian integers (i.. z .17. For every x c-!5'-'.21... and z . to be parabolic (necessarily with fixed point at the point of tangency).e.22.17...1(i)). {zIIm(z) = 1/2}. {zIRe(z) = -1/2}. Use J.. prove the results of J. Let G be a discrete subgroup of A". . . J. such a group is called a Schottky type group). L3+. Ck. C be as in J.-1/z.20. gk> is discrete and free on these k generators (for n = 3.. C be 2k disjoint (n . b c. Show that the other conditions are all independent.

Apanasov and P. Notes A3.K. This theorem is due to Poincare in dimensions 2 [79] and 3 [80].I. Then Y I 1 . 45-54]. where a is the center of the isometric sphere of g.11. see also Morokuma [75]. The proof of H. Let G be a discrete subgroup of P". Further information about hyperbolic geometry can be found in the article by Milnor [73].g(0)I.W. E.N. and Euclidean n-space. The different topologies on I are discussed in Beardon [11 pg. where W is the limit set of a quasifuchsian group of the first kind. F. J. There is a generalization to higher dimensional complex spaces by Mostow [76].24. .11 does not make essential use of convexity. Notes 83 J. Waterman that this fact does not generalize to higher dimensions when the parabolic element has an irrational twist.2.K.17.g(0)1" < oo. Another line of proof can be found in de Rham [21]. Discrete groups of motions of the n-sphere. H. and the references listed there.3. are studied in Wolf [99]. The boundary of the convex set K(W).g(0)I < Ja . has been extensively studied by Thurston [90]. The proof here follows [63].) W. (Hint: 1 . D. It was independently observed by B. non-convex fundamental polygons are used by Keen [39].

I. The definition of function group depends on the choice of invariant component (there might be more than one). If (0. Let (G. Then 'S can be conformally embedded in a compact Riemann surface S of genus p. then p: A -+ d/G is a branched universal covering (see III. If xm is in the image of p. A component d of G is invariant if g(d) = A for all g e G. That is. < oo. then the ramification number v.A. This homeomorphism lifts to a homeomorphism q: A --*. or they are the points of S . If x. or I-I2. < v. Set °d = d n v..Chapter V. Q(G). A Kleinian group G with an invariant component A is a function group if d/G is a finite marked Riemann surface.a/r'. and let S = d/G. v. a geometric basic group is a (conjugate of a) discrete group of isometries of S2.. n. and give some applications to non-elementary groups. These points are either ramification points of the projection p: A .. then there is a homeomorphism tp: d/G .. p(°A) A. we sometimes label the function group as (G.2. where 2 < v. V. < . d) be a function group. [2. and set °S.__ x }. A) is a function group. then the ramification number vm is the order of the stabilizer of a point lying over xr. v. A component of a Kleinian group G is a connected component of the set of discontinuity.. In this chapter we discuss the three cases. and A is simply connected. A3. where 0 o g o Q' defines . 3) is another such group with the same basic signature.3. where S . classify the elementary groups (these are Kleinian groups with at most two limit points). = oo. Basic Signatures A.).°S consists of a finite number of special points {x. A). The basic signature of (G.. We usually write the basic signature so that v. If (G.S.S.F).. A) is the collection of numbers (p. is not in the image of p.. The Geometric Basic Groups The geometric basic groups are those Kleinian groups which are also discrete groups of isometries in one of the 2-dimensional geometries discussed in the last chapter.. Each of these points has a ramification number associated to it..

. b. and a set of relations. b. this should cause no confusion. b.. where again a. In a Kleinian group.. Half-Turns 85 an isomorphism of G onto C... then every point on the axis Aa is fixed by a. V. v. A. then N is the kernel of the natural homomorphism from F onto G (the natural homomorphism sends the generator a of F to the generator a of G.. We will refer to this concept of-presentation as an abstract presentation.. . then h is conjugate in G to a power of an element u.. and a..). that is. these form an abstract presentation for G. . . . the general element of a Kleinian group is loxodromic. are positive integers. Hence the abstract presentation already tells us which elements of a Kleinian group lie in a rank 2 purely parabolic subgroup. If a is elliptic. then we know all elliptic elements of G. The homeomorphism 0 is called a similarity. a presentation <a. . fi... .. . v. The symbol u°° means that u is parabolic in G. and that the maximal parabolic subgroup of G containing u has rank 1(we will see below that every purely parabolic Kleinian group is Abelian). .. We enlarge our concept of presentation to include "relations" which assert that certain elements of G are parabolic...... every free Abelian subgroup of rank two is purely parabolic. where the maximal parabolic subgroup containing h has rank 1. are words in these generators. if we look at the free group F on the generators a. : u° = vB = = I>. and u. where u. If we know a presentation for a Kleinian group G. If we look only at those relations with finite exponent. :0 ° = vO = = I> of an abstract group G is a set of generators.6. u° = 1... va = 1. then the hyperbolic line in H3 joining these points is the axis of a. A presentation of a Kleinian group G is a set of symbols as before: <a. In some sense..i o g o 0'.. . .1. . . An elliptic element of M of order 2 is called a half-turn. A. Also if h is any parabolic element of G. where the symbol u' appears in the presentation. This presentation has the following meaning. are generators of G..4. are words in these generators..5. and we say that Q induces the isomorphism: g . b... This set of relations is required to be complete... We remark that we also use the notation <a. etc.B. b. b. If a e IDA has exactly two fixed points on C. A. .V. a... Half-Turns B. As usual. .. > to denote the group generated by a. we also say that a is the half-turn about Aa. but now we permit the exponent to take on the value - oo. The restriction in the above to parabolic elements which lie in rank I parabolic subgroups is fairly natural. b.B. and let N be the smallest normal subgroup of F contain- ing the elements ua. 0.

To prove uniqueness. Then g = boa.ba = (0 x-y 1\-4 -4xy) 0 J as an element of faro. Let g be an element of MI. where a is the half-turn about A. suppose C and C are hyperbolic lines orthogonal to both A and B. and the endpoints are the fixed points of g.3. and b is a half-turn about a line B. and let a and b be half-turns about A and B respectively. a(z) = . Proposition. BS. Proof.e. Set g = boa. where g is not parabolic. The Geometric Basic Groups B. write b in the form (see I. and let A be a hyperbolic line with one endpoint at z. Ag. Proposition.. A and B intersect at a point in H3 if and only if g is elliptic. if and only if its axis is orthogonal to Ao. Then there is a hyperbolic line B # A. Since it is also fixed by b. Proposition. Then h = go g' preserves the endpoints of both A and B. g' be the half-turns about C.2. orthogonal to Ao. Let g be a parabolic element of MI. while interchanging its endpoints. A half-turn preserves the hyperbolic line A9. so that g = boa. If A9. The axis of g is of course invariant under g. B. with fixed point z. It follows that g preserves both A and B. Proof. where a is the half-turn about A. and b is the half-turn about B. A and B all meet at a point x.4. and let A be a hyperbolic line in 0-03 orthogonal to Aa. Let g. h = 1. Then there is a unique hyperbolic line C orthogonal to both A and B. i.i(x + y) 2ixy x-y -2i 1 i(x+y) Interpret the matrix g = ab . where B also has one endpoint at z. so g is elliptic. Proposition.86 V.4) b _ 1 . it lies on B. is fixed by g. Since h has four fixed points on the sphere at infinity. Let A and B be hyperbolic lines in H3. Further. Normalize so that the half-turn a about A is the transformation a(z) _ -z.B. B. . a o g preserves Ae and interchanges its endpoints. so the axis of g is orthogonal to both. hence a o g = b is a half-turn. Since A is orthogonal to A9. C. then x is a fixed point of g e H'. which is a half-turn about the line with endpoints at 1/2 and oo. and observe that g is a half-turn that interchanges the endpoints of both A and B. then the point of intersection.z. x of A. Let A and B be hyperbolic lines in H3 that do not have a common endpoint. and A. If g is elliptic. Proof. respectively. Let b be the half-turn about B. Then g o a(z) z + 1. We can assume that g(z) = z + 1. and that A has its other endpoint at 0.

Proof. In cases (i) and (iii).I. Consider the commutator [f. In either case. The Finite Groups C. and g = a o c. B and C either meet at a point. We already know all possibilities for which f and g commute. where each interchanges the fixed points of the other. and fog = h o c are all elliptic. (ii) If A and B have one common endpoint z on aH3.V. and has no fixed point on it. Let f and g be elements of G. Let A be the common perpendicular to Af and A9. f and g share a common fixed point in 0-03. Each of the half-turnsa. and the axis of g is orthogonal to both A and B. The Finite Groups 87 (i) If A and B do not intersect in H 3. i.e. Theorem.. Since f. g acts as a translation along C. Normalize so that G acts on B3. Since a and b both preserve C. The half-turns a. the three lines A. We start with the obvious remark that a Kleinian group has empty limit set if and only if it is finite. where b and c are half-turns about the lines B and C. In this section we classify the Kleinian groups with no limit points. so g is elliptic. and g(z)=z+ 1. Then G has a fixed point in I-Os. and so that P = 032. g>.D. Proof.4). and let a be the half-turn about A. hence f and g both preserve P. A f and A.bandcacts on P as a reflection about its axis. respectively. g. For case (ii). C. From here on. hence C is the axis of g. normalize so that the endpoints of A are at 0 and oo. In case (i). while interchanging its endpoints. hence each of these half-turns reverses . in this case. or they form a triangle. We now assume that they form a triangle. then x is a fixed point of <f. we assume that f and g do not commute. or J' and g are both half-turns.2. g(x) = x. If they all meet at a point x. then g is parabolic with fixed point z. In case (iii). and the axis of g passes through x and is orthogonal to both A and B. do not have a common endpoint on the sphere at infinity (see I.C. Write f = boa. V. and c all preserve P. (iii) If A and B intersect at x e O-03.C. g preserves C and both its endpoints. b. b(z) = -z + 1. either f and g lie in a common cyclic subgroup of G.g] = boaoaocoaobocoa = (bocoa)2. then g is loxodromic. g is loxodromic. let C be the common perpendicular to A and B. then g is elliptic. Since [f g] is not parabolic. Let G be a subgroup of RA in which every nontrivial element is elliptic. Then a(z) = -z. let P be the (hyperbolic) plane containing this triangle. and so that the endpoints of B are at 1 /2 and oc.

Now let It be some element of G which is not in < f g>. so can preserve no disc. g>. Since b normalizes H. then G is conjugate in P3+ to a subgroup of 03+ C. Let zt. C3. if say g is not a half-turn. then the axes of f and g intersect at a point x in H3. The Geometric Basic Groups orientation on 1. G is conjugate in L' to a subgroup of 03. B. e`1".4. C). Since each of the triples of lines (A. Draw (Euclidean) line segments s. they all meet at the same point x. We start with the finite cyclic groups. For each integer v > 2. z2. By I. The product b o c o a is thus an orientation reversing element of P2 whose square has finite order. B. Observe that under stereographic projection. which can be defined as those noncyclic finite Kleinian groups containing a cyclic normal subgroup. m = 0.12.e. Proof. v . (A. A1).. there is an essentially unique cyclic group of order v: <z -> e2"t'"z). and let G be the group generated by H and b(z) = 1/z.E. b o c o a is an orientation reversing square root of [f. and let s2 be the arc of 5' from zt through z2 to z3. Every other cyclic group of order v is conjugate to this one. It has basic signature (0. are as follows.1. (A.88 V.. By IV. z3 be the points e. . g> passes through x.2. is called the v-dihedral group. v. Corollary. the elements of G .H on the unit circle 5'. this is possible only if Ah passes through x. 2.3. We classify the finite Kleinian groups by writing down a collection of such groups. IfG is a subgroup of P3+ in which every element has finite order. an orientation reversing square root of a elliptic element of vN has no fixed point on C. If every element of G has finite order. i. AB) meet at a point.. For every integer v.g> are not all coplanar."'i". st from 0 to z3. these three sides project onto geodesics on . g]. then the axis of fog is orthogonal to the axes of both f and g. C. C. from 0 to zl. Since these axes are not all coplanar. B and C all meet at a point x. A discrete subgroup of RA is finite if and only if every element has finite order. let H be the cyclic group of order v with fixed points at 0 and oo.e2iimI"/z. g. We next remark that the axes of the elements of <f. O C3. We have show that if f and g are elements of G with distinct axes. of course the axis of every element of < f. 1. then the axes of f. By the above. a discrete subgroup of 03 is necessarily finite. We conclude that A.H are precisely the half-turns: z . Theorem. the common fixed point of f and g. This group G. Construct a fundamental polygon for G acting on S2 as follows. and then showing that every finite Kleinian group is conjugate to one of these. Ah intersects the axis of every element of <f. and g o f o g-' are not all coplanar. v).6.E. The dihedral groups. Thus IGI = 2v. If f and g are both half-turns. then by C. these are three successive fixed points of elements of G .. or any conjugate of it.

3. 4). 2. v) we also note the presentation G = <a. One also easily sees that a "fundamental domain" for the action of G on the surface of Q is a triangle D with one vertex at the center of F. (ii) If Q is a cube. and b keeps E invariant and has a fixed point in the middle. which keeps an edge E of F invariant. 2.C. then there is a element of H that interchanges the endpoints of A if and only if v is even. if v is odd. there is only one conjugacy class of elements of order 2 in G.3). this gives us a fundamental polygon for G on S2. 3. Then a identifies the two sides of D emanating from the center of F. keeping a face F invariant. V. onto s'1. C.3. We use radial projection from the origin to project this triangle onto S2. We leave it to the reader to read off the following information. 2. b: a3 = b2 = (a o b)' = 1). It is easy to see that the construction above yields a fundamental domain D for G (one does not need Poincare's theorem in this simple case). 3. That is. Let Q be a regular solid. even though there are two distinct branch points of order 2 on Q/G.C. also b has a fixed point at z2.V. 2.H. 3. (i) If Q is a tetrahedron. and by a rotation b. If A is the axis of an element of G . One easily sees that G is generated by a primitive rotation a. There is an important difference between the odd and even dihedral groups. and let G be the orientation preserving half of its group of motions. and maps s2 onto itself (see Fig. and G has signature (0. and G has signature (0. The Finite Groups 89 Fig. Note that a(z) = e2it1'z maps s. CA The last set of finite groups are the groups of motions of the regular solids. b: a` = b2 = (a o b)' = 1).C. Also a o b fixes one of the endpoints of E. b: a' = b2 = (a o b)2 = 1). G has the presentation: G = <a. and the other two vertices at the endpoints of E. .7. then G has the presentation: G = <a. We fold together the sides of D to obtain that G has basic signature (0. V.I S2.

v2. for the sphere with one puncture is simply connected. 3..e. and these are all G-equivalent. = v2. 4). then I /v.. so the number of zeros is 2n . Note that k = 0 implies that G is trivial. then G has the presentation: G = <a. these are the only branched universal covering groups to exhibit this behavior. Theorem. v). Then G has basic signature (0. and G has signature (0. . 5 v2 5 v3. Hence f' has 2n ..f(z) _ fl g... respectively. Since f is injective. at a point z where the projection map has branch number v (i. assuming that v. v3) = (2. Let G be a finite subgroup of M. n. and n = v.. 60. Then. We have shown that S2(G)/G has genus 0. m = I.. fo g(z) = f(z). 3. k = I is impossible. The list above does not include the octahedron or icosahedron because. 2. v3) = (2. Normalize G so that neither 0 nor oo is a fixed point of any non-trivial element of G.. or (v. or (0. Hence f defines a holomorphic map f Q(G)/G -.9. + 1 /v2 + 1 /v3 = 1 + 2/n. 3. be the order of Stab (zm). Let z1. There is a double pole at each finite pole of f.. C. f is a homemorphism. 24. n. or (0. and each v. and k = 2 can occur only if v. k 5 3. the number of poles. 2. (2. 2. 3. Since a holomorphic map between compact Riemann surfaces takes on each value equally often. v). and let v.90 V. For orientable surfaces. (Stab (z)I = v). 3). 3. the zeros of f' occur exactly at the elliptic fixed points of G. v < oo. that is. 5) with n = 12.. v < oo.2. Next consider the zeros and poles of the derivative f'. 3. 3.5). and the icosahedron is dual to the dodecahedron. as graphs. 4) or (0.n(z) It is immediate that f is automorphic. b: a3 = b2 = (a o b)' = 1 >. 3).3. 3:2. . This is similar to the case of the odd dihedral groups. v. C. and f and f' are both regular at oo.). zk be a complete list of non-equivalent elliptic fixed points of G. 3. The equation f(z) = 0 has solutions exactly at the n distinct points: g-'(0).2 poles. 3. f' has a zero of order v . for all g e G. or (0. The group of motions of the tetrahedron has only one conjugacy class of cyclic subgroups of order 3. . Since there are n/vn distinct points in the orbit of z. v2. 2. the only possibilities are that (V. Enumerate the elements of G as {g. = v2. in which case G is cyclic. A graph and its dual both have the same group of motions. The Geometric Basic Groups (iii) If Q is a dodecahedron. If k = 3. 2.}. and consider the function .1. 2.. (2. Proof. 2. v) and n = 2v.n z 2.=1 Of course f' is rational. 5). the number of zeros of f' is Y M=1 k k 1)n/vm = Y n(1 . Since n > 0. 3.. hence /takes on the value 0 exactly once. the octahedron is dual to the cube.1/vn.

In this section we classify those Kleinian groups with exactly one limit point. the discrete groups with one limit point are also sometimes called Euclidean groups.2. Since the action of G on ft is triply transitive. Q(G)/G -+Q(H)/H where f preserves special points. each such group contains a parabolic element. Since G and H are both branched universal covering groups (in particular.2.5-6. it contains a minimal translation j. v2. Of course. then any element a of G .C. J is commutative. Since G is discrete. if z -. D. by B. they define topologically equivalent coverings of the same marked Riemann surface. D. C. v2. We pick one such a and further normalize so . Let G be such a group. in this case a sphere with two or three special points). or G is conjugate in RA to the group of motions of a regular solid. 3. then IT 12' 1. n e7L}.3. Every non-trivial element of G is either elliptic or parabolic. Hence every element of G is a Euclidean motion.I. v3)-triangle group. Proof Comparing the lists of signatures of the groups constructed in C. If G is parabolic cyclic. We also sometimes specify such a group as a (v1. a o b e J. we can rind a conformal homeomorphism P.. Since G has only the one limit point.J must preserve the invariant lines of J = Q>. The Euclidean Groups 91 C. we see that given the finite Kleinian group G. Then G is either cyclic or dihedral. We also normalize so thatj(z) = z + 1: that is. These groups are called the finite triangle groups.D.D. The non-cyclic finite groups all have signature (0. where f induces an isomorphism of G onto H. V. Let J be the subgroup of G consisting of all the parabolic elements of G. 8 with those that appear above. then G = {z . there is a group H constructed above with the same signature.5.V. The Euclidean Groups D. Theorem. the rank of J is either one or two (see IV. and every elliptic element of G has a fixed point at oe. normalized so that the one limit point is at oo. If J has rank 1. and G has basic signature (0. ao).J. oo. 2.10. The Euclidean line through the finite fixed points of a and b is invariant under a o b. every conformal homeomorph0 ism of C is in M.11. with their markings. We define the rank of G to be the rank of J. v3). z + t is any other parabolic element of G. in both directions.z + n. v1. Let G be a non-trivial f finite Kleinian group. by C. we can lift f to a conformal homemorphism J: C .15). and J 0 G. For this reason. so this line must be parallel to the real axis. If a and b are two such half-turns then. such an element can only be a half-turn with one fixed point at ao. since G is discrete.

It follows that the order of a is at most six. b: [a. Im(z) > 0}. a cannot have order five.± z + n.1 1/2 that the other fixed point of a is at 0. then G is one of the usual elliptic groups generated by z -+ z + 1. we see that Go has basic signature (0. and J has rank 2.b(1)I >. we can assume without loss of generality that a(0) = 0. at 0. We start with the case that G contains an element of order six.4. .I. see Figure V. Since the minimum translation length for a parabolic element of G is one. and sl. D. 0). oo) (see III.. and that G has basic signature (0.(see Figure -"t16/.G. and b = a-' o j o a o j-' is parabolic with b(l) = a-'(1). we see that Go has the presentation <a. b>. Note that a(sl) = s. n e 7L}.D. and z -+ z + z. a point on the unit circle. We easily conclude that G = {z . in order. b: a2 = b2 = (a o b)' = 1 >.. Let D be the (Euclidean) polygon with vertices. 2. Then G also contains the elements a3(z) = -z.D. where IM(T) # 0. and basic signature (1. a half-turn with fixed point at 1/2. 3. In this case. b] = 1 >. b: a6 = b2 = (boa)3 = 1>.1. I 1 . and b(z) = joa3(z) = -z + 1. and let the sides be labeled. Now assume that J has rank 2.. s2.92 V. Similarly. as si. that G has the presentation <a. 2. D. 6). 2. 3.13. is called both the infinite dihedral group and the (2.8). oo)-triangle group.D.J occur precisely at the half integers. G has the presentation <a. A fundamental polygon for G is given by the half strip {z I I Re(z)I < 1/2. We next construct a fundamental polygon for the group Go = <a. 1/2. folding together the sides of D. The minimality of j = a o b ensures that the fixed points of the elements of G . 2. and that J # G. and that b(s2) = S2'Using Poincare's theorem. Let a be some elliptic element of G. D. V.5. If J = G. Then j o a o j-' is also elliptic with fixed point at 1. in the same order. 3.2). and e-"1'1. and normalize so that a(z) = e"y3z is in G.6. the (Euclidean) distance. since 11 +e 4051 < 1. We remark that this group G or any conjugate of it. The Geometric Basic Groups -1/2 0 Fig.. s2. 3 V.

both of translation length 1.3)..Go. Go contains a rank 2 purely parabolic subgroup generated by two independent translations.7. and we could write c(z) = e"'1'(e""'z + a). in the same order. We next take up the case that G has an element of order 3. every half-turn in G is already in Go.V. V.2 e"6/17 e -nve/F3 Fig. we assume that in addition to j(z) = z + 1.D. The distance between finite fixed points of half-turns must be at least 1/2. and is not one of the vertices of D. V. Since no element of J can have translation length less than one. and construct a fundamental polygon for Go. Then I x I = Iai/f 1/f. Compute a-2 o c. label the sides of D. Similarly. in particular. we set Go = <cj). G contains the element c(z) = e2"t/3z. then we could assume that the finite fixed point x of c lies in D. This is a translation by ae-'13./3-. D.D. We conclude that G = Go. at 0. but contains no element of order 6. Go contains J. as s. As in the preceding case. contradicting the assumption that x lies in D. . s2.D.3 Since Go contains j = 6 o a3 and a o j o a-' (z) = z + e"'I'. si. 1.D. in order. e"/6/ f. hence I a I z 1. and s2 (see Figure V. and e--1/6/. Let D be the polygon with vertices. since every point of D is at distance at most 1/2 from the point 1/2. The Euclidean Groups 93 Fig. if we had an element c of order 3 in G .

has a fixed point at ?"6/f3. we see that Go has the presentation <a. and neither of them contains an element of order 4. We next take up the case that G contains an element of order 4. Fig... and maps s2 onto s2. onto s. so there are no elements of order 3 in G . D. Observe that if we start with any group J of signature (1. G . V. The Geometric Basic Groups Note that a = j o c is elliptic of order 3.1/2. Note that a(s. Also b = j o c-' is elliptic of order 3. s. and observe that a o d has order 6./3-. 3.4.e. i. We conclude from Poincare's theorem that Go has the presentation <a. 3.Go. b is a half turn with fixed point at 1/2. observe that G .Go contains no parabolic elements.Go.4). to see that Go has basic signature (0.D.4). We already know both Euclidean groups that contain an element of order 3. we take up the case that every elliptic element of G has order 2. folding together the sides of D.94 V. 3. s2. Our polygon D has vertices at 0. 2.i)/2. and b(s2) = s2. so G . As in the preceding case. Finally. Also Go contains both j and a o j o a-'. Set b = j o a2. write it as d(z) = i(iz + a). and (1 . and then show that Go = G.9. As above. b: a" = b2 = (a o b)° = 1 >. we see that Go has basic signature (0. b>.. we construct a fundamental polygon for Go = <a. therefore.D.4 .Go contains no element of order 3. Using Poincare's theorem.) = s. has a fixed point at e-"f/ .6 that the distance between fixed points of distinct elliptic elements of order 3 must be at least 1/-. s2. because the distance between finite fixed points of half-turns in G must be at least 1/2. and maps s.Go can contain no parabolic element.8. (1 + i)/2. D. fold together the sides of D. 3). G . As in the preceding cases. b: a3 = b3 = (a o b)' = 1 >. f If there were an element of order 2 in G . The sides of D are labelled in order as s. normalize so that a(z) = iz lies in G.Go can contain no half-turns.. 3. We saw in D.0). (see Figure V.

and r.c: a2 = h2 = c2 = (cohoa)2 = 1>. Let G be a Kleinian group with at least two limit points. 1/2 S" 1 Fig. 1.2). 1/2.D. .V. v3)-triangle group.me7L}. Let c = job. 1.n. The sides s2 and s2 are paired by j. 3. onto s. and that Go has basic signature (0.D.2.TI/2 s3 1.5 J = {z-+z+n+mrlIm(r)>0.b. 1/v1 + 1/v2 + I/v3 = 1. 4. V. D. The groups with basic signature (0.'V. mappings. then the parallelogram with vertices at 0. we obtain the group Go = {z -+ ±z + n + mr}. (1 + r)/2. 1 + r/2 and r/2 is a fundamental polygon for Go. we also sometimes refer to such a group as the (vt. then G contains a loxodromic element. The vertices of this fundamental polygon are at 0. 2. where k(z) = z + r is the other standard generator of J. Si.E.E.1. Applications to Non-Elementary Groups E. We label the sides of this polygon in order as s. Applications to Non-Elementary Groups 95 T/2 Sj 11.2.5). 1 + r/2. v1. 1 + r.. As with all triangle groups. s3.10.. It is clear that we cannot adjoin a new half-turn to Go without also adjoining a new translation to J. Every Kleinian group with exactly one limit point is conjugate in M to one of the groups listed above. v2. and we adjoin b(z) = -z to J. Proposition. are called the Euclidean triangle groups (the infinite dihedral group is usually included among the Euclidean triangle groups). and a(z) = . Make the substitution j = cob to obtain the usual presentation: Go = <a. We have exhausted the list of Euclidean groups. and r/2.T/2 0 S. with finite fixed point 1/2. c is a half-turn. j: a2 = (j o a)2 = c2 = (j-t O C)2 = I>. si. The presentation above is not the standard one. 1. It is easy to see that Go has the presentation <a. s3. and s2 (see Figure V. c. Hence Go = G. If we start with the standard fundamental parallelogram for J with vertices at 0.z + I + r maps s3 onto We can also write a = j o k o b. v2i v3).

If f(x) = x. Proposition. then G is conjugate in Iy0 to a group of Euclidean motions (see V. There is a sequence of loxodromic elements of G whose attracting fixed points approach x. The Geometric Basic Groups Proof. then there is a limit point y which is not fixed by f. in particular. Now let x be any point of E.96 V. The following is a useful generalization of the preceding. y in A. then G contains a parabolic element f with fixed point at x.. so that the fixed points of g ofo g-' are distinct from those of f. . with g.S.e. G cannot contain only elliptic elements. E. Proposition. there is a sequence of loxodromic elements of G. If G has no loxodromic elements and if all the parabolic elements of G have a common fixed point.4.D. Of course we have the same result if f(x) x.1) shows that either fog or fog-' must be loxodromic. Then E contains A.2. It follows from II. and let E be a nonempty G-invariant closed set. Let G be a non-elementary Kleinian group.C. the fixed point set of f and g o f o g' either agree or are disjoint (II. By C. so the closure of this set. there is a sequence of loxodromic elements where both fixed points of h. there is a translate of x distinct from x. is also in E. Normalize G so that x = oo and y = 0. hence there is a sequence {gm} of loxodromic elements of G. Proposition. For every g e G. Proof. Let G be a non-elementary Kleinian group. E3. The set of loxodromic fixed points of a non-elementary Kleinian group is dense in A x A (i. approach y. if G contains no loxodromic elements. and let x e A. the translates of any point of A are dense in A.. where the attracting fixed points approach x. If x = y.2. for every pair of points x.y.. there is a fixed point z of f.(z) . and there is a sequence of elements {g. Proposition. which contains A. Hence there is an element g e G. G contains a loxodromic element f. An easy computation using the normal form (1. } of G..2. Normalize G so that oc a Q. approach x.2 that the translates of any point of 0 are dense in A. we are finished. E. Hence.D. Proof. Then the translates of x are dense in A. by E.2.D). Then by II. and a parabolic element g with fixed point at y # x. if not. The desired result now follows from II. Then the set of all translates of x is contained in E. Proof. E.4. We obtain the following as an immediate corollary. so that both fixed points of g11. The limit set of a non-elementary Kleinian group is the closure of the set of loxodromic fixed points.D. and the repelling fixed points approach y).6). then as above.

fk] is loxodromic for k sufficiently large. We say that ipm converges algebraically to the homomorphism gyp: G . k. Let G be a non-elementary Kleinian group which has n z 2 invariant components. The entries in the matrix for g are polynomials in the entries in the matrices of the generators of G. w2 and the fixed points of g is a simple closed curve C that divides 4' into two regions. . and not equal to four.M. Then cp is an isomorphism.21 = 0. then 4pm([g. The union of w1. and we can apply the argument above. E. Suppose that for each in. then tr2((pm(g)) is constant. Hence the attracting fixed point of fm lies inside the isometric circle of hm. hence um -. Theorem (Chuckrow [20]). and the repelling fixed point of fm lies inside the isometric circle of gm.41 + Itr[w(f). so there is nothing to prove in this case.7). then wm is the union of the <g>-translates of vm). .. as above.6. (such a path is easily constructed by choosing a point zm in A. for every in.C. if there is a set of generators (g1. so that g and f = I for all integers k..q(g)] . the isometric circles of gm and gm' are disjoint from those of hm and hm'. this function is also a polynomial in the entries of the generators. and compute tr2 ([g. Let g be a loxodromic element of G. Normalize g so that g(z) = z + 1.V. and choosing a simple path vm from zm to g(zm). . cp(g) -A 1. By Jorgensen's theorem (II. and let {lpm} be a sequence of type-preserving isomorphisms of G into M. Hence [g. so that g and f = h o g oh' have distinct fixed points.41 + I tr([(pm(f ).. ?hen n = 2. If g is elliptic. Applications to Non-Elementary Groups 97 For in sufficiently large. gk } for G. p. µm = I tr2((pm(g)) . . there is some h e G. so that (pm(gj) .7. Each . hence the fixed points of fm approach x and y.. Let G be a non-elementary Kleinian group. the radii of these isometric circles tends to zero. Except for the absolute values. there is an element h e G. If 9m(g) -* 1.qp(g). and let dm be an invariant component. Proof. Write f(z) = z/(rz + 1). then µ = Itr'((P(g)) . Observe that fm = h. f *]) If g is parabolic. rpm(G) is Kleinian.1 = 1. Proposition. (pm(g)] . Since G is non-elementary.' o gm maps the outside of the isometric circle of gm into the inside of the isometric circle of hm.21 >: 1. hence. h o g o h-1 have distinct fixed points. If (p(g) = 1. Assume first that g is loxodromic. and so that f has its fixed point at 0. It suffices to show that for every non-trivial g e G.E. Let wm be a simple <g>-invariant path in J. We need a concept of convergence of Kleinian groups for the next application. 0 E.. and that c& converges algebraically to ip: G . then. Proof. As in increases. f'`]) = (2 + k2t2)2. cpm(g) . Let G be a finitely generated Kleinian group. and let {cpm} be a sequence of homomorphisms of G into M..4p(gj).

.. Then C is Kleinian. E. Hence for m sufficiently large. and Q(C) = SQ(G). Either A is G-invariant. Proposition. E. = g. E. with g. or there is another component 4' so that A U X is G-invariant. or 42. Let G be a Kleinian group..4 be a component of G.(0) . Since every element of 0 stabilizes A(G). and a subsequence {gm}.. .5.G.. The fixed points of h are distinct from those of g. If g is any loxodromic element of G. In particular. We conclude that any <h>-invariant curve must cross C. Proposition. A. hence we may assume that G is non-elementary. there is a point y. . then g have the same fixed points. Stab(A. so that g.z. there is a sequence {gm} of elements of C. If A is a connected component of Q(G).. Since A(H) = A(G). Then there is a sequence {gm} of elements of C tending to the identity. invariant. Since G is non-elementary. = 1.x. Let G be a Kleinian group with finitely many components._ 4. and h. this is impossible. Proof. hence we may assme that G is non-elementary. assume not. we must have that for m sufficiently large. and H has at most two components. g..9. Suppose there is a point x e Q(G). Then G has at most two components. and let .9. Proof. call them A. is non-elementary.98 V. there is a loxodromic element h e G whose fixed points are separated by C. so the point of intersection occurs in either A. or there are infinitely many distinct translates of A in Q. Since G has only finitely many components. We first show that C is discrete. k = 2. By IV... A = A or A = 42. Since G is discrete.(z) . and 42. o g o g. If G is elementary.. and H keeps every component of G invariant. Let G be a non-elementary Kleinian group and let C be the normalizer of G in M. As above.. Proof If G is elementary.x uniformly on compact subsets of the complement of y.-' is also in G.) is of finite index in G.(w) . the stabilizer of any one component is of finite index in G. regarding C as acting on 63. Let Then H. then Stab(A) is called a component subgroup of G. Suppose there are only finitely many translates of A. Since H H= n keeps each of the components A. = g. Then.. Proposition. then h.8.10. the components of G are just the components of H. then G has only one component. By E. h. being of finite index in G. it contains many loxodromic elements with distinct fixed points. Then for each m. there is a point w e A(G). -+ g. let H be the intersection of all the component subgroups of G. Since any invariant component A contains an <h)-invariant curve.. Then H is of finite index in G. with g. where x is a limit point of C. The Geometric Basic Groups of these regions contains limit points that lie on the common boundary of A. then G has only one component..

and the obvious fundamental domain for G is the annulus D = { z I I t I -1 < I z I < I t I }. acting on C. If J = G. Then H'/G is a 3-manifold. 2. We set H = Stab(0) = Stab(oo). Let x be some point of H3.2). 2. F. Normalize G so that j(z) = t2z.2.J. they are (0. Then we can write B = { y I I y1 < r}. .1 that such a group G necessarily contains a loxodromic element. Since G has only the two limit points. The universal covering space of Q(G) = C . with (S. only the last two actually occur for groups with two limit points. 3. h(z) = s2 z. hence C is a Kleinian group with one limit point. = {yI IYI = r'} are all equivalent. 1].3. Folding together the two sides of D. oo). We listed all the signatures for such groups in V. 1].e.V. and observe that they all have genus zero. so that Is l = 1. We can also assume without loss of generality that <h> is a maximal elliptic cyclic subgroup . x [0. Hence S. Proposition.I..C. We conclude that H'/G is a 3-manifold. We can regard B as S. We look in V.3.4. Q V. (0. Normalize so that G acts on B'. Choose an element h in H . 3. Groups with Two Limit Points 99 E./H) x {0} identified to a point.{0} is the complex plane. 0). Hence there is a universal covering group C. 2. oc)./H is a 2-sphere.x.4. (0. F.11. (0.4). 2.F. oo. (0. with S. oo 1). we see that G has basic signature (1. so that C/C is conformally equivalent to Q(G)/G. Then B/H can be regarded as (S. and there is a precisely invariant hyperbolic ball B about x. with fixed points at 0 and oc. i. (0. Of course. as we will see below. 0). The next application concerns the action of a Kleinian group on hyperbolic 3-space. I tI > 1. Replace h by j-'o h. and so that x = 0. for some integer m. generates a maximal loxodromic cyclic subgroup J of G. In this section we classify the Kleinian groups with exactly two limit points. x {0} identified to a point. where j identifies the two sides of D. 3. at the list of signatures for finite groups. Then l s l = I t l'°.F. Stab(x) is finite. Groups with Two Limit Points F. and (1.3.4. 2. Since G is discrete.3). We already know all possible basic signatures for a group G with two limit points. F. a conformal map of C lies in M. for some integer m. G = Stab({0. Proof. hence the actions of H on the spheres S. 3. We observed in E./H) x [0.2.t > 0. then Isl = Itl'. Clearly J c H c G. We next take up the case that J # H = G.2. so B/H is a 3-disc. we can assume that h is elliptic. Let G be a discrete subgroup of M. The elements of H = Stab(0) commute with the dilations x -' A. 2.3.D.6). then G is loxodromic cyclic. In fact. It is easy to see that if h(z) = s2z is any other loxodromic element of G.

2 of H. then the pairing of the sides is somewhat more complicated. If j is loxodromic but not hyperbolic. and that h is a geometric generator of <h>. h] = 1 can be read off from the identifications at the vertices of D. as we have already observed. is called 7L + 7Lg. This again is a torus. Then h-"oj(l) = y is a point on the boundary of D. i.e.F. V.e.1 1 Itl2 Fig. Each of the points x and y splits the circular side on which it lies into two arcs. Note that the relation [j.. We write t2 = where 0:5 0 < l/q. which accurately describes its group theoretic character. V. The Geometric Basic Groups 1 Fig. . but the relation h9 = 1 cannot. with each pair of opposite sides identified by a element of G (see Figure V. 0 < arg(z) < 2n/q}. h>.. h] = hg = I>. 0). one pair of these four arcs is identified. i.F. The sides {arg(z) = 0}. the other pair is identified by h" o f.100 V. then the opposite sides of this rectangle are paired by j and h. G = H = Q.0) (see Figure V.. G = Q. In this case D has six sides. Every element of H commutes with both j and h. since these generate maximal cyclic subgroups of H.F. and {arg(z) = 2n/q} are still paired by h. G has basic signature (1.F. We choose a fundamental domain D for G to be the "rectangle": { 1 < IzI < t2 1. i. 1). or any conjugate of it. h(z) = e2"tlgz.e.2). If j is hyperbolic. H. h: [j. by h-" o j. Let x =' o h"(It2Ie2i'1g). and one easily sees that G has basic signature (1.

2. draw the hyperbolic planes whose boundaries are the sides of D. Extend the sides of D into U-l'. Since G # H. then g(z) = 1/z. V. clearly h e G . G contains the group. by assump- tion. Let k(z) = j o g(z) = t2/z. We now consider the general case. Finding a presentation for G is also easy.6. It follows that every element of G . this group is known as Z2 * Z2. Since J has index 2 in G. Groups with Two Limit Points 101 As above. constructed in F.Go. but do not yield the relation h9 = 1. in some sense. FS. As in F. g>.3).V.2) (see Figure V. Also ±t are vertices that divide { I zI = I t I } into two sides that are identified by k. and we look at an element g in G . k: g2 = k2 = 1>. we expect a fundamental domain for G to be. which also accurately describes its group theoretic character (G * H is the free product of G and H).3 .5. For purposes of identification.4. these are identified by g.J. Also. G = <J.2. Since G has only the two limit points and g does not fix them. that is.J is a half-turn which interchanges 0 and oo. Since G contains J as a subgroup of index 2. It follows that G has basic signature (0.F.F. Choose D to be the annulus (I < I z i < I t I } (observe that the closure of D Uj(D) is the closure of the fundamental domain for J described in F. there is some element h in H .F.2. Note that ± 1 are vertices that divide Iz1 = 1 into two sides.3).4. we can Fig. We obtain the presentation G = <g. The product of any two such elements fixes 0 and oo. F. it must interchange them. half of a fundamental domain for J. where J 96 H # G. the identifications at the vertices of D yield the information that j and It commute.J. Note that k has fixed points at ± t. hence J is of index 2 in G. which we now call Go. It is clear that these bound a polyhedron where the sides are identified by g and k. We next take up the case that J = H # G. Normalize G further so that g has a fixed point at 1.

These two fixed points divide the arc { I z I = I t I } into four sides that are pairwise identified by the two half-turns. we see that G' has basic signature (0. We might still have that G is a non-trivial extension of G'. We obtain G' = <g. Then H. and v5 lies on {arg(z) = n/q}. and that <h> is a maximal cyclic subgroup of G. Assume that there is a transformation f in G . then k = jog has a fixed point at t. In the general case. Folding together all the sides of D. If j is hyperbolic (i.G'. We conclude that fE G'. The group G constructed in this section.4. hence g of lies in the subgroup of G' generated by j and h. be the subgroup of G generated by g and h.e. The identifications on { I z I = I t 1) depend on t 2 = it 2 le2i '(nlq+e). The reason for this is the following. on {arg(z) = -n/q}. The Geometric Basic Groups Fig. and interchanges the two halves of { Iz I _ It!) on D. these are fixed points of the elements k = h-"ojog. t > 0). -n/q < arg(z) < n/q). Except for the relation hq = 1. the arc { I z I = I t I ) on OID has two elliptic fixed points on it.4 assume that h has the form h(z) = e2w'Igz.2. or any group conjugate to it.) = k-'(v5).102 V. Consider the region D = (I < Izl < Itl. As in the preceding case. v2 is the fixed point of k'. Similarly if 0 = 0. Let H.. k: g2 = (g o h)2 = hq = k2 = (k o h)2 = 1>. We have already assumed that G contains j as a minimal loxodromic element. is called a double dihedral group. so g of has fixed points at 0 and oe. It divides the side { Izl = 1) on 8D into two arcs that are identified by g. and interchanges the two halves of {IzI = t}. V.4). v3 = k'(v. where B # 0. The point 1 is a fixed point of g(z) = 1/z.F. which has no counterpart in D.2. we can extend the sides of D into H3 to obtain a fundamental polyhedron for G' from which we can read off a presentation. h>. we will show below that G' = G. and let H2 be the subgroup generated by h and k.17. h. and H2 are both q-dihedral groups. The only possibility left is that f is a half-turn which interchanges 0 and 00. Let G' = <Go. the relations can all be read off from the vertices of D. These two subgroups . The sides {argz = ±n/q are identified by h. this other relation appears on the edge z = 0 in H3. The four sides are defined by the vertices v. then h-"ojog fixes the point It!. v4 is the fixed point of k.2. and that it contains h as a minimal rotation. and k' = h-"-'ojog.2) (see Figure V.

in the authors (admittedly limited) experience. A Fuchsian group is of the first kind if every point on the circle at infinity is a limit point. G. The component of F containing U is not simply connected.C. One needs an understanding of the theory of Fuchsian groups in order to understand Kleinian groups. For a Fuchsian group F of the second kind. the others are all basic signatures of Fuchsian groups.G. in which case our Fuchsian group is a discrete subgroup of P2+. Then A(F) is nowhere dense in the circle at infinity.3. G is the free product of H.1. l/00 = 0) there is a Fuchsian group with this basic signature (this is an immediate consequence of the uniformization theorem and III.. 2p-2+F1/v. (by definition. Fuchsian Groups G.7). G... U is not a component of F.4. v. We have listed those basic signatures which occur among the elementary groups. v) and (0. it is of the second kind otherwise. are difficult to find in the literature (see also VI.. R). That is. Hence a non-elementary Fuchsian group of the second kind is not a basic group. and H2 with amalgamated subgroup <h> (see VIII. F is elementary. > 0..F. Fuchsian groups are divided into two kinds. v. A Kleinian group G is Fuchsian if it keeps invariant some circular disc U. so that a Fuchsian group is a discrete subgroup of L2+ = PSL(2.V.G. The basic signatures (0.. s v2. G. it. for every basic where signature (p. or we can regard U as being B2. 2. We do however need one fact about Fuchsian groups of the second kind (we will return to these groups in VIILD and X. Our primary concern is with definitions and notation. . cannot occur in a Kleinian group for topological reasons.1). All others can and do occur. Proposition.A. v2).2. We can regard U as being H2. Fuchsian Groups 103 generate G. Let F be a Fuchsian group of the second kind. v. 1. we present proofs of only those facts which. it is clear that the circle at infinity contains the limit set of G. in fact. unless of course. The boundary of U is called the circle at infinity.1). we will present here only as much of that theory as is needed for the subsequent development.6-7). V.

Proposition. The translates of this limit point are dense in A. Hence F is a finite extension of a cyclic group. with exponent oo. An important fact that is almost obvious from the presentation above is that there is a type-preserving isomorphism between two Fuchsian groups of the first kind if and only if they have the same basic signature. then F has the presentation F= <a.D. If H is an elementary basic group.. Let F be a Fuchsian group and let S = U/F.bt. G. there is only one twice or thrice punctured sphere.B.104 V. The Geometric Basic Groups Proof. the result follows in these cases. i. The endpoint of each arc is a limit point of F.G. An analytically finite Fuchsian group of the first kind is a basic group.. a thrice punctured sphere. Since every elementary group is a finite extension of an Abelian group. then there is a conformal homeomorphism mapping S onto 9... and they all contain a rank two free Abelian subgroup. Assume there is an isomorphism q : F .7. we assume F is non-elementary. GS. A rank two free Abelian Kleinian group is necessarily parabolic (see I. every parabolic element of F is conjugate to some power of some e.. Then a is not the basic signature of an elementary group. so F is elementary. so is F.e. Let a be the basic signature of an analytically finite Fuchsian group of the first kind. such a group can preserve no disc. and has a well defined basic signature. The groups that uniformize the four times punctured sphere and the torus are all Euclidean. If the Fuchsian group F has basic signature a = (p. Proof. and a rank 2 parabolic group can preserve no disc..3). Then F and G are not isomorphic.en:Il[am. Then °U is a regular covering of its image °S.... Hence the branched universal covering surfaces of S and 99 are conformally equivalent. if S and 9 are two such punctured spheres. The result is obvious if F is elementary. then °S2(H)/H is either a twice punctured sphere. G.bminej=ei' _ 1J. Since the disc is conformally distinct from both the plane and the sphere.ap..bp. hence we can approximate every point of A by regular points on the circle at infinity. v. n. a four times punctured sphere. Let °U = U fl °Q(F). G. also. Proposition. Since 0 is open...). Let F be a non-elementary Fuchsian group.. Conformally. where we can require that a given puncture on S be mapped to a given puncture on 9. The symbol e°° in the expression above means that e is parabolic. or a torus... Proof. Once we have chosen base points. v.el. and let G be an elementary group. there is .6. It is easy to see that a rank 2 hyperbolic group is not discrete (the two generators must have the same fixed points). the set of non-limit points on the circle at infinity is a set of open disjoint arcs.

lift w again starting at the end point of WO.V. then the corresponding geodesic is a path that runs from one of these points to the other. both of order 2. it is the elementary group Z2 * Z2. In general.9. respectively. then the axis A of g = 0(n. Proposition. where W projects to a simple loop. We have shown the following.e. is a path from one ramification point of order 2 to another. G. and then interating. Note that W U h(W) is the boundary of a regular neighborhood of A. the axis of g. Since Stab(A) is discrete. Then g o h is also a half-turn in Stab(A). If F is torsion free. If Stab(A) is not cyclic. then v is the unique smooth geodesic. i. where w does not bound a disc containing exactly two ramification points. in the hyperbolic metric. then the corresponding geodesic v is also simple. and so on. (°S) is hyperbolic. it follows that no translate of A. If w does bound a disc containing exactly two ramification points of order 2. then lift w-' again. . lift w'. In this case v. or a loop w representing a. Let w be a hyperbolic simple loop on °S. The path W is invariant under <g = O(a)>. There is a path Wconnecting some point z e Flt to g(z). Let v be the projection of A to S. The same proof also yields the following. To see this. if and only if the axis A of g is precisely invariant under its stabilizer in F. G. Let g be a primitive hyperbolic element of the Fuchsian group F. If F has torsion. This means that the fixed points of g do not separate the fixed points of any conjugate of g. if w is a simple loop on °S. Then the geodesic corresponding to w is also simple. crosses A. let W be a connected component of p-' (w). then we have shown that the corresponding geodesic is simple. hence the original loop w is a simple loop that surrounds these two ramification points. hyperbolic. (°S) -+ F. starting at the beginning point of WO. We call an element a in n. and then back again. If Stab(A) = <g> is cyclic. or parabolic according as 0(z) is elliptic. hyperbolic or parabolic. where w is any loop representing a. then there is a half-turn h in Stab(A) which interchanges the fixed points of g. and so on. It is easy to see that this classification is independent of base point. it is the geodesic on S corresponding to a.G. W can be obtained by lifting w to a path Wo. freely homotopic to w. Fuchsian Groups 105 a homomorphism 0: n. and then back again. hence it has well defined endpoints: the fixed points of g. then the axis might pass through some elliptic fixed points.) is the geodesic in HI connecting the fixed points of g (we will also sometimes refer to this axis as being the true axis). If a e n. at the same time. the projection of A. then lift w again. no translate of W under F crosses W. Since w is simple. Proposition. (°S).. A hyperbolic element of a Fuchsian group which satisfies the above is called simple. elliptic.10.

In the former two cases. G. The Geometric Basic Groups G. in this case. G. Then the entire circle at infinity is composed of C. It is clear that this can be done in many different ways. It follows that F = Stab(A). while if F is of the second kind. and the set of axes is F-invariant. A is precisely invariant under Stab(A). and H U A U C is precisely invariant under Stab(C). for any given Fuchsian group.13. Let C be an arc of discontinuity of F with boundary geodesic A and boundary half space H. The boundary geodesic A divides 82 into two half spaces. no translate of A can have an endpoint in C.F is not simple. If the hyperbolic element f c. and A U H U C is precisely invariant under Stab(A). we make such a choice. or if the axis off does not have fixed points of half-turns on it. 12. Stab(A). In the latter two cases. Given a non-elementary Fuchsian group F. then the true axis has fixed points of half-turns on it. Then Q(F) fl S' is an open subset of §'.1 1. the half space whose boundary is C is called a boundary half space. hyperbolic cyclic. qua Kleinian group. contradicting our assumption that F is non-elementary. K(F) is the complement of the union of the boundary half spaces. then K(F) is the entire disc. Proof. hence it is either trivial. A projects to a simple loop on °S. Proposition. h(C) and the end points of A. Let F be a Fuchsian group acting on 82. this second axis lies on the other side of the true axis. Each of these arcs is called a boundary arc or arc of discontinuity of F. then every element of Stab(A) preserves both C and H. It follows that A is precisely invariant under its stabilizer. and the axis off is a neighboring curve A. Let F be a non-elementary Fuchsian group.106 V. It is often cumbersome to work with axes with elliptic fixed points on them. there is a half-turn h e Stab(A). With this definition. then the true axis is the geodesic connecting the fixed points off. Since the endpoints of A are limit points of F. It is easy to see that if F is of the first kind. and we now introduce a distinction between "axis" and "true axis". the convex region K(F) is defined to be the smallest closed (hyperbolic) convex set whose (Euclidean) closure contains the limit set of F. If Stab(A) is hyperbolic cyclic or trivial. has either 0 or 2 limit points. hence a union of arcs. Applying one of these half-turns to the axis yields a second axis for f. . Stab(A) = Stab(C) = Stab(H). Then Stab(C) = Stab(A) = Stab(H) is either trivial or hyperbolic cyclic. or 12 * Z2. hence.12. distinct axes are disjoint. 0 A non-trivial element of Stab(H) is called a boundary element of F. If f is simple and its axis has fixed points of half-turns on it. if the axis off is not the true axis. then the axis and the true axis are the same. Each arc of discontinuity C has a boundary geodesic connecting the two endpoints of C. chosen so as to satisfy the following requirements: A is <f >-invariant.

3 + n. then for every boundary geodesic A. (iii) F is finitely generated. Also each unit has exactly three boundary components. wk as being simple disjoint loops on S.X(F) = 2p . (ii) F is an analytically finite Kleinian group. then each unit is a "pair of pants". every connected component of its complement is simply connected. Fuchsian Groups 107 G. Let S be some surface of genus p so that there is an embedding of S into 9. Hence k = 3p . the different boundary components are the two sides of each wm.3 + n. we require that for each Ym. The total number of boundary components is 2k + n.2 + n.G. G. A system of loops is maximal if it is not properly contained in another system. Obviously j 5 p. and the special points. An important fact about Fuchsian groups is the following. The complement in °S of these loops is a set of subsurfaces. wk } of simple disjoint loops on °S = (°0 (F) f1 H2 )/F satisfying the following condition.15. A set of loops fills up S if every loop in the set is simple. { Y. tt. so as to obtain a planar surface.. . if these conditions hold.. Also. .V.14. and let (w1. and. has genus zero). . Proof.. Proposition. 0 G. the projection of the boundary arcs. If F is purely hyperbolic. We also need a more complicated sets of loops. Stab(A) is hyperbolic cyclic..02/F.. (i) D has finitely many sides. that is. 2k + n = 3(1 + k . n.p). let j be the number of loops in this subset..Then k = 3p . . Then we can regard the loops w. .. Since the system is maximal. since each unit has genus zero.(Ym) is not Abelian. Let D be a Dirichlet region for the non-elementary Fuchsian group F.Wk} beamaximal system of loops onS = 0.16. and the system divides S into . Theorem..2 + n units (X here is the Euler characteristic of °S). and every connected component of its complement contains at most one special point. Hence the number of units is l+k-p. each unit is planar (that is. on S. and let S = H 2/F. . (iv) The hyperbolic area of K(F)/F is finite. . a sphere with three holes. since each unit has three boundary components... then each additional wm cuts this surface into two parts. Let S be a closed marked Riemann surface. Y } called the building blocks of the system. the building blocks in a maximal system are called units.. including punctures. j = p. A system of loops on S is a set { w3. Then the following statements are equivalent. We cut S along these p loops. Let F be a non-elementary finitely generated Fuchsian group. . Let F be a non-elementary Fuchsian group of signature (p. There is a maximal homologically independent subset of the system. and the number of units is 2p .

The Geometric Basic Groups Let F be a finitely generated Fuchsian group of the first kind. the translates of A accumulate to a point. the completion of H2/F'. wk be a set of simple loops filling up S. elements..18. Let x be a limit point of F. since F is discrete. (A). If H2/F has genus 0. and there is a sequence { gm } of elements of F. Of course there might be elliptic fixed points in some of these connected components. Then there is a hyperbolic element g. it contains many loxodromic. 0 G.+. Let w.108 V. the completion of HZ/F. there might be a parabolic fixed point on the boundary of some component. for the translates of an axis must converge to a point. Since each w. .. L passes through infinitely many of the sets in the complement of £. and let £ be the set of axes of elements lying over the wm. there is at most one such point on the boundary of any one component. Theorem. it is easy to construct a set of hyperbolic simple loops that fills up S. Theorem. where x is not a parabolic fixed point. Since each connected component of the complement of Uwm is simply connected on S. G. Hence. necessarily x.. If necessary. and (in the spherical metric) the axes g. x. each gm(A) separates x from g.. so also is each connected component of the complement of E. with axis A.. in fact hyperbolic. so that { g. Proof. so L crosses infinitely many of the axes in £.(A) } nests about x. Draw the (hyperbolic) line L from some point z in H' to x. Since x is not a parabolic fixed point. so that L crosses infinitely many translates of A. but there can be at most one such point in each component. has positive genus. Let G be a non-elementary Kleinian group in which tr2(g) >_ O for all g e G. the different translates of A do not intersect.11 that an element g of RA can keep some disc invariant if and only if tr2(g) >_ 0. so that 112/F' has positive genus. Then G is Fuchsian. but again. all lie in a discrete group.17. Since G is non-elementary.. Let F be a finite) y generated Fuchsian group of the first kind. is simple. move z a little so that L is not colinear with any of the axes in E. tr2(g) >_ 0. We conclude this section with a characterization of those Kleinian groups that are Fuchsian..B. where S. We normalize G so that . Proof. therefore there is an axis A in £. Note that the last condition is automatic if Stab(A) and the g. We say that the set of translates {gm(A)} of an axis A nests about the point x if the axes g. Similarly. for every g in a Fuchsian group. Using the fact that every non-dividing loop is hyperbolic.(A) are all disjoint.(A) -. then there is a subgroup F of finite index. We saw in I..

V.H. Isomorphisms
Y
_Ct

109

0

t-1 ' t > 1,

O1

and

h=

a bl
c

d

are hyperbolic elements of G with distinct fixed points. We also normalize so that

the product of the fixed points of h, -b/c = 1. Since t is real, and h and go h both have real traces, a and d are both real. Also since ad - be = 1, and b = - c, we obtain that b2 = c2 is real. The fixed points of h are given by
a-d±((a+d)2-4)1/2

2c

Since h is hyperbolic, the numerator is real. Since c is either real or pure
imaginary, both fixed points of h are also either real or pure imaginary. If they are real, then g and h both preserve the upper and lower half-planes, while if they are pure imaginary, then g and It both preserve the right and left half-planes. We renormalize, keeping g fixed, so that <g, h> preserves the upper half plane; i.e., we renormalize so that <g, h> is a subgroup of PSL(2, R). Now let

f =(a

c'

d'/

be any other element of G. As above, we compare the traces of g, f, and g of to show that a' and d' are both real. We also compute the trace of h of to obtain

that bc' + b'c is real. Then we compute the trace of g o h o f to obtain that tc'b + t-lb'c is real. Combining these last two statements, we conclude that b'
and c' are both real. Hence f also lies in PSL(2, IB).

V.H. Isomorphisms
H.I. The Nielsen isomorphism theorem is an important tool in the theory of
Fuchsian and Kleinian groups. We state it here in complete generality, and prove a weaker version in IX.E.

Theorem. (Nielsen [78]). Let rp: G - 6 be an isomorphism between finitely generated Fuchsian groups, acting on the disc U, satisfying the following conditions.
(i) g e G is parabolic if and only if (p (g) is; (ii) g e G is a minimal rotation if and only if cp(g) is; and (iii) g e G is a boundary element if and only if rp(g) is.

Then there is a homeomorphism f C - C, where fogo f'1 = tp(g), and f(U) = U.

The usual formulation of this theorem has condition (ii) replaced with the condition that G, and hence also C, is non-elementary. In this section we prove the analogous result for the basic elementary groups.

I to

V. The Geometric Basic Groups

H.2. In general, an isomorphism cp: G -. ? is called type-preserving if conditions (i) and (ii) above are satisfied. H.3. Proposition. Let cp: G - l; be a type-preserving isomorphism between finite
Kleinian groups. Then cp is a topological deformation; in fact, G and ri are conjugate

in O.
Proof. It is easy to see that two finite Kleinian groups are isomorphic if and only if they have the same signature. We saw in C.10 that up to conjugation in M, there is only one finite Kleinian group of each possible signature. Hence we can

assume that t = G.
If G is cyclic or dihedral, choose a geometric generator j of the maximal cyclic normal subgroup J (if G is cyclic, J = G). Then either cp(j) = j, or V (j) = j-1. In the latter case, let a be a half-turn interchanging the fixed points of j, and let a*: G - G be conjugation by a; that is, a,(g) = a o g o a-'. Replace cp by a* o gyp; i.e., we can assume that cp(j) = j. If G is cyclic, we are finished. If G is dihedral, normalize G so that the fixed

points of J lie at the poles of S2, and so that one of the fixed points of some half-turn in G lies on the equator; then all the fixed points of the elements of G - J lie on the equator. Choose some element g e G - J. Let r be a rotation of
S2, where the axis of r is the axis of J, and r maps the fixed points of cp(g) onto those of g. Replace cp by r* o cp; then cp(g) = g. Since G = Q, g), cp = 1.

We next take up the case that G is the orientation preserving half of the group of motions of the tetrahedron, cube, or dodecahedron S. Let H be a cyclic subgroup of maximal order in G, and let h be a geometric generator of H. Then there is a face F of S kept invariant by h. Conjugate cp by a rotation
of S2 so that cp(h) keeps the same face F invariant. As above, either P(h) = h, or cp(h) = h-1; in the latter case, compose cp with the isomorphism induced by a half-turn interchanging the fixed points of h. Hence we can assume that
cp(h) = h.

Let j be a half-turn about an edge E on the face F. We now have to consider the three cases separately. If S is a tetrahedron, then cp(j) is also a half-turn about an edge of F. Rotate about the center of F until cp(j) also keeps E invariant; then cp(j) = j.

If S is a cube, then cp(j) is a half-turn which keeps two opposite edges
invariant. One of these edges lies on F, for if not, we would have cp(j o h o j) = cp(j)ohocp(j) = h-` = cp(h-1), while johoj is not a power of h. Hence we can rotate by a power of h so that cp(j) =j. If S is a dodecahedron, then G contains 15 distinct half-turns. Five of these have fixed points on edges of F, five of them conjugate h into h', which, as we observed above, cannot occur, and if cp(j) were one of the other five, then h o cp(j) would have order five, while h o j has order three. In all three cases, we have shown that there is a rotation r of S2 so that r* o cp fixes both h and j; hence r* o cp is the identity on G.

V.I. Exercises

111

H.4. Proposition. Let q : G - ( be a type preserving isomorphism between Kleinian groups, where G has exactly one limit point. Then N is a topological deformation, in particular, C also has exactly one limit point.

Proof. If G is parabolic cyclic, then so is C; we can normalize so that 0 is the identity on G. If G is the infinite dihedral group, let J be the maximal parabolic
cyclic subgroup of G. Then cp(J) = .7 is also a maximal parabolic cyclic subgroup;

normalize G and t so that j(z) = z + I is a generator of both J and 7, and so that cp(j) = j. Further normalize so that h(z) = - z is an element of G - J. Since

(p(h) is a half-turn which conjugates j into its inverse, we can also further
normalize so that cp(h) = h. If G is a rank two parabolic group, then it suffices to assume that G is generated by g(z) = z + 1, and by h(z) = z + i, and that l; is generated by g and h = rp(h),

where h(z) = z + r, Im(r) # 0. Then, f(x + iy) = x + y Re(r) + iy Im(r) conjugates g into itself, and h into h.

Observe that the map f, constructed above, commutes with z - -z; hence
the case that G has signature (0, 4; 2,2,2,2) is also taken care of. The only cases left are the Euclidean triangle groups; we treat these together. In these cases, G has signature (0, 3; v1, v2, v3), where v, 5 v2 5 v3 < oo, and 1/v1 + 1/v2 + I/v3 = 1. We choose generators g and h for G, where g has order v3, h has order v,, and go h has order v2. Let J be the maximal rank two parabolic subgroup of G, and let 7 = (p(J). We normalize G and CY so that J and 7 have their fixed points at co; then G and CY are both Euclidean groups. We normalize further so that g has its fixed points at 0 and oo, and h has its fixed points at 1 and oc. Similarly, we normalize C so that g = rp(g) has its fixed points at 0 and oc, and h = cp(h) has its fixed points at 1 and oc. Since cp is type-preserving, g = g±'. If necessary, we conjugate 6 by z - a, so that g = g. If the signature of G is (0, 3; 2,3,6), or (0, 3; 2,4,4) then h is a half-turn, h. Hence, in these cases, after appropriate normalization, 0 = G, and so
(P = 1.

The last case is that the signature of G is (0, 3; 3, 3, 3). In this case, an easy computation shows that g o h is elliptic, while g o h-' is parabolic. Hence we must

have h = h. Again, after appropriate normalization, 0 = G, and p = 1.

0

V.I. Exercises
1.1. If G is a free Abelian Kleinian group of rank two, then every element of G is parabolic.

1.2. Let A and B be hyperbolic lines in H3 which meet at a point x. Let a and b be the half-turns about A and B, respectively. G = <a, b> is discrete if and only if the angle between A and B is a rational multiple of it.

112

V. The Geometric Basic Groups

1.3. Let A and B be hyperbolic lines in 1-03 which do not intersect, even on the sphere at oc. Let a and b be the half-turns in A and B respectively, and let C be the common perpendicular to A and B. Write the multiplier, or trace, of a o b in terms of the (hyperbolic) distance between A and B, and the angle between them (measure the angle by parallel transport along Q. Hint: normalize so that C has its endpoints at 0 and oo, and so that one endpoints of A is at 1; then the other

endpoint is at - 1.
I.4. Let P be a regular Euclidean polygon with v sides inscribed in the unit circle, and let Q be the suspension of P in lll', suspended from the points (0,0, 1) and

(0, 0, - 1). The orientation preserving half of the group of motions of Q is the v-dihedral group (acting on §Z).
13. If G is a finite Abelian Kleinian group, then either G is cyclic, or IGI = 4. 1.6. Let G be the orientation preserving half of the group of motions of a regular tetrahedron. Then (a) every element of G has order either two or three; (b) there is only one conjugacy class each of cyclic subgroups of orders two and three;
(c) IGI = 12;

(d) G contains exactly one 2-dihedral group; every other proper subgroup is
cyclic.

1.7. Let G be the orientation preserving half of the group of motions of a cube. Then (a) every element of G has order two, three, or four; (b) there is only one conjugacy class each of maximal cyclic subgroups of orders two, three, and four;
(c) IGI = 24;

(d) G contains two conjugate subgroups of index 2; each is the orientation preserving half of the group of motions of a tetrahedron; (e) G contains three conjugate 4-dihedral groups, four conjugate 3-dihedral groups, and some 2-dihedral groups; (f) all subgroups of G not listed in (d) and (e) above are cyclic.

1.8. Let G be the orientation preserving half of the group of motions of a
dodecahedron. Then (a) every element of G has order two, three, or five; (b) there is only one conjugacy class each of cyclic subgroups of orders two, three, and five; (c) for v = 2, 3, 5, if a subgroup H of G contains all elements of order v, then

H=G;

V.I. Exercises

113

(d) G is simple;

(e)IGI=60;
(f) G is isomorphic to the alternating group A5. 1.9. Let G be the Euclidean group with basic signature (a) (0, 3; 2,3,6), (b) (0, 3; 2,4,4), (c) (0, 3; 3,3,3), and let J be the maximal parabolic subgroup of G. What is the index of J in G?

I.10. The group constructed in D.7 is a subgroup of the group constructed in
D.6. What is its index?

1.11. Let j(z) = z + 1, and let w be a path in C from some point z to j"(z), m > 1. Then w fl j(w) # o.

1.12. Let C,, C,_., C", C,, be disjoint circles in C bounding a common region ... D. Let g3 a M be such that g;(C) = C, and g,(D) fl D = 0. The group <g,..., g" is called a classical Schottky group of rank n. If G is a non-elementary Kleinian group, then for every n, G contains a classical Schottky group of rank n. (Hint: Prove this for n = 2, then show that a classical Schottky group of rank 2 contains classical Schottky groups of every rank.)
1.13. Let G be a Kleinian group with exactly two limit points, x and y. There is a simple G-invariant path W connecting x to y if and only if G is loxodromic cyclic, or G = Z2 * Z2.
1.14. There is a discrete subgroup G of 1_' where H'/G is not a 3-manifold.

1.15. Let G be a basic group, and let H c G also be a basic group. Then either H is cyclic, or H and G are of the same type (i.e., they are both finite, or both Euclidean, or both Fuchsian).
1.16. If H is an Abelian subgroup of a Fuchsian group, then H is cyclic.

1.17. Let F be a Fuchsian group, and let x be a point on the circle at infinity.
Then Stab(x) is either trivial, parabolic cyclic, or hyperbolic cyclic.
I.18. Let F be a Fuchsian group. Show that the convex region K (F) is F-invariant, and has no vertices (that is, if x e OK(F), then there is a hyperbolic line L, with

xeL c aK(F)).
1.19. Let x and y be points on P, and let A be the hyperbolic line joining them. Let r e D_2 denote reflection in A, and let g e M be the half-turn with fixed points at x and y. Then r and g are both represented by the same matrix in PSL(2, Q.

114

V. The Geometric Basic Groups

1.20. Let A and B be hyperbolic lines in H2, and let a, b denote reflection in A, B, respectively. The element boa a L2 is hyperbolic if and only if A and B are disjoint; it is parabolic if and only if they meet at exactly one point on the circle at infinity; it is elliptic if and only if they meet at exactly one point in 1-12. 1.21. Let H be a non-trivial normal subgroup of the Kleinian group G. (a) Show that if H is elementary, then so is G. (b) Show that if G is non-elementary, then A(G) = A(H).

V.J. Notes
B.4. This proof, including the idea of looking at ab-ba as an element of M, is due to Jorgensen [37]. E.6. The proof given here is due to Jorgensen [36]. G.14. A proof of this theorem can be found in Kra [43 pg. 68], or Beardon [11 pg. 254]. H.I. A proof of the Nielsen isomorphism theorem can be found in Marden [54], or Zieschang, Vogt, and Coldeway [104]; see also Tukia [92].

that is.G). under suitable conditions. i.I. we denote the intersection of the Euclidean boundary of D with SB" by 3D. For a polyhedron D c B" we denote the relative boundary of D in B" by aD. and let gl and g2 he the corresponding side pairing transformations. but its non-compact ends can be completely described in terms of a finite set of topologically distinct possibilities. then we say that s abuts x. this manifold need not be compact. Proof. there are sides s. the combination of two geometrically finite groups is again geometrically finite. Let sl 0 s2 be sides of D.2. D is convex.A.e. A. Hence gI(s2) is not a side of D. VI. in particular.Chapter VI. Let G be a discrete subgroup of L". The Boundary at Infinity of a Fundamental Polyhedron A. Q A. it separates s? from g1 (s2). acting on F"-'. A geometrically finite group can also be described in terms of the underlying manifold (H' U Q(G))/G. groups that have (convex) fundamental polyhedra in H' with finitely many sides. Thus far. and sZ. and x lies on the boundary of the side s of D. and let D c H" be a fundamental polyhedron for G. One of our main objectives is to give a criterion for a group to be geometrically finite in terms of its action at the limit set. In fact. this criterion will then be used in Chapter VII to show that. The generalization to subgroups of V. so the different sides of D lie on different hyperplanes. the term "fundamental domain" is defined only for subgroups of f fl (see II. By definition.. . The relative interior of aD in aH" is denoted by °aD. so that Then 91 0 92. The hyperplane on which si lies separates D from gl(D). different sides are identified by different elements of G.3. If x e aD. Proposition. Geometrically Finite Groups This chapter is an exploration of geometrically finite discrete subgroups of M. is obvious.

A horosphere centered at oo is a Euclidean plane parallel to aH".z. hence there are only finitely many translates of ID in a neighborhood of x. For each xm there is an element gm e G.116 VI. A.0. Geometrically Finite Groups Proposition. Proof. _ Let x be a point on the boundary of °aD. Hence every element of J lies in A2. where xEQ. and which. Let G he a discrete subgroup of ISO. In 3".C. with xm . There are only a finite number of distinct elements in this sequence. Proof. for otherwise. is a Euclidean sphere tangent to OH". t) E H 3 1 t > 1 } is precisely invariant under Stab(oo). then diaE(Qm) . contradicting the assumption that z E Q. Then the horoball T = { (z. The point of tangency of S with aB" is the center. If x is a point on the boundary of °aD. so there is a side s of D abutting x.5.5. and Q. where x does not lie on any side. or Ici z 1 In the latter case. then choose a sequence of points {xm } in D3". if z E Q (G). with xm E gm(D). If {sm} is a sequence of sides of D. the radius of the isometric circle of g is at most one.6. then by I1. of S. or vertex. A. It is also the center. Proposition.0. The open Euclidean ball bounded by S is called a horoball. then °aD is a fundamental domain for G. no element of J is loxodromic. It is immediate from the definition that no two points of °aD are equivalent under G.C. hence there is a sequence of side pairing transformations { gm } so that for all z c. except for the point of tangency. hence diaE(asm) .1)-sphere which is tangent to aB". Let J = Stab(oo). we would have diaE gm(D) -+ 0. is the supporting hyperplane of sm. which. In 3". of the horoball bounded by S. Then x lies on a side of °OD. Finally. lies in H". and every element of A2 keeps every horosphere centered at oo invariant.°aD. or vertex. where G containsj(z) = z + 1. A horosphere in H". lies in H". in which case geJ. except for the point of tangency. These are paired by the same elements that pair the sides of D. Write . The sides of °aD are the boundaries of the sides of D. If g = (c a d) is any element of G. centered at a finite point x. If D is a fundamental polyhedron for the discrete subgroup G of P". either c = 0.x. then there is a sequence of sides of D accumulating to x. Hence there is a g e G with g(z) in the closure of D. gm(z) . only finitely many supporting hyperplanes of sides of D meet any compact set.4. a horosphere S is a Euclidean (n . by II. There are only finitely many translates of D in a neighborhood of s. Hence x is a limit point of G.

Let J = G = <z . . or x.0 3. where r is reflection in the isometric circle of g. Since this isometric circle has radius at most one. x2. U B2 is precisely invariant under J in G. Let G be a Fuchsian group acting on H2. The region Q = {zIIRe(z)l < 1/2. and the closure of Q projects onto the punctured disc. Stab T = <j>. For Kleinian groups the situation is somewhat more complicated. ((0-02 fl °S2(G))/G) onto G. and B2. or the fixed point x of J. j corresponds to a small loop about the puncture. The exponential. We can visualize the puncture by normalizing G as above. The fixed point of J is called the center of B. The two precisely invariant discs in a doubly cusped region need not be separately precisely invariant. In this case. A. hence q(T) = T. G)-panel. where G contains j(z) _ z + 1. where G contains the primitive parabolic element j. and r to H3. We still have an invariant horoball Tin 0.D). Let G be a Kleinian group. q.VI. f(z) = e2" `-. Then r is reflection in the hyperbolic plane whose boundary is the isometric circle of g. Im(z) > 2} is necessarily contained in D. and there are only finitely many topologically distinct possibilities for Stab(T) (see V.8. This. is cusped if there is an open circular disc B C C which is a (J.z + l. then we can normalize G so that j(z) = z + 1 generates a maximal parabolic subgroup.-z>. Similarly. and is a cover map. two points z and z' of T are equivalent under <j> if and only if f(z) = f(z'). J. and let J be a rank 1 Euclidean subgroup of G. so that under the natural homomorphism of n. Since G is Fuchsian. Proposition. Then there is a punctured disc.A. however. Let T be the horoball {z I Im(z) > 1). where there may or may not be punctures on Q(G)/G corresponding to any given maximal rank I parabolic subgroup. An easy modification of the above yields the following.7. U B2 is called a doubly cusped region. r(T) fl T = 0. B = B. Then the horoball {zIIm(z) > I} is precisely invariant under Stab(oc). Proposition.z . Extend the actions of g. or for x.6. but neither disc is separately invariant. acting on H2. A. and q is a Euclidean motion. and constructing the Dirichlet region D in H2 centefed at 2i. . A. If G is a Fuchsian group acting on 0-02 and G contains a parabolic element. t) t). and q o r(T) fl T = 0. conformally embedded in H2/G. yields no information about the 2-dimensional action. We have shown the following. Then the pair of discs {zIIm(z) < -1} U {zIlm(z) > l } is precisely invariant under J in G. Let G be a Fuchsian group. so that B. is doubly cusped if there are two disjoint open circular discs B.maps T onto a punctured disc. The Boundary at Infinity of a Fundamental Polyhedron 117 g = q or. B is called a cusped region for J. that is. The extension of q is a Euclidean motion of the form q(x. J.

If there are more than two sides abutting oo. in the latter case. and points of s. D' is a not necessarily convex "polyhedron" bounded by a finite number of sides. at least has its sides near oo paired. The cutting and pasting is done inductively as follows. with h(x) = oo. = D n (T) by g. then x is doubly cusped. centered at oc. we cut and paste to obtain a new object which.03/G is complete.e. If this new object has a side abutting oo paired with a side abutting some point x2 = 92' (00) s oo. if there are any. After a finite number of steps.z + 1 generates the parabolic subgroup of hJh-'.118 VI. there is a horoball T. or for x. Proof. they are all either parabolic or elliptic (see IV. If B is a cusped region for x. so co is an elliptic fixed point in 12. centered at oo. Since 0. Then either xe(1(G). then clearly x e 0. Since D has only finitely many sides. these sides need not be paired with each other.. (CI). If there are no sides of D' abutting oo. Let D be a finite sided fundamental polyhedron for the discrete subgroup G of A. C is called a cusp for J. If x e '3D. Choose E = I Re(z)I < 1/21 as a fundamental domain for hJh-'. which maps a side abutting some point x. and let C = h-' (E) fl B. so that T meets only those sides of D abutting oo. Since D has only finitely many sides. then there is a side pairing transformation g1. g-' (D). then either one of the identifications is parabolic. and the side pairing transforma- tion j is elliptic.e. x e Sl. etc. i. the sides of D' abutting oo are paired with each other.9.I. Of course. If the sides abutting oo are not paired. Replace C. Normalize so that x = oo. Proposition. then all of (D' is contained inside a sufficiently large Euclidean ball. the commutator of these two elliptic elements is parabolic with fixed point . and replace C2 by g2(C2).10. so that z . If x is an interior point of a side s of °t3D. (z l A. If there is exactly one pair of sides abutting oD (this includes the possibility of one side paired with itself). then there is an element h of Id0. these identifications are all Euclidean motions. and let x be a point of 8D. are pairwise identified by elements of G. and a side pairing transformation g with g(s) = s'. or there are two identifications which are elliptic. we arrive at a set D' with the following properties. i. then the outside of a sufficiently large Euclidean ball about the origin meets only those sides abutting oo. The sides of D' abutting oo. then there is a side s'. then set C2 = D fl g2' (T). there is a horoball T'. # oo on aD to a side abutting oo. Geometrically Finite Groups A. Further. if J has rank 1. while it is no longer a polyhedron. D' is precisely invariant under the identity in G. or J = Stab(x) is a Euclidean subgroup of G. that meets only those sides of D' abutting oo. Since a neighborhood of x is completely filled up by D. oo e Q (G). where some of the sides of D' lie on horospheres.. rather than hyperplanes. Note that the isolated points of aD also lie on the boundary of at least two sides. the only other possibility is that there are at least two sides of D abutting x.6-7).

then it is the fixed point of a half-turn. then either s = s'. has its fixed point at Then there are horoballs Tt and T2. which is either cyclic or the (2. then. ifs and s' are sides of D'. where Jam. we can conclude as above that E' has no lowest point. It is clear that except for sides lying on the real axis. Since E only extends downwards from the highest points.11. In either case. where any two of these convex polygons are either disjoint or have a common side. A. and that Stab(oo) is a rank I Euclidean group. at sufficiently large height. as above.C. is centered at x. We also assume that G is normalized so that j(z) = z + 1 generates the parabolic subgroup of G. We have shown that if E has a highest or lowest point. If z t is unique.A. Once we have established a parabolic element in J. and j e J pairs s with s'. either x e Q(G). E has at least one pair of parallel sides on its boundary. The sides of D' abutting oe are paired by elements of J. Similarly. where two such polyhedra are adjoined along a common side. it is easy to see that the set of highest points must be discrete. then either s = s'. since E has only finitely many sides.4). where T. so that (T1. The sides of E are paired by elements of J. Let E be the "polyhedron" bounded by the sides of D' abutting cc. so that B = {zII ImzI > b} intersects only that pair of sides. For the same reason. Proposition. If E has exactly one pair of parallel sides. it is also easy to see that the sides abutting these points cannot all be identified by translations. Consider Im(z) to be height. and let Jt and J2 be non-conjugate maximal Euclidean subgroups of G. Then B is precisely invariant under J. We now assume that oc is a point of aD. In this case. or s and s' are parallel. necessarily identified by j.1. I is actually a finite union of convex polyhedra. Since all the sides abut oo.6).VI. where E' is entirely contained in the lower half-plane. then E is a union of a finite number of Euclidean convex polygons in F2. We have shown that for every x on aD. b > 0. 2. The Boundary at Infinity of a Fundamental Polyhedron 119 oo (I. these_ polyhedra are convex in both the Euclidean and hyperbolic sense. if there is no lowest point in E. then these sides cannot be parallel to the real axis. Let G be a discrete subgroup of fyl. Let E = °8E. Since J has rank 1. if s and s' are sides of E. we see only one pair of sides. or Stab(x) is a Euclidean subgroup of positive rank. If there is no highest point in E. then there is a cusped region of the form {zIIm(z) < -b}. oo)-triangle group. Suppose there is a highest point z t .J2) in G (see 11. and that the fixed points of the half-turns in J all have height zero. T2) is precisely invariant under (Jt. the side pairing transformations of E' are all translations. We now assume that E has a highest point.6). there is a cusped region of the form {zllm(z) > b}. then J is not cyclic. hence there is a number b > 0. Since there are sides of E' extending into the lower half-plane. . paired by j e J. there can be no loxodromic element in J (II.D. Now cut and paste once more to obtain a new "polygon" E'. these are identified by a generator j of J. or s is parallel to s'.

) of nonconjugate maximal Euclidean subgroups.' tends to 0..) in G. By A.. there is a (Euclidean) rotation cm. The result above is not in general true if J = Stab(x) has rank 1. onto itself are other Euclidean translations. Let T be any precisely invariant horoball centered at x.. Normalize so that x = oo. J. = { (z. Let D he a finite sided fundamental polyhedron for the Kleinian group G. this contradicts II.. is chosen so that am(T2) is a horosphere of (Euclidean) radius pm. T' is a (J. so that gm = Cm o bm o am. Since ('T/{Stab(oo)} has finite area. and so that j. centered at x. t) e H 3 t > 1) U { (z.. hence any such element also stabilizes T. G)-panel (see VI. and let T' = T U H. there is a precisely invariant doubly cusped region B = B.T is bounded away from x. this cannot happen. for some a > 0. where Stab(x) is a rank I Euclidean subgroup of G. the radius of the isometric circle of gm 0j2 o g. Proposition. Let bm be the translation z -a z + zm. = oo. One can easily extend the statement and proof above from two Euclidean subgroups to a finite set {J. the lower left hand entry of am oj2 o a.03 whose boundary is Bm. x2 = 0... Suppose there is a sequence {gm} of elements of G. Geometrically Finite Groups Proof. Let H. then we can take T' to a set of the form: { (z..m = {(z... Since bm o am(T2.) and gm(T2) are horospheres of the same size and vertex...12..' is greater than 1. Let pm be the Euclidean radius of and let zm = gm(0) be its center.5. but there is an obvious modification.z + I generates the parabolic subgroup of J.120 VI. and precisely invariant under J2. with having non-trivial intersection with T.... A. be the half space in 0.. J. where T2 is a disjoint from T.. U B2. Let D he a finite sided fundamental polyhedron for the discrete subgroup G of M. .t)It > m}.} so that (T. Observe that the only elements of NA which conjugate J.) is precisely invariant under (J1.. so that D .T can approach oc only if tm is bounded. Proposition. We obtain a set of horoballs {T... Let am(z) = where A... Hence form sufficiently large.. centered at x.13. Proof. Then there is a precisely invariant horoball T. If we normalize so that z . Since Am' oo. Then there is a precisely invariant extended horoball T'. for any j2 a J2.tm)} of D . T. A.M.T' is bounded away from x. U H2. Then a sequence of points {(zm. t) e HI I I Im(z)I > a}.D for a description of T'/J). and let x e aD be the fixed point of a rank 2 Euclidean subgroup of G.C.(z) = z + I is an element of J. T. Normalize so that x. The absolute value of this lower left hand entry (the reciprocal of the radius of the isometric circle) is left unchanged by conjugation by a Euclidean motion. . and let x e aD. The set T' is called an extended horoball centered at x. so that D .10. Start with the horoballs T. A. 01 t > 1 } and T2.. with fixed points at zm and oo.

Then. A minor modification of the above proof yields some information about groups that need not be geometrically finite. all points of D either have large height or large imaginary part.U T. We also know that we can find disjoint precisely invariant horoballs. or pairwise precisely invariant... so that D . . and T.) E C.VI. Stab(x2)) in G.. so that (B. and x2 is doubly cusped. It remains to prove that if x . which are either pairwise equivalent. and.M. x.t. and there is a sequence of elements { gm } of G. Normalize so that x = oo. is precisely invariant relative to D if each T. is bounded away from A(G). We already know that we can find a T for each x.. with zm -4 x.. Since gm(x. Hence outside of a large Euclidean ball. T.. These sides extend to co only in an infinite strip... Proposition. is a horoball or extended horoball at xm. is bounded away from A(G). We say that the fundamental polyhedron D for G is essentially finite if there is a finite set of horoballs or extended horoballs where these are precisely invariant relative to D.10. then there are precisely invariant doubly cusped regions B. c B1. so that it does not intersect any of these sets. hence we can choose B2 smaller...M. for xm. so that gm(x. j e J2. The Boundary at Infinity of a Fundamental Polyhedron 121 Proof. the points gm(xl) are bounded away from x2. For each in. or half-infinite strip. replace gm by an element of the form j o gm. and so thatj(z) = z + 1 generates the parabolic subgroup of Stab(oo)... A. to be bounded by the traces of those sides of D abutting ec. Let x1 and x2 be non-conjugate cusped rank I parabolic fixed points of the Kleinian group G.) a B2. Then D is essentially finite.. whenever there is a g e G with g(xj) = x. since the sets {gm(B.U T. Let D be a finite sided fundamental polyhedron for the discrete subgroup G of L3. all the sides of D not abutting oo are contained in a large Euclidean ball.)} are either equal or disjoint. Proof. and extend it to a fundamental domain CZ for J2 = Stab(x2). Proposition.. is precisely invariant under Stab(xm). according as the centers are equivalent or inequivalent. Choose a cusp C2 in B2.. We say that {T1. Q A. is precisely invariant under in G.. this is the content of A. and D . x are points of 8D. then g(Tj) = T. Ti. 13-14. their spherical diameter tends to zero.. Then there are open circular discs. and we assume that there is a sequence {zm} of points lying in a cusp C. that is not parallel to the real axis. We construct the set E. as in A.. this follows from A. where gm(zm) converges to x2 inside B2. .. .11.A. B1 and B2. are inequivalent doubly cusped parabolic fixed points on dD. for then the corresponding sets of hyperbolic half-spaces will also be precisely invariant. so that (B1. together with the appropriate translates of those sides abutting the points on 8D equivalent to oo. Since D is convex and has finitely many sides. B2) is precisely invariant under (Stab(x.. We assume without loss of generality that n = 2. Suppose x1.10. )..

It is easy to see that if G is an elementary Kleinian group with one limit point.9.gm(z)I z S > 0.122 VI. where j e L"+' maps W onto B". so that gm(x) -+ x'. and gm(z) . Choose a subsequence so that gm(z) converges to some point y. or gm(z) . these are points of approximation.gm(x)l >. The proof above yields a bit more.y'. and let x be a point of D. then given the sequence {gm}.2.y2.gm(x)I >. Proposition.6).1. note that for n = 2.8 > 0. If G is an elementary Kleinian group with two limit points. Proposition. and given any pointy. gm(y. and gm(y2) -' y2 # x'.g. Proof. and there is a sequence { gm } of distinct elements of G so that lgm(x) . Let G be a discrete subgroup of P". 8. A point x e a W" is a point of approximation for the discrete subgroup G of L if j(x) is a point of approximation for jGj-'. Points of Approximation B.D.4. Proposition. .) . Then by IV. Let y. Then either gm(z) -' y. gm(w) converges to y uniformly in compact subsets of the complement (in t") of some point y'. this agrees with the definition given in II.S. s x'. It follows that x is a p point of approximation.4. to y2. then the one limit point is not a point of approximation (see B. A point x in S" is a point of approximation for G if there is a sequence {gm} of distinct elements of G so that Igm(x) . A point x e S is a point of approximation if and only if there is a point z E B". Since Igm(z) . Assume first that x is a point of approximation and let {gm} be the sequence of elements given by the definition. then they are both loxodromic fixed points. Let z be some point on A. Let D be a fundamental polyhedron for the discrete subgroup G of P". Choose a subsequence { gm } so that gm(x) . B. BS. B3.x'. If G is Kleinian.(z)I Z b > 0 uniformly on compact subsets of S"-' . A point x e S"-' is a point of approximation if and only if there is a sequence { gm } of distinct elements of G. and let A be the geodesic connecting y. we must have y' = x. If G is elementary with no limit points. hence a point of approximation for a Kleinian group is necessarily a limit point (see B. Geometrically Finite Groups VI. Now assume that there is a ze B" so that Igm(z) .8).{x}. Then x is not a point of approximation. and y2 be points of S""' different from x.G.z' # x'.B. then obviously A(G) contains no points of approximation. the set of points for which gm(z) -+ y is both open and closed in Q. for allzE 3".

8.'(oo) is the center of Im. Hence. diaE gm(L) -+ 0. normalized so that oo c -'Q. let T be a precisely invariant horoball. with x e 9D. Proposition. where L has one endpoint at x. Ipm(x) . Then x is not a point of approximation. Since h.x' for all zonL. Let {gm} be any sequence of distinct elements of G with gm(x) -4 x'. Choose a subsequence so that gm(oo) -+ y.h.5 with A. Proposition. and there is a constant K > 0. We can assume that the parabolic fixed point is at oc. hence gm(z) .h'(oo)l > b. Combine B. The result now follows from: IPm(Ym) .Stab(oo). and let D be the Dirichlet region for G centered at xo. Let x be a parabolic fixed point of the discrete subgroup G of M.gm(oo)I > K°'. M.VI. First assume that x is a point of approximation.0. Let xo be some point of T. Let pm denote reflec- tion in the isometric circle of gm. for all z 9A x. hence oo e OD. M.gm(0o)I = lym . then y is closer to xa than it is to g(xo).9m(x)I >: b > 0. and set ym = gm(x). Choose a subsequence so that the radius pm of the isometric circle 1m of hm is less than 6.'(cc)I = Ihm(ym) . It follows that the line from xa to oo lies in D. Let L be a semi-infinite hyperbolic line segment lying entirely inside D. Ix . B. Let x be a parabolic fixed point of the discrete subgroup G of M. so that for all m. Then there is a fundamental polyhedron D for G. then gm(z) y. it follows that l pm(ym) . If g e G . Since diaE gm(D) .B. Every translate of xo by an element jeStab(oo) preserves the height of xo. . so if y is any point on the line from xo to oo. Proof.gm(x)l >: K'.aml = Igm(x) . Proof. Proposition. Let G be a Kleinian group. there is a constant K' so that Igm(z) .{x}. Then there is a sequence {gm} of distinct elements of G so that Igm(oo) .M'(cc)l S pm/8.hm(co)I = Ix . Since Ix . Set hm = g-'.aml 5 Proof.go"'(00)1 Next assume that we are given the sequence {gm}. The point x is a point of approximation if and only if there is a sequence {gm} of distinct elements of G. where the isometric circle 1m of gm has radius pm and center am.6. B. for m sufficiently large.aml S Kpm. Let pm denote reflection in the isometric circle of hm. and for all z in a compact subset of't . Corollary.3. and Igm(x) . so the perpendicular bisector of the line between xo and j(xo) abuts oo. then g(xo) is lower than xo. Points of Approximation 123 Proof.h. Every point of approximation is a limit point.

Proof. hence there is a linearly ordered sequence of points {xm} on L with xm -+ x. we pick up the case that the lines L. = gm(L) either converges to a line. Choose a subsequence so that zm . Then every limit point of G. If {Lm} converges to the line M.(Y) . the lines L. The sequence of lines L. gm(x) -' x'. If J has rank 2. with jm(Zm) contained in a bounded subset of C. then the endpoints of M are x' and y' # x'.) be a sequence of points of C which are G-translates of some point y. Otherwise. Since D . the result is obvious. hm(x) -+ x'. so does each jm(Li).2. converge to the point x'. and let {z. At this point. hence we can assume that all the zm lie outside B.y' 96 x'. which is not a translate of a point of 8D. We can assume without loss of generality both that y is not a parabolic fixed point. x' is not a translate of y. call it y'. If J has rank 1.Y'. Proof. and hm(y) . Action near the Limit Set U. so x is a point of approximation. Similarly. We can in fact assume that these points converge to some point. Let D be an essentially finite fundamental polyhedron for the discrete subgroup G of M. where the result is easy. Since z' is an interior point of B'. and z' is some point of M. and there is a sequence of distinct elements {gm} in G. Proposition. then let T be a precisely invariant extended horoball centered at oo.y'. and let L be a hyperbolic line passing through D with one endpoint at x. Let T be a precisely invariant horoball or extended horoball at x'. zm = gm(xm) separates gm(x) from gm(xt ).gm(xt )I is bounded away from 0. all pass through T If these lines converge to the line M. Suppose first that z' is an interior point of M. Then there are elements { jm} in J = Stab(oo). hence x' is a parabolic fixed point. {Lm} converges to the point x'=yz. Geometrically Finite Groups VI.T is bounded away from x'. so that each hm(L) passes through T. under the assumption that z' = x'.z'. If z' = x'. where oo is a parabolic fixed point on jD. x' c. Let y be the other endpoint of L. then every jm = 1). passes through T. is a point of approximation. and that L does not lie in any translate of a side of D. El C. we have constructed a sequence of lines {hm(L)}. and g . where Zm = gm(xm) lies in D. and let B = aT. Proposition.C. then gm(x t) -. On Lm. hence there is a sequence of elements { jm } of J = Stab(x') wherejm o gm(y) is bounded away from x'. the center of T. It is clear that L cannot lie in any one translate of D.ijD. or it converges to a point. In any case. Modulo J. then M also passes through T. with hm =jmogm (if the sequence of lines {Lm} con- verges to a line. if z' = y' # x'. Let x be such a limit point of G. Let D he an essentially finite fundamental polyhedron for the discrete subgroup G of M. there is at most one translate of y in B.. . then since every zm lies in D. Since y is not a parabolic fixed point.124 VI. Igm(x) . Since each L.

this can occur only if one of the endpoints of g. but applies equally well to groups of the first kind. the points (z. We conclude that A is precisely invariant under the identity in J. then for all sufficiently large t. if (z. is equivalent to a point of D. By B. t) a D. Theorem. or is a rank 2 parabolic fixed point. and z2 cannot be equivalent under J. If z. Since y is not a parabolic fixed point. there is a km E J.. Action near the Limit Set 125 Consider the points {hm(z. O C-3.C.)}. Since D is convex. so are the]. so that I hm(z. ) and (z2. the Euclidean closure of D is also hyperbolically convex. (z. x is not a point of approximation. The sequence of lines { jm o g. Since there is a translate of D on either side of Qm. then the hyperbolic line between (z. and x is not equivalent to any point of 3D. Then for every in. Let z. (L) lies at the fixed point x'. This says that gm = Jm' o k.hm(z.hm(x)l >_ b > 0. . If all these points lie outside T. we have reached a contradiction. If every limit point of G is either a doubly cusped rank I parabolic fixed point. t2) are both in D. then Ihm(x) . Since z. C.5. or is a point of approximation. diaE(Qr) -+ 0. Assume that D has infintely many sides.) all lie outside T. and z2 be points of A. to z2. L is in D. x is a limit point of G.VI. be the hyperplane on which sm lies. that is. We normalize so that x = oo. )) is bounded away from zero. Then there is a sequence of sides {sm } that accumulates at some point x of 3D.). since the jm are distinct elements of the Euclidean group J.. or a rank 2 parabolic fixed point. Hence x is a parabolic fixed point. (L)} converges to the line M. then D has finitely many sides. discrete subgroups of M that do not act discontinuously anywhere on t. Let Q. t) all lie in D.) .Im o gi Since the gm are all distinct. We have shown that A is a convex subset of C.} lie on the Euclidean line segment joining z.' ofi o gi =. it is fixed only by the identity. Let L be the hyperbolic line segment joining these points. with km o hm(z. in particular.. If they all lie inside T. or a point of approximation.) = h. t) and oo is contained in D. we conclude that the points hm(z.. Let A be the set of points z e C for which there is a t > 0 so that (z. Since D is convex. then they are all J-equivalent. and z2 are points of A. Observe that the proof above is not restricted to Kleinian groups. and so that J = Stab(oe) containsj(z) = z + I as a primitive element. ta) and observe that the points {z.4. Write the points of L as (z. Then there are numbers t. hence z. t) is some point of D other than oo. Let D be a (convex) fundamental polyhedron for the discrete subgroup G of U. Let G be a discrete subgroup of fa+0 with an essentially finite fundamental polyhedron D. Corollary. so km o hm = h'. Proof. t) and (z2. Then every limit point of G is either a doubly cusped rank I parabolic fixed point. and t2 so that (z t. by definition of a polyhedron in B3.

A has finite area.. or that they all do. and so that A is contained in the strip between some line L and L' = L + 1. We next take up the case that there is a sequence of sides {sm}. and the other at g. this is impossible. and the other endpoint has either unbounded imaginary part or unbounded height.. which has bounded imaginary part. the Qm all pass through a compact subset of H'. Since gm(zm. where L is not parallel to the real axis. In any case. We next take up the case that J has rank 1. with gm(sm) = s.. there is a corresponding side s. hence we can assume that the points zm do not all lie on a line. = 1). since sm does not abut oo. for (zm.. to approach the vertical.' (Mm) is at (zm.). where each sm abuts oo. i. Consider the semi-infinite line segment M. hencejm leaves the absolute value of imaginary part and the height of (zm. There is an element jm e J so that the real part of jm o g. Since s. and sm . The sequence of sides {sm} converges to co. tm) . hence the tesselation of I-0' by translates of D is not locally finite near N.. and there is a side pairing transformation gm.oo.Y. Now look at the line N. where no sm abuts oo.. tm) . We take up the first case first. Hence we can assume that there is a subsequence { gm } where gm = g.126 Vl. We have shown that there is no sequence of distinct sides {sm}. We have shown that the endpoints of gm(Nm) con- verge to different points. Choose a subsequence so that gm(zm. Pick some point (zm. we assume that oo does not lie on the boundary of any Qm. We conclude that either tm . each zm is bounded. and the translates of D form a locally finite tesselation of H3.oo. For each sm there is a corresponding side s.. hence gm(NN) converges to some line N.e. and look at the points zm in A.. If Im(zm) is also bounded. and a side pairing transformation gm. tm) a OD. One endpoint of g. Normalize further so that any half-turn in J has its finite fixed point on the real axis. with gm(sm) = s. or IIm(zm)I -oo. and t. Re(zm) is bounded.1. tm) on each sm so that (zm.oo.. There is a relatively open set of points we could choose on each sm. By passing to an appropriate subsequence.6. the lines jm o g.. In this case. note that Mm c D. The only way this can occur is for the supporting hyperplanes Q. C. zm e A. then since L is not parallel to the real axis. Geometrically Finite Groups CS. the elements gm are all distinct.oo. y e aD. c D.(co) = gm(oo)0 D. this cannot occur.. there are only finitely many distinct elements of the form jm o g.' (Mm) has one endpoint in a bounded part of C. tm) . o jm (we can assume that j. . For each m. Assume that tm is bounded. or a Euclidean half-turn about a real point. it suffices to assume either that none of these sides abuts oo. Then jm o g. tm) unchanged. and consider gm(N.. that is. the point g. does not abut oo. from (zm. then gm(oo) = gk(oo). .oo. Since M. tm) to oo.' (oo) is also bounded. from gm(zm. then since A is precisely invariant under the identity in J. also A has non-empty interior. tm).' (oo). so A is bounded.' (Mm) all pass through a compact subset of H3." Note that if jm o gin' = jk o gk 1. tm) to oo. By A. An element of J is either a purely real translation. If J has rank 2.

so that every side of D' that intersects T. they would all pass through a bounded part of BTo. since some of its "sides" lie on horospheres. infintely many of them would be paired by the same element of J. abuts oo. T. 6 is a connected finite union of (Euclidean) convex polygons. there are at most a finite number of elements of J that can identify the sides of D fl BTo. where the horizontal distance between these lines is at most 1. There do not exist infinitely many sides of D that accumulate to 00. Clearly. The sides of D' are paired by elements of G. which is contained in the vertical projection of D fl BTo.C. where D' is precisely invariant under the identity in G.) a 6}. Let B be the vertical projection of . then the sides sm all project to lines on BTo. where gm pairs a side abutting oo with some other side. but need not be convex itself. is either bounded. For each such strip. If J has rank 1. for to sufficiently large. which is impossible. which is convex and precisely invariant under J in G. so that there is a sequence of limit points zm in aD with zm The points zm are all equivalent under G.t)It > to} meets only those sides of D abutting co. rather than hyperplanes. 6 = T. we construct a new set D'.10. The sides of 6 are paired by elements of J. other than 00 itself. D has only finitely many sides abutting 00. 13 is also precisely invariant under the identity in J. for if there were infinitely many. without abutting x. also. is precisely invariant under J in G.6 to C. If there were infinitely many distinct such points. and they all lie in the complement of the boundary of the possibly extended horoball at co. We observed above that such a set is necessarily bounded. which make up 6. that is. then the Euclidean area of BTo/J is finite. we take up the case that J has rank 1. but do not abut oo. without abutting oo. Hence there is a horosphere T. for each such operation. there do not exist infinitely many sides accumulating to a point x e aD. Exactly as in A. We temporarily renormalize oo. there are at most finitely many of them equal to any given one (we cut and paste only finitely many times. and there are a finite number of points equivalent to oo on aD. in which case it has finitely many sides. }. If there were infinitely many sides abutting oo. We have shown that there are only finitely many distinct points in the set {gm(oo)}. hence D fl BT0 is bounded. the horoball To = {(z. similarly. Finally. 1 3 = {z l(z. there can be at most finitely many distinct sides that are paired with sides of the same strip. they all lie in A. Action near the Limit Set 127 The points gm(oo) all lie in M. We already know that there cannot be infinitely many sides that accumulate to oo. and place z at eo.VI. hence z is a parabolic fixed point. and while these elements need not all be distinct. equivalent to oo. fl D' is precisely invariant under the identity in J. Therefore. Each of the convex polygons. . is also bounded. or is contained in a strip between two parallel lines. which is no longer a polyhedron. the new side pairing transformations are obtained from the old ones by conjugation by a fixed element of G). there would be a subsequence accumulating to some point z e BD. = {(z. Since J is a Euclidean group. If J has rank 2. Obviously z e A. Since distinct sides of D are identified by distinct elements of G. and there are no points of OD equivalent to oo. hence A. t)I t = t. Since J has rank 1. t.

. from M. so that if we remove U S. C. An element of finite order has a line of fixed points in H3. Hence the limiting directions are parallel. Let G be a discrete subgroup of Aand let M = H3/G... is called the associated orbifold. Geometrically Finite Groups The only possibility left to be investigated is that there are two of these strips.7. .3.. (ii) D is essentially finite. (ii) there is a sequence {sm} of sides of S. Our goal here is to exhibit this natural compactification. The following statements are equivalent.128 VI. In this section we explore the meaning of this condition in terms of the associated orbifold M = (H3 U Q(G))/G. Essentially Compact 3-Manifolds D. M is essentially compact. and so are parallel. D. where the paired side.. We observed in C. These limiting directions are those of the parallel lines bounding the respective strips. Since D fl s is convex. call them S and S'. that is. Let G be a discrete subgroup of ICU.2. see V.. the resulting orbifold is compact.7 that G is geometrically finite if and only if there is an essentially finite fundamental polyhedron D for G. If G is torsion Al. and (iii) the side pairing transformations jm. with its singular hyperbolic structure.} approaches some limiting direction.. where (i) S and S' each contain infinitely many sides of D. are all distinct. and C. where each of these is the image under the projection of a precisely invariant horoball or extended horoball. The statement that D is essentially finite means that there is a finite set of disjoint suborbifolds. then M is always a manifold. or sometimes simply the associated manifold. C. this line projects to a curve on M where the hyperbolic metric is singular. S. VI. If we ignore the hyperbolic structure. a doubly cusped rank I parabolic fixed point. and let D be a (convex) fundamental polyhedron for G.. which is also of bounded width. (iii) Every limit point of G is either a rank 2 parabolic fixed point. free. are identified by an element of J.15. the sequence of sides {s. the sequence of sides {sm} has a limiting direction. with jm(sm) = s.1 1. similarly. there is a natural compactification of M as a manifold. M. the sides sm and s. D.I.3.. s.4. In this case. (i) D has finitely many sides..D. There are at most a finite number of elements of J that can identify a point of a (non-horizontal) infinte strip of bounded width with a point of a parallel strip. lies in S'. to obtain three equivalent definitions of a geometrically finite Kleinian group. S of M.E.. We combine the results of A. In some sense. Theorem. or a point of approximation. M is called the associated 3-manifold.. For each m.

and J acts on the third interval by translation.n) on the boundary of T'/J are exactly the punctured discs B/J on DIG. n]. let J = Stab(x). The endpoints of the First interval correspond to the boundary of T' in 80-03. (0.t + n. Essentially Compact 3-Manifolds 129 Fig. VI.6). oo) as the 3-ball with its center removed. 2. co).2). where the image of the line x = y = 0 has been removed. t)I t2 + (Im(z))2 z b2 }. and let T be the precisely invariant horoball or extended horoball centered at x. Let b = max(a. n e 7L}. 0).e. y. .4. oo) with this solid torus. then we normalize so that x = oo. if U has genus 0. Thus T'/J is the product [-a. (0. Then T is an extended horoball of the form T = J (z.3. D. 3.(0. and D .D. We identify U x [ 1.S. then every element of J keeps every point of the first two intervals fixed. Let x be a point on 8D. or (0. If J has rank two. then we regard U x (1. then T is a horoball.1 Topologically. the interval [b. In this picture. 3. so that T'/J is the product: D' x [ .D. 1). VI. for some a > 0. If U has signature (1. n].3. D. n] x [b. T' is also precisely invariant under J in G.4. and the real line. there is also another natural compactification that closes up the end. We can regard T' as being T with its corners rounded. factored by the group {t . 2.2. and so that j(z) = z + 1 generates the parabolic subgroup of J. While the above compactification is in some sense more natural than that of adding in a copy of 8T/J at oo. we know all the possibilities for the sets Sm. We compactify M by re-inserting this circle. t)l t > 1) U J (z. We could topologically compactify M near this end by adding in a copy of U to correspond to U x { oo }. Similarly.4). and T/J is of the form U x (1.it. it does change either nl or n2. oo) as an open solid torus with its central core loop removed (see Fig. We regard T' as a product of three factors: the interval [-n.D. We can also regard the solid torus as being the cylinder {x2 + y2 < 1) in (x. oo ). 4. We can regard the product of the last two factors as a (closed) punctured disc (i.VI. If J has rank one. 3). t)-space. Since 1' c T. 3. oo) x S'.T' is bounded away from oo. 2. The two punctured discs D' x {n} and D' x ( . and set T' = {(z. then we can regard U x (1.. t) l I lm (z) I > a). If J is cyclic.1). where U is a surface of signature (1. a set of the form D' = {z10 < I z 1 S 1}). 3.2. 8T/J corresponds to U x { I).0). we compactify M by re-inserting the removed point.

0].D.6. with the closed interval [ -1t. the action of J on the product of the first two intervals yields a (closed) punctured disc D'.z. As we saw above. in this -case. 2. Geometrically Finite Groups am am Fig VI. these project onto the ramification lines R and R'. where (p(z. If J is the (2. but we have no other knowledge of their extent on M. then we further normalize so that J is generated by j and g(z) = . Since all the axes in J extend to oo.2 Fig VI. Then g acts on the third interval as the involution x . where D' x { . . Note that the endpoints of C are special points of order oo on 8M (see Fig.3 where B is the precisely invariant doubly cusped region {zIIIm(z)I z b}. We compactify M near the projection of T' by adding in a curve C to correspond to the product of the puncture and the interval. VI. and D' x {0} is a punctured disc in the interior of M.n. D.130 VI. The ramification lines R and R' extend from the puncture in D' x {0} out past its boundary. t) = (z. The plane {Im(z) = 0) contains the axes of all the half-turns in J. n] given above.n.2).D.t). R and R' extend to the puncture in D' x (0). D' x {0} is the image of T' fl {(z.3). but in a different order. 0]. C is the product of the puncture in D' with the interval [ . every element of J keeps the first interval pointwise fixed.x. They do not reenter T'/J. t)I Im(z) =0).. In this picture. the real line.D. oo). We can again compactify M by filling in a missing curve C.n} lies on 8M.W. and the interval [ . T'/J is W/sp. . with two lines of ramification R and R' (see Fig.D. Let W be the product of the punctured disc D'. the action of J on the real line is the usual action of its parabolic cyclic subgroup on the real line. oo)-triangle group. n]. We can realize W/cp as D' x [ . In this case. The action of g on T' projects to a homeomorphism (p: W . We now write T' as the product of the same factors. VI. T' is the product of the interval [b.x.

I. Proof. E.3. or a cusped parabolic fixed point (see A. E. If any one (convex) fundamental polyhedron for G has finitely many sides. Let G be a discrete subgroup of M. °aD has only finitely many sides. Since °3D has finitely many connected components.G. and by B. Condition (iii) of C. Theorem. Then there is an element g e G.E.3.V1. Let J be a maximal rank 1 Euclidean subgroup of the Kleinian group G. Lemma. so that S . hence there is a compact (disconnected) Riemann surface S.S is a finite set of points. where B is J-invariant. Since there are only finitely many sides and vertices. it is geometrically finite. E.2. Each vertex is either a point of °Q. Proof. then every (convex) fundamental polyhedron for G has finitely many sides. Then B contains a cusped region for J. qua Kleinian group. all the interior points of sides lie in °Q.2. Each side of D determines a hyperbolic plane in H3. °dD is a fundamental domain for the action of G on 0. Theorem. every point of A which is not a translate of a point of dD is a point of approximation. we obtain the following. By C. Applications E. there are at most finitely many special points (with finite ramification number) on S. Suppose there is a circular disc B. 10).14. except for this one possibility. containing S. and B fl 4(G) = 0. Each side contains at most one elliptic fixed point. with g(x) e D.E.3. Proposition. the pairing of the sides of D is also a pairing of these hyperbolic planes. or an elliptic fixed point. let D be any (convex) fundamental polyhedron for G. necessarily a fixed point of a half-turn. and of course. Applications 131 VI._By A. Let G be a Fuchsian group acting on B2.4. Let D be a fundamental polyhedron for the geometrically finite Kleinian group G.7 is independent of the choice of fundamental polyhedron. The projection of a cusped region is a punctured disc. and let x be a parabolic fixed point of G. Let G be a geometrically finite subgroup of M. It is easy to see that these planes bound a fundamental polyhedron for G as a Kleinian group. A Fuchsian group is finitely generated if and only if. Similarly. and let D be a fundamental polygon for G.S.8. Combining the above with V. We start with an application of A. A geometrically finite Kleinian group is analytically finite. x is not a point of approximation. We will need the following lemma for the next two applications. Proposition. E. so does S = Q/G. if there are two disjoint open circular .

F. then J fl H is a Euclidean subgroup of H.7. lies outside B'. (a) There is a Kleinian group G. The proof in the two cases is essentially the same. Proof. and gm(z) -+ y' 0 y. B. Let ( be a deformation of the geometrically finite Kleinian group G. There is a number b' > 0. where G contains a geometrically finite subgroup H of finite index. of the same rank. VI. then since A(G) = A(H). Let f : C . The isometric circle I of g has radius at most one. where b = b' + 1. which is disjoint from B. so that B' = {zIIIm(z)I > b'} contains no limit points of G. in partic- ular. E. . and let x be a fixed point of g. and let gyp: G -+ C be the induced isomorphism.J. Similarly. If x is a point of approximation for G. A(G) = A(H). it preserves rank 2 Euclidean subgroups. Let B = {zIIIm(z)l > b}. Let g be any element of G .F. . then B contains a doubly cusped region for J. it is also doubly cusped as a subgroup of G. Let g be a loxodromic element of the discrete subgroup G of P". gp(gm) of(z) = f o gm(z) -+ fly') # fly). Proof. U B2 for J. Proposition. for all z # x. Since f(A(G)) = A(C).2. Since qp is an isomorphism. and a point x e A(G. and A(G) fl (B.6. we prove only the second statement. and its center. and B2. it is invariant under the Euclidean subgroup qO(J) in 6. It is immediate that every point of approximation for H is also a point of approximation for G. where Bt U B2 is J-invariant.I. Proof. then there is a doubly cusped region B = B. the isometric circle I' of g-t also lies outside B. Then x is a point of approximation. ). Then (p(gm) of(x) = f o gm(x) --+ fly). If J is a Euclidean subgroup of G. being a limit point. Proposition. if J is a doubly cusped rank 1 Euclidean subgroup of G. If J is doubly cusped. Also. Normalize so that j(z) = z + 1 is a primitive element of J. U B2) = 0. J = Stab(co). Let G be a discrete subgroup of M. Then t is geometrically finite. Hence f(x) is also a point of approximation. (p(J) is a doubly cusped rank I Euclidean group. Then G is geometrically finite. and for all z # x.132 VI. Since B lies outside I. g(B) lies inside I'. Exercises F.C be the deformation that conjugates G into 6. Hence I lies entirely outside B. Geometrically Finite Groups discs. While f(Bm) need not be circular. where x is both a point of approximation and a fixed point of an elliptic element of Gt. It is easy to see that f(Bm) contains a cp(J}invariant circular disc. then there is a sequence of distinct elements { gm} with gm(x) -+ y. E. as a subgroup of H. Since [G : H] < co.

8. F. . Apply F.10. and x is not a point of approximation. and show that if x is irrational. equivalent to x. Let G be a geometrically finite Kleinian group. Let G be a geometrically finite Kleinian group where oce°Q(G). if J has rank 2. meas(A(G)) = 0. Let x be a point of approximation for G..6.11.. Then there is a conformal embedding of Q(G)/G into a Riemann surface S. F. where x is a fixed point of an elliptic element of G2.7. is the radius of the constant K > 0.VI. Let G be an elementary Kleinian group. Then G is geometrically finite.9. Let G be a Kleinian group where oc E Q(G) and G contains no parabolic elements. and there is a where p. which is not a parabolic fixed point. Suppose that x is a rank I cusped parabolic fixed point.4. Then for every limit point x. a(J) = 2. a(J) = 1. Assume that there are only finitely many conjugacy classes of rank 1 maximal Euclidean subgroups of G. there is a g e G with Ig'(x)I > 1.. and let H be a subgroup of finite index in G.12. and let fi = Y a(J). Then there is a sequence {g..F. Then Stab(A) is hyperbolic cyclic.Q(G))/G consists of exactly # distinct points. F.(oo) # oo. Let G be a geometrically finite discrete subgroup of M. then there is a sequence {d/c} of distinct rational numbers. Z). F. set a(J) = 0. F. F. Then the 2-dimensional Lebesgue measure. and there is a cusp E at y.3.d/cl 5 K Icl-2. there is a g e G with Ig'(x)I > I. Let G be a non-elementary geometrically finite Fuchsian group acting on a-B2. (Hint: use B.Exercises 133 (b) There is a Kleinian group G2. and there is a constant K > 0. F. Let G be a finitely generated non-elementary Fuchsian group of the second kind. FS. F. For every maximal Euclidean subgroup J of G.. Suppose that for every x e A. if J is doubly cusped and cyclic. PSL(2.10 to the modular group. so that Ix . where E lies outside all isometric circles of G. if J is cusped but not doubly cusped. with g. where j(z) = z + I E G.) F.} of distinct elements of G. so that Ix isometric circle of g. and let A be a boundary axis of G. so that (S .. and a point xeA(G2).9.. a(J) = 1.5). if J is doubly cusped and not cyclic. Then G is geometrically finite (also see VIII. Let G be a Kleinian group. Let G be a Kleinian group with oc e'12. where the sum is taken over a maximal set of non-conjugate such subgroups. Then there is a point y.H. Then H is geometrically finite.

E. B. [83].7. Essentially finite fundamental polyhedra (more precisely. See the note to J. for torsion-free groups. [82].7. the corresponding manifolds) were first discussed by Marden [52].5.1. and others. This fact is due to Ahlfors [6]. Specific examples exhibiting global structures of hyperbolic manifolds and orbifolds can be found in Vinberg [96]. a description of some of this machinery can be found in Thurston [91] or Morgan [74]. The term "point of approximation" first appeared in [12]. is due to Marden [52]. C.15. See [74 pg. F3. Bonahon [18] has recently proved that the measure of the limit set is zero for every finitely generated Kleinian group that cannot be decomposed as a non-trivial free product. Notes A.17 in IV. A. The impressive machinery built up by Thurston to understand these manifolds and orbifolds is beyond the scope of this book. also see Apanosov [9] or Wielenberg [97]. 71 ] for a proof of Thurston's theorem that every finitely generated subgroup of a geometrically finite Kleinian group is geometrically finite. D. F.K. These points were first studied by Hedlund [32]..9. and are sometimes known as Hedlund points. Thurston [90]. Geometrically Finite Groups VI. The equivalence of parts (i) and (iii) is due to Reardon and Maskit [12]. This was first observed by Yamamoto [ 102].1.G. . Riley [81].134 VI. the equivalence of(i) and (ii).

. . and the classification of finitely generated function groups (see Chapter X). . The basic outlines of these.2. are subgroups of G. In this section. The necessary inequality is given in section B... Combination Theorems There are two distinct but related combination theorems: the amalgamated free product.Chapter VII. and g. . .I. We also assume throughout that [G. . We state and prove these theorems only for discrete subgroups of M. g2. Combinatorial Group Theory . .... G2.. Throughout this chapter. G2. 92. Also. and containing all the elements g.. and the HNN extension. are given in sections A and D... For Kleinian groups. We also use combination theorems for more theoretical purposes in Chapters IX and X. throughout this chapter. these include Thurston's uniformization theorem.. . VILA. The combination theorems themselves (these are sometimes known as the Klein-Maskit combination theorems) are given in sections C and E. if G. .) denotes the smallest subgroup of G containing all the subgroups G. . our basic hypothesis is that we are given two groups. and the group G as M. .I A. g.. nor does it yield sufficient information to decide whether or not G is geometrically finite. are elements of G. but does not suffice to give a clear understanding of Q/G or of 1113/G. . A.: J] > 1. . with a common subgroup J. Specific constructions of Kleinian groups using combination theorems appear in Chapters VIII and IX. and G2. The minor modifications required for the case that G contains orientation reversing elements are left to the reader... in a purely abstract setting. we will often specify the space X as C. the purely abstract setting is sufficient to prove that the combined group G is discrete and has the named group theoretic structure. G. the index "m" has the range of values: [1. all groups are subgroups of some universal group G. then <G G2. For any group G.. . We state and prove the combination theorems in sufficient generality to include their major uses in dimensions 2 and 3. which will always be the group of homeomorphisms of some space X onto itself. 2}. 92.

g.. A normal form g. G2 > acts freely and discontinuously on X... Then there is a unique isomorphism cp: G -+ C. If G = <G1. G2 if and only if 0 maps no non-trivial normal form to the identity. There is a natural homomorphism 0: G. the normal form of an element of G is clearly not unique. is called an m -form. g. 1. and every element of G2 . and we write them as composition (a o b). every element of G. g.: G.136 VII. Note that equivalent normal forms have the same length. and suppose there are isomorphisms cps. using the above equivalence. . if g a G.gk... into X2. or to an element of J. There is a natural identification of normal forms as follows. G2> given by regardingjuxtaposition of words as composition of mappings. g.. where X. suppose we have two amalgamated free products G = G.J. and we do not distinguish between G and G..6. It is clear that equivalent normal forms are mapped onto the same transformation. and X2.J. . then we say that G = G. A. where (p.k e G.4.0.. G2. o If 0 is an isomorphism. *. *. The set of equivalence classes of normal forms. and G2. G2. Since J is embedded in both G. we regard normal forms as being elements of G. Combination Thcorcros A normal form is a word of the form g. as being equivalent. . AS. consists of two non-empty disjoint sets X... that is. then every non-trivial element of G has a unique normal form. G2. and g.) = . A. then IgI is well defined for every element of G. . IJ = cp2I J = 7. and we write G = G. it is easy to see that G = G. that is.J. is invariant under J. In this case. If j e J. and is written as G. G2. it is easy to see that isomorphisms can be extended. n = Ig . *.J. then we regard the forms g. with this multiplication. for k even. or sometimes.. (g k j) (J . then there is a criterion for G to be the amalgamated free product. *.. with amalgamated subgroup J. . G2.. rather than juxtaposition (ab). g.t gk-t) .. Using normal forms. formed by juxtaposition of words. *1 62. Every normal form has a length. or vice versa. 0(g. If G = G.. while if J is non-trivial. *j G2 -+ G = <G. . . Every normal form is either a 1-form or a 2-form. . That is. and C = C. *. . An interactive pair of sets (X X2). The product of two normal forms is equivalent to either a normal form.J maps X. and then contraction. is called the free product of G.g. g.. This concept is also invariant under equivalence. and G2.. so if G = G. There is an obvious multiplication of normal forms. o g. where cp I G. *. gk a G2 .. *. ..3. g where either every gk with even k lies in G. G2. and J is trivial (in this case we say that G is the free product of G. and fork odd. just the amalgamated free product..J. and every gk with odd k lies in G2 . *. = cps.J maps X2 into X1.r G2 and G. together with the elements of J. * G2). . A.

X. > is not discrete. Proof. However. Let g. . so that x = h. = <G1.of. but the pair is not interactive. and the lower half plane. cc)-triangle group. G = Pn+1. and there is a 2-form h2. a >0. . and write h2 = fk o . Let X = §". Write h. and there is a 1-form h 1 = g" o. and y2 are G-equivalent points of D. and let W be a topological (n .. then there is an integer a. is J-invariant. Since y. and y2 in D. 2. is precisely invariant under J in Gm... Let D be a fundamental set for the action of G on °Q(G) X.J. hence it is not the identity in G. If G acts freely and discontinuously on (some non-empty open subset of) X..(y. and set X2 = U g(D). and let J = <j>.. and G = G.. e G. a(z) = -z + 2a.J. Theorem. then (X. so that (g. X2) where X. While there can be pairs of sets (X. is precisely invariant under J in Gm. G2. (X. and there is a 1-form h. ).J. and let G2.1)-sphere bounding two open topological discs. G2.). then G. Proposition. h2(x) a X1 .)'C. It then follows that 9(X I) c X2. fl X2 = 0.ogn'of 0. and let g 2. where the union is taken over all 1-forms. = 0. . Similarly. X.. For every a.. o 92. = Y2 = Y. and X2 are non-empty and J-invariant..e. The converse to the above theorem is not quite true. Let g be some element of G. Then since h' o h2(y) = y. and G2. i. and fk E G2 . For every g e G.J. = < j. Set X.J. is the (2.a is a conjugate of G. Proof. Suppose there is a point x c. Let G. so that x = h1(y).J. Since g" a G. X2... is precisely invariant under J in G2.a. If x is a point of X2 then there is a y e D.8.X Note that G. Since X... X2) do form an interactive pair of sets for G. and h... hence g(W) fl x. . so is Xm.. X2) is an interactive pair. if g e G2 . = o. If h2 is any element of G2 . fl X2. of. where the union is taken over all 2-forms.(x)e X2. then there exists an interactive pair of sets. = U g(D). g(X.J. if a is irrational. 1 =h'oh2 =91o.. the expression above is a normal form. A. X2) is an interactive pair.-g. y. Similarly. is precisely invariant under J in Gm.a. then g(X2) c X1 . in M. it is the non-cyclic rank I Euclidean group.. and that G2. since o g. . (z) = -z. with x = h2(y2). if x e X1. It is immediate that both X. is a normal 2-form.. that is. Let j(z) = z + 1. .7. A. h2(x) = h2 o g" o o g1(y). Combinatorial Group Theory . We have shown that X.. while if a is rational.a = 0192. If X.. the upper half plane. there is one important special case where the pair is necessarily interactive.VILA. X. and X2. then X. h2 o g" o then h.o g l. g. = g. Hence. Then there are points y. *.1 137 Note that if (X.) fl x. is not the amalgamated free product. G.J. is precisely invariant under J in G.

. Then g o o 92(X2) c X3_m Since the first inclusion is proper..eG1 . g. the case that x e D2 fl X1 is handled analogously. or there is a point in X2 that is not G1-equivalent to any point of X1.. is an (m.. k)-form. Theorem. where X is either X1 or X2. If g = g. so 9n+1 og o. so is the combined inclusion.138 VII. we need the notion of an (m. and gl(Xk) c X3 _k. nX3_m) C X 3_m.- Assume for simplicity that the G1-translates of X1 do not cover X2. The normal form g. and we set G = <G1.. and that G3-m . Proof. We return to our basic assumption that J is a subgroup of both G1 and G2.. so 92(X. If g.J. G2. Let g. An interactive pair (X1. Proof. assume that fi(g.. There is nothing to prove if D = 0.. fl Xm is a fundamental set for the action of J on X. Assume that there is an interactive pair of sets (X1. If there is an interactive pair (X1.9. Assume that there is a proper interactive pair of sets (X1. and g = g. It is immediate that no normal form of length one can be the identity in G. k)-form. For our next application. if D. and IgI>2. with n > 1..J. is maximal with respect to X. then k = m.. Let D = (D1 fl X2) U (D2 fl X.. Assume there is a point x e D1 fl X2. g.. then by A. Hence..X2) is proper if either there is a point in X1 that is not G2-equivalent to any point of X2. g o o g2 o gi (X2) is properly contained in X3-m. Further. then P(g)(Xk) C X3-m. X2) for the groups G. 0 A. Then D is precisely invariant under the identity in G. and G2 with common subgroup J. Theorem. k)-form if g e G. g.) is properly contained in X2.J. this inclusion is proper if (X1. If g is a non-trivial element of J.+1(X3-m) c Xm. but then 92 a G1 . a fundamental set D. Given the precisely invariant set Xm..J. for G. and assume that there is a maximal fundamental set D. ds(g)(X) is properly contained in either X1 or X2. Then 92 o 91(X2) is properly contained in X2. and g1eGk-J. Then 9. is an (m. be a normal (m. k} form. If n = 1..."o91(Xk) c X3-m. . Then G = <G1... Hence g(x) # D. we might have that 9i(X2) = X1. g is a normal form. If g1 a G2 . X2).. ). G2 > = G1 s..g1)(Xk) = 9.12. then since X2 is J-invariant. Lemma. Combination Theorems A..X2) is proper. for Gm. so that for every g e Gm. Since g is a non-trivial element of G1. g(D.9.o. as with the previous case. In any case. Let the discontinuous groups G1 and G2 have a common subgroup J.10. Proof. g(x) a X2. 0(g):0 1.11.o91(Xk) c 9N+1(X3-m) a X.A. 1 0 A. g(x) 0 D.X2).J. then g1(X1) is properly contained in X2.G2).

.e. is maximal. El A. then since g(X2) c X.13. then 0(h)(x)EX3_m . =X. Blocks and Spanning Discs M. Also.. fl X2 = D. with the identity as the common subgroup. Now let g = g._. g. and D is precisely invariant under the identity in G. U D2 = X.) c g(D.. = 0. 0 VII. Since D2 is maximal. and D=D.. Set X..UD2=X. . G2> = G. g(x) E X. Then G = (G. g(x)EX2. * G2. The original theorem was stated in terms of two Kleinian groups where each has a fundamental domain containing the exterior of the other. then g(D. Since x c.D2 = X..10. and for every g(D.. this is consistent with the statements above for n = 1. fl D2.D. and G2. Also if g is a non-trivial element of G2. . fl D2.. since x is in X2 and g(x) is in X.) c D2 = X2. x does not lie in any G.If gis a non-trivial element of G. J. no point of X2 is G2-equivalent to any point of D2 fl X. and B e (C is closed and J-invariant.D2 = D. Then D. Let G. J is a geometrically finite subgroup of the nonelementary discrete group G in M. hence we can assume that they are both non-trivial.D2 and D2 . . be a normal form. The main . then x # X. of course.and set X2 = D2.D.. or G2 is trivial.X. that g.12 is trivially satisfied. Throughout this section. . Since g is a normal form. Suppose there is a fundamental set D. Theorem. there is nothing to prove.J. g(x) 0 D. are both non-empty. every point of X2 fl °Q(G2) is G2-equivalent to some point of D2 fl X2. fl X. for D2 fl X.D2. If g e G.. Let h = g _. .. Then h(x)EX2 ..-translate of X. in particular. D.) c D2 = X2. If either G. Note that since D.VII. .10 and A. We have shown that g(x) a X. = 0. We have already taken care of the case that I gI = 1. i. One can view Klein's combination theorem as an application of A.J is essentially the same.D. Since D2 is maximal. D. so g(X. and G2 each act freely and discontinuously on some open subset of X.. Hence the interactive pair is proper.UX2=X. Blocks and Spanning Discs 139 If gEG. where D.. . e G. fl D2 0 0. since g is non-trivial. . . Since D.D1.D. .. If x is any point of D. . g(x) a X. then g(D2) fl D2 = 0. We have shown that g(x) E X2 . g(x) cannot be in D2.B.. Hence g(x) 0 D2. for G. We have shown that (X X2) is an interactive pair of sets for the groups G.B. so g(X2) c X..J.) fl D. .-D2. then by the maximality of D. assume that I g I > 1.. It follows from A. and assume that if is an m-form with jhi < n.=D.12. 12 that D is precisely invariant under the identity in G. The proof in the case that E G2 . o o g.. Assume first that his a 1-form.. By A. The last hypothesis of A. so g(X2) = g(D2) c X . Proof.J.

Suppose (ii) is false. there are a finite set of disjoint cusps C1.z e B. If B = A (J).. where each Cj c E. Since B fl o(G) = B fl Q(J) is precisely invariant under J. we can assume that z' e Q(J). (ii) there is a constrained fundamental set E for J. z = z' and g = 1. Since B fl Q(G) = B fl Q(J). Recall that a cusp C at the fixed point x of the primitive parabolic element j e G. and that B is either a closed invariant topological disc. E is bounded away from A (J).. with 9k(zk) a E. gk = g.. Hence. E has finitely many sides. and. Since z e B. since the J-translates of E fl B cover °Q(J) fl B. in particular. we can assume that the zk all lie in N. z' is a limit point of J. If the elements { gk } are all distinct. a subset of B fl Q(J) can be mapped into itself only by an element of J. But z' e D(J). Let z e Q(J) fl B.. hence we can assume that z e Q (J).D to contain a finite number of cusps at parabolic fixed points. Another important example is that J is any geometrically finite subgroup of G. g e J. except perhaps for some parabolic cusps. except perhaps for some cusps. Let g e M be such that g o j o g-' (z) = z + 1. and there is a sequence of non-trivial elements {gk} of G. then g(z) = z'. In any case. Since z and z' are in B. and there is a neighborhood U of B so that (E .140 VII. BDA(J). likewise. containing a fundamental set D for G. B3.. If the elements { gk } are all equal. we assume that G is Kleinian. We are given that E fl B = D fl B.2. E fl B is contained in °Q(G) and is precisely invariant under the identity in G. (i) B fl Q(G) = B fl Q(J). then condition (ii) is automatically satisfied. . the sets jR' (N) fl E all lie in both U and D. We set D fl B = E fl B. for E itself is bounded away from B. We permit E . and there are a finite number of elements j 1.. Q(J) fl B = °Q(G) fl B. and B fl Q(J) is precisely invariant under J in G.. Proof. Let E be the fundamental set for J given as the boundary of a Dirichlet fundamental polyhedron. Since z and z' are both in E. Combination Theorems example that one should keep in mind is that J is a finitely generated Fuchsian group.lm(z) > 1}). in particular.. if we choose N sufficiently small. We next assume (ii) and prove (i). or the boundary of such a disc. then dia(gk(N)) -+ 0. and gk(zk) -+ z' e B. Since E is constrained. the following statements are equivalent. . We first assume (i). j of J so that U jk(E) covers N .D) fl u c C. and B fl Q(J) is precisely invariant under J. and q fl B = 0. Aside from these cusps. there is a neighborhood N of z. For a closed J-invariant set B. Let N be a nice neighborhood of z. u . E is bounded away from 4(J). then there is a sequence of points {zk } in °Q(G) fl E. Proposition.{z}. then C = g-'({zJO S Re(z) < I. C. U C. so z' is a limit point of G in B. B. contradicting our assumption that the gk are all non-trivial. with zk . at parabolic fixed points of J. We now assume that B fl Q(J) = B fl Q(G) s 0.. and B = 4(J). is any set of the following form. not necessarily of the first kind. then E is constrained.

2(ii).B. Then any constrained fundamental set E for J will contain a cusp C. First. One can restate the above condition as follows. except for these two points. and that E is a constrained fundamental set for J as in B. We can assume that g(N) = M. with fixed points x and y. For some of our applications. and there might be a loxodromic or elliptic element g e G . the opposite inclusion is trivial. C. Similarly. D B. E is bounded .. A block is strong if for every rank I parabolic fixed point x of J. and there are points x and y in B fl Q(G) with g(x) = y. .J. except for these cusps.H. or U is disjoint from the projection of B. likewise. 8).5. there is a neighborhood M of y so that every point of M . where x is also a fixed point of a parabolic or elliptic element g e G . J might contain a loxodromic cyclic subgroup J0. A closed J-invariant set B is a block. one can replace (ii) by the condition: (ii') (For the case that J contains no parabolics. and x e g(B) n B (for examples of this. then there is a cusped region C c C with either C'cB.1-3). if J has no parabolic elements. However. so that either U is contained in the projection of B. We saw above that there is a neighborhood N of x so that every point of N . Suppose there is some g e G. where g also has fixed points at x and y. in E. there is a fundamental set D c E for G. or x is doubly cusped in G. U is a punctured disc). and also satisfies the following: for every puncture on Q(J)/J. If C is a cusped region for the parabolic element j E J. so that. We have shown that B fl S2(J) c B fl SA(G). g(B) is disjoint from B (see VIII. . B might contain a parabolic fixed point x of J.{x} is J-equivalent to some point of D n u c E.orC'fB=0. B. and there are a finite set of cusps. Then.J.. G)-block if we need to specify J and G. C1. then there is a constrained fundamental set E for J which is bounded away from A(J).4. and x is doubly cusped in J.) There are constrained fundamental sets D for G and E D for J. and there is a neighborhood U of B. from which it follows that g e J. where C contains limit points of G accumulating to y (see VIII.E. That is. either StabG(x) has rank 2.G. with D fl u = E fl U.A. there is a neighborhood U of the puncture (that is.VII. or (J.(x) has rank 1. centered at some point y J-equivalent to x. if it satisfies either (and hence both) of the conditions above. see VII.8. Blocks and Spanning Discs 141 there is a neighborhood N of z so that N is precisely invariant under Stabj(z) in G.{y' is J-equivalent to some point of D n U. if J has parabolic elements. there might be a parabolic fixed point x in B where Stabc.4. Since J is geometrically finite. B.3).6. There are two special cases of blocks which should be mentioned. we need a somewhat stronger concept. in this case. Assume now that B is a block. or VIII. but not in G.

there is a doubly cusped region A. G)-block. and E . so that every point of C near x is J-equivalent to some point of g(C'). An excluded cusp C. B. the excluded cusps can be chosen so that they do not intersect B.J. with dC = B. respectively. A (Euclidean) closed set C c is' weakly spans the block B c S2 if C is J-invariant. where Q-12/J is compact. . It is worth noting that if there is a constrained fundamental set E for J. One now easily proves the following. or contains limit points of G. there is a doubly cusped region A U A' so that C does not intersect either of the two half-spaces whose boundaries are. that are not contained in D. if there is a g e G . Combination Theorems away from A (J). The cusps of E near B.(x) has rank 1. with vertex x. with vertex x. is a rank 2 exceptional cusp if StabG(x) has rank 2. It is easy to see that C is a rank 1 exceptional cusp if and only if there is a g e G . In the theorem below. B.8. In general. Let G = EgkJ be a coset decomposition. Since reflection in S2 commutes with every element of G. of course Stab. and C c H' is also J-invariant. and each Ck either is contained in D. In the special case that B is a simple closed curve and the open disc C c 4'4' is precisely invariant under Stab(B). we want to include the possibility of a spanning set for B equal to B itself.J. and let C e 4'33 weakly span B. G)-block. are called excluded cusps. For every rank I parabolic fixed point in B. Let E be a fundamental set for the action of J on 1'' obtained from the Ford region by adjoining some points on the boundary.9. since B either contains. Normalize G so that the origin in 033 is not fixed by any element of G.7. Proposition. if B c C is J-invariant. A and A'. and B is either the closure of H2. so that C does not intersect either of the two disjoint half-spaces which together span A. in particular. and interchanges 0 and oc. containing a fundamental set D for G. Then dia6(gk(C)) < co. then B is automatically strong. A block is strong if and only if every excluded cusp is exceptional. or the circle at infinity. B. acting on 0-02. then we say that C spans B provided it satisfies the following condition.D is bounded away from B. and g(C) is J-equivalent to a non-excluded cusp in E. is a rank 1 exceptional cusp. Stab(0) = Stab(co) = { I }. Proof. and there is a non-excluded cusp C c D. we call C a spanning disc. where g(x) E B is also a parabolic fixed point.142 V11. or is disjoint from any sufficiently small cusped region. Theorem. and G is geometrically finite. B weakly spans B. let B c §2 be a (J. C fl S2 c B and for every rank I parabolic fixed point of J in B. Let G be a discrete subgroup of P3. An excluded cusp C. A particular case of this occurs for example when J is a Fuchsian group of the first kind. then B is strong. It is also immediate from the definition that if B is a (J. or is G-equivalent (but not J-equivalent) to a cusp in D.

and so that r(H) is the set {ye ElIIm(y) > b}. Since L is essentially finite. the set of points {(g o j)-' (oo)} is J-invariant. with vertex x. be a smaller extended horoball contained inside T... For those k for which ak lies outside all the extended horoballs. is the union of a horoball and two disjoint half-spaces..7. for each ak is a G-translate of oo). if necessary. and their imaginary parts are bounded below by b.VILB. We sum separately over those k for which ak lies outside all these extended horoballs. For each extended horoball T'. An extended horoball in I. That is. 1)). Let g be some element of G . where b' < b..G. observe that (goj)-'(co) = j-' og-'(oo). outside these horoballs. denote the exterior of 033.e. Let S be the sphere of radius one about x. their real parts are bounded above and below.. let T. let j be a parabolic generator of Stab. Since C intersects the span of H' only at x. it is a translation of the form (z. . Stabj(x) has rank 1. and let 9 = E fl L. and over those k for which ak lies in one of the half-spaces H contained in an extended horoball T = Tk. we conjugate by another Euclidean rotation so that tg is real... We now assume that the ak all lie inside the half-space H. Then r(H') is of the form { ylIm(y) > b'). t). t. Since Euclidean rotation does not distort distances.(x). and let j vary through J. where the halfspaces of T span cusped regions that are properly contained in the cusped regions for T'. EP is bounded away from A(J). Choose these horoballs sufficiently small so that none of them contain any G-translate of Co. . T . r(C) is contained in { y I lm(y) < b' }. We now write points in E' as (z. Ti .J. Let H' H be the corresponding half-space of Tk. we can assume that x is at the North Pole of V. together with the point at oc. This means that the points {r(ak)} have height bounded between 1/2 and some upper bound. since E is contained in I_. so if we fix g. The result now follows from IV. Hence for k sufficiently large. Blocks and Spanning Discs 143 Since t fl 033 is the Dirichlet fundamental polyhedron. and. t e R. and they lie outside a horoball centered at x. (the horoballs themselves contain no ak. t (1133 is an essentially finite fundamental polyhedron. T. choose the coset representative gk. and think oft as height. so that ak = gkI(oo). these ak are uniformly bounded away from C. the isometric sphere for gk is disjoint from C. and height. Let 0.. the center of the isometric sphere of gk.. x = (0.(z + fi. is bounded away from A(J). T. Since r o j o r preserves r(B3).. For each k. t). The points {ak } are all contained in a cusp centered at x. and let r denote reflection in S. lies in E. Re(y). so gk(C) is contained inside the isometric sphere for gk'. we consider the coordinates of a point ye E' as being Im(y). so that I_ is also a model of hyperbolic 3-space.. z e C.. Since we need an extended horoball for E near x. r(IB3) is the half-space of height less than 1/2. Since S is centered at the North Pole (i. outside of a finite set of horoballs and extended horoballs. where each half-space spans a cusped region. Choose these extended horoballs sufficiently small so that none of their half-spaces intersects C. t) .

Write gk(z) = (akz + bk)/(ckz + dk).x) + x. Similarly.x12 = Igk(x)1 < K'.xl = I r(ak) . . Using the technique of IV. Since these maps are all conformal.xI.r(y) is bounded from below by b . Lemma. from which the desired equality easily follows.xl. followed by a Euclidean motion.xl Ia .7.al/ly . B. akdk .<(x)I = Ickx + dkl-2 = Ickl-Zlx + dk/ckl-2 = pk2/lak x12.Ia. Since r(ak) has bounded height.lm(x)l. Proof.G. then r preserves P.9. then I r(y) .r(a)I = ly . Since the imaginary part of r(ak) . Since gk is the composition of reflection in its isometric sphere. We have shown that pk2/lak .xl = Ir(ak) . We now conclude the proof of B. Now set K1 = K'. and obtain Ig. the real part of r(y) . we only need to consider the case that r(y) . y and a.sobyB. the norm of the differential of h at y. where D is the Ford region for G.10. . and can be computed as Ih'(y)I.yl -K2lak-xI.r(ak) is commensurable with the height of r(y) .r(ak) is commensurable with the real part of r(y) .12.Sk?K21ak-xl. Combination Theorems Let pk be the radius of the isometric sphere of gk. distinct from x.yl foryeC.oo. Since Im(r(ak)) > b. we conclude that there is a constant K' so that Ih'(x)I S K'. recall that pk is the radius of the isometric sphere ofgk. Every h e G is conformal. to obtain Iak .K1.144 VII. the height of r(y) .bkck = 1. there is a geG.11.Kllm(r(y)) . To prove this. Let Sk be the distance from ak to C.xl.Im(r(ak))I >. and for every yeC. We can think of P as being the complex plane and compute r(z) = 1 /(a . lh'(g(x))l S 1 for all heG. let P be the plane determined by x.xj. Since Ih'(g(x))I = I(hog)'(x)I/Ig'(x)I. Since g(x) lies on or outside every isometric sphere. We first need to observe that if a and y are any two points. - B. There is a constant K1 > 0 so that pk/lak . Proof. there is a positive constant K so that IIm(r(y)) . so that g(x) lies on 8D. we obtain dia(gk(C)) < pk/Sk < K21pk/Iak . We compute in dimesion 2.. Then Sk is the infimum of Iak . for all heG.r(y)l Iy .x.yl/lak .b'. so the local distortion of distance at a point y e f' is independent of direction. Apply this to a = a. B. and r denotes reflection in the sphere of radius one about x. and Im(r(y)) -+ . The result now follows.r(y)I/I r(y) . the relationship is independent of dimension.xI <.ll. There is a constant K 2 > 0 so that for every ak a H. Lemma. Since x is a parabolic fixed point.oo.x. it is clear that Ig'(x)I depends only on pk and on Iak .

Corollary. Then >dia6(gk(A(J)) < oo.13. B. a point of C lying over a singular point. we know from IV.14. so that S fl U is embedded in M. and g(W) fl W is disjoint from Q(J). Therefore. Let S be the image of C/J in M. Since J preserves a simple closed curve. assume that there is a sequence of elements (9k) of G. There is a neighborhood U of 8S in M. g(W) does not cross W. B. Lemma. with xk -+ z. every Euclidean subgroup has rank 1.1O. hence the horoballs are all extended. Let G = >g. except for a finite set of possibly extended precisely invariant horoballs.16. G)-block. C/J is a surface of finite topological type.VILB.. this surface need not be at all smooth. contradicting the fact that z e Q(G). Corollary. A point of self-intersection of S is a singular point. First of all. Blocks and Spanning Discs 145 By B. hence . Then there is a spanning disc C e H3 for W. Then B divides aR into two open topological discs. then 8M # 0. We need to show that S can be deformed inside M so that it becomes an embedded surface. Let B be a (J. By B. there is a fundamental polyhedron E for J so that E is bounded away from A(J). dia(gk(C)) .7 that >(pk)6 < oo B. For example. Let J be a geometrically finite subgroup of the discrete group G e P'.0. hence finitely generated. Since J is geometrically finite. choose C to be one of the boundaries of the convex hull of W Since C is a disc. there is a subsequence so that the {gk(W)} are all distinct. then while some g(B) may have points in common with B.14. let C weakly span B. if G is Kleinian.15. and let {g. We restate this as follows. the right hand side of the above is bounded by (K. and J is geometrically finite. so that M is a three manifold. We say that B is precisely embedded if for every g e G .G. however. Theorem.18. G)-block. B. Let B be both a strong (J. Finally.0. it does not cross B./K2)pk. Let z be some point of w fl Q. let J be a geometrically finite subgroup of G. and a simple closed curve. B. and need not be embedded in H3/G (it is clear that C is precisely invariant under J if and only if C/J is embedded in 193/G). and there is a sequence { xk } of points in gk(C) fl c. where W is a precisely embedded strong (J. Let G be a discrete subgroup of M. 8.J be a coset decomposition. We saw above that the singular points of C are bounded away from f?(J) fl W. there is some disc C c H' spanning W.J. g(B) does not intersect one of these two open discs. let W be a simple closed curve in C. possibly with boundary. For any given g e G. We first observe that the singular points of C are bounded away from w fl ow = W fl Q(G).17. If B is precisely embedded. then dia(g.k(C)} be an enumeration of the distinct translates of C. G)-block. Proof. is also called singular.k(C)) . Let M = (H3 U Q(G))/G.

Igkl depends only on Vk. note that the translate gk(C) depends only on Vk. 1) = W2(a). locally. that there are a finite set of smooth curves on S containing all the singular points. The stabilizer of V can be either loxodromic. so that g(C) and C intersect in a curve V lying over v (the projection of g(C) fl c may contain singular curves other than v). or trivial. t >. Of course. we can assume that S is smooth. be a complete list of inequivalent such singular curves. Modulo J.1). for t >. the intersection of C with C in 093 consists of . and let T be an extended horoball for Stab(x) in J. Combination Theorems there is a finite set of extended horoballs whose union..t)e H3IIm(z) = 0. that is. t). this is the source of our difficulties. the distance from g to J is the same as the distance from jog to J. Now define C2 outside T. It is easy to see that for every jeJ.. set g = gk. Let V. call it v. contains all the singular points of E. 0) = W. define C2(s.J.19. = {(z. Let h(a. h(u. outside all the translates of T After performing the above operation on the finite number of non-conjugate extended horoballs.20. if V is a singular curve on C. we have a new surface C. and now all the singular points are contained in a compact subset of S. For each Vk.. and so that j(z) = z + 1. let C2 be the Euclidean half-plane: {Im(z) = 0. to the straight line W.(W) lies in one of the closed discs bounded by W. if we replace Vk by another singular curve with the same projection.21. B. the distance is always finite. For every g e G .(W) and g2(W) if g. there are only finitely many singular curves on C. then there is exactly one translate g(C) which intersects C along V). Using standard techniques in 3-dimensional topology. as follows. t = 1}. Normalize so that x = oo. It is clear that we can deform C to a new surface C. these singular curves on S need be neither simple nor disjoint. h(a. B. together with a compact subset of 0-03. We say that W weakly separates g. or parabolic cyclic. there is a gk e G so that gk(C) and C intersect along Vk.146 VII. n 8T is a single j-invariant curve Wt. then we replace gk by an element of the formjogk.2}. Since the diameter of any sequence of distinct translates of W tends to zero. For 1 < t < 2. r) = h(o. (a). V.. and that each of these singular curves is just a simple crossing (that is. so that c. t . Since neither C nor C _ g(C) has any self-intersections. and eliminate the possibility that some singular curve has parabolic stabilizer. so that it is J-invariant and so that it agrees with C.. r) for all T. then we can assume that t3T is at height one. Let x be the fixed point of the primitive parabolic element jeJ.2. then there is a g e G. we define the distance from g to J to be one plus the number of distinct translates of W that weakly separate W from g(W). likewise.and Igkl = Ijogkl. elliptic. we write this distance as IgJ. r) be a j-invariant deformation of W. B. Inside T. We first deform C inside the extended horoballs. There is a k so that Igkl is maximal. and g2(W) lies in the other. which still spans W. replace C. t) = (h(s. Pick one of these curves. and h(a + 1. Also.

the number of singular arcs of intersection of C and C stabilized by any loxodromic cyclic subgroup of J is even. then Stab(V) = Stab(V') is loxodromic cyclic. There are two possible choices of direction for Si. or pair of loops V and V'. or pair of arcs. If M is bounded by a single loop V. so C is again an embedded disc. the arcs and loops comprising C fl C are all disjoint. their number is finite. and for every j e J. As above. Similarly. Likewise. so that the disc M c C bounded by this loop. each pair of arcs stabilized by the same loxodromic cyclic group bounds a disc on C. so that Al is precisely invariant under Stab(M). Two of these arcs stabilized by the same loxodromic cyclic group have their endpoints on W in common. Since W and g(W) = do not cross. Al is an embedded disc. Observe that there is a neighborhood of Si in £ that intersects only finitely many translates of C.22. the outside of C has W on its boundary. so Si that l = alies on C. Si If Si is bounded by a pair of arcs V and V'.V11. Each singular loop bounds a disc on C. so that Si and a are both invariant under Stab(M). Blocks and Spanning Discs 147 a set of simple loops and arcs. the number of arcs stabilized by that subgroup is finite.B. Replace M by Si. We first take up the case that M lies inside C. Hence we can choose a parallel surface M. replace j(M) by j(A1). each arc is stabilized by a common loxodromic cyclic subgroup of J and gJg-'. This set of singular curves is of course invariant under J = J fl gJg-'. For any loxodromic cyclic subgroup of J. contains no other points of intersection with C. then M intersects only finitely many translates of C. We form a new disc C as follows. we start with a fundamental polyhedron E for Stab(V) = Stab(M). Choose a singular loop V. One of them. where Si is so close to M that it is still an embedded disc. we choose it to lie outside C. and Al intersects exactly those translates of C that Si intersects. where M contains the disc bounded by the loop V. we extend or cut off the boundary of Al so that OS? = 17 lies on C. It is not clear whereais. We have defined C so that it is invariant under J. if h(W) lies inside C. according as M lies inside or outside C. We use hyperbolic distance to define the parallel surface. Also. and the inside of C does not have all of W on its boundary. and Si crosses exactly those translates of C that Si crosses. The other half-space is the inside of C. we cut it off or extend it as necessary. The disc C divides D-I into two topological half-spaces. or pair of singular arcs V and V'. Hence we can find a (hyperbolically) parallel surface Si. neither does Si. likewise. Since Si does not intersect C. B. then the distance from h(C) to g(C) . where now the boundary of the disc includes the fixed points of the stabilizer of these arcs. We now have two cases to consider. where each loop is stabilized either by the iden- tity or by a common maximal elliptic subgroup of J and gJg-'. again lying outside C. Let M be the disc on C bounded by P. and modulo J. otherwise. called the outside of C contains 14' in its boundary. In this case.

23. and for every j c.. since IgI is maximal. Replace N by A. there is no such subsurface between M and A. there is no intersection of P. where h(W) lies outside C.148 VII. call it Ic.. where some of the U. is so close to Nj that they both intersect the same translates of C. C intersects h(C) if and only if C intersects h(C). let U. We have shown that if h(C) intersects C.. B. For each such h. h(C1) intersects C1 if and only if h(C) intersects C. . Exactly as above.. N has only finitely many boundary loops or pairs of boundary arcs.. is less than the corresponding number of curves of intersection of g(C) with C. we will reach an embedded disc C with no singular curves on it. together with all their translates under Stab(1Cl). with h(C).. It is obvious that C and g(C) have fewer curves of intersection modulo J than do C and g(C). These subsurfaces are all disjoint. and if A intersects some translate h(C). k. B. and observe that we can successively reduce the number of curves of intersection modulo J of C with g(C). we may have increased the number of curves of intersection modulo J. Of course. then there must already be a curve of intersection of C with h(C).. so h(C) and g(C) do not intersect. where R. that is. might be a pair of boundary arcs with the same stabilizer. If h(W) lies outside C. replace g o j o g-' (13) by g -j o g-1 (R). this means that A does not intersect C. for some h. let Aj be a parallel disc. Each Uj bounds a disc Nj on C. after a finite number of steps. A cannot intersect any translate h(C). we first fix g of maximal length. We chose N so that it lies closest to C. so C' is also an embedded disc. h(C) also intersects C. we arrive at a new disc C1. lies on C.e. for any h e G. but it is still finite. then since M lies inside C. Replace C by a new surface C' as follows. j = 1. One of these subsurfaces. then h(C) intersects C. we extend or cut off the boundary of A. . Combination Theorems (i. lies closest to M. so that 8A. this is the required spanning disc. Since A lies outside C. lying outside T. where h(W) lies inside C. We next take up the case that M lies outside C. Combining the two steps above.. where C1 does not intersect g(C1). without introducing intersections of C with any new translate h(C). modulo J. in particular. U. and h(C) intersects ft. For each curve in E there is a subsurface of C lying in T and having that curve on its boundary. Now replace C by C = g-' (C'). Hence after a finite number of steps. and consider the set E of singular curves of intersection of C with C = g(C) in M. Let M be the disc on C bounded by the same loop or pair of arcs. the number of curves of intersection of h(C1) with C1 modulo J might be greater than the number of curves of intersection of C with h(C) modulo J. be a complete list of inequivalent such loops.. Modulo Stab(M). and for every h e G. so we can use separation in the ball T to partially order them. all the components of A lie inside C. Let T be the topological ball bounded by M and Af.J. Ih' ogl) is greater than Igi. there are only finitely many of these. but the number of curves of intersection of g(C) with C. Let A be the union of the A.. Modulo Stab(N).24. As above. Hence. Also.

G2>. A2) is a proper interactive pair. (in particular. so that. The First Combination Theorem 149 VII. and G2. D.D.0.VII. ))/G. B. Theorem. (iv) W is a precisely embedded (J. is bounded away from W. (iii) If W is precisely invariant under J in either G. where these two possibly disconnected surfaces are identified along their common possibly disconnected and possibly empty boundary. where the two 3-manifolds are joined along their common boundary. or G2. this means that the loops { W. (ii) G is discrete. E . it is the union of H 3/G1. then. if each W. then dia(Wm) . is a (J. W meets aDm in a finite set of points. are regarded as acting on C. and B2. then zm -x. we need some definitions. . Let C be a precisely invariant topological disc in H3 spanning W. separates x from Wm_. (x) If Bt and B2 are both strong. Let { Wm} be a collection of simple loops. before going on to the statement. then. every limit point of G is a point of approximation. The First Combination Theorem U.) nest about the point x. nB3_m is either empty or has non-empty interior. and if B. and that there is a simple closed curve W dividing t into two closed topological discs B. every element of G is loxodromic. C. and D2. Assume that J # G.. all groups are subgroups of AN. except perhaps for conjugates of elements of G1 and G2.C. where D. and (h.C. and let R. and B.2.2. be a fundamental set for Gm. then so is W. and there is a constrained fundamental set E for J. Let D. ). where Bm is precisely invariant under J in G. (W fl 6(J))/J. } are all disjoint). except perhaps for translates of limit points of G. or G2. If D1 and D2 are both constrained. and. H'/G can be described as follows. (i)G=G1* G2. Then the following statements hold. where B. Then Q(G)/G = (R1 fl Q(G. and B2. C/J. fl W = D2 fl W. or G2. be the complement of Qm. and H 3/G2. } is a sequence of distinct G-translates of W. The main results of this section are stated in C. and that if zm is any point of Wm. and set G = <G. from which the image of Bl /J has been deleted. (ix) Assume that W is strong. In this section. containing both D. G)-block. fl B2) U (D2 fl B. as in the preceding one. (viii) Let Qm be the union of the Gm translates of Am. and D. Gm)-block. so that C divides H3 into two closed sets. unless stated otherwise. is maximal with respect to Bm. Let J be a geometrically finite subgroup of the discrete groups G. We say that the loops { W. (v) If { W. except for some excluded cusps. then D is constrained. (vi) There is a sequence of distinct G-translates of W nesting about the point x if and only if x is a limit point of G which is not G-equivalent to a limit point of either G. U (R2 fl Q(G2 ))/G2. Set D = (D. are both strong. (vii) D is a fundamental set for G. J 0 G2.. from which the image of BZ/J has been deleted.

in which case g(W) c B1.9. and we have assumed it to be proper.g (B.. then either gk(B. C. Then there is a sequence (g.) c B2. we can assume that each g. Write g = og.m. Before going on to the proof of this theorem. since B. where IgI is minimal among all conjugates of g in G.S. and g has at least two fixed points. If there is only one set of the form h(B.6. n B2 # 0. we assume throughout that the hypotheses hold. g(B. Let g be some element of G.) c Bm. i. in normal form.kl is odd. since it has at least two fixed points.) has non-empty interior. has even length. tm is precisely invariant under J in Gm. By A. assume IgI > 1.6 that (a. Then g is a (3 . We also remark that the hypothesis that (E. one in g o (Bm). if g is a (2.-translates of Bt do not cover all of B2 or that the G2-translates of B2 do not cover all of Bt. First of all. then B2 . we conclude that there is a compact subset of B. we remark that conclusion (vii) might be vacuous. if there is more than one such set. We next look at the set of G-translates of W. on which g is far from the identity. or G2. We saw in A. Conclusion (i) now follows from A. (Bm) c Am. and G2 are both geometrically finite. Since aBm = W is precisely invariant under J in either G. The only additional hypothesis we need to check is that it be proper. it is not parabolic. Since g has infinite order. it is not elliptic.g(BI) has non-empty interior. then A. Assume without loss of generality that the G. It is easy to see that this will hold if either D. C.2)-form. and the other in B3_m.g(W) = g(aB. where h e G. then either g e G. m)-form. but g o g.. and g(BB) c g o (B.e. We next prove conclusion (iii). assume that G is not discrete. the length of g is even. there is a compact subset of B2 on which g is far from the identity. To prove conclusion (ii). g(B.10..150 VII. h2) is an interactive pair. If IgI = 0.) c B2._. then g(W) = W. then g(B2) c g (B. it might be that D = 0.4.-translates of Bt do not cover all of B2. for if Ig. roughly . 62) be a proper interactive pair is usually easy to check in practice. the last inclusion is not only proper. in which case. then B2 . Similarly. or g e G2. or gk(B2) c B. so does B. If IgI = 1. with gk(x) -+ x.) c g o g c g (B2) g o g1_ I (B. uniformly on compact subsets.) contained in B2.1)-form. The remainder of this section is devoted to the proof of this theorem. This set of translates of W divides C into regions. there is nothing to prove. This means that either the G. If g = g o o g 1 is a (1. ).. C. is a block. Since IgI is minimal.3. or D2 n B. Combination Theorems (xi) G is geometrically finite if and only if G. 0 0. Hence g has infinite order. } of distinct elements of G.) c B2. In any case.) surely has non-empty interior.. C. If IyI = 1.6 asserts that the pair is interactive..

Lemma. that is c T.. we set Tn. . = Tt. is maximal.. nB3_m is the common exterior. U g(Te-l. then there is nothing further to be said. the proof for points of D2 fl Bt is essentially the same. Let x E D. Since Dt is maximal.) is also a decreasing sequence of sets. . to B3_m. Let z be a point of s. Then either zeIT(Gm) or there is a g e Gm. This shows that no point of W fl T.. we can easily describe these sets. be the complement of Notice that for fixed m.m = U g C G. and there is a point y e D with g(y) = z. If there are several distinct translates of B. fl Bt . 0 C. z does not lie in any Gm translate of Bm. and is increasing. 0 . so x c. and the interior of Tt is the set of points at distance greater than 1 from W. since D. and let S. fl B3 _m c D. {T. Proof. Since z e St. It also shows that W is precisely embedded in G. for every g E G.. we set S. Hence x $ Tt.St. but of course..n). in :. If Tim = B3_m.2. of all these sets {g(Br)JgeG. and let S..m is contained in B3_. For every z 0 )T(Gm) there is a point y E D. Then the closure of S. inB3_m.1 U T. and G2. set T.m c . The First Combination Theorem 151 speaking.. be the complement of T. C. is the set of points at distance 1 from W.)... Notice that T. and a g e Gm. -J g(B.3-.fW Since Bt is a block. fl B2. define the "distance" from z to W to be 1 + the minimal number of translates of W a path connecting z to zo must cross.. Continuing inductively.7. For every z E C. More precisely. where g(W) fl w $ 0.C. f1E3_m.J}.VII. . then x lies in a G1-translate of Bt.m = U set T. Similarly. Lemma...8. Then { T. This can occur only if x e Dt (1 Bt fl B2 = D. y f Bm. with g(y) = z. In this cases.. then these all have disjoint interiors. then it is precisely invariant under J in G. The description above shows that if W is precisely invariant under J in both Gt and G2.. to be the union of those two of these regions having W on their boundary. fi is the set of points at distance greater than n from W. So y e D.m c B3. we set Ti.J. and the closure of (S is the set of points at distance precisely n from W. we have no control over how the boundaries might intersect.m} is a decreasing sequence of sets. = T.. the points of intersection must be limit points of G. lies in Q(G 1). Let zo be some point on W. D c St. . x is G1-equivalent to some point of D. In the case that W is precisely invariant under J in both G. Proof. c T1. Assume that x e T1.

J. The opposite inclusion is trivial. U C2 near x. D c °Q(G). It is easy to see that we can make C. We now prove conclusion (iv). there cannot be any elliptic fixed points of J on W. For any 2-form g. and is precisely invariant under the identity in G. Let x be a rank I parabolic fixed point of J. Also since D n W is a fundamental set for the action of J on W.. fl B2) has non-empty interior.e. Hence w fl °Q(J) = W fl °Q(G). do not accumulate at z.) is a cusped region for both G.. cS. D c °Q(G). z actually lies on W. Hence z e Q(G). is a block. there is a sequence {g. so that g2(C. for all points y with at most one exception... is strong. gk(B) c T. sufficiently small so that exactly one of the following three possibilities holds. c B. then it surely has rank 2 in G. and D is precisely invariant under the identity in G. Since J keeps both B. We know that W is precisely embedded in both G. . fl W and D2 fl W are both maximal. in which case there is nothing to prove. fl W lies in Q(G. G)-block. Every point of D. and G2. C. w n °Q(G) is precisely invariant under J in G. Of course the points on c0 T. with g2(x) = x. since B. z is an interior point of S..-translates of points of W. and B2 are both strong. ).-translate of B. Let J..). Hence there is a neighborhood of z that is disjoint from all non-trivial G. Hence w fl Q(J) = W fl °Q(J) = W fl °Q(G) c w fl Q(G).. so that g2(C. Since B. = Staba.-translates of B.(x). Lemma.) is a cusped region for x in both G. g(B) c B. If Igkl > 1. or G2. x is either a rank 2 parabolic fixed point of or is doubly cusped in If Stab(x) has rank 2 in either G. the G. and G2.152 VII.J. and B2 invariant. no G. but y2 = g2(x) is not J-equivalent to x. assume for definiteness. Since D. hence every gk is a 1-form..or (ii) there is a g2 a G2 .. are either G.-translates of W (i. and G2. so G is Kleinian. = W n D2 = W n D c °Q(G). fl B2. we conclude that z is either a point of W. Then there is a limit point z of G in D. We first show that D c Q(G). Then the G-translates of W do not accumulate at z. where C. Since z E A (G). assume not. passes through z. or (iii) there is a g2 e G2 . ). or limit points of G. and G2. Then (D. Since D c Q(G). or B2. Since z e Q(G.9. and D is precisely invariant under the identity in G. Choose a doubly cusped region C = C. with gt(y) -> z.k} of distinct elements of G. or a translate of such a point. Combination Theorems C. that z e D. Assume first that z does not lie on W. and C is precisely invariant under Stab(x) in both G. Every point of W fl °Q(J) is J-equivalent to some point of W fl D. Proof. hence zetT. then so is W. then for B = B. where B is either Bt or B2. It remains to show that if B. The fact that W is precisely embedded in G is an immediate consequence of the fact that the sequence of sets is decreasing. We have shown that W is a (J. Either (i) C.10.

then StabG(x) is not cyclic.. the proof in the other case is essentially the same. Except perhaps for some points of 4(J) and their translates. or (ii') there is a g. The points of S1 all lie in either B1 or B2.14. Since z c. and B. C. X E 92k(B2).g 1(B1).11. If W is not precisely invariant under J. or (iii') there is a g.. (x) = x..T1.12. J in say G1. .A(J) lies in S. e G. If W is precisely invariant under J in both G1 and G2.. = g. Since E2 is precisely invariant under J in G2. not S. Hence it suffices to consider only points of S1.. e G. then g. In the g(x) * B2. Assume that x e B1. but x 0 1. The sets S are increasing. A point x lies in T if and only if there is a sequence { g. and x E92k+1(B1) (or xE92k(B1). and X E92k+1(B2)) It is clear that T. so 92 is either parabolic or elliptic. but has rank 1.. and G2. every point of D U 2T(G1) U ?(G2) 'S contained in St. there is some index n. and x is doubly cusped in G. so that z c. which is necessarily a limit point of J.14. so that g. but case (ii) does not. we can make C2 sufficiently small so that either (i') C2 c S. The points of A(J) can lie in either S. StabG(x) has rank 2. or a point of 2(G2).T.J. It is easy to see that if (ii) and (ii') both do not hold. Since S is G-invariant. C. then StabG(x) is parabolic cyclic. so that x E S. If case (ii) holds. every G-translate of any point of (D U IT (GI) U 2(G2 )) . E G.VILC_ The First Combination Theorem 153 Similarly. Then there is a g of length n .J. = g. with g. . for some This point z. O C. then A(J) c S. 92 is not parabolic.) of elements of G with 19k1 -+ 00.. (x) is not J-equivalent to x. and 92 are both half-turns with fixed point x. Conclusion (v) follows from conclusion (iv). . Let S = U S. be its complement. We have the same result if case (ii') holds.J. Every point of S is a G-translate of either a point of D. in this case. C. Consider a point z c. and hence also S. o g2 is parabolic with fixed point x. Assume for simplicity that z c. Proof. Proposition. and 92 can only be a half-turn. so that g(x) E S. there is an . or T. or a point of 2T(G1). but y. then there is a point z on both W and g(W). there is an element h.f1D2cD. is G-invariant. is then a point of T. If (ii) and (ii') both hold.S.(C2) is a cusped region for both G. and G2 in B. then since z e T2. so if x c. and let T = fl T.1. If case (ii') does not hold.. Hence g(x)e latter case.. then g2(x) = x. there is a g E G2 with B. Then x lies either in 2(G2) or in °Q(G2). The product h = g. (C2) is a cusped region for both G.13. By conclusion (i). h 0 J. so that g.B2. The sets { are decreasing. .

and is a translate of a limit point of J. then since z e T3. and B2. Then z is a limit point.J. is bounded away from Wax does not lie on W. or is the limit of a nested sequence of translates of W. C. . T c A(G). so that z e g. is alterG. o g2(B2) = h2(B2) c h. with IhkI . z lies on the boundary of every hk(Q. a G2 . and E .D. likewise the sides of D in B2 are the sides of D.oo. so the sets {hk(W)} are all distinct. fl B2. The first part of conclusion (vii) is almost immediate. We saw in C. 092093(BI) = h3(BI) c h2(B2) e h.14 that T c A. ). We have shown that if z e T. Once we have chosen D. Since D. then there is a sequence {hk} of elements of c hk( k) c . Finally. Then the sides of D in B. x is not an interior point of s.12. and they can accumulate only at limit points. We have shown that for every point x of T. are just the sides of D2 in B.. except perhaps for some parabolic cusps. The elements {hk} have increasing length. since D2 is constrained. Since W is a precisely embedded block.16. x is not an interior point of S. Proposition. If x is a limit point of G which is not G-equivalent to a point of either A(G.(61). The only possibility left is that z lies in T. There are two possibilities for the sequence above.J so that z e g. Suppose that D. also. there is an element g3 a G. (B. We saw above that every point of T is either a translate of a limit point of J. Combination Theorems element g. (B. there cannot be a point of W with a sequence of translates of W nesting about it. Since W is a block. since D C E. and D2 so that D is constrained.). and we saw in C. We now prove conclusion (vi). 0 C.15. We already know that D c °Q(G).O. conclusion (viii) follows almost at once from conclusion (vii). then hk(w) . In the former case. and is surely not in S. . or x is a translate of a limit point of J.. w is a limit point of J. there is a subsequence {hk} so that hk(W) nests about z. or. z is a translate of a point w of W.). and that D is precisely invariant under the identity. Either z lies in the interior of infinitely many of the hk(. ). c h2(R2) c h. These sides are paired. Suppose there is a sequence {hk} of elements of G. in B2.154 V11. Proof. then by C. is constrained. and D2 both agree with E in a neighborhood of W. and. from some point on. with hk(D) accumulating at x e D fl Q(G). C. Now assume that there is a sequence {hk(W)} of distinct translates of W nesting about z. In the latter case. either there is a sequence of translates of W nesting about x.x for all w e W. and there are many translates of W intersecting W at w. where E.17. and zE nately equal to B. and D2 are constrained.) or A(G2). xe T. . D. fl B. 12 that every point of S is a translate of some point of D U A(GI) U A(G2). E is constrained. The only thing left to show is that the tesselation of Q(G) by translates of D is locally finite. If hk(W) nests about x. etc.

where there are exactly two inequivalent such regions. this can occur only if w is a parabolic fixed point of J.16.C. Then B. Suppose x is a limit point of G. Consider the set of translates of C. C. a constrained fundamental set for J. or B = B2. The parabolic subgroup Ho of H is a translate of a subgroup of either G. or of E2. since W separates fk(x) from fk(W). the powers j2(W) divide C into regions. As above. Hence there is an increasing (or decreasing) sequence of powers {ak}.VII. Let.%°kofk(z)I 2t 6 > 0. that is. no translate of x can enter a rank 1 exceptional cusp.0.-translates of B. It follows that every point of Fl' is G-equivalent to either a point of E. and EZ/G2. Let be the complement in H' of the union of the G.j'k o fk(x) is bounded away from w. there is some b > 0 so that I fk(x) . except perhaps for some exceptional cusps.hk(B) c without loss of generality that h. so that j k o fk(W) -+ w. there is a neighborhood U of W with D fl u = E fl U. or of C. and E. then diaE(gk(C)) . The First Combination Theorem 155 C. Let x be a limit point of G... Hence x is a point of approximation. Hence fk(x) . so that c h. where j * J. For every k there is an element jk e J so that fk(x) = fk o hk' (x) e E. We conclude from B. 14 that if { g. there is a sequence {hk} of distinct elements of G. Then H'/G is the union of E.6. which tends to w inside the cusp. and so prove conclusion (ix). and x is a limit point of G.19. Suppose first that x is a parabolic fixed point. (B). or G2. Notice that j(W) fl w = w.. We could equally well have constructed fundamental sets in H3. and G2 are both geometrically finite.18.20./G. which is not a translate of a limit point of either G. We first remark that the existence of the spanning disc C is guaranteed by B. j be a primitive parabolic element with fixed point w. If"o /k (x) -. the sequence of points { fk(x)}. Since W is strong. Then x e T. We first take up the case that the fk(x) are all bounded away from W. and B2 are both strong: conclusion (iv) then asserts that W is strong.w in a rank 2 exceptional cusp. or G2. These divide H' into regions. necessarily passes through infinitely many of these regions. = 1. Assume for simplicity that B = B1. C. It should be remarked that we can easily put conclusion (ix) in the same format as conclusion (viii).fk(z)I >.E(C)} is a sequence of distinct translates of C. Conclusion (ix) now follows. Since W is strong. where these two 3-orbifolds are joined along their common boundary. Then W separates h. We start the proof of conclusion (xi) with the assumption that G. Next assume that fk(x) we W. this implies that for any point z lying on a spaning disc for W. We come now to conclusion (x). call them E. while .. there is nothing to prove except in the case that H = StabG(x) has rank 1. and there is a choice of B = B.. `(W) from hk t(x). we also assume x e . we . C/J. It is almost immediate that E' is precisely invariant under J in G. There are exactly two of these regions which together span S. for any point z lying on a spanning disc for W (we have renormalized so that G acts on B'). we could state conclusion (ix) as follows.

Then there must be an element g. with fixed point x. so StabG(x) must have rank 2. and hence for G. Similarly for G2. The only other possibility is that there is a limit point x of G. ).... U g. with at most one exception. is precisely invariant under J in G there is a cusped region C.. fl B2.E. which is not doubly cusped in G then it is surely not doubly cusped in G. it suffices to assume that x c.-translate of W. If x lies on W. then x is necessarily doubly cusped in G.W. then since W is strong. then we can find a doubly cusped region C for Ho. is not. hk(S.(W) fl W. for x inside B.j}form where j = 1. . fl B2 c D c °Q(G).G. If x does not lie on any translate of W. Of course. precisely invariant under StabG. By VI. fl B2)) is contained in exactly one connected component of t-. fl B2) c T. fl B2) c while if j = 2. and is a point of approximation for G but not for G. and that G. commuting with the parabolic element of G. this in turn can occur only if x lies on some translate of W.D..hk(z)) bounded from below for almost all z (here d(-. e G. 0 VII.) is a doubly cusped region. a G.J with x E g. Combination Theorems can assume without loss of generality that it lies in G. hk(z)) 0 for all z e S. d(hk(x). and hk is an (i..G. (C. If x is not a translate of a limit point of either G. x is doubly cusped in G. . In particular. contradicting the assumption that d(hk(x). then by conclusion (x). (B.I.156 VII.II D. int(hk(S. there are infinitely many translates of W passing through x and lying in B. and J2 of Go.0. the sets {hk(W)} are all distinct. similarly there are infinitely many translates of W passing through x and lying in B2. If x is a rank I parabolic subgroup of G. Our basic hypothesis in this section is that we are given two groups. Go and G...). Then C B2 fl °Q(G. where C does not intersect any G. ) denotes spherical distance). Since every limit point on W is also a limit point of J.5.J so that x lies in g. Next assume that x is a limit point of G. or Since dia(hk(W)) . C. If IhkI = n. it is a point of approximation. (B.. We have shown that if Stab6(x) has rank 2. and there is a cusped region C2 for x inside g. we can assume that the hk represent distinct left J cosets. Then x lies in the closure of B2 fl S.(x). so every point of C is G. then hk(S. hk(z)) is bounded away from zero for all z.. and we are given two subgroups J. . we can assume that x does not lie on any translate of W. then x is a point of approximation for G. there is a g. which is not a parabolic fixed point. that is. . we take up the converse. or G2. Since there is a parabolic element of G . Finally. assume that G is geometrically finite. since x is not a limit point of J. which is not a parabolic fixed point.-equivalent to some point of D. and J is geometrically finite.21. so that the following hold. or equivalently on some translate of W. This can occur only if there is a parabolic element of G . Since 1). Then C. Combinatorial Group Theory . ). x is doubly cusped in G. Let {hk } be the sequence of elements of G with d(hk(x). If x is a translate of a limit point of G.

(1). It is obvious that equivalent normal forms are mapped onto the same transformation.VII. Note that Go * f cannot be trivial. with generator f. Combinatorial Group Theory ... . It is easy to see that 0 is an isomorphism if and only if no nontrivial normal form lies in the kernel of 0. and J2 abstractly isomomorphic. G. > 0. It is clear that every word of the form f°'g1 is equivalent either to a normal form or to the identity. respectively null.<Go. not only are J. which is of infinite order.. while is a null form if a = 0.e.0. f °'g1 has a length.. respectively null.. and > 0. . G1 > as being Go *f .S. every element of Go* f has many different equivalent normal forms. If 0 is an isomorphism. = <f >. permitted to be 0. negative.D.. conjugates and inverses of words of the form.II 157 Go and G. that is. i.9n0J1 If g is a positive.11). then we will regard <Go. is infinite cyclic.. then every equivalent normal form is positive. j _. or g . is positive if a > 0. We make no assumptions about J. If 0 is an isomorphism.+1 E J. for it contains G. Note that equivalent normal forms have the same length. One easily proves that every normal form is unique if and only if J1 = J.. in Go. normal form.-1 <0. Hence it makes sense to talk about an element of Go * f as being positive. f °' 91) = fan o g o o f=i o g 1. and we will write normal forms using composition (a o b) rather than juxtaposition (ab). A normal form is a word of the form f '-g. have trivial intersection. 0(f a°g. that is. where 0 replaces juxtaposition by composition of mappings. Every normal form g = f a^g. or null. for k > 1. into J2. forms a group. with only at. D3.... . defined as I g I = Y Ia. for these three cases.. Two normal forms are equivalent if we can get from one to the other by a finite sequence of insertions and deletions of words which we know to be the identity. i. then ak+. the ak are integers. and is written as Go *f .. D. The set of normal forms modulo equivalence. >.e. G.J2.2.. negative if a < 0. f g. then ak+. gk 0 1. < 0. G is the free product of G1 and G2. then we say that G = <Go. g < 0. The normal form f '-g. so IgI is well defined for every element of Go *f . We write g > 0. respectively negative. fjf -' (f*(j))-'. but f conjugates J.f o j of -' defines an isomorphism f*: J. respectively negative. where the operation is juxtaposition of words.. = l. G1 > = Go* f. D.1. f". together with the identity. note that if ifa. -. This group is called the HNN-extension of Go by f. then gp 0 J2. For a null form. where each gk E Go. fl J2 or about the index of J. DA. g 1. if ak > 0. if ak < 0 and 91. As with amalgamated free products. and gk+1 E J2 . There is a natural homomorphism 0: Go* f .

h(Xm) c Z U Xm. Using normal forms. if g e Go . f(ZUX2) C X2. Suppose we are also given isomorphisms tpo: Go .. then g(X1) a Z. X2). Assume we are given an interactive triple (Z. Then these isomorphisms can be extended to an isomorphism (p: G . Combination Theorems D. D. Since G. 9_0 X1 = U g(D). then fl o g < 0. then hog is never positive.8 is false. We specifically mention one consequence of these conditions. similarly. and q1: <f> -> <f>. where j = "+". respectively. It also follows that (X1. X. and g e Go . D. and 6i = 0o*7. similarly. . k="+" if a.9. then g(X2) (-. For the next application. If Go = { 11. into . and G = Go*fs then there is an interactive triple of sets. but there is no easy counter-example. let Z = D = {x}.e.7. and is negative if and only if h e J. Theorem. for every g e Go. k)-form. Similarly if g < 0. then choose some point x. . and h e Go.10.158 VII. and f conjugates I. That is. It is almost immediate that if g > 0. while for a < 0. or null. X2) is an interactive triple. it is easy to see that isomorphisms can be extended. and g(x) a Z. negative. We return to our original assumptions on G = <Go. The converse to D. if g(x) a X2 (i. it lies in X1 . X1.6.Z.6. and X2 are not empty. so P0 g(x) a X2.e. 0 D. An interactive triple is a triple of disjoint nonempty sets. then for a > 0. D. If (Z. f a o g(x) lies in X2.f-1(ZUX1) C X1.J2) in Go.. X2) satisfying the following: (X1. Observe that Zo is Go-invariant.. is infinite cyclic. (Z. let Zo be the set of points in Z that are not Go-equivalent to any point of either X. we need the notion of an (j. g > 0). Proof. < 0. and cpo o f* I J. then f" o g > 0. if x e D. g>O Since D 0 0.. X1.k="-" if a. if g(x) E X 1 (i. where V1(f) = f. >0.CO. (po(Jm) = 3m.X2) is precisely invariant under (J.J2. or "0". or X2. X2) is precisely invariant under (J. set Z = U g(D). J2) in Go. If G acts freely and discontinuously on (some non-empty open subset of) X. then hog is never negative. according as g is positive. = f* o rpoIJ1.J. This shows that for every h e Go. suppose we are given two HNN-extensions G = Go*f. g(Xm) c (Z U Xm).S. Z 0. and a > 0. and a < 0. Also. g < 0). Xt. 9<0 X2 = U g(D). and is positive if and only if h e J2. into J2. "-". where f conjugates J. If Go 96 { 1). and proceed as above. so f a o g(x) e X 1. f>.72.. Let D be a fundamental set for G.

+)-form. g2 o f og. Then f-'ofo. O J2. If a < -1. this is conclusion (v). it cannot be that > 0. Write g = f g.VII. Then g. where B = X. X and since g 11 J g(Z0 U X2) c 0. g. if (g)(Z0 U X2) c c Z. (iii) If g is a (-.fg) maps ZQUX2 into X. (vi) If g is a (0. then P(g)(Zo U X2) c X2. (i) If g is a (+. then f-'g is a (+. so P(f -' g)(Z0 U X2) C X2. +)-form of length IgJ.. +)-form. Let g = f'-g.. then U X2) c o X. < 0. >0. then there is an element h e Go.1. then U X2) e 0 . again. f °'g. finally. Lemma. then f ` g need not be a normal form.. so which is in J2. +)-form. then there is an element he Go. then '(g)(Zo U X2) c X. 0. and f -' g) maps Zo U X2 into X2. so that 0(g)(Zo U X2) c h(B)cZ.11. be a normal form in G. Apply f to obtain 0(g)(Zo U X2) c f(X2) C X2.and B=X2ifa.-1(X0=X. +)-form. If g is of the form 920f_'091.1.II 159 D. +)-form or a (-. if <0. +)-form of length 191 . If g2 # 1. in this case.. assume the former. If f -'g is not normal. +)-form. -)-form. (X2) C Z U X2. hence c Z. > 0. (ii) If g is a (+... where IgI > 0._'. +)-form of length IgI . then 92 tl J2. f maps X2 into X2. so 92(X2) c Z.where B=X. = 1. Similarly.) c X.-.1. +)-form. (Zo U X2) c Zo U Z U X2 = Z U X2. and fg is a normal form.) e h(B) c Z. is conclusion (i).. -)-form. Since f-'(X1) c X1. g. and proceed as above.D. -)-form. maps X2 onto itself. and write g = g2fg.) c X. If a = -1... If a. then it is a (0.. and 0. for g2 = 1. then fg is a (-. Then since f(Z) c X2. then fo0(g)(ZoUX2)cZ. and 9..) c X2. then since a > 0. Then f1 o f o 0(g)(Zo U X2) c f -' (X. We start with the case that JgJ = 1. and (-.-'g is normal and is either a (+. so ch(g.. and assume for simplicity that at. and that our conclusions hold for all normal forms with length less than Jgj. which.and B=X2if Proof. Then f-91 (Z0 U X2) c X2.fg is a If fg is not normal. so that P(g)(Zo U X. if a. (v) If g is a (0. +)-form. (iv) If g is a (-. since g is normal. If a > 1. then We next take up the case that g is a (-. so b(f -' g)(Zo U X2) c Z. g-_'. i. Since Zo is Go-invariant. g-'1 f -'g is a (+. If f -'g is a normal form.eJ fob(9)(Z0UX2)-9._.. then o(g)(Z0 U X.b(9)(Z0UX2)c We finally take up the case that g is a (0. +)-form. then b(g)(Z0 U X.... then eJ. Now assume that fig( > 1. eJ. or g = g2f -'g. (ft(g)(Z0 U X2) C X2. the proof in the other case is essentially the same. <0. In the former case. The proof is by induction on Jgi.(Z0 U X2) c gx(X2) c Z. we have just seen that if 0. In this case.. Combinatonal Group Theory . We first take up the case that g is a (+. for simplicity. then 0(g-'g)(Zo U X2) c X2. +)-form of length I gI . the only other possibility is that 6J2. >0.. so g(X2) c Z.e. while if 9. so P(fg)(Zo U X2) C X1. and f-'ofoP(g)(ZoUX2)c f-'(Z)cX. then similar arguments yield conclusions (iv) and (vi)._.

11. and B.) = Do n W2. D. and B2.12. on B. Proof.. onto the interior of B2. and g(D) n D = 0. n 'Q. Then Zo is precisely invariant under Go in G. X2) for G = <Go. are jointly f-blocked if B. then a maximal fundamental set necessarily exists. f maps the exterior of B. Recall that Zo is the complement of the set of translates of X1 U X2 in Z.. and B2 are jointly f-blocked.160 VII. G = Go * f. (B. The first is that since (B. if Igi = 0. where W. the necessary modifications for the case that G c FA are left to the reader).8 requires an additional topological assumption. f ).C. and if f(Do n W. then let A be the common exterior of B. We need some observations about jointly f-blocked sets. By D. As in A.2. Of course. if Do fl x. Assume that Go acts discontinuously on some open subset of X. VILE. B2 n Q(Go)) is precisely invariant under (J. and fJ. We saw in D. Let Do be a maximal fundamental set for Go. 0(g)(x) x. n Q(G0). Hence 0(g) 0 1.Go. X2) is an interactive triple. and are regarded as acting on C (again. and B2 have . A fundamental set Do for Go is maximal with respect to the interactive triple (Z. then gc. B. Two closed discs B. B2 n Q) is precisely invariant under (J. J2) in Go. Since Do is maximal.13. all groups in this section are subgroups of M.. The interactive triple is proper if Zo 0 0. X. Do fl Z = D fl Zo. is a fundamental set for the action of J. Let x be a point of Zo.. = aBm. and that (Z. Theorem. As in VII.1. The Second Combination Theorem E. Since no normal form is mapped to the identity in G. Suppose there is a proper interactive triple of sets (Z. the converse of D.11 that for every g of positive length.. or B2A fundamental set Do for Go is maximal if Do n B.. and let g be some normal form of positive length.I. Combination Theorems D. X1. X1. is a fundamental set for the action of Jm on X. Then G = Go *t. Go)-block.. Notice that if B. X2). and D = Do fl z is precisely invariant under the identity in G. The main results of this section are gathered together in the statement below. and let A0 be the set of points in A that are not Go-equivalent to any point of either B. is a (. o(g)(Z0)flZo = 0. E. and that G. If B.10.. Theorem. f -' = J2. and B2 are jointly f-blocked. and J2 are geometrically finite subgroups of the discrete group Go. J2).. Proof. is infinite cyclic with generator f. We assume throughout that J.

VILE. The Second Combination Theorem

161

disjoint projections to f2/Go, from which it follows that W, and W2 are both precisely embedded in Go; that is, W. divides C into two open discs, and every Go-translate of either W, or W2 does not intersect one of these two discs. The second observation is that since Bis a block, Em c Q(G0). Also note that since f conjugates J, onto J2, it maps parabolic fixed points of J, onto parabolic fixed points of J2; of course, the parabolic fixed points of J. lie on W. = aBm.
We state the next two observations as separate propositions. The first follows almost immediately from the definitions. E.3. Proposition. If (B1,B2) is precisely invariant under (J,,J2) in Go, and f maps the outside of W, onto the inside of W2, conjugating J, onto J2, then B, and B2 are jointly f-blocked.

E.4. Proposition. If B, and B2 are jointly f-blocked closed topological discs, and A is the common exterior of Bt and B2, then (A, E1, A2) is an interactive triple.
Proof. Since (A,, A2) is precisely invariant under (J, , J2), every element of Go maps

.6, either onto A, or into A; similarly with B2. The other statements in the
definition of interactive triple are immediate.
E.5. Theorem. Let J, and J2 be geometrically finite subgroups of the discrete group Go, and let G, = <f > be infinite cyclic. Assume that B, and B2 are jointly f-blocked closed topological discs, and that Ao # 0. Let Do be a maximal fundamental set for Go. Set G = (Go, f >, and set D = Do fl (A U Wt), where W. = cBm. Then the following statements hold. (i) G = GO*f. (ii) G is discrete.

(iii) If (B1,B2) is precisely invariant under (J1,J2) in Go, then every nonloxodromic element of G is conjugate to an element of Go.

(iv) W, is a precisely embedded (J1, G)-block; if B, and B2 are both strong
Go-blocks, then W1 is a strong G-block. (v) If {W,,') is a sequence of distinct G-translates of W1, then dia(W,t) - 0.

(vi) There is a sequence of distinct translates of W, nesting about the point x if and only if x is a limit point of G, and x is not a translate of a limit point of Go.

(vii) If B, and B2 are both strong, and x is a limit point of G which is not
G-equivalent to a limit point of Go, then x is a point of approximation. (viii) D is a fundamental set for G. If Do is constrained, W, and W2 intersect 3Do in a finite set of points, and if there is a constrained fundamental set E. for J. so that, except perhaps for some excluded cusps, Do and E. agree near Wm, then D is constrained.

(ix) Ao is precisely invariant under Go in G. Let Q = Ao fl D(GO); then
Q(G)/G = Q/Go, where the two possibly disconnected and possibly empty boundaries, (W1 fl Q(Go))/J, = (W, fl Q(J1))/J1 and (W2 f1 Q(Go))/J2 = (w2 n Q(J2))/J2 are identified; the identification is that given by f (that is, if xe W1, then p(x) is identified with p o f(x)).

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VI!. Combination Theorems

(x) G is geometrically finite if and only if Go is geometrically finite. (xi) Assume that W, and W2 are both strong. Let C. be a spanning disc for W. where C2 = f(C, ). Let B.,, be the topological half-space cut out of H3 by Cm, where B,3, spans Bm. Then 0-03/G can be realized as H3/Go, where the images of Bl /J, and B2/J2 have been deleted, and the two resulting boundaries, C,IJ, and C21J2, are identified; the identification being given by f.

Before going on to the proof of this theorem, we remark that conclusion (viii) may be vacuous; that is, D might be empty. The condition that AO 0 0 is not transparent. Notice that if x is a limit point of Go which is not a translate of a limit point of either J, or J2, then x e Ao. Also, there will be regular points in Ao if D # 0; that is, if the projection of B, U B2 is not dense in Q/Go.
E.6. Conclusion (i) follows from E.4 and D.12 (the statement that Ao is not empty implies that the interactive triple (A,,6,, h2) is proper).

E.7. To prove conclusion (ii), suppose there is a sequence of elements {gk}eG with g,, - 1. We consider each g,1 to be a normal form, assume first that each Igkl >- 1, and look at D.11 for the different possibilities. If g is either positive or negative, then g(Ao) c (B, U B2); hence g,, is either a (0, +) or a (0, -)-form. But if g is a (0, +)-form, g(162) c A, while if g is a (0, -)-form g($,) c A. The only remaining possibility is that each gm a Go, which we know to be discrete.
E.8. Let To.. be the union of all the Go-translates of Bm, and let To = To,, U To,2; let So (= A0) be the complement of To.

More generally, let T,,,, = U g(B,), where the union is taken over all forms of length n, where either g, J, or a, < 0. Similarly, let U g(B2), where the union is taken over all forms of length n, where either g, O J2 or a, > 0. Let
T. = T,,,, U T,,,2, and let S. be the complement of T,,. Let g = f =^ o . o g, be a normal form of length n. If either a, < 0, or g1 0 J, ,

then g(W,) c T,,. If g, eJ1, and a, > 0, then set g' = gogi' of -'. Write g' _ f2 o. o f -1. If a, > 1, theng'(W2) c g'(W2) a T.-,. If a, = 1,
then either 92 0 J2, or a2 > 0, so g'(W2) c hence g(W,) c We have shown that every G-translate of W, lies in some T,,. In the case that (W,, W2) is precisely invariant under (J,,J2), we can easily describe these sets. Let zo be some point in A0. For any point z, define Ilzll to be the minimal number of G-translates of W, that a path from zo to z must cross. Then S = {zJ Ilzll 5 n}, and t = {zl IlzII > n}. Lemma. T. c

Proof. Let g be an element of length n > 0, where a, < 0. If g, #J,, then set g' = gogi t o f, and observe that f -1 og,(B,) c B1, Ig'I = n - 1, and g(B,) _

VILE. The Second Combination Theorem

163

g' o f -' o g, (B,) c g'(B, ). If g, cJ, , then g, (B,) = B,, so we can assume without loss of generality that g, = 1 . Set g' = g o f ; if a, < -1, then f 'I" (B,)

f" (BI), so 9'(B,) D g(B,), and g'(B,) c
./

f'"o...o.f'2(Bt) a2 < 0, s0 f«"o...092(Bt) = D 9(Bt) The various cases where a, > 0 are treated analogously.

If a, = -1, and g2#J1, then -1,andg2EJ1,then

and let S be its The T. are decreasing, let T be the intersection of all the complement; i.e., S = U S. We remark that the fixed point(s) of f lie in T.

E.9. We now prove conclusion (iii). Let g = f'" o g. o of ", o g, be a normal form, where g is not conjugate to any element of Go. Using conjugation, and replacing g by g' if necessary, we can assume that g > 0. Since B, fl B2 = 0, and f maps the outside of B, onto the inside of B2, f is loxodromic. From here on we can assume that g, # 1. Since a > 0, and IgI is minimal, either at, > 0, or
91 9' J2.

If a, > 0, then by D.I l(i), g(B2) c B2. Since (B1,B2) is precisely invariant under (J,, J2) in Go, and the T. are decreasing, no G-translate of either W, or W2 intersects either W, or W2, except of course for the translates under J. Hence g(B2) c E2, so g is loxodromic. If a, < 0, then g, 0 J2. Then g, (B2) c A, and f" o g, (B2) c B, . Continue as in D. II to observe that g(B2) c B2. Exactly as above, this implies that g(B2) c h2, so g is loxodromic.
E.10. Lemma. W, fl Q(J,) is precisely invariant under J, in G.

Proof. We know that (W, fl Q(J, ), W2 fl Q(J2)) is precisely invariant under (J,, J2) in Go. Hence the Go translates of W, and W2 can intersect only at limit points.

Since f maps the limit points of J, onto those of J2, the translates of W, or W2, under elements of length one, also can intersect W, only at limit points of J,. The result now follows from E.8.

Ell. Lemma. D c °Q(G).
Let z be a point of D fl A. Since Do is maximal, z does not lie in any translate of either B, or B2. Hence if z were to lie in the closure of the Go-translates of B, U B2, there would be a sequence of distinct such translates converging to z. Since B, and B2 are both Go-blocks, the diameter of this sequence of translates of B, or B2 would converge to zero, so z would be a limit point of Go. We have shown that every point of D fl A lies in the exterior of the union of the
Go-translates of B, U B2; i.e., D n A c A0. By D.13, AO is precisely invariant under Go in G. Hence every interior point of AO fl °Q(G0) is also in °Q(G). We conclude that D fl A c °Q(G).

164

VII. Combination Theorems

Suppose next that z e D fl W, . Then z and f(z) both lie in Q(Go). Also, since B, and B2 are jointly f-blocked, z does not lie on any Go-translate of either B, or B2, other than B, itself. Since z e Q(G0), the Go-translates of B1, other than B, itself, are bounded away from z; Also, the Go-translates of B2 are bounded away from z; i.e., z is an interior point of S, . Now if there were a point x E Q(G), and a sequence of elements {gm} of G, with gm(x) -+ z for all x, with at most one exception; in particular, gm(x) -+ z for some x e B2, which cannot happen, for the translates of B2 all lie in some T,,. We have shown that no point of D fl w, is a limit point of G. It follows from E.10, that no point of D fl w, can be an elliptic fixed point. E.12. We now prove conclusion (iv). We first show that W, is a block. If Q(J,) fl W, = 0, there is nothing to prove. If Q(J,) fl w, # 0, then since W, is a (J,, Go)block, Do fl w, is a fundamental set for the action of J, on W1. We saw above that Do fl w, c °Q(G). It follows that W, fl °Q(G) =w, fl °Q(J, ). Since At is precisely invariant under J,, J, has no elliptic fixed points on W,; i.e., Q(J,) fl w, _ °Q(J,) fl w, = °Q(G) fl w, c Q(G) fl W, . The opposite inclusion, Q(G) fl w, Q(J,) n w, is trivial. We now conclude from E. 10 that W, is a (J, G)-block. We saw in E.2 that W, and W2 are both precisely embedded in Go, and that

no translate of W2 crosses W,. The description of T. in E.8 shows that W, is
precisely embedded in G. Now assume that B, and B2 are both strong; let x be a parabolic fixed point

on Wt, where StabG(x) has rank 1. Then x and f(x) are both doubly cusped in Go. Let C = C, U C2 be a doubly cusped region at x, where C, lies inside B,. Make C smaller if necessary so that f(C) is a doubly cusped region for Go at f(x). If C2 and f(CI) both lie in So, then, since So is precisely invariant under Go in G, x is doubly cusped in G. The only other possibilities are that there is a g16 Go with f (CI) c g, (B,), or f (CI) c g, (B2 ), or there is a 92 a Go with C2 c 92(B,), or

C2 c g2(B2). In each of these cases, there is a geG with g(W,) # W1, and xeW1flg(W1) Consider the set of G-translates of W, passing through x; assume that there are infinitely many distinct such translates; call them {gk(W,)}. Since x is a parabolic fixed point, and every limit point of J, is either a parabolic fixed point or a point of approximation, but not both, gk 1(x) is also a parabolic fixed point
of J, . Since J, is geometrically finite, there are only finitely many J,-equivalence classes of parabolic fixed points. Hence there is a parabolic fixed point y on W,, so that, after passing to a subsequence, gk(y) = x for all k. Then hi = gi 1 ogk has a fixed point at y, and does not stabilize W,. Since StabG(y) has rank 1, each hk is either parabolic or a half-turn. If hk is parabolic, then StabG(y) has rank 2, so StabG(x) has rank 2. If each hk is a half-turn, then since hk(W,) 0 hj(W,) fork # j, hk o hj is parabolic, and does not stabilize IV,; in this case again, StabG(x) has rank 2. We have shown that the number of distinct G-translates of W, passing through x is finite. Since no translate of W, can cross W1, the set {gk(W,)} is naturally ordered,

VILE. The Second Combination Theorem

165

there is an innermost translate (which is either equal to W1, or lies in B1) and an outermost translate. Make C sufficiently small so that no gk(W,) crosses it. Then

the inverse of the transformation mapping W, to the innermost, (outermost)
translate, maps C, (C2) either into So, or to a set in Bt whose image under f lies in So, or to a set in B2 whose image under f -' lies in So. The result now follows.

E.13. We remark that as part of the proof above, we have shown that if B, and B. are both strong, and if (B, , B2) is precisely invariant under (J, , J2) in Go, then W, has no exceptional cusps.
E.14. Conclusion (v) follows from the above and B.14.
E.15. Lemma. A(G) fl So c A(G0).

Proof. If x e So is a limit point of G, then there is a sequence {gk } of elements of G so that gk(z) - x for all z, with at most one exception; in particular, gk(B,) -4 x.

Using the nested property of the T;, we see that there is a sequence {hk} of
elements of Go with hk(B, U B2) - x; i.e., x e A (Go).

E.16. Lemma. Every point of T. - T,,.

is G-equivalent to some point of SO U W,.

Proof. Let x e T - T.,,, where x is not G-equivalent to any point of Wt. Then
either x e g(E1), where g is a normal form of length n, with either g, 0 J, or a, < 0;

or xeg(162), where g is a normal form of length n with either g10J2 or a, > 0. Assume for the sake of argument that g-' (x) a a,. Since x tf Ti+1, fog-' (x) does
not lie in either B1 or B2. Hence f o g-' (x) e So.

E.17. We now prove conclusion (vi). We start with the assumption that x is a limit point of G, but not a translate of a limit point of Go. By E. 15, x is not a
translate of any point of So. Since W1 is a block, the limit points of G on W1 are all limit points of J1 c Ga; hence no translate of x lies on W1. Since x e To, by E.16, x lies in every T,,; i.e., x e T Since x e T, there is a sequence of distinct elements {g,) of G, so that for every k, x e gk(B), where either B = B1 or B = B2. Thus either gk(8B) nests about x, or x lies on the boundary of almost every gk(B). The latter case cannot occur, for if

it did, x would be G-equivalent to a point on W1, necessarily a limit point of

J, c G.

For the converse, let x be some limit point of Go. Since 6, and E2, and all their Go-translates, contain no limit points of Go, x e So. The G-translates of W are all in To, so no sequence of them can nest about x. If there is an h e G, so that gk(W1) nests about h(x), then h-' o gk(W1) nests about x, which cannot be.
E.18. For conclusion (vii), let x be a limit point of G, where x is not a translate of a limit point of Go; then there is a sequence {gk} of distinct elements of G, so that gk(W1) nests about x. We can assume that g, = 1. Then gk' (x) and gk' (W1)

166

VII. Combination Theorems

lie on opposite sides of W, , and gk' (x) 0 W, . Find an element jk a J, , so that hk(x) = jk o gk' (x) a E,, a constrained fundamental set for J1, where, except for some exceptional cusps, E, - Do is bounded away from W,. If hk(x) - W,, then it does so inside an excluded cusp C, with vertex y. The cusp C is not a rank I exceptional cusp, for such a cusp contains no limit points of G. If C is a rank 2 exceptional cusp, then there is a parabolic element h e G with fixed point at y, where h 0 J,. One easily sees that if hk(x) - y inside
C, then an appropriate power ak of h will map hk(x) away from y, but still on the same side of W, as hk(x), while mapping hk(W,) closer to y, and still on the other side of W, . Then hak o hk(x) is bounded away from W,, so hak o hk(x) is bounded
away from hak o hk(W, ). Since hak o hk(x) is bounded away from hak o hk(z) for any

point z on a spanning disc for W,, x is a point of approximation.

E.19. We saw in E.16 that every point of T. is G-equivalent to either a point of S. or a point of W,. Of course, every point of So either lies in A(G0), or is Go-equivalent to a point of D fl A0. Since the points of T are all limit points,
we have shown that every point of °Q(G) is G-equivalent to some point of D. We showed in D. 13 that D fl A0 is precisely invariant under the identity in G.

It is an exercise to conclude from the fact that W, is a block that D fl W, is precisely invariant under the identity in G. This finishes the proof that D is a
fundamental set for G. If Do is constrained, then the sides of D are just the sides of Do, together with the finite set of arcs of W, n b and W2 fl D. It is clear that the sides of D are paired; the sides inside So are paired by elements of Go, and the sides on W, are paired with those on W2 by f. It is also clear that if D has infinitely many sides, then any sequence of these can accumulate only at limit points; in fact, limit points of Go. Since the tesselation of °Q(G0) by translates of Do is locally finite, there are only finitely many translates of D in a neighborhood of any point of OD fl so.

If x is a point of aD fl w, then x is also a point of aE fl w,; since J, is geometrically finite, x e Q(J,) fl w, Q(G0) fl w, Since B, and B2 are jointly f-blocked, there is a neighborhood U of x, so that U meets no Go-translate of
either B, or B2, other than B, itself, and f(U) meets no Go-translate of either B, or B2, other than B2. It follows that only the Go-translates of D, together with their images under f -', can intersect U. Hence only finitely many G-translates of D can intersect U. Similar remarks hold if x e aD fl W2. This concludes the
proof of (viii).

E.20. Conclusion (ix) follows from conclusion (viii), together with the fact that f maps w, fl °Q(Go) onto W2 fl °Q(Go).

E.21. To prove conclusion (x), first assume that Go is geometrically finite; then B, and B2 are both strong. We know from conclusion (vii) that every limit point of G is either a translate of a limit point of Go, or a point of approximation. Hence it suffices to show that every limit point of Go is either a point of approximation

Every such point is of course doubly cusped in Go. Hence x is doubly cusped in Go. hence this case does not occur (since AO # 0. The Second Combination Theorem 167 in G. and/or B2). It is also clear that E/Go is.z' for all z # x.22. then either it is doubly cusped in G.23. or it has rank 2 in G. it suffices to consider only rank 1 parabolic fixed points of Go. then there is a doubly cusped region for x in Go lying entirely in So. where C. we prove conclusion (xi). is given by (iv) and B. every point of 033 is G-equivalent to some point of E.VILE. If they are all the same. W. There are various cases to consider. Since every sequence of distinct translates of C has (Euclidean) diameter (in B3) tending to zero. Since Ao is precisely invariant under Go in G. we know from conclusion (iv) that W. in which case it is surely doubly cusped in Go. and there is another cusp at x inside this translate. The existence of a spanning disc C. E. which in turn is contained in some Go-translate of either B.. 0 . is strong. or B2 are all different. or a rank 2 parabolic fixed point in G. so x is a point of approximation for Go. Finally. E. if IgkI > 1. or is G-conjugate to a point on W. Then g-1 o gk a Go. every rank I parabolic fixed point on W. and show that Go is also geometrically finite. it is still true that gk(AO) is contained in some G-translate of either B. # W2. with C2/J2. then as above. Let E be the region cut out of 0-03 by C. We now assume the latter. We assume next that G is geometrically finite. If Igkl is bounded. The only way we can have x as a rank 2 parabolic fixed point in G is if there is a Go-translate of either B. If x e So. so there must be infinitely many points between W. or B2. so there is a sequence (g. and all its G-translates. If Igkl . x 0 Ao. Since J. . the images of all these points are contained in the decreasing sequence of translates of B. gk(Ao) is contained in some translate of either B. } of distinct elements of G.. the diameter goes to zero. and C2 both lie on E. we can assume without loss of generality that x E A0. Since So is precisely invariant under Go. and x is not a point of approximation for Go.16. so we can assume that x e W. or B2 which is "tangent" to B. the space described in conclusion (xi). If x is a rank 1 parabolic fixed point in Go. It is clear that E spans So. x is doubly cusped in G.11. Since Go is geometrically finite. with gk(z) . Then x is a point of approximation for G.x' # z'. and is either in So. We have shown that every limit point of Go is either a parabolic fixed point. or B2. and W2. so is E. then gk(AO) is contained in a decreasing sequence of translates of either B. assume that there is a limit point x of Go. since So is precisely invariant under Go in G. except for the identification of C. and gk(x) . in particular./J. or B2. where x is not a parabolic fixed point. or a point of approximation. Since xEA0. by D. then there is a single element g e G so that g-' o gk(AO) = Ao. Since h. is doubly cusped in G. First. at x. and J2 are both geometrically finite. and Igkl > 1. and h2 are both contained in Q(G0).oo. or a doubly cusped rank I parabolic fixed point in G. Since points of approximation and rank 2 parabolic fixed points retain their essence in going from a subgroup to the full group. or B2. there is a cusp at x inside B. If these smallest translates of B. and the diameter of these translates tends to zero.

Let B be a (J.e. are circles.2. of. Let B be a (J.S. there is an element gk e loll. F. .7. Let W be as in C. G is classical if all the C. where G = > gkJ is a coset decomposition. and there is a point x c. and the projection of B to S = Q(G)/G is not all of S. and G2 be subgroups of the abstract group G. Then Y dia°(gk(B)) < co. every set is open). where fJ. f -' = J2.8.J and gk E G2 .. F... is a fundamental set for G (G is a Schottky group of rank n. Let G = Y gkJ be a coset decomposition. Let J be a subgroup of G. Let G.ga> is discrete. and that D U C... and that a fundamental set for the this action is a set of right coset representatives. and J2 be subgroups of Go. or G. Show that [G : J] < oo. *. with gk(Ck) = Ck. Then J acts on G by left multiplication. A discrete subgroup G of hA is of the first kind if A (G) is all of S2.. in terms of right (or left) cosets. is parabolic. F. F. where G is Kleinian. regard G as a topological group with the discrete topology (i. purely loxodromic.3. and the projection of B to S = Q(G)/G is not all of S. C be 2n disjoint simple closed curves bounding a common region D. Exercises F. Let Go be a subgroup of the abstract group G. Cq_.H)).4. from C. and we require that the corresponding gk be parabolic (necessarily with fixed point at xk). geometrically finite. Suppose that for each k. Combination Theorems VII. Let G be an abstract group. F. where W separates C. (see X. in terms of right (or left) cosets.. of. where J is of the first kind. Prove that >dia2(g.. where G is Kleinian. G)-block. Suppose further that there are elements fk e G. except that for some k.Go.2 to prove inductively that G = <g. .168 VII.W. G)-block satisfying (ii') of B. U U C. Let J be a geometrically finite subgroup of the discrete group G c fy0.. Prove that the corresponding group G = C . C be as in F. Use C. and . C... Let C. but suppose that W is not precisely invariant under J in either G.2.E(B)) < oo.. let J. Show that J acts discontinuously on all of G. for G to be equal to Go#f...F. so that g o g = ga o . F. ... for G to be equal to G. free on these n generators. it is of the second kind otherwise.I.. and G2. (x) = x.6. draw a simple closed curve W in the common exterior of all the curves. and let J be a common subgroup of G.. Then and gk(D)f1D = 0. Find necessary and sufficient conditions.4. FS. we allow Ck and Ck to intersect at one point xk. Find necessary and sufficient conditions. G2. and let f be an element of G ..J. (Hint: for the induction step. .

. and let J. the geodesic lengths of OH. Use the full circle containing L in C. Assume that the positive imaginary axis L is a boundary axis for both G. Let r be a complex number with positive imaginary part. . W2 = C. Let Go = <z . f > is discrete and Fuchsian. =C". and let J. and J2 be hyperbolic cyclic subgroups. has {Re(z) > 0} as its boundary half-plane. Use E. F. 1J. F. F. =J2 = {1}. } U U (C" .) = 0) and that every parabolic element of G is conjugate to one of the parabolic generators (G is called a Schottky type group).2 with W =I JzJ = 1k1112} to show that G = <G. but use E. and the two boundaries sewn together.{x" }) is a constrained fundamental set for G. Some problem as F. and let f(z) = iz. and that D = {zl 1 < Izl < 1. 0 < arg(z) < 2n/n} is a fundamental domain for G. Let G.. and G2 has {Re(z) < 0} as its boundary half-plane.13. and G = Gosf. Exercises 169 <g1. with its boundary half-plane deleted. and H2/G2. g") is discrete. Suppose further that J. Let Go = <z . (Hint: Let J. Also construct a fundamental domain for G.F. let J. F. but use E. and 3H2/J2 are equal). Let G1 = <j. where these two surfaces are glued together along L/J. Use C.9.I } to show that G = <Go. and that the usual fundamental parallelogram is a fundamental domain for G.18) where f(8H1) = 8H2. and let W. and f(HI) fl H2 = 0. (the last equality should be read both as a group isomorphism and as an equality of Kleinian groups (see V.F.(L) = StabG=(L) is hyperbolic cyclic.. = { l z l = 1 } and W 2 = { I z l = I ). with its boundary half-plane deleted.VII. Same problem as F. also prove that D U (C. is precisely invariant under J. Assume also that J = StabG. then (x.g1>. and G = G. Let W. and geometrically finite. G = Go: f = 71 + Z..1 1.5 for the induction step. Let Go be a non-elementary Fuchsian group acting on H2.z + 1).5 with W .e2"'"z).16. *J G2. F. Letj(z) = e2x'""z. Also show that H2/G is H2 /Go with Hl/J. where H. and let G2 = < j. = {Im(z) = 0}. free Abelian of rank two.g. Let f be some element of PSL(2. and G2.F. and J2 are conjugate in M (that is. and H2/J2 deleted. lkl > 1. .. G = G. = J2 = Go.. but H1 and H2 are not Go-conjugate.G2) is Kleinian.5 to show that G = <Go.1.10.. f) = Go*f is discrete. f) is Kleinian. Suppose Go has boundary half-spaces H1 and H2. Use E.6).{x. *J G2. where G. G2 > is Fuchsian.). Show also that H2/G is the union of lie/G1. and that G is geometrically finite. free on these n generators. and G2 be non-elementary Fuchsian groups acting on H2. = o.5 for the induction step.2 to show that G = <G1.M..15. Show that G = <Go.(z) = l/z. Al l> 1.8.4)). (if Cm fl c. and let W. g2) be two dihedral groups with the common subgroup < j ).12. and show that G is a double dihedral group (see V. = JZ = Go. Let f(z) = z + r. = {Im(z) = Im(r)}. F. F. g2(z) = k2/z.

can be found in [50]. involving amalgamated free products and HNN-extensions with cyclic distinguished subgroups. Let Go be the (2. were developed by Fenchel and Nielsen [24].18. let GI = F. where the positive imaginary axis L is a boundary axis. these were generalized in [64].19.170 VII. (Observe that [G2 : J] = 2.) F.G. Notes The first combination theorem was due to Klein [40]. appears here as A. Let F be a non-elementary Fuchsian group acting on H 2. from a purely group theoretical point of view. Use C. . The use of combination theorems for Thurston's uniformization theorem can be found in [74]. and let J. also involving only cyclic distinguished subgroups. Also construct a fundamental domain for G. and J2 be non-conjugate subgroups of order 2. More general combination theorems for Fuchsian groups. starting with a fundamental domain for F. h>. h> is Kleinian. B. Let J = Stab(L) be generated by z -+ A2z. appear in [56] and [60]. let G2 = <J. oo)-triangle group. Let F be a non-elementary Fuchsian group acting on H2. Klein's theorem.17. the free product.2 be the circle containing L). Combination Theorems F. and let h(z) = . and construct a fundamental domain for G. General position arguments in 3-dimensional topology can be found in [33].13. Can this curve be closed? VII. Greater detail in the development of the amalgamated free product and the HNN-extension. d > 0.2 to prove that G = <F.Az> is Kleinian.19. (Hint: Let J = Stab6(L). and was utilized for uniformization by Koebe [41].z. and let W in C. Prove that G = <F. Use E.5 to construct a Kleinian group G Go so that all the elliptic fixed points of G in 1-03 project to just one connected curve in the associated 3-orbifold M. 2. where the positive imaginary axis L is a boundary axis. . Versions for Kleinian groups. and describe Q(G)/G. F. z -.

10). the closure of the union of the insides of all the circles is all of C. If G is discrete and if the circles all have a common exterior D.A. and VII. Assume that for each pair of circles.. V... C. that is.I.. or of Poincare's polyhedron theorem. The Circle Packing Trick A.. the circles are pairwise disjoint.12. so that fm(Cm) = If oo e D. VIII..> is Kleinian. and fm(D) n D = 0. then we still call G an infinite Schottky group. there is no guide as to the reason or reasons any particular exhibit is in the collection)..F. onto the inside of C. and will be used in subsequent chapters.. C be disjoint simple closed curves in the extended complex plane bounding a common region D. A Trip to the Zoo This chapter contains a collection of more or less specific Kleinian groups with diverse properties. the author finds them important. an undertaking beyond the scope of this book.}. Some of the examples are included for practical instruction in the use of combination theorems. rather than by related properties. and purely loxodromic. where D is a fundamental domain for G. then we call G an infinite Schottky group. others are included for theoretical purposes. A. provided it is discrete. as above. there is an element fm in ADO.8. maps the outside of C.. or amusing (however. We simply mention this as a fact... interesting.. maps the outside We can use either combination theorem to show of Cm onto the inside of that G = <f1.. but do not pursue it. . Let G = < f...20. >. Let C. Choose elements fm in M. {Cm.. Some of the constructions yield families of Kleinian groups. C. The study of families of Kleinian groups requires the introduction of quasiconformal mappings and Teichmiiller spaces.. That is. then we can restate this last condition as being that f.2.I. and that D is a fundamental domain for G (see IV. . the examples are grouped according to the techniques used in their construction. In the case that the circles do not all have a common exterior. . yet others are included for the usual aesthetic reasons. The organization is strictly utilitarian. . where f. C.J.Chapter VIII. f. free. C. and no circle in the set separates 00 from any other circle in the set. Now consider infinitely many pairs of disjoint circles C1..

It is clear that d(S. and C. and let 8 be the distance from the center of the smaller circle to (the boundary of) the other. Since E has no edges. Only finitely many of the f. let C be the smaller of the two circles.. A Trip to the Zoo Let g be some element of G.e.-'. 10) to conclude that (i) G is free on the generators ft.. Proof. then the hyperbolic distance d(S. be the . D is a fundamental domain for G if the following condition holds. while the second is in H2. .3.H. D need not be a fundamental domain for G (see H. Proposition.. and every point of D is G-equivalent to some point of D'. C) from the set {C Ci. C. F. Let C and C be two of the circles from the set (C.. IV.. }.10. and for that. G is Kleinian.. and regard C and G` as being hyperbolic lines in H2. and (iii) D is precisely invariant under the identity in G. then D is a fundamental domain for G. is the isometric circle off. . hence we can assume that a is real and positive. D = Y. Proof. appear when we express g as a product of the generators f.I I that needs to be checked is the completeness condition..8. e) let p be the (Euclidean) radius of the smaller circle. Since the circles are all bounded. For any pair of disjoint circles (C. C).172 VIII... and that the closest point on C to a is at the origin.. let S and . . C. we need conditions that will guarantee that it is. Let E be the intersection of all these half-spaces.H. It is clear that everything under consideration is invariant under conjugation by Euclidean motions. that the center of C is real and negative. C. . It is immediate that D' c D. and D is precisely invariant under the identity in G. a = S. is the isometric circle off. Hence we can use the results about classical Schottky groups of finite rank (VII. Let D' be the Ford fundamental domain for G. and let H be the half-space bounded by S spanning the outside of C. and if for each m.C containing D the outside of C.. Proposition... or a C call the component of C . all lie in a bounded part of C. where the first distance is in H3.. S) is bounded from below. where C is either a C. For each circle C.4.. A. Since D is precisely invariant under the identity in G. i..2). we give two different sets of sufficient conditions for this to be so. so that for any pair of circles (C. 0 A. it suffices to show that if S and S are any two sides of E. Now consider only that part of C and Z` in the upper half-plane. 3`) = d(C. Let S be the hyperplane in H3 spanning C. b/p> I +a.. corresponding hyperbolic halfplanes.. We need the following notation for the next proposition. and let a be its center. There is a number a > 0. it suffices to show that E is a fundamental polyhedron for G. If the circles Cm. (ii) G is purely loxodromic. the only condition of IV.

VIII.A. The Circle Packing Trick

173

a=b

Fig. VIII.A.1

Let A be the positive imaginary axis. It is clear that d(C, C) > d(C, A); hence it suffices to show that d(C, A) is bounded from below. Let L be the (Euclidean) ray through the origin where L lies in the upper half plane and is tangent to C. Since every dilation with fixed points at 0 and oo keeps both A and L invariant, L, together with its reflection in the imaginary axis, is the set of points at fixed hyperbolic distance from A. Since L is tangent to C, d(A, L) = d(A, C). Write L = {z I arg(z) = 0}, and observe that sin(O) = p/b (see Fig. VIII.A.1). Let f be the radius of the circle centered at the origin and orthogonal to both C and L; i.e., fi = (62 - p2)"2. On the circle of radius fi, write z = fleim, and compute
nn

d(A, L) =

csc((p) d(p = log
6 P

1 + cos(0) b+ log sin(0) = P

> log

>- log(l + a).

We have shown that any two sides of E are distance at least log(l + a) apart;

hence E is a fundamental polyhedron. Then by VI.A.3, D is a fundamental
domain.

0

We remark that the proof above shows that G is discrete, and that E is a fundamental polyhedron for G, even in the case that D, the common exterior of all the circles, is empty.
AS. Corollary. Every point of accumulation of the defining circles on aD is a limit point of G.
A.6. Proposition. Let T be an arbitrary domain in the plane. Then there is a sequence of disjoint circles {C1, Ci,... }, where no circle in the sequence separates any other from oo, each circle lies in T, the set of circles satisfies the hypothesis of A.4, and the intersection of T with the common exterior of all the circles is empty.

174

VIII. A Trip to the Zoo

Proof. We regard T as being a domain on §2, and use the spherical metric for all distances. Instead of labelling the circles as C,, C., ..., we label them as C1, C2, .... There may be more than one largest circle we can draw in T; pick one.

Let its center be a and its radius p,. Let C, be the circle with center a, and
radius p,/2. Assume we have found the circles C,, ... , C. Let T. be the region T with these n circles, and their interiors, deleted. Pick a largest circle that can be drawn and its radius Let be the circle with center in T,,; let its center be /2. It is clear that and radius is not larger than any of the preceding circles, so the ratio of distance S, from the center of C+, to any C, to the radius p of is greater than 2. Since the circles are disjoint and the sum of their areas is bounded, the radius
of the n-th circle tends to zero. Thus if z e T, and a > 0, the circle of radius a about

z cannot be disjoint from all the C.

0

Let {C,, C;,... } be a set of circles as above, let fm map the outside of C. onto the inside of C,,, and let G = <11,12,...> be the corresponding infinite Schottky group. Under these circumstances, we say that G fills up T Note that since T is open, every point of 8T is a point of accumulation of the defining circles.
A.7. An arbitrary limit set

Proposition. Let X be any closed nowhere dense subset of C. Then there is a
Kleinian group G so that A(G)
X.

Proof. Let R be the complement of X, let S be a non-empty open subset of R,

where S is bounded away from X, and let T= R - S. Let G be an infinite
Schottky group which fills up T Since S :A 0, G is Kleinian. It is clear that every point of X is a point of accumulation of the defining circles for G, so by A.5,

XaA.

0

A.8. Filling a region

Let G, be a Kleinian group, normalized so that oo a A, and let D, be a
fundamental domain for G,, where D, is the boundary of a fundamental polyhedron E,. Let T be a bounded open subset of D, . We fill T with an infinite Schottky group G2, defined by the set of circles {C,, C;,... }, where the inequality in A.4 holds not only between any two defining circles for G2, but also holds between any defining circle for G2 and any side of D, (since E, is a fundamental polyhe-

dron, the sides of D, are circular); it is easy to adjust the argument in A.6 to
accommodate this case. Note that G2 is Kleinian, and that the complement of T is a fundamental domain for G2. Let E be the polyhedron formed by E, and the hyperbolic planes

spanning the C. and C,. Since all the new sides of E are at finite hyperbolic
distance from each other, and from any side of E,, E satisfies the hypotheses of

VIII.B. Simultaneous Uniformization

175

Poincare's theorem. The group G, generated by the side pairing transformations of E, clearly splits as a free product, G = G, * G,. Also aE = D, - T. We have constructed a Kleinian group G, so that there is a conformal embedding of Q(G)/G into Q(G,)/G,, where the image of Q(G)/G is the image, under the natural projection, of D, - T. If D, - T :A 0, then G is Kleinian. In any case, G is discrete.
A.9. Killing a component

Let G, be a Kleinian group where Q(G,)/G, has at least two components. Let So be a component ofQ(G,)/G,, let D, be a fundamental domain for G,, where D, is the boundary of a fundamental polyhedron for G and let T be the preimage of So in D,. Let G be the group obtained by filling T Then Q(G)/G is Q(G,)/G, with the component So deleted. If we start with a finitely generated Fuchsian group of the first kind, and kill one of the two components, then the new group G is analytically finite, but not finitely generated (the infinite Schottky group is of course infinitely generated, and G is the free product of the Fuchsian group and the infinite Schottky group). This shows that the converse to Ahlfors' finiteness theorem is false.
A.1O. Cutting an edge

Let G, be a Fuchsian group of the second kind acting on 0-02. Let f be the lower half-plane, and let S be an arbitrary sub-domain of 0_/G,. We construct a Kleinian group G, where Q(G)/G = (0-02/G,) U S as follows. Choose a fundamental polyhedron E, for G, , and let D, be the fundamental domain on the boundary of E,. Choose Tc D, so that p(T) is the complement of S in L/G,. When we fill T, we obtain a new Kleinian group G, so that Stab(H2) = G,, and Q/G is the disjoint union of 0-02/G, and S. If we let T = D, n L then we obtain a group G with Q/G = 0-02/G,. We formally state the last remark.
Proposition. Let F be a Fuchsian group acting on H2. Then there is a Kleinian
group G containing F, so that 0-02 is precisely invariant under F in G, and Q(G)/G =
0-02/F.

Similarly, if G, is any Kleinian group, and So is a subsurface of Q(G, )/G,, where every connected component of the complement of So has non-empty interior, then we can fill that part of a fundamental domain lying over the complement of So so as to obtain a new Kleinian group G, containing Go as a
subgroup, where Q(G)/G = So.

VIII.B. Simultaneous Uniformization
B.I. Let S be a marked Riemann surface, let p: U - S be its branched universal covering, and let q: A -+ S be a branched regular covering given by a Kleinian

176

VIII. A Trip to the Zoo

group, where both coverings are branched over the same points to the same orders. Let G be the group of deck transformations acting on U; note that there is a freely acting subgroup H c G, so that U/H = d (see III.F.8).
The sphere covers only itself, and, as an unbranched universal covering, the plane covers only itself, the punctured plane, and the tori; of these, only the plane and punctured plane are planar. We have shown the following.
Proposition. Let G be a non-elementary Kleinian group. Then every component of 1?/G is, as a marked Riemann surface, hyperbolic.

B.2. We showed in A.10 that for every marked Riemann surface S, there is a Kleinian group G so that Q(G)/G = S. We also noted above that if S is not hyperbolic, then there is no Kleinian group G so that Q(G)/G contains S and
some other surface.
B.3. Proposition. Let {Sm} be a sequence of hyperbolic marked Riemann surfaces. Then there is a Kleinian group G with 12(G)/G = U S..

Proof. For each m, let G. be a Fuchsian group, acting on B2, so that B2/Cm = Sm. For each Gm, choose a fundamental domain f),,, where {IzI > 5,,} U {oo} a b.. Let

Am=bm+2

m-t
k.l

and let jm(z) = z + L. Set G. = j_Gmj;', and set D. = jm(f)m). Then Dm, which is just D. translated to the right by Am, is a fundamental domain for G. (see Fig.
VIII.B.1, where m = 3, S1 has signature (1, 1; oo), S2 has signature (2, 0), and S3 is

an annulus; the identifications of the sides are not shown in the figure). The boundaries of the D. are all disjoint; to see this, let xm be the "center" of Dm, that is, xm = j.(0), let W. be the circle centered at xm of radius bm, and let B. be the inside of Wm. For fixed n, then circles W1, ..., W. form a chain of tangent circles, where the outside of W. lies in Dm, and the inside of W. contains the complement of Dm. We conclude that for every n

Fig. VIILB.I

VIII.C. Elliptic Cyclic Constructions
n

177

M=1

U Dm=C;
n

we also see that

,5. =m=1 D. n
certainly includes all the sets D. fl jm(B2), m = 1, ... , n.

Let n = <G,,..., Gn>. Our next goal is to inductively show that c is Kleinian; C. _ G,,; that jm(B2) is precisely invariant under G. in C,; and that
D = D, fl - - fl D is a fundamental domain for Cn. We have defined the circle W.

so that the closed outside disc bounded by W. is precisely invariant under the identity in G. By the induction hypotheses, the closed inside disc is precisely invariant under the identity in C.-,. In fact, both of the last two statements remain true if we replace the closed disc by a slightly larger open disc; it follows
that each of the closed discs is a strong { I }-block. The desired result now follows from VII.C.2. Set G' = <G1, G2, ... > = <01,... t;,,, ... >, and set D = n D,,. Since every element of G' lies in some Cr., D is precisely invariant under the identity in G', and for every m, jm(B2) is precisely invariant under G. in G'. However, this does not guarantee that D is a fundamental domain for G'.

Let E be a fundamental polyhedron for G', and let °aE be the boundary
fundamental domain. Let S be the set of translates of U jm(B2), and let T be the interior of its complement in 1E. Let G be the group obtained from G' by filling T Exactly as in the proof of A.6, we can fill T so as to guarantee that °aE - T is a fundamental domain for G. Hence Q(G)/G is the disjoint union:
Q(G)/G = Ujm(B2)IGm = U Sm.

0

VIII.C. Elliptic Cyclic Constructions
C.I. The double dihedral groups

Let G, be a v-dihedral group, normalized so that the element of order v has

its fixed points at 0 and oo, and so that g, (z) = 1 /z lies in G, . Then all the
half-turns in G, have their fixed points on the unit circle. Choose a constrained fundamental set D, for G, so that the interior of D, is the "half-sector" {z 10 < arg(z) < 2n/v,IzI > 1}. Let G2 also be a v-dihedral group, normalized so that the element of order v has its fixed points at 0 and oo, but normalized so that g2(z) = 9/z lies in G2. Then all the half-turns in G2 have their fixed points on the circle of radius three about the origin. Choose a constrained fundamental set D2 for G2 so that the
interior of D2 is the "half-sector" {zl 0 < arg(z) < 2a/v, IzI < 3} (see Fig. VIII.C.1).

178

VIII. A Trip to the Zoo

Fig VIII.C.I

Let J be the common subgroup of G, and G2 generated by j(z) = 2,d/V Z. Choose E = {z 10 S arg(z) < 2n/v} as a constrained fundamental set for J. Observe that B, = {z) IzI > 2} U {oo} is precisely invariant under J in G,, while B2 = {zI IzI S 2} is precisely invariant under J in G2. In fact, somewhat larger discs are precisely invariant, from which it follows that B. is a strong (J, Gm} block. By VII.C.2, the group G = <G,, G2> is Kleinian, G = G, * G2, and D =
D, fl D. = (D, fl B2) U (D2 fl B,) is a constrained fundamental set for G.

Note that d = {zI I < IzI < 3,0 < arg(z) < 2a/v}. There are four nonconjugate elliptic fixed points on 8D; for example, at 1, ei"'", 3ei" J" and 3. Folding

together the sides of D, we see that Q(G)/G has signature (0,4; 2, 2, 2, 2). Also observe that the circle {IzI = 2) projects to the v-th power of a simple loop that separates the projections of I and eixi" from those of 3 and 3ei*"". Since every element of G stabilizes the pair of points {0, co), G is elementary; in fact, G is a double dihedral group.

C.2. There are many non-conjugate double dihedral groups, even for the same v. In order to construct them, we make use of the normalizer of J in M. First there are the rotations h,(z) = ei`z, t real. Almost everything in the construction above remains unchanged if we keep G, fixed and replace G2 by h, G2 h-' . The only thing that is changed is the constrained fundamental set D2; the fundamental domain,132, is unchanged as a set; the identifications of the sides are changed, and the elliptic fixed points occur at different places (see fig. V.F.2). This operation is called sliding.

J also commutes with every hyperbolic transformation k,(z) = tz, t > 0.
Keeping G, unchanged, and replacing G2 by k,G2k, ' may however affect the use of the combination theorem. We no longer have {IzI = 3} as the circle dividing C into two discs, but we now must use { IzI = 3t}. For t > 1/3, this does not cause

any significant difference. For t = 1/3, the construction breaks down, and the combined group is either not discrete, or is not the amalgamated free product (this is similar to the construction in VII.A.8). Fort < 1/3, the construction again
works, with the roles of G, and G2 interchanged. This operation is called bending. Notice that we have used up our normalization possibilities for G,. Starting

with fixed G, and G2, the different groups obtained by sliding or bending, or both, are indeed different, provided we keep our bending parameter t > 1/3. That is, in general, one is a deformation of the other, but they are not conjugate in M.

is maximal for B. VIII. and so that J is a maximal cyclic subgroup of G2. 1. = { I z 15 61 is precisely invariant under J in G.C. oo. Set G = <G1. G. Elliptic Cyclic Constructions 179 D. is a {z J strong (J.. 4. J is a common subgroup. fl B2) U (D2 fl B. Fig. It is easy to see that Q(G)/G has three components. and which is contained in E. VIII.VIII.2-3).4 for the amalgamation of the groups shown in Figures VIII. by a combination of both bending and sliding.)-block. and B. C3. has signature (1.C. every double dihedral group can be obtained from the original one. where D.4). Then there is a b' > 0. Hence VII. and D.C. oo)). it is equally true that Izl z 1/6' is precisely invariant under J in G2.2 for the case that G. be a finitely generated Fuchsian group of the first kind containing an elliptic element of order v.. up to conjugation in M.C. Let D. is a finitely generated Fuchsian group of the first kind containing a maximal cyclic subgroup of order v. G. Normalize G. G2>. and so that Stab(O) = Stab(oo) = J has order v. and OB1 is labelled "W")..C. Of course. 0 < t < 1. Choose a constrained fundamental set D2 for G2 which is maximal for B2.2 In fact.. Now conjugate by a dilation of the form z -+ tz.C.3 for the case that G2 has signature (0. Next let G2 be some group just like G. that is. also centered at the origin. so that I z I 5 b' is precisely invariant under J in G2. First normalize G2 so that it acts on B2. Then there is some number S > 0. observe that D is constrained (see Fig VIII. Let G. VIII. one of these is the projection of the outside of the unit disc (this is identical with the projection of the outside of the unit disc under . is contained in the "natural" constrained fundamental set for J: E = (z 10 5 argz < v} (see Fig.C. so that it acts on B2. and set D = (L) . be a constrained fundamental set for G.).2 is applicable. and G2 normalized as above. With G. so that G2 operates on a smaller disc. 3. and so that B2 = I z I z 6) U { oo } is precisely invariant under J in G2. so that the disc B. (see Fig. We next illustrate the use of the first combination theorem in a more general setting.

CA.C.C. and 12(G2)/G2 by cutting out a disc containing the special point of order v from each of them. and sewing together the boundaries of these two discs. . VIII.3 Fig.180 VIII. VIII.C. The circle W of radius b lies in this component and projects to a simple loop which.3.2-4. lifts to a loop. VIII.2.). For the groups shown in Figs. where 132/G0 has exactly one point of ramification of order v (in Fig. For the next construction. 4).(0. and the third can be obtained from the other two components of Q(G.)/G. v = 4. these three surfaces have signatures (1.oo) Observe also that the inverse image of the third component listed above is G-invariant. oo. 4. let Go be a Fuchsian group. and (1.oo. when raised to the v-th power. acting on 132. 1. a second is the projection of the inside of the circle of radius t (this is identical with the projection of the inside of the circle of radius t under G2). VIII. 00). A Trip to the Zoo Fig.C.2.4 G.

6).(z) = tA2z. Note that with the choice of Do as given in Figure VIll. and consists of Q(G0)/Go.2.VIII.C.2. There are also versions of sliding and bending for the above operations. it is equally true that B2 = (zI IzI z 1/8) U (ao) is precisely invariant under J in Go. B. Let f(z) = 52z.C. which are loxodromic fixed points of G. B2) is precisely invariant under (J. we bend by replacing f(z) = A2z by f. where we have cut out discs about the two special points of order v.E. Then by VII. and B2 are jointly f-blocked. and glued together the boundaries of these discs. VIILC. We have constructed a non-elementary Kleinian group containing elements of finite order. = J2. 4)). Do fl B_ is a fundamental set for the action of J on B. Since every element of Go commutes with reflection in S'. t > 0. that is. and D is a fundamental set for G (see Fig VIII. For b sufficiently small.. and we can read off from D that Q(G)/G is connected.5). For Go as in Fig VIII. That is. J) in Go.5. G = Gos f. Q(G)/G has signature (2. D is constrained. where J.5 and Go has signature (1. Note that the fixed points of J are also the fixed points off hence these points are limit points of G. and let D = (Do fl A) U (Do fl aB1). and since f commutes with every element of J. the set B. Choose a constrained fundamental set Do for Go that is maximal with respect to B. Hence 0 and oo. every non-loxodromic element of G is conjugate to an element of Go. G is geometrically finite..C.C. we slide by replacing f(z) = A2z by f (z) = ea12z. Elliptic Cyclic Constructions 181 Fig. Normalize so that j(z) = e2i a Go. do not lie on the boundary of any component of G. If Go is non-elementary. Since (B. and B2. let A be the open annulus between B. then so is G. f>. even in this simple case. 1. = (z I IzI 5 b) is precisely invariant under J in Go. where the projection from D is unramified.. CS. .. and B2. Notice also that all the <f>-translates of the unit circle are limit points of G. 0) (see Fig VIILC. Let G = <Go.

6. followed by k). and B2. Choose a constrained fundamental set Do for Go.51 5 3). let Bt = {z) Iz .5) (note that B2 can be obtained from Bt by applying k(z) = 5z. A Trip to the Zoo Q(Go)/Go S2(G)/G Fig. VIII. containing the point 20. Let fl be a transformation mapping the outside of B1 onto the inside of B2.6 Fig. followed by complex conjugation. fl is the composition of reflection in 8B1. g(z) = 16/z. for example. VIII.7 C. let fl = (25z . and h(z) = 400/z. and let B2 = {z I Iz . containing the point 4. It is easy to see that the strong blocks B1 and B2 are jointly f1-blocked .251:9 15}. -n/2 < argz < a/2} (see Fig. where int(D0) = {zJ4 < (zI < 20. B2) is precisely invariant under (J1.182 VIII. so that (B1. In order to illustrate the use of the second combination theorem in a more general setting.J2) = (<g>.80)/(z . we start with a particular double dihedral group G0.C. VIILC. for example.7). <h>) in Go.C. Choose disjoint closed circular discs B1. where Go is generated by j(z) = -z.

D has 12 sides. inside of B2.9. one easily sees that (91.C.VIII. given by VII.C.10. B2) is precisely invariant under (g o j. for G = <Gl.E. It is easy to check that every point of 8D lies in °Q(G) hence *D(G) = 92(G). be obtained from B. The fundamental domain DI for G1.5 is shown in Figure VIII. and the angle between every pair of adjacent sides is n/2.n/2 < arg(z) < n/2}. see Figure VIII. given by VILE. and that 91 and 92 are jointly f2-blocked. .C. Since B. Let Bp.5. by rotation about the origin through an angle of n/2. so that f2 maps the outside of 01 onto the . fl B' = 0. and paste using j to obtain a fundamental domain D'1 contained in the sector {z 10 < arg(z) < n}. Elliptic Cyclic Constructions 183 Fig. The fun- damental domain D. VIII.C.8 Fig.C.8.C. D1 is contained in the sector {z I . h o j) in G1.f2> is shown in Figure VIII. We cut along the dotted line. Let f2(z) = (25iz + 80)/(z .5i).9 Let G1 = <Go. VIII.f1 >.

that is. to obtain the presentation: <a b. = h. Q(H)/H is a closed Riemann surface of genus 5. VIII.I I Fold together the sides of D to see that DIG is a closed Riemann surface of genus 2. A Trip to the Zoo Fig. We have constructed a geometrically finite non-elementary Kleinian group G with torsion.5(i). First. where °SQ(G) = Q(G).C. by using VII. second by constructing spanning discs in H' for the sides of D.10 Fig. set a 1 = f b. . b2 : n b. in particular. and j o f2 o j-t . and let H be the subgroup generated by g o h.11 for the fundamental domain giving this) of rank 5. = a2 = (b1 oa2)2 = 1> C.E. One can rind a presentation for G in two different ways. and using Poincare's theorem. Let G be the group constructed above. We also note that H is of finite index in G. f2. and Q(G)/G is both compact and connected. a2 = h O j and b2 = f2. a2. fl. every fixed point of an elliptic element of G is also a limit point of G.C. j -fl -j-1.C.184 VIII.7. We easily observe that H is a classical Schottky group (see Figure VIII. In any case. VI I. .

2 . it is easy to see how many boundary components S = B2/G has..) = C. the region outside all of these circles... i. . C.. one could choose f. and that D'. Let C1... VIII...D. VIII.. purely loxodromic. geometrically finite.. It is easy to see that the 3-manifold M = Iii/G is homeomorphic to a handlebody of genus n. it is independent of the size and relative positions of the 2n circles (or simple closed curves..D. Ci. onto the inside of C. For each m. This result is true for all Schottky groups on n generators.. maps the outside of C.I = n (see Fig. There are many different possible arrangements for the identifications of the sides of D.D. Since D' is invariant under reflection in S'. be an element of M. then 2p + k .e.. and every one of these circles lies outside all the others. and then compute the genus of S from the knowledge that Q(G)/G has genus n. be 2n disjoint circles where each C. Take a closed orientable surface of genus n. f. D = D' f1132 is a fundamental polygon for the action of G on 132. and the number of boundary components is k. VIII..D. C. a P2+. VIII.. As we saw in A. preserves the unit disc 132.. k = 1. and see Fig. f. If the genus of S is p. one can use either combination theorem to conclude that G = <ft. Fuchsian Groups of the Second Kind 185 VIILD.> is Kleinian. followed by reflection in the (hyperbolic) perpendicular bisector of the common perpendicular to C. and f.. f. is orthogonal to the unit circle 5'..D. these 3-manifolds are called handlebodies of genus n. and C. k = 2).VIII.. Fuchsian Groups of the Second Kind D. to be reflection in C.1. and smoothly embed it in S3.. For example. where f_(C. Fig. In any arrangement.. if the group is not classical). and each C..2 for the case that p = 1.1 for the case that p = 1.1. free on these n generators. let f.1 Fig. is a fundamental domain for G.. It divides S3 into two homeomorphic compact 3-manifolds with boundary.

Normalize so that the point of tangency is at oo. Then there is a Fuchsian classical Schottky group G'. there is a direct relationship among the hyperbolic distances between certain of the circles. provided.. Then the ray {arg(z) = S. Renormalize so that G acts on 0-92. the multipliers get larger.. The two Euclidean circles are called the full parabolic pair. Then. and let S. and so that none of the defining circles lie entirely in the left half-plane. Using this information. Let J be a boundary subgroup of G. as the corresponding C. where DIG has genus p. and the outside region D = j z 0 < Re(z) < I } is a fundamental domain for <j>. Normalize so that the boundary axis is the positive imaginary axis L. called the angle width of J in G. 0 < h 5 n/2. intersecting L. and so that the parabolic pair lies on the lines Re(z) = 0 and Re(z) = 1. using parabolic and elliptic generators. There is a construction analogous to that of D. C.. let J be the stabilizer of this boundary half-space. The point of tangency is necessarily on the real axis.. Of course.1. each orthogonal to the real axis. that n = 2p + k . and the multipliers or traces of the primitive boundary elements. keeping the Euclidean size of the circles fixed. as above. Proposition. A (full) parabolic pair divides 032(C) into three regions. A parabolic pair consists of two hyperbolic lines in H2 that are tangent at oo. Let G be a Fuchsian classical Schottky group. 0 < S < n/2. so that the sector ( zI6 < arg(z) < n) is precisely invariant under J = Stab(0) = Stab(oo). Construct these circles so that C and C' are the only circles which intersect L. and the angle width of the corresponding subgroup J' in G' is less than 6. and so that the (Euclidean) distance between C and C' along the positive reals is small compared to their diameters. .10). Let C and C' be the circles corresponding to C and C'. Proof. It easily follows p that the set {z 16 5 arg(z) 5 n} is precisely invariant under Stabd(L). Then j(z) = z + I maps one of these lines onto the other. be given.I > I (see H. call them C and C'.3. Find a new classical Schottky group (. intersects only C and C' of the defining circles. and the multipliers of the k primitive boundary elements are arbitrarily given between 1 and oo. the parabolic pair consists of two tangent circles. Then there are exactly two circles. the outside region has the full parabolic pair on its boundary. it is not hard to show the existence of a Fuchsian group G of the second kind. as a pair of Euclidean circles.. with k boundary components. A Trip to the Zoo D. the multiplier approaches 1 as the circles get closer together. that is. as the circles get smaller and farther apart. and C.186 VIII. with defining circles C. where B2/G' is topologically equivalent to 032/G. In the construction above. Assume that the multipliers lie between 1 and oo. as follows. D.7. Then there is a minimal number b > 0.2. where these have the same identifications.. of course. also. and so that the second quadrant is a boundary half-space for G.

. and let G. Let g. then it has at least three boundary components. we construct a Fuchsian group F so that H2/F is topologically equivalent to S. We start with a topologically finite marked Riemann surface S. < oo. Suppose S has genus p. In the other region. contains oo. the two points of intersection are conjugate points with respect to the real line. of L. where the outside D. Fuchsian Groups of the Second Kind 187 An a-elliptic pair consists of two hyperbolic half infinite line segments. and normalize Go so that the entire right half plane is contained in Do. >. The full a-elliptic pair consists of the a-elliptic pair. f' B2 is a constrained fundamental set for G. that is. choose L. from all the defining circles of Go. In particular. > = Go * G1. Necessarily. starting at some point z e H 2. then 61 = B. respectively. the two lines meet at the angle a. then Go is trivial.a. is Kleinian. then the outside region D = {z 10 < arg(z) < a} is a fundamental domain for <j>. and the two points on the circle at infinity.. and preserves the marking at those boundary components that are points. and so that the full elliptic pair consists of the rays arg(z) = 0. a 12+ be an elliptic or parabolic transformation identifying the sides of L1. where S has at least one boundary component that is not a point. n special points. Normalize so that the two points of intersection are at 0 and oo. they meet at the angle 2n .2 also follow. if a = 2n/q. an. = <g. the circles are both orthogonal to OH'. so that H2/Go is a surface of genus p. the inside region. there is a homeomorphism between H2/F and S that preserves the type of each boundary component. together with both its reflection in the real axis. and if S has genus 0. contains oo.C. We conclude this section with an explicit inductive procedure for constructing a Fuchsian group of the second kind with given signature.. Start with a classical Schottky group Go. where they meet at the angle a.-elliptic pair entirely contained in the right half plane. Given such a surface S. Hence G.4. with m holes. be the constrained fundamental set obtained from D. G. that separates L.. An elliptic pair (full elliptic pair) divides H' (C) into two regions. that into. and each line ends at some point on the circle at infinity. where the outside D. and all the other conclusions of VII.D. by the addition of appropriate boundary points. in the outside region. fl H2) is a fundamental polygon for C1. D. Let L. and they meet at the angle a. = oo. as a full 2n/a. and hence .VIII. Find a circle W in Do fl D. and G. with marking a. and m = 1. and arg(z) = a. more precisely. Then j(z) = e'°z maps one of these rays onto the other. Note that we could also use Poincare's polygon theorem in H2 to realize that G. = <Go. then Go is a free group on n = 2p + m .. The two closed discs bounded by W are precisely invariant under the identity in Go.I generators. if we let B. If p = 0. and. q e Z. If a.. Let Do be the fundamental domain defined as the outside of the 2n circles used to define Go. If a. also completely contained in the right half plane. be a full parabolic pair.. the full a-elliptic pair consists of two of the four arcs of a pair of intersecting circles. and m > 0 holes. of L.

and let 62 = 6. C2 = t. each of the discs bounded by W2 is precisely invariant under the identity in. Let W2 be a circle contained entirely in int(6. is precisely invariant under J in G. until we reach C. as above..S2 < arg(z) < n/2+ S2 } is precisely invariant under J in G2. such as one of those constructed in the previous section. as above. and that H2 /t.. _ {zI t/2-b.I for J. which we now call B2.. The closed left half-plane. . fl f32). f162. with 2 holes. there is a62 > 0. and H2/0 is a surface of genus p.. As above. I a. and G2 as Kleinian groups. to observe that int(62 fl lO2) is a fundamental polygon for 1. Choose the constrained fundamental set E = {z I )F' < IzI < . which we now call B1. Let G = <G. and observe that the imaginary axis divides C into two closed discs. = {zI -it/2. Then there is a somewhat larger precisely invariant sector: A.2 is a surface of genus p. > 1.. respectively. As above. be a purely hyperbolic Fuchsian group of the second kind. where 0-02/G2 is a surface of genus p2 with one boundary component. Then by VI I.E.62) is a proper interactive pair. Let G2 be an elliptic or parabolic transformation identifying the sides of L2. with m holes. where 0.2 are also valid. is the same group J as for G. Let 0.. 62 is a constrained fundamental set for 02. as a Kleinian group. choose L2 to be a full elliptic or parabolic pair.. and all the other conclusions of VII. Assume that the boundary subgroup of G2.. Let J be the corresponding boundary subgroup. stabilizing 0 and oo. where A. of orders a. with one boundary component. If n > 1.C. Similarly.. Assume that G. and let G2 = <92 >. G2>. We continue as above. and that (b.. is a strong (J. note that J = Stab({0.}.. co}) is hyperbolic cyclic. is normalized so that the second quadrant is a boundary half-plane. Loxodromic Cyclic Constructions E.>0. and one of order a2. Then. and G2.C.. with m holes and n special points.2z generate J. where L2 lies entirely to the right of L and the outside of L2 contains oo.)-block. and two special points. Regard G. and let j(z) = i. G. and the closed right half-plane. where W2 separates the complement of 6. G. and G2 is normalized so that the first quadrant is a boundary half-plane. = <f. Let D2 be the outside of L2 and let 132 be a constrained fundamental set obtained from D2 by adjoining appropriate boundary points.2. Purely hyperbolic Fuchsian groups of the first kind Let G... we can also use IV.188 VIII. Regarding G. so that the sector A. from the complement of 132. G2>. * G2.H.12/G1 has genus p. the sector {n/2 5 arg(z) 5 3n/2} is precisely invariant under J in G.. and with one special point of order at. 61. <arg(z)<3n/2+b. one of order a.. let G2 be a purely hyperbolic Fuchsian group of the second kind. A Trip to the Zoo that H2/V1 is a surface of genus p. The observations above about the slightly larger precisely invariant sectors imply both that B. VIII. is precisely invariant under J in B2.I. and choose con- .2.

E. We can realize each of these surfaces as being the union of three pieces. since reflection in the real axis commutes with every isometry of H2 (pt = 1 in Fig.2 strained fundamental sets D. contains the intersection of A.VI1I.3).E. fl B2) U (D2 fl B. VIII. By VII. it is the projection of the sector {z 1 n/2 < arg(z) < 3n/2}.1 Fig. on S.E. VIII. Loxodromic Cyclic Constructions 189 Fig.)/G.1.E.2). so that D.) is a fundamental domain for G (see Fig.E.2(vii). VIII. One of these pieces is an annulus. is invariant under reflection in the real axis. the complement of the union of the translates . for G.E. c E. Let S. and p2 = 2 in Fig.. With these choices. is maximal with respect to D. D = Dt fl D2 = (D.C. and D. with E. this last is easy to achieve. = Q(Gp. V1II. D. VIII.

4.1. VIII.E. with one boundary component (S2. The surface St.E. VIII. of genus p2. and 52. projects onto a surface St. and the other component. I is connected to the annulus along the projection of the positive imaginary axis.4 of this sector has two invariant connected components. VIII.3 Fig. a surface S2.E. A Trip to the Zoo Fig. with one boundary component. with one boundary component (S2. S2 is the union of an annulus (the image of the sector {zI ---x/2 < arg(z) < n/2}). and the surface St. t of genus pt.2. 2.2 is connected to the annulus along the projection of the negative imaginary axis (see Fig.1 is the image of the interior of the convex region for G2 in B2). the one in the upper half-plane projects onto a surface St.190 VIII. with one boundary component (note that the closure of the preimage of St. also of genus p2. where pt = 1). in the lower half-plane. I in H2 is the convex region for GI). 2 is the image of the interior of the convex -egion for G2 in the . also of genus p1. Similarly.

(z) = e'z.6)..5 i t /. VIII.E..2 Sliding We can slide the above construction by keeping Gt fixed. To obtain 12(G)/G.E.E. E. Hence VII.5). join St.2 to S2221 to obtain two surfaces. = f G2 f -'.. Let w be the image of the positive imaginary axis on S = H2/G. Loxodromic Cyclic Constructions 191 I= Fig. = <Gt. and conjugating G2 by a hyperbolic transformation of the form f .. This gives us a new group G2. for which the same ball B2 is precisely invariant under the same subgroup J = f Jf -'.VI II.G2. 2 is joined to the annulus along the projection of the negative imaginary axis (P2 = 2 in Fig. each of genus pt + P2 (see Fig. As we saw above. but of course the fundamental sets D2 and D will change.6 lower half-plane). and join St. VIII. is joined to the annulus along the image of the positive imaginary axis. we remove the two annuli.E. t real. S21 . SfO Fig. VIII. VIII.2 is still applicable.C. to S21.).E. and S2. We can also regard this operation in terms of the relationship between the surfaces H2/G and H2/G where G. w is a simple geodesic .

F. Notice that the same subgroup J is a common subgroup of G. VIILE.. that is. call them S. G2 >. the identifications of the sides generates G'. and D'=D1 fl D2 is a fundamental domain for G' (see Fig. so that rotation by 2n brings us back to where we started. G2..7). and b2.3 and VIII.2 is only apparently weaker. G' is quasifuchsian.1.. and 151 is smaller than both b.e. Hence we can again apply VII. both invariant (the definition given in IX. that the same disc B2 is a strong (J. of Q containing D. = l-O2/G. so that D2' is a fundamental domain for G2. then G' is discrete. G' = G.).GZ>..8).7 . and G2. VIII.. We can construct a quasifuchsian group by bending the construction in E. is paired with another side of D.192 VIII.. and S2.B.E. Cut S along w. and let G' = <G1.8 we see that D(G')/G is homeomorphic to Q(G)/G. Let Gz = hG2h-1. Let D2 = h(D2). The fundamental domain D' has two connected components. keep St fixed. It follows that Q(G') has exactly two components.E.. both invariant. Fig. G2)-block.10). *. and D2 is also contained in E (see Fig.C. and for both Di and D2. call them D.2. and we conjugate G2 by a small rotation. the equivalence of the two definitions is given in IX.E.. We conclude that the connected component A. Let G' = <G. is G'-invariant. where b is real. and that ($.E. then glue the two surfaces back together to arrive at S. Let h(z) = e"z. Each side of D. A Trip to the Zoo that divides S into two pieces. alone. E3. we leave G. Comparing figures VIII. then this angle of rotation is 27tt/a. VIII. Lf2) is a proper interactive pair for (G. but no longer Fuchsian. and rotate S2 by a suitable amount (if one thinks of this rotation as being through a certain angle. A quasifuchsian group-bending A quasifuchsian group is an analytically finite Kleinian group G. i. Gz). and D2. where Q(G) has exactly two components.

so that J is a subgroup of G2 of index n. G2> given by VII. of the second kind acting on H2.2). It is an exercise to construct the sides of D2 so that they are pairwise identified by elements of G2. n) = 1.)-block.6) c D. VIII.. lies in a distinct such sector.E. the fundamental domain for G = <G1. dividing C into two closed discs: Bt = {z 13 S arg(z) 5 2a .C.S}. the J-translates of (jor"(D2) cover the sector. Loxodromic Cyclic Constructions 193 Fig. VIII. Looking inside any one sector. < Izi < t}. where the second quadrant is a boundary half-space.E. think of C . Also choose an integer k.E. fl D2 = (D. G. n. for G. Let G2 = < jo>. Define jo(z) = e2"a'"t2/"z.4.. c E (in Fig.E. m = 1. with (k.{0} as being divided into sectors of the form {e2"`"''" < arg(z) < Each of the translates (jo)'(D2). is precisely invariant under J in although B2 is not precisely invariant under J in G2. Let j(z) = t2z be a generator of J.9 for k = 3. Note that b. D = D. so that the sector {z 16 5 arg(z) < 2a . VIII. Let D2 = {z I -n/n < arg(z) < n/n. where {z 13 5 arg(z) S 2a . The two rays (arg(z) = ±8} define a simple loop W in C.. where 6 < 2n/n.. oo}) in G1.8 E. is a strong (J.. It is almost immediate that D2 is a fundamental domain for G2.2(vii). t_. . Choose the fundamental domain E for J to be the annulus {zIt` < Izi < t}.. hence S2/G has only one . observe that there are necessarily exactly six sides (see Fig. but there is a power of jo that identifies one side of the upper component of D with a side of the lower component.. n = 5).6) is precisely invariant under J = Stab({0. n = 5). fl B2) U (D2 fl B2). However B.1. Choose G. In this case.VIII. has two connected components. for some positive integer n (see D. Choose a fundamental domain D. and B2 = {zI -b S arg(z) S d}. Our next collection of examples starts with a Fuchsian group G. 0 < k < n. observe that (jor = j. where t is real and greater than 1. and ($.1§2) is a proper interactive pair.

every component is simply connected. is contained in the sector {z 10 < arg(z) < 2n/n}.9 Fig. and no component is invariant. A Trip to the Zoo Fig VIII. Sincej identifies two of the sides of this part of D. be the component of G containing the upper part of D.E. we can use these facts to show that G.10).E. For every m = 1. they all contain J. The remarks below hold for any two coprime positive integers k and n.194 VIII. There are some distinguished subgroups of G. Let G. VIII.E. one sees that G. we now assume that k = 1.3. d. jo '. so that d. is quasifuchsian. The rays {arg(z) = 8} and {arg(z) = -b} together form a simple closed curve that separates C into two discs. These are all distinct component subgroups of G. n.. on d. and they each stabilize a distinct component . Exactly as in E. We remark that for this group G. = joG. . VIII. let H.E.. .. provided n > 1. one precisely invariant under G and the other precisely invariant under joG. is J-invariant. jot.joGijo'> (a fundamental domain for the action of G.11). is shown in Fig.. be the stabilizer of d. Let d. VIII. = (G.10 component (see Fig. Looking at the identifications of the sides of D. For simplicity in bookkeeping.

_l . These loxodromic elements stabilize both components A. An extended Fuchsian group If n = 2 in the construction above. we constructed a Z2 extension of a Fuchsian group.6. the intersection of H.E. but j = (jo)" keeps n components invariant.. jo a H.. and an f. U U d. modify the construction so as to obtain an extended quasifuchsian group. find a loxodromic transformation f.E. In this section. E. Loxodromic Cyclic Constructions 195 Fig. jo>. Since. that stabilizes both A.. Since G = <H.-. but is not itself Fuchsian. In any case.+I -invariant simple path. and A. In this case. G has infinitely many components. where H 2 /Go . VIII.. find an fm-invariant simple path. and H. then there is only one of these component Note that H has two invariant composubgroups H = H1 = nents. the loxodromic element jo keeps no component invariant.E.. If n = 2. _1 contains many loxodromic elements. In A. ES. and d. except for the fixed points of the fm. and j0Hjo 1 = H.9. = jo (d 1) and A. connect these two paths by another path.Vll1. G is a Z2 extension of a Fuchsian group. and then in E. We have shown that G has exactly these n J-invariant components. For each in. (modulo n).. Hence j keeps at least n distinct components of G invariant._I.I I of G. If n > 2. For each in.7. hence every J-invariant curve must cross this set. H is of index 2 in G. then by V. then G has exactly two components. together with the fixed points of the fm forms a set that separates 0 from co. we give an alternate construction for such a group. acting on H 2. there can be no other J-invariant component of G. this set lies entirely in A. A purely loxodromic extended Fuchsian group In the example above. It is easy to show that there are no other J-invariant components using the following construction.. and their fixed points lie on the common boundary ofd. We start with a Fuchsian classical Schottky group Go. The union of all these paths..

J2.E. (BI. namely Stab(H2). Choose a fundamental domain Do for Go.. J2) = (< j1 >. to the fixed points of J2.I2 is a surface of genus p with two boundary components.196 VIII. Let G = <Go.E. VIII. and W2 are both orthogonal to t'. G is Kleinian. Since t' is closed and G-invariant. <j2>) Let f be some element of M mapping the outside of W. which lie on t'. A Trip to the Zoo Fig. and G = Go *f . Do . so that (B B2) is precisely invariant under (<A>. and both boundary components have the same geodesic length.(B1 U B2) is bounded away from t' . VIII..One easily sees that for any such choice of f. Let Go. observe that since Go has only two non-conjugate boundary subgroups. Then by VII. where two of the side pairing transformations. Note that W. i. A (G) = 1. J1. every primitive boundary element of G has the same multiplier (all multipliers are assumed to be greater than 1). and that the Go-translates of B. 4). If f(z) # H2. A purely loxodromic extended quasifuchsian group The construction above can be modified slightly so as to obtain an extended quasifuchsian group. 02>). f interchanges these two components.12 for the case p = 1). since G is torsionfree.. that is Fuchsian. E. f(t') = V. By VII.5(viii).E. geometrically finite. and mapping the fixed points of j I onto those of j2.7.5. Do.E. and j2. then since G has exactly two components. W. are non-conjugate primitive boundary elements (see Fig. and W1 be exactly as above.e. In fact every point of t' is a limit point of G. Let W2 be . and G has a subgroup of index 2. it contains the limit set of G (see V. onto the inside of W2. To see this. be the complete circle containing the axis of jm. bounds a closed disc B. B2) is precisely invariant under (J. Pick a point z on W1 n H 2 and observe that G is Fuchsian if and only if f(z) e H2. f >. purely loxodromic.E. U B2 do not cover all of Q(G0). no point oft' lies in °Q(G). which also lie on t'. j. Let W. since f maps the fixed points of J.

D. call these the inner and outer components. We see from VII. are those of Do together with these same generators conjugated by f. there is a maximal constrained fundamental set Do for Go that has non-empty intersection with the complement of B1 U B2). Hence we can again apply VII. We likewise combine the two pieces of B to obtain a connected fundamental domain 12 contained in the outer component.E. It is also clear that D(d) has at least two components. Choose some f e M mapping the inside of B1 onto the outside of O2. Use f to attach the two parts of 6 into a single connected fundamental domain B. Let k be the closed inside of 1' Y2. C H2.. has only one component.J2). f> is Kleinian and purely loxodromic. since .e. We choose B2 so that its side pairing transformations are exactly the same as those of 61. However we chose f so that the side of W1 on the inner component is paired with the side of W2 on the outer component. Let H be the subgroup of t. We again note that the Go-translates of B1 U B2 do not cover all of Q(G0) (i.6.E. then. if we choose f2 = W2 as in E.13 a circle close to W. where f maps the fixed points of J1 onto those of J2. As we observed above. generated by the side pairing transformations of D1 (or of 62).VIII. where again p = 1).22) is precisely invariant under (J1. where the inner component is contained in H2. and passing through the fixed points of J2 (see Fig. We do this so that the side pairing transformations of B.(B1 U $2)) is a fundamental domain for 0. 13. and f maps some point of H2 fl W1 to a point of W2 lying outside H2. We need to show that D(G) has exactly two components. then it remains true that (B1. In particular. If W2 is sufficiently close to W2.E. This shows that Q(C)/?. similarly for the sides of the outer component.5 to conclude that a = <Go. VIII.6 that the relationship between H and 0 is independent of 1'Y2. ? = Go *1. and that 1) = int(Do . Loxodromic Cyclic Constructions Wt 197 Fig. VIII. The sides of Do on the inner component are all paired with one another. JD has two connected components.E.

and [0: H] = 2. Crossed Fuchsian groups For any Kleinian group G. = g and g2 = h o g o h-'. where S' makes an angle of n/4 with Si. There are many choices for Go. of Do. and free on the two generators g. that is. in the example in E. then Go has the presentation <h. note that as t .. Let h(z) = e2"tj3z. and g2. Choose Go so that it has a fundamental polygon Do. lies in the fourth quadrant.14. where B2/Go is a surface of genus 0 with one boundary component. is purely hyperbolic. Also Fig. as shown in Fig. one of these subgroups keeps the real axis invariant. Let G.n/3 < arg(z) < n/3}. g : h3 = (h o g-')' = 1 >. and let g be the hyperbolic boundary element that identifies the sides s.E. and s. the fixed points of g tend to 1. 0 has exactly the two components.9. g tends to a parabolic transformation. Choose t sufficiently small so that S' lies entirely within the sector {z I . and Do has one vertex at 0. Notice that G. and two elliptic ramification points. and S' lies inside B2. defined as the smallest subgroup of G containing every element that stabilizes a component of G. there is a natural subgroup G'.198 VIII. If we choose n = 4m.e. Of course G' is normal in G.0. G' contains two Fuchsian groups whose limit circles intersect. Since I is a fundamental domain for 0. Let S' be the arc of the circle passing through the fixed points of g. and the other keeps the imaginary axis invariant. E. Choose g so that s. intersects S'. then G' contains m distinct Fuchsian groups whose limit circles intersect at the same two points. then g(e") = e-". and tr2(g) . both of order 3. E. be the subgroup of Go generated by g. where Do is invariant under reflection in the real axis. A Trip to the Zoo the extended Fuchsian group has exactly two components. called the derived group. [t?i: H] = 2. and contains two Fuchsian subgroups. VIII. VIILE.14 . then the derived group G' is purely loxodromic. Let e' be the point where s.8.4. i. If we choose n = 4. we start with a Fuchsian group of the second kind Go.4. and s. lies in the first. A locally free Kleinian group For this construction. so A (G') = A(G).

be the simple closed curve formed by T' U D'.Plies between S' and the boundary axis of 93 in 132.16. is n/2. as a Kleinian group). VIII. all of the same geodesic length (Fig. Let S. . VIII. is a surface of genus 0 with three boundary components. note that the outside angle of S. at the fixed points of g.16 W2/G.). Let S2 = h(S.E.VIII.E. and the inside angle between T' and 1' is ir/2. be the simple closed curve formed by S' and its reflection in St. while S. Let T.15 Fig. and T. Loxodromic Cyclic Constructions 199 Fig. and let T2 be the reflection of T. VIII.E. in Sl (S2 and T2 are very heavy in Fig. are merely heavy).E.15 shows a fundamental domain for G. V1II. define the arc D' of the circle passing through the fixed points of g3 = h2 o g o h-2 = (92 o g.)-t as follows.E. Let T' = h2(S').

.20930. form a proper interactive triple.ft :93092091 = f1 093ofi 1 091 ' = 1>. Similarly. 159]. it is easy to see that Hk is free on the generators {t-k o a o tk. and the open inside of S2. but not free. m e l }. and that G3 = G2 * f. f. The closed inside disc bounded by T. Let G be the subgroup of G3 generated by the elements {t'o a o t -'". and the common exterior of T. only the identity lies in every member of the lower central series [84 pg.200 Viii. but this time so that f2 o 93 o f2 ' = g2'.[t-2o[boa]ot2] = is not the identity in G. Hence G is not free. There are still two essential choices for f. then by VII. maps the inside of T.b. 95].f2:93of2og3tof2 tof1 og3of1 t = I>.. conjugates 93 into g.f2:93092/'091 =f1093o/'f '09((1''' =. A presentation for G3 is: <91. is not precisely invariant under its stabilizer.> is Kleinian. A Trip to the Zoo Let f.: either f. this circle determines a hyperbolic plane in IH3.F.92. Let B. and a = t -' o [b o a] o t = [t -' o b o t. but T2 is a strong block.5. and let B2 be the closed inside disc bounded by S.t: toa-' ot' = aoboa-' ob-'>. (T. be the closed inside disc bounded by T. Then G. We next show that G is locally free.. conjugates <g. Each side s of D lies on a circle orthogonal to §'.. b = f2. has the presentation: <91. then G3 = <a. I ml 5 k}. Let D be a fundamental polygon for the Fuchsian group G. Since every subgroup of a free group is free [51 pg. and G2 = G. t -' o a o t] = [t-'obot. and S2. Using the Reidermeister-Schreier method [51 pg. >. where f. . be an element of M. Let H. or G3=<a. In a free group. f2) is Kleinian and purely loxodromic. Strings of Beads F.93. Write t = f. > onto <g. We can again apply VII.IntI < k}. or into its inverse. onto the outside of S. 86]. t'"obot-"'.92. *f.. it suffices to show that each Hk is free. of necessity.. The set of all these planes determines a polyhedron E c H'. VIII.b.2'092 = 1) _ <g3.) = S. acting on 32. t'" o b o t-I". f.t:toaot' =boaob-'oa-'>. every finitely generated subgroup of G is free.f1. G2 = <G. It is clear that every finitely generated subgroup of G is contained in some Hk.f1. purely loxodromic. be the subgroup of G generated by the elements {t' o a o t -'".5 to conclude that G3 = <G2. together with the open inside of T2. the inside of T2 and the inside of S2 are jointly f2-blocked. Observe that the sides of E are paired by the same generators of G that pair the corresponding . it is easy to see that E is a fundamental polyhedron for G. t'o b o t -'". Hence G is locally free.I.93.. and a = 93. and f...E. choose f2 to map the inside of T2 onto the outside of S2. Choose f1 so that f1 o 93 o f1 ' = g. that is.E.

± }. A. C... Fork > 1. (we define right and left so that S2 lies to the right of S1).... x lies inside the translate of A2.1. lying outside all the S. E has edges corresponding to the edges (actually vertices) of D. is a fundamental polyhedron for G = <g 1. so that each side of E is paired with itself.}. we use groups generated by reflections. +} is the right endpoint of the circle A.F. and the Euclidean radius of the sides..1 sides of D.. E might have some infinite vertices at parabolic fixed points. In fact it is only in very special cases that one cannot do this (the triangle groups). o gA is parabolic). where each A. .. is a tangent to both C2 and C. Inside A2... x lies inside A3.F.... C.2._. Most of the examples in this section are special cases of this procedure.. This symbol has the following meaning.._1. F.. ._1. Inside A. so that g.} is the left endpoint of the circle A.. inside Ak_.. extend g... is reflection in the hyperbolic plane S. . and A.. and E has no vertices in H 3. The only relations in G are that each g. The region E in H3. +) = {A2. # A.. Fuchsian reflection groups Let C1. VIII.. there are translates of all the C. for simplicity.. . other that A2. g. and that g. spanning C. Strings of Beads 201 Fig.. according as the final symbol is + or -. be n circles. x is the right or left endpoint of the translate of A. is one of the circles: C1. {A. and and C. If k = 1. where C. unchanged. is tangent to both C. >. other than A. Note that {A 1.. This leads one to believe that one can deform the group by moving the polyhedron..VIII. . The points of tangency of the C. of course. are parabolic fixed points in G.F. AR. The symbol (A. be reflection in C.. keeping the angles between the sides.. x lies inside A..I). all orthogonal to S'.. . . other that A1. is an involution.. . g.. Every parabolic fixed point x can be described by a symbol of the form { A. o g. ±) has length k .. Finally. there are translates of all the C.. etc. Let g. and {A 1. . to act on H3. (n = 8 in Fig.+ t is parabolic (also. VIII.. there are translates of all the C.

.. keeping all the beads disjoint. is one of the circles The symbol has the following meaning: x lies inside C. and that the points of tangency all lie on S'.4. we have to pass to the orientation preserving half. except that S. Then A (G) is a topological circle. Sk be a string of beads... } consists of all points whose symbols have length at least in.. let f. . These finite and infinite symbols can be used to reproduce the topology of S'. A Trip to the Zoo Every limit point x.. Let S1. Actually. A 2. the limit set is all of S'.A has infinitely generated fundamental group. so in every neighborhood U of a limit point.... .. which is also tangent to S3. +} consists of all points corwhere Ak+l responding to the finite and infinite forms lies immediately to the left of Ak. and cut it open at a point of tangency... denote reflection in A. Ak. The standard string of beads in H" is as above. with the additional hypotheses that the S. A wild knot For the next application.. each S. other than a parabolic fixed point. pick up the string of beads into 1=3. C". together with all points of the form {A. F3... }.. }..202 VIII..F. and so on up to Am. A quasifuchsian reflection group The most obvious use of the above is to deform the standard string of beads inside the plane (see Fig. and let G = <g 1. Sk. gk >..2). We reiterate the statement above. lies immediately to the right of At. and so on up to Am. Hence A is a wildly embedded circle.. Am. and so on to Sk. A A and x lies inside the translate of A2 that lies immediately inside At (i... F... except for the points of tangency... to obtain a quasifuchsian group.... Am.... The group generated by reflections in the standard string of k beads is denoted by Rk... and A. etc.. The symbol {A. and which agree with the given one for at least the first m places. is tangent to S2. but this causes no difficulties.. The important point of the topology introduced above is that it is independent of the fact that all the C.. It is clear that for a standard string of beads. then x lies inside f. which is also tangent to S. 1 Proposition. is orthogonal to 491-0". A neighborhood of {A. let gm denote reflection in Sm. VIII. . At..e. tie a knot in the string and close it up again.. where each S. where each A.. where Ak... ... . A string of beads is a set of Euclidean spheres S. U . A neighborhood of the symbol {A1...e. lies outside all of the others. the limit set is infinitely knotted... . are orthogonal to St. all have the same Euclidean radius..+. i..(A2)). Ak+2 lies immediately to the left of A. can be described by an infinite symbol of the form { A. The knot keeps reproducing itself under the various reflections in the group. } has infinite length.. Ak+ lies immediately to the right of A1..

VIII.F. but otherwise. with a standard string of beads.VIIi.F. where G is the group . Strings of Beads 203 Fig.3.I.3 F.2 Fig. A deformed Fuchsian group For this construction. VIII. we cannot really do this without having some beads passing through others. Pick up the string. However.F. A twisted Fuchsian group Start again with a standard string of beads in H3. the string is shown for the orientation of the reader. put a twist in it. The group generated by reflections in all the beads is still discontinuous.4.3 so as to help identify the figure. now there is one bead with four points of tangency.S. VII1. it has no significance for the Kleinian group).F. VIII. but otherwise. no new points of intersection have been introduced (n = 12 in Fig. start as above. as in Fig. see IX. the beads have no additional points of contact (the "string" from the string of beads is shown in Fig. we do this so that two of the beads coalesce.6. but this homomorphism has no apparent geometric meaning. pick up one of the beads into E3. it has no meaning in the context of Kleinian groups. onto the group generated by reflections in this string. As above. F. Of course. and the outside of all the beads is still a fundamental domain.12). and then lay it back down on El. We require that two of the beads coalesce. There is a homomorphism from R. VIII.F.F. so that now there are two beads with four points of tangency each. G. there is a homomorphism (p: Rk -. pull it across some opposite beads and then lay it down.

D3 = 032.204 VIII. and D4 = {zI IzI > 2} U ( oo). we need to show that D. Let D c C be the fundamental domain defined by the exterior of all the beads. the beads retain their essential properties under this conjugation.7. be the component of G containing. A. It is obvious that the bead itself is the isometric sphere for the reflection in the bead. A Trip to the Zoo Fig. then use fog = co(g) of to define f on the rest of the outside of the unit disc.G. each bead tangent to both its neighbors on C.6 that the intersection of the Ford region with I33 is a fundamental polyhedron. F. lying between the spirals. the image of f is all of C. Since every side pairing transformation is a reflection. .t. and D2. Let C and C' be two disjoint spirals. 2. they are both simply connected. Temporarily renormalize so that G acts on 133. the beads are all disjoint.3. is a fundamental domain for G. That is. for every g e R. from the outside of the unit disc. Now construct an infinite sequence of beads.4 generated by reflections in the beads of this string. and each bead is tangent to both its neighbors. its boundary is a fundamental domain.A. Since they are both G-invariant. These two curves divide C into four regions: B2. both contained in the annulus (z I I < IzI < 2). that realizes op. where C and C both wind infinitely often about both the unit circle and about the circle {IzI = 2). and the two regions A and A' between C and C. so that every point of C lies inside or on one of these beads. Let G be the group generated by reflections in all the beads. VIII.. these four components project onto distinct connected components of Q/G. (zI IzI > 2) U {oo). We construct these two sequences of beads so that except for the points of tangency mentioned above. let A. Label these components as D. hence the common outside of all the beads in E3 is the Ford region. In fact.g = Mp(g) of One sees at once how to define f on the appropriate half of the fundamental domain for Rk. and A2 are both G-invariant. For m = 1. the common outside of these beads.F. by VI. We saw in IV. Atoms The next construction is somewhat different. f. D has four components. Similarly construct a sequence of beads on C so that every point of C lies inside or on one of these beads. but this is not obvious. but now there is also a local homeomorphism f.

VIII.I .1). Miscellaneous Examples 205 An atom is a component of a Kleinian group whose stabilizer is trivial.2im]. maps the outside of C. and let C. so every group with atoms is necessarily infinitely generated. Let C. be the line {Re(z) = 2). be the circle {z I Iz + l . Fig. but this inequality is not known (at the time of writing.. and let E be the polyhedron bounded by the S. VIII. For m = 0... and f.G. let CC_. and also contains some atoms. and let fN_t be the transformation.2im)I = 11.I. no finitely generated Kleinian group can have a disc as a connected component of DIG. Let Sm(S.. One expects that K::5 2(N .1)). The first example in this section is a group with K = 2(N . and SA.. VIILG.VIII. is the composition of reflection in C. Miscellaneous Examples G... let K be the number of connected components of 0/G. We have constructed a Kleinian group G. N . Fix N > 1.1). onto the inside of C.2.. followed by reflection in the imaginary axis. let C. fN_1(z) = z + 4.1 .G..) be the hyperbolic plane in H3 spanning QC._.1). Let fm(z) = [(1 + 2im)z + 4m2]/[z + 1 .G.. be the line {Re(z) = -2}. let N be the minimal number of generators of G. observe that fm is parabolic with fixed point at 2im. Let G be a finitely generated Kleinian group. where Q(G) contains two simply connected invariant components.2im)I = l} (N = 4 in Fig.)... the best known inequality along these lines is that the number of components is bounded by 18(N . The computations below are most easily verified by observing that f. Our group G is infinitely generated. By Ahlfors' finiteness theorem. be the circle (zI Iz .

and G is a free group on N generators. G. fN _ t >. the transformation fm+t of.2).1) distinct conjugacy classes of such subgroups. . are identified with each other by fN_t.-2t is parabolic with fixed point at 2 + 2mi. Let Et be the polyhedron formed by the four sides of Eo together with the two planes {Im(z) = ± 1). We can either use Poincarb's theorem as above.5 to conclude that Et is a fundamental polyhedron for G1. N = 4.e. g)'. and those immediately to the left of Re(z) = 2.1) + (N .1. G = <fo) generators for G is N. It is easy to see that D has 3(N .G. D is a fundamental domain for G (in Fig. and then use VII. The components immediately to the right of Re(z) = -2. Then Dt = °aE1 is a fundamental domain for Gt (see Fig. VIII. VIII. the transformation f. is parabolic with fixed point at -2 + 2mi. For each of the others. or we can observe that {z I Im(z) 5 -1 } U (co) and {z I Im(z) 2t 1) U { oo) are jointly g-blocked strong (<ft>. . VIII.G..1) connected components.2) + I vertices at infinity as follows.2) + 2 connected components. Since E has no edges. i. the transformation f. and let Eo be the fundamental polyhedron for Go. and that f.. G is free on these N * <fN_l >. by VI. Hence Q(G)/G has 2(N . Let Go be the group constructed above. the transformation fm of. It is easy to use the identifications of the sides to bring together all the components of Dt lying over the same component of Q(G1)/G.1) + 2(N .2) + 2 = 2(N .A. with N = 2. every side is paired with another side of the same component..3.206 VIII.` is parabolic with fixed point at I + (2m + 1)i. (one possibility Fig.. the minimal number of generators.+1 of.Go)-blocks. Let D be the boundary at o0 of E..2 .E. The transformation fN't of. We conclude from Poincarb's polyhedron theorem that E is a fundamental polyhedron for G = < fo. and D is shaded). We also note that every maximal parabolic cyclic subgroup has rank 1. fN_t is parabolic with fixed point at oo. Let g(z) = z + 24 and let Gt = <Go. In particular. A Trip to the Zoo Observe that fm(Sm) = S. is parabolic with fixed point at 2mi.. Since E has no edges.2) + 1 = 3(N . is parabolic with fixed point at -1 + (2m + 1)i. There are 3(N . and finally.(E) n E = 0. and that there are exactly 2(N . the only hypothesis of Poincare's theorem that we need to verify is the completeness condition..2.G.

3 for this is shown in Fig.. VIII.G.3. oo).E.i). and 92. We have shown that G. The boundaries of two of these components are shown in Fig. has exactly two connected components. VIII. oo). 0 92 is also parabolic.3)..(z) = z + 1. and that f is parabolic with fixed point at -1 + i. where the product g. G. For the group G. Z(i)).it < 1) (see Fig.) with fixed point at oo. oo. Let f(z) = (iz + 2i)/(z + 2 .it 5 1). We conclude from VII. but do not act discontinuously anywhere on C.) onto Stab(B2). is a circular disc in the finite plane. Here again. both are surfaces of signature (0. and so that g2 has its fixed point at the origin. has two connected components. Miscellaneous Examples 207 Fig. . onto the inside of B2. m e Z} (in fact. Observe that G. the major difference being that here we construct groups without parabolic elements. and B2 are both clean blocks. constructed above. every component of G. Let B. B2) is not precisely but B. that are not translates of any point of B. Let J. be the stabilizer of B. One sees that £2(G. and let B 2 = {z I I z .2). . .. U B2. oo. and are jointly invariant under f-blocked.G. Observe that f maps the points (-1 + i. is a circular disc. PSL(2. or see IX. )/G. respectively. 0. and conjugates Stab(B. both surfaces of basic signature (0. VIII.5 that G = <G. It is easy to see that f maps the outside of B. It is clear that there are limit points of G. f. 2i).3. in G1.2 + 2i) onto the points (-1 + i.1 + i. but does not act discontinuously anywhere on C. and B2 be two inequivalent components of G. oo.G.3 + i. 3. VIII.)/G.3).VIII. oo. f> is discrete. G is a subgroup of finite index in the Picard group). The group G constructed above is a subgroup of the Picard group. = (z I I z + 2 . Since every component of G. no element of J stabilizes any component of G. f o r example. Easy computations show that if G is a Kleinian group with two parabolic generators g. .G. (B1. Q(G. Also. where Z(i) = {n + mi I n. let B. contains infinitely many Fuchsian subgroups of the first kind.G. 3. contains a rank 2 Euclidean subgroup J = <g. then G is necessarily Fuchsian (normalize so that g. GA Our next construction also yields groups that are discrete.C.2.

and each of them is orthogonal to two others.. where each of these circles is orthogonal to the unit circle. F = Using Poincare's .. = f(Cm).f6>. and C. = {z j Iz ../2ezi Ij = 1) (see Figure VIII... A Trip to the Zoo Fig. call them Ct.G. It is easy to verify that for each C.G. C6. is a circle of radius (f + /2-) centered at .... Let fm denote reflection in Cm. so that C...G. Letf(z) = (f + V 2-)e"/6z. we can normalize so that C. and the C. VIII. VIIl.. and let C. is orthogonal to Ck (see Fig.F2(f + T2)ex'(Zm*')/6.4 Fig VIII..5).208 VIII. but otherwise there is no intersection among them. Let E be the polyhedron formed by the twelve (hyperbolic) planes spanning the C. or C.. Let F = and let G = <fi.5 We start with six circles. Using the fact that two circles are orthogonal if and only if the square of the distance between their centers is equal to the sum of the squares of their radii..4). and let f. either Cm fl C = 0.G... denote reflection in C.

S. Proposition. G contains infinitely many distinct such subgroups. one in d and the other in A'. G has infinitely many components. and suppose there is a point x c if n. hence J is also analytically finite. Also. This contradicts the statement above that these translates of A' converge to a disc. we can assume that x is not fixed by are any jm.y' # x'. with stabilizer J and J'.VIII. 0 . dia(jm(A')) . H contains no parabolic elements. The discs j. hence a disc. Since jm(x) is the point of intersection of A and jm(A'). Since no loxodromic element of G can be in both J and J'. the sets jm(d') are all distinct. and every component of H is a translate of either A or A'. then H is Kleinian. we see that G is a discrete subgroup of Ira. Hence x is a point of approximation for J. it is analytically finite..B. J = Stabi(A) is a subgroup of index 2 in F.e. and the radii of the isometric circles converge to zero.. G contains no parabolic elements. (. since H contains no parabolics. H has more than two components. but does contain elliptic elements. Interchanging A and A' if necessary. On the other hand.G.4'. Similarly. F preserves the disc A = {z I Izi < 11. or x is not a fixed point of any element of X.9. J is a geometrically finite Fuchsian group of the first kind. i. Then distinct components of H have disjoint closures. and every component subgroup of H is Fuchsian. it follows from II. Suppose A and d' are distinct components of H. and is a component subgroup of G. a J' = Stab(A'). Further. the content of the proposition below is that for such a group. The distinct components of G are disjoint. F' preserves the disc A' = {z I Izl > f + f } U {oo}. Since the fundamental polyhedron E has no vertices at infinity. For any two Kleinian groups. A and d' are non-equivalent components of H. there is a sequence of distinct elements { jm} in J.0.6 that either x is not a fixed point of any element of J. Since H is geometrically finite. and the center am of the isometric circle of jm o j' lies in a constrained fundamental set for X. hence their closures can intersect in at most one point. the sets all distinct. so is a geometrically finite Fuchsian group of the first kind. and each component is a circular disc. Since J and J' are disjoint. with jm(x) . distinct components have disjoint closures..C. it is clear that the limit set of the intersection is contained in the intersection of the limit sets. G. every component of G is a translate of either d or X. where H contains no parabolic elements. A and A' are necessarily circular discs. that is.d') converge to a set passing through both x' and y'. Let H be a geometrically finite Kleinian group.4. normalize so that oo a °Q(G). as in VII. and replace each jm by a transformation of the formjm o where j. Since J and J' are Fuchsian. Also. since c3E has only the two connected components. for all z 0 x. respectively. Since am is bounded away from d'. Miscellaneous Examples 209 polyhedron theorem. and jm(z) -+.x'. J fl J' is finite. Similarly J' = Stab (d') is a geometrically finite Fuchsian group of the first kind. then by VLE. Let H be the orientation preserving half of G.

Observe that we could replace f by any of the five transformations: z m = 1. > is Kleinian.H. These six distinct groups all have the same fundamental polyhedron in 0-03. non-conjugate in M) groups. Show that W consists of two Euclidean rays emanating from the origin. A Trip to the Zoo G. Letj(z) = z + 1. We continue with the construction of G. so that B is precisely invariant under the geometrically finite subgroup J of G. (. does not act discontinuously anywhere on (C).) H. and the stabilizers of d and d' in H' are still conjugates of each other under any of the six elements listed above.e. and gm(D) n D = 0.E.. and a closed set B. it also maps d onto the exterior of d'. Exercises H.6. Use combination theorems to show that G is Kleinian and that D is precisely invariant under the identity in G. It follows that any fundamental polyhedron for G is relatively compact in H3. Construct a Kleinian group G containing j. where K' is purely loxodromic. Since the identified polyhedron is not complete. and corresponding elements { gm } of M.. where StabG(oo) has rank 1.7. K = (H. H' is purely loxodromic. but B is not a (J. geometrically finite...5. but D is not a fundamental domain for G. to form a group K'. Let W be the set of points whose hyperbolic distance from L is some positive constant d. which is of finite index in K. and does not act discontinuously anywhere on C. has no parabolic elements. While J and J' are not conjugate in H. G)block. Relate this angle with the hyperbolic distance d. . .. It is fairly straightforward to find a subgroup H' of the group H constructed above.3. These six choices for f yield six distinct (i. they are conjugate in M. Construct these so that the identified polyhedron is not complete.vF3 + exterior of and conjugates J onto Y.. Then by VII. the transformation f conjugates J into J'. C. Construct a sequence of pairs of circles {Cm. (Hint: Look at the polyhedron in H3 bounded by the spanning discs for the C. where H' has finite index in H. in fact. } bounding a common region D..5. and hence also geometrically finite and of the first kind (i.I.)} of translates of sides of D so that dia(gk(C )) does not converge the zero. so that G = <91.210 VIII. Construct a Kleinian group G. Then we can again use VII. but oo is not doubly cusped in G. with gm(CC) = C.. H. and C.. Let L be the geodesic in H2 defined by the positive imaginary axis.3. HA. there is a sequence {gk(C..2.e. 92.. 5..E. It is easy to see that there must be limit points of G that do not lie on any translate of either ad or ad'. with different identifications. . g> is discrete. and making equal angles with L. VIII. Each such transformation maps d onto the A' G.

8 with ft.11.10. Given the number a > 0. or w divides °S into two surfaces.. and p > 0.9._.. (Hint: use H. representing a sphere with three holes. and the k distinct primitive boundary elements have multipliers a . L1). there is a gEG. Show that there is a Fuchsian group F of signature a.7. show that there is a Fuchsian group of the second kind. L2. = and consider the group generated by the reflections in L1. show that there are three hyper- bolic lines L1.6. containing an elementary subgroup J of the form 7 + Z. Given three numbers a a2. (Hint: Use induction on k. ak.. and the isometric circles of a and b have equal radii. L3 in H2. Let w be a simple loop on °S. Let n = 2p + k .. (Hint: Let G be generated by a and b. a2. H. where p > 0. there is a Fuchsian group G of the second kind.. a.1. use H. where 82/G is a torus with one hole. all greater than 1. construct a group G'.. for k = 3._1. so that there is a type-preserving isomorphism cp: G -+ 6.... fl3. For k = 1. all greater than 1.5. where B2/G has genus p. with k holes. H. and for every limit point x. other than parabolic fixed points. a has its fixed points at ± 1. where oo e °Q(G). b has its fixed points at ±i.. all bounding a common region in H2. where either w is non-dividing. ak. L3)..) H. #2 = d(L3. For the induction step. with topological projection map p: H2 .13. and any primitive boundary element of G has multiplier a. Exercises 211 H. show that there exists a Fuchsian group G of the second kind.) H. where no element of J stabilizes any component of G. L2). Construct a Kleinian group G.) H.) H.I generators.V1II. .. on n .S.. so that !'1 = d(L2.I > 1 be given.. Construct a Kleinian group G that is not geometrically finite. n. ak_2. Let S be a marked finite Riemann surface of signature a = (p. vp).. fl2.) H. M. with (g'(x)l > 1. so that the lift of w determines a hyperbolic element of F. where the boundary elements G' have multipliers a. L2.H. 03 = d (L. v. Given three positive numbers /i. each of which either has positive genus or at least three boundary components. (Hint: Choose these groups to be free products of a Fuchsian group of the first kind with a loxodromic cyclic group. and a3.. and p = 0. so that the distinct primitive boundary elements have multipliers a. generalize the construction of H. Show that for any choice of numbers a . Construct a Kleinian group G containing a double dihedral group J. and L3. (Hint: Use H. but there is no homeomorphism 0: Q(G) -. where no element of J stabilizes any component of G.9. Construct two geometrically finite Kleinian groups G and 6. a3.12(0) conjugating G into Cy.12. where a and b are hyperbolic.8.

Nakada [77].I). F.2. The term "simultaneous uniformization" was first used by Bers [13] who showed that given two finite marked hyperbolic Riemann surfaces Sl and S2 of the same signature. C. Let G be the group constructed in G. Another example of a locally free but not free Kleinian group can be found in [69].15. where fog = <p(g) of for all g e F.14. and Abikoff [2]. Prove that Y VIII.I. but finite (that is. these were explored by Abikoff [1]. Bers [14] proved that K 5 84(N . Let d be a component of the Kleinian group G. E. the operation of bending as described here is closely related.3. Show that G is of finite index in PSI (2. defined on H2. and Gusevskii [46]. The existence of non-classical Schottky groups was shown by Marden [53].J. A. together with a homomorphism cp: F . or a Fenchel-Nielsen twist. rct(A) is finitely generated and not cyclic).3.I. F.22)? H. This example first appeared in Fricke-Klein [26 pg. but not free. G. H. These have been extensively studied by Gunning [30]. for recent work relating the maximal number of . several of the examples presented here can also be found in their collection. The interested reader can find an account of the theory of spaces of Kleinian groups in Bers [16]. B.212 Vlll. and others.3. The concept of "bending". also Abikoff [2] and Kra [44]. was introduced by Thurston [90]. where d is a strong (Stab(d). The inequality K < 2(N . This example was discovered independently by several people.16. EX This group was first constructed in [66]. See Sullivan [88]. there is a quasifuchsian group G so that S2/G is the disjoint union of St and S2. Apanasov. What is the index (see IV.PSL(2. Accola discovered atoms using this example [3]. and others. See [42] for a proof of the fact that if f is not a cover map. for quasifuchsian groups. Ahlfors [7] improved this to K < 18(N .4. Thanks are due to Gilbert Baumslag both for the exact form of this group. E.1(i)). A deformation of a Fuchsian group F is a locally univalent function f(z). Construct a Kleinian group G. and has been rediscovered many times. Limit points that do not lie on the boundary of any component are called residual limit points. Kra [42]. A.1) has been proven in various special cases by Marden [52]. a specific example was constructed by Zarrow [103]. 415-418]. F. F.1). then the image of f is all of C.I.7. see [10]. The operation on the underlying surface corresponding to sliding is sometimes called a partial Dehn twist. ATriptotheZoo H. where the number of boundary components of d is greater than two. and for the proof that it is locally free. which involves hyperbolic surfaces in H3.I. Notes There is a large collection of examples in Krushkal'.6.9.C). G)-block. having a component d. E.4. see Wolpert [100]. Let {gm(A)} be an enumeration of the distinct G-translates of oo.

[66].6. Wielenberg [98] discovered a fundamental polyhedron for the Picard group that can also serve as a fundamental polyhedron for other groups.2. H.]. There is a similar example in Fricke-Klein [26 pg. H.16. G. using different identifications. 428-432] (see especially the figure on pg. 432).14. . Kalme [38]. G. Notcs 213 incongruent parabolic fixed points with the minimal number of generators.VIII.

B-Groups A B-group is an analytically finite Kleinian group with a simply connected invariant component. the A-area of S is AA(S) = 1/2 f )2(z)Idz A dil.. i. For any Riemann surface S..(I..I(z) is the standard metric on X. 0 0. If S is a plane domain. then the natural metric on S is defined by %(p(z))Ip'(z)1 = 1. then the A-length of the family is given by LA(Z.Chapter IX.*(z). Euclidean. and any conformal metric d on S. and groups that contain accidental parabolic transformations.S) = inf fW A(z)ldzl. for which A. .S is the universal covering. If E' is a family of rectifiable curves on S. is defined by m(E. then the A-length of w is JW A(z)ldzl. or hyperbolic metric from X. IX. We divide the non-elementary B-groups into three classes: Fuchsian and quasifuchsian groups (these are groups with exactly two components.. An Inequality A. and so that in every local coordinate A(z) is a positive square-integrable function.e. and discuss the structure of groups containing accidental parabolic transformations. S))2/AA(S).(z)Idzl is invariant. The natural metric on S is obtained by going up to the universal covering surface X. S) = sup(L. S If w is a rectifiable curve on S. where the supremum is taken over all conformal metrics A. where A is integrable along w. and projecting the spherical. WEE The extremal length m(E. then a conformal metric on S is simply a positive L2 function. and . S) of the family of curves £ on S. A conformal metric on a Riemann surface S is a form i which transforms so that i. both invariant).I. if p: X . degenerate groups (these are groups with exactly one component).A. and A is a conformal metric. We also demonstrate the existence of degenerate groups.

2 (f. A conformal metric on R is then a G-invariant conformal metric on S. If w is a loop on S. Let A be a G-invariant conformal metric on R. where w' is freely homotopic to w. A. where the infimum is taken over all topological annuli R'. the vertical line passing through x is a curve in our family. Hence m(w. R'). For every x with 0 < x < log(t).z + 2nni. then m(w. and w' c R' c S. S). and every conformal metric on R can be extended to a conformal metric on S. The group of translations G = {z . with w c R c S. where W projects onto w. D is a fundamental domain for the action of G on S. and let A be a component of G. let S = d/H. An Inequality 215 One of the usual families of curves for these calculations is the family of all loops freely homotopic to a given one. n e l } acts on S so that ez: S --+ R is the universal covering. and w separates the boundaries of R.(x + iy)dy)2" < 2n 0 A2(x + iy)dy. Let G be a Kleinian group. R) >_ m(w. Hence m(A.2. S) = inf m(w'. Set H = Stab(A). A.IX. and there is a g-invariant curve W. Let w be a simple loop on the Riemann surface S. the usual modulus of the annulus R. 0 < Im(z) < 2n}. Every conformal metric on S can be restricted to a conformal metric on R.* (Lx)2 5 (IX. There are only a few special cases where one can actually compute the extremal length.(D) < oc. S) = m(E. S). there is a loxodromic element g e H. and let w be a simple loop on °S. where Ax(RIG) = A.A. and a loop which separates the boundaries of R is a G-invariant curve in S. Hence. Set m(w. Integrate the above inequality from 0 to log(t) to obtain log(r) 2x (Lx)2log(t) < 2n 0 A2(x + iy)dydx o 5 2nA t. Of course the Euclidean metric in S yields equality.1) i. and let R be a subsurface of S. and let S = {zI0 <Re(z) < logt}. S) = 2n/log(t). Every loop on R freely homotopic to w can also be regarded as a loop on S freely homotopic to w. using the Schwarz inequality. This yields (Lt)2/Ax 5 27/log(t).3. that is. Let R be the annulus R = {zl I < Izi < t}. AA. where R is a topological annulus. where E is the family of loops freely homotopic to w on S. Let D be the rectangle D = {zI0 < Re(z) < log(t). One of these is the family of curves which separate the boundaries of an annulus. where the element of H corresponding to w is loxodromic. Normalize so that .

so that f o g (z) = f. Sm) . with induced isomorphism f. The similarity f is conformal if the mapping f is f:A conformal.(R') containing W.B. this should cause no confusion. is a conformal metric on R'. Unless specifically stated otherwise. Let Y be the connected component of p. where log(l) = 0. that is.: G . Let w be a simple loop on So. Similarities B.(. is a homeomorphism j.(R') 5 4n(Re(log(k))). hence A. If m(wm. . d) and (C.. Corollary (Yamamoto [101 ] ). d ). A similarity between function groups. (G. R'). where 4/G is a finite Riemann surface. A) is a Kleinian group G. where S2(G. 0 AS.216 IX. A function group (G. as above. by a loxodromic element gm. I k I > 1. and so that the point I lies on W. freely homotic to w. and let R' be any annulus with w' R' c S.0. S). Let { Gm } he sequence of Kleinian groups. Hence Ilog(k)I < nm(w'. We will see below that every function group is analytically finite. Suppose there is a punctured disc R conformally embedded in S.I. A) as simply G. B-Groups g(z) = k2z. Suppose that for every m. Let i be the Euclidean metric in f(Y). appears in f(Y) as a path whose endpoints are connected by the transformation z -+ z + 2log(k). for all possible w' and R'.Sm.A. to a loxodromic element of Go. f(Y) intersects each vertical line in a set of linear measure at most 2n.6.G and for all z c. defined in Y. Let g be an element of G corresponding to a small loop about the puncture.n)/Gm contains the surface Sm. where w corresponds.. Let f (z) = log(z). Since f = log(z) is univalent in Y. A loop v. the desired result follows by taking the infimum. IX. We will often refer to the function group (G. Proof. then the multiplier of gm converges to 1. R') >_ 41log' (k)I/4n Re(log(k)) Ilog(k)I/n. there is a homeomorphism fm: So . A. Corollary (Ahlfors [4]). log(I) = 0. Let G be a Kleinian group and let S be a connected component of DIG. under the natural homomorphism. Ilog(k)I < nth(w. S2/G is a finite (disconnected) Riemann surface. Proposition. the A length of such a path is at least 2Ilog(k)I. with an invariant component A. Then . Then g is not loxodromic.(g) of(z) for all g c. so that f(w) = is represented in G. Let w' be any loop on S freely homotopic to w. all similarities are assumed to be orientation preserving. where. We conclude that m(w'. Define log(k) by analytic continuation along W.

where A is simply connected. Since every homeomorphism of a Riemann surface can be approximated by a diffeomorphism.forall feF. and this one component either is the sphere. A non-elementary B-group (G. of signature (0. more precisely. v2. A).3. . v1. Hence the Fuchsian model of a B-group is always finitely generated and of the first kind. We have required a similarity to be only continuous. Proof. vl < v2 < v3. and let gyp: F . v1.2.I. A) is a non-elementary B-group. This definition is seemingly weaker than the one given in VIII. we will usually assume that all similarities are differentiable (in the context of Riemann surfaces. This is in contrast to a deformation. A B-group is a function group (G. B. If (G.3. v3).IX.E. 3. Let F be a Fuchsian group with signature (0. hence every non-elementary B-group is conformally similar to a finitely generated Fuchsian group F = fGf`. the sphere with one puncture).10). unfortunately. B.e. A type-preserving similarity is one for which the induced isomorphism is typepreserving. 3.. that is. Assume that we are given a Fuchsian triangle group F. Rigidity of Triangle Groups 217 Note that the isomorphism induced by a similarity need not be type-preserving. both invariant. A Fuchsian group represents a finite Riemann surface if and only if it is finitely generated and of the first kind. This Fuchsian group F is called the Fuchsian model of G. There is a Riemann map #: . is called a quasifuchsian group. the two definitions are however equivalent (see F. Then there is an element geFA sothat (p.G be a type-preserving similarity onto a Kleinian group. it is more natural to assume that all similarities are quasiconformal. then c'A has more than one point. so A is conformally equivalent to the disc. where the induced isomorphism is always type-preserving. v2..e. it might take a loxodromic element into a parabolic. or is conformally equivalent to the plane (i. An elementary B-group has exactly one component.C.4 -i B2. the study of quasiconformal deformations and similarities is beyond the scope of this book). obviously invariant.1. A) with exactly one component (i. v3). Theorem.(f)=gofog'. A = 0) is called a degenerate group. we will prove the following.C. The main object of this section is to show that there are no non-trivial deformations of the Fuchsian triangle groups. IX. and assume that there is a type-preserving similarity (p:F-+ G. A B-group with exactly two components. Rigidity of Triangle Groups C.

Note that since L3 is orthogonal to A. Then the other fixed point of a is at . and the fixed point of boa is at 1. b = r3 o r2 preserves B2. where r2 is a half-turn about a line L2. Since boa is either elliptic or parabolic. and passing through the point of intersection of A and L2. where r is a half-turn about some line L with one endpoint at oo. and r3 is a half-turn about a line L3 orthogonal to A. C.. We next consider the case that v. and v2 = v3 = oo. Let P3 be the hyperbolic plane spanning the imaginary . We know that b can be written as r o r. For all the other cases. and passing through the point of intersection of B with L.3. L3 and L.. is a half-turn about a line L1. b has order v2.218 IX. F is a half-turn about some line Lwith one endpoint at 0. C. where r3 is the half-turn about a line L3 with one endpoint at 1. be the half-turn about L. G is non-elementary (V. to be parabolic. and that a can be written as r. then the other endpoint is at -1. We normalize so that the fixed points of a are at 0 and oo. Let r. We have shown that a and b are completely determined by the signature and normalization. hence a and b cannot share a fixed point. Let r2 be the half-turn about L2. with Izl > 1. L3 and L2 meet either in H3 or on the sphere at infinity. Since F is non-elementary and Fuchsian. we can write b = r3 o r2. Both endpoints of L. and the other on the real axis. even at the sphere at infinity. write a = r. In order for boa = r3 o r. orthogonal to A. Since r2 has one of its endpoints at 1. we first establish that G is necessarily Fuchsian. orthogonal to B. must have a common endpoint. Normalize so that the common perpendicular of A and B has its endpoints at 0 and oo. be the line in H3 from 0 to oo. = v2 = v3 = oo. and let B be the axis of b.4. < oo.. Since both endpoints of L3 are on 5'..G. and v2 are both finite. connecting co to 1 and L3 connecting 1 to 0. and boa has order v3. so that a has order v1. Let L. and let L2 be the line orthogonal to A with one endpoint at 1. Since r2 and r3 both preserve 5'.6). o r3 and b = r2 or. with 0 being closer to A. then normalize so that the fixed point of a is at 0. and passing through the point of intersection of A with L. We have shown in this case that G is Fuchsian. This means that L = L2 and L = L3. the other endpoint of L3 is at one of the endpoints of L both of which lie on 5'.5 that boa is parabolic with fixed point 1 if and only if the lines L and Lboth have their second endpoint at 1. B-Groups Choose generators a and b for G. Assume that v. and interchange the two discs it bounds. and so that one of the fixed points of a is at 1. its endpoints on the sphere at infinity lie on the imaginary axis.B. and so that the fixed point of b is at 1. lie on S'. draw the (hyperbolic) lines L. C. We also know from V. A and B do not intersect. Since G is non-elementary. Let A be the axis of a in 0-03.I. r3 preserves S' (it is obvious that a half-turn with one fixed point at oc. Let A be the axis of a.2. the fixed point of b is at oc.. and the two fixed points of b are of the form ±z. o F. and normalize as follows. that is. L. Write a = r2 o r where r. preserves the real axis). If v. In H3. connecting 0 and oo..

Likewise decompose N into two half-lines joined at the fixed point of b: N1. meets M1. then there is essentially only one possibility for the lines M = M'. then reflect in M. it also preserves the right half-plane.t .-z. Since a has fixed points at ± 1. let N be the line through. If M = M' (i. we can use 2-dimensional hyperbolic geometry. the picture is as shown in Fig.C. and N'. it follows that the two planes coincide. IX. Let M' = a-' (M). the fixed point of a. given by the fact that they are both Fig. then reflect in M. call the group G2. Let P2 be the plane orthogonal to B and passing through Lt. The point of intersection of these two lines lies in the closure of both planes. IX. or on the sphere at infinity. its endpoints are both real. Let M be a line passing through. Now that we know that G is Fuchsian. and M2 in the left. If vt > 2. The line L3 lies in P3. Let L be the line which connects or passes through the fixed points of a and b. Since boa is either elliptic or parabolic. we have again assumed that v3 = oo).3 (in both cases.C.C. C. note that P3 is orthogonal to A. Rigidity of Triangle Groups 219 axis. so that a can be written as first reflect in L. Notice that for Gt. so that b-t o a is elliptic. We decompose M into two half-lines: Mt in the right half-plane. and so that the fixed point of b is real and positive. then reflect in L.IX. or ending at.C.1. this can be accomplished by con- jugating G by the transformation z . The only other possibility for this case is that we could interchange N and N'. vt = 2). hence both planes contain Lt and a point not on (the closure of) Lt. This shows that the natural correspondence between Gt and G2.11z so that Mt lies in the first quadrant. M and N meet either in H2. while in G2i M and N' intersect in 32. so that b't o a is hyperbolic. where Mt meets Nt. and N2 in the lower. there are two possibilities. where we have assumed v3 = oo. IX. In the first case. in the second case. this is shown in Fig. let Gt be the group generated by a and b. Since B is orthogonal to P2 = P3. IX.2. while if N2 meets M2.C. in the upper half-plane. Similarly. the fixed point of b. N. M and N' are disjoint.e. and let N' = b(N). conjugate by z . and the line L2 lies in P2. the picture is as shown in Fig. so that b can be written as first reflect in N. If necessary. it follows that b preserves the right half-plane. Then boa is the composition of first reflect in N. Normalize so that the fixed point of a in B2 is at the origin. If N..5. or ending at.

B-Group Basics D. and G. meets N.2 Fig. a triangle is uniquely determined by its angles. has basic signature (0. so these triangles. but not in G2. 3. and the assumption that M. The other triangle is formed by the sides L. In particular. v3). Since b-1 o a is hyperbolic in both F and G. By Poincarb's polygon theorem. Then the iterates of z under both positive and negative powers of g converge to the fixed points .3 generated by elements called "a" and "b". if b is elliptic.. Observe that D is composed of two triangles. Proof. In either case. having angles of n/v. Pick a point z e d. G. and N'. v1. is conjugate to F. G = G. < oo. One of these triangles is formed by the sides L. D is a fundamental polygon for G1. In hyperbolic geometry. and v3. Then 8d = d (G).. and let g be a loxodromic element of G. IX. v2. N. Proposition. then M and N meet at the fixed point of boa at an angle of n/v3.. similarly. is discrete.. then N and N' meet at an angle of 2it/v2. Let G be a non-elementary Kleinian group with an invariant component J. and 7C/v3. G.I.C. and hence D.C.D. and has the same angles. 0 IX. IX. and N'. M'. then M and M' meet at an angle of 2n/v. is not an isomorphism. M. if v. a/v2. B-Groups Fig.220 IX. and N. and if v3 < oo. Let D be the polygon determined by M.. M'. together with our normalization. are completely determined by the numbers v v2. Consider G1.

Proof.d lies in A (H). or x is a parabolic fixed point. z for all i.. and let H = Stab(d). e0. is a cusp with vertex at the center of B.). then write gm = g o hm.zE A.IX. In particular. Choose a subsequence so that xm . has non-empty intersection with D. Then dia(gm(U)) . to be the identity at xm.3. so gm(x) -+ z. either x e 0. D has finitely many connected components.. then cp(xm) . Let G be a Kleinian group with an invariant component A. If x e 9. for each m. . It follows that d . Clearly we can assume that the gm are all distinct.). Since S is a closed surface with a finite number of points removed. Similarly.3). so z = g(x). D.x c -D. D is relatively compact in Q. . Since G is analytically finite.. Then every other component of G is simply connected. Since A(H) is perfect. cp(Bm) is also a cusped region at xm. BB. 4(G) = dd. it has a fundamental domain D with the following properties. Let {zm} be a sequence of points of S2 with Z. so that c0 I0 = cp...4. B-Group Basics 221 of g.. Then there is a deformation cp.D.. Proposition. hence there is a component d of H containing A. The limit set of H is contained in the limit set of G. Proposition. there is a finite set of cusped regions B. gm((p(x)) -+ z.0. hence d = A. no point of d . D n B. where each B. so cp(zm) = gm o (p(xm) . Proof. Proof. of G onto itself. so the point gm o V(xm) lies within gm o cp(B. except for these cusps. the points gm o cp(xm) = g o cp o hm(xm) all lie within g o cp(B.. . Since the loxodromic fixed points are dense in the limit set (see V. then d is a component of H. Let d he a component of the Kleinian group G. Every other component is a connected component of the complement of the connected set d.g(x) = z. Let G bean analytically finite Kleinian group. There are two cases to consider.A consists of at most a discrete set of points. S . hence gm(C. This statement remains true as we let B. Then cp(zm) = cp o gm(xm) = gm o cp(xm). and there is an element gm E G so that zm = gm(xm). and 01 4 = 1. Since cp commutes with every parabolic element fixing the center xm of the cusped region Bm. D.x from within some B.S consists of at most a finite number of points. If d/H is a finite surface. If the gm all represent the same left coset of Stab(x)..2. at parabolic fixed points of G. For each m there is a point xm e D.) -. choose a nice neighborhood U about x. If x is a parabolic fixed point. Hence both fixed points of g lie on the boundary of A. Proposition. hm e Stab(x). and let gyp: Q(G) Q(G) he a homeomorphism that commutes with every element of G. hence we can continuously extend from inside B. Then the points zm = gm(xm) all lie within g(Bj).E. shrink. Then S = 4/H is conformally embedded in S = L/H. D.

hence dia(gm o q (B.) . Let j be a primitive parabolic element of F with fixed point x. These three paths separate t into three regions. hencej is not accidental.z.(j) is not parabolic. By D. By VII. Hence gm o p(C) -+ z for all ( e Q . This contradicts the fact that W2 and W3 lie in different components of G. with the same number of limit points.142) onto some (G. and R3. where f. hence every purely parabolic subgroup of a non-elementary B-group has rank 1. A Fuchsian group of the first kind contains no accidental parabolic transformations. d) be a function group. d) where f. A) be a non-elementary B-group. Then j is called an accidental parabolic element of G. D. Let G be an analytically finite Kleinian group with two invariant components d. Let (G. 14. and let j be an accidental parabolic element of G.fl2 be a Riemann map. with fixed points x and y. Except for x and y. j is accidental.(j) is parabolic. If f. the closure of A. and d2. Then j is accidental if and only if f. By Ahlfors' lemma (A. then of course.z. B-Groups If the elements gm all represent distinct left cosets of Stab(x). Since g(xm) -+ z. If I. connecting x to y. no parabolic element of an elementary group can be accidental.8. Let (G.J). d) onto another function group (0. R. &(j) is not accidental. D. is devoid of limit points. dia(gm(B)) -+ 0 for any cusped region centered at x.7. Since ad. and let j be a parabolic element of G. We define the axis and true axis .7. D. Proposition. where W.(j) is hyperbolic.5). Suppose there is a conformal similarity f from (G. It follows that p(Zm) gm 0 0(xm) . d) be a non-elementary B-group.B. = A (G). D. Proposition (Accola [3]). It is important to remark that every Abelian subgroup of a Fuchsian group has rank 1. Then (VI. Then in dm.6. and let j be a parabolic element of G. gm(Bj) .9m o cp(B.0. does not lie on OR. Proof. Let /3: d .222 IX. Then Q(G) = dl Ud2. Proof.(j) is hyperbolic. there is a g-invariant path W. by D. D. there cannot be a conformal similarity f from (F. then we use the fact that the closure of a cusped region is a block. then. H = Stab(d3) is non-elementary. does not intersect Rm.Z.)) . Let g be a loxodromic element of H.A..9. Suppose there were a third component d3. D. Let fl: d -+ 142 be a Riemann map. Let (G.3.(j) is loxodromic. call them R R2.7) there is a punctured disc U conformally embedded in o-u2/F so that the boundary of U corresponds to j.10. Proof. Proposition.5. Since a conformal similarity takes an elementary group to a group that is again elementary. so .

Proposition.. then 3 is parabolic. is also disjoint from W.d -* 0-82 be a Riemann map. if J is accidental. where G c l. since #-' is well defined on this disc. of fl . However if A is not the true axis of j. then j is accidental in t. D. except for the fixed point of J. then IV = /1(W) is precisely invariant under If J is not accidental. One of the discs bounded by iP is contained in 0-82. then this strip is bounded by two parallel curves).12. Corollary.7 is hyperbolic. and letj = ft*(j). We make the following observations about axes of accidental parabolic transformations. A' is the axis of the accidental parabolic transformation j.. If there are B-groups (G.D. so that Stab(A) = Stab(h(A)) = <j>. Then j is accidental if and only if j is hyperbolic.11. J). then it is not quite true that A = A' if and only if <j> = <j'>. Proof.(j) (see V. Since 7 is hyperbolic. to obtain a simple closed j-invariant curve. D. then there is a half-turn h. If A. We adjoin x to A. J is not accidental if and only if there is a precisely invariant simple loop W. Since the set of axes in the Fuchsian model F is F-invariant. Let W be any precisely invariant loop which. we obtain a simple closed curve. W bounds a disc that contains no limit points. there are limit points on both sides of i$'. . and YP2 on either side of I$'. f. If we start with a pointy on A. to be the axis of J. and one of the open discs bounded by W contains no limit points of G. If the axes are also the true axes. From here on we consider this simple closed curve. If W is any precisely invariant curve in °d. and if we adjoin the fixed point of to 1'.IX. there are infinitely many translates of Y ' on either side of IV. The axis A of j is j-invariant. then this statement is true.. and J and j is an accidental parabolic transformation of G. A) and (6. the parabolic fixed point on W. The strip is precisely invariant under the stabilizer of the true axis. with fixed points on the true axis of j. = with Stab(W). where Stab(W. W is contained in °d = °o fl A. The two axes bound a strip (if the fixed point of j is at oc. Choose translates W. respectively. Conversely. in particular. is contained in A.G.) does not commute with Stab(I'). except for the fixed point of J. hence 0 there are limit points of G on either side of W. B-Group Basics 223 of j to be the inverse image under fi of the axis and true axis.13. Let #:. Since Stab(Wm) does not commute loops W. with a distinguished point on it. respectively. so that. Let J = <f> he a maximal parabolic cyclic subgroup of the non-elementary B-group G.11). let F = /f#(G) be the Fuchsian model. the set of axes of accidental parabolic transformations in G is G-invariant. and contains the true axis. then the iterates of y under both positive and negative powers of j converge to the fixed point x of j. D. d. then . Then the lie on either side of W.

14. Also. B-Groups D. Proposition. respectively. D. Let (G. Let fl: d . every limit point other than x lies in B. The number of 00-connectors T2 (this terminology will be explained in X. A' be the axis of j. d) be a quasifuchsian group. d). Except for the fixed point of J. We have shown that B is precisely invariant under J in G. A) be a non-elementary B-group. Since j and j' do not commute. Proof. this cannot occur. Hence the only possibility for a translate g(B) to intersect B is to have B contained in g(B). call it B. entirely in A. A and A' intersect in at most one point of A. A). Proof. but in this case.16. D. the entire limit set is the common boundary of these two components. Suppose there is a j-invariant simple closed curve W. the second point of intersection of A and A' can only be the fixed point of both j and j'. By D. We conclude that B' contains no limit points of G. Let (G. Then G has no accidental parabolic transformations. and let x be the fixed point of j. Since A intersects the limit set only at x. there might be some g E G so that g(W) and W intersect exactly at the fixed point of J.18. O D. Then the axis A of j lies. If J = Q> is doubly cusped. except for the fixed point x of j. Corollary. Let A. Since the axes. Since G has two invariant components. Then An A'=0. W lies in d. W e A U {x}. Since d' c B. Proof. Proposition. Let j be a primitive accidental parabolic transformation in the B-group (G. hence no translate of W intersects W (of course. and one of the open discs B bounded by W contains no limit points of G. with the following properties. no translate of W lies inside B. Hence d' lies entirely in one of the open discs bounded by A. Let B' be the other open disc bounded by A.12. Hence B does not lie in any translate of itself.17. and W fl d is precisely invariant under J. j is not accidental. j'. Since B contains no translate of W. it contains no translate of itself.H2 be a Riemann map. Let j and j' be non-commuting accidental parabolic transformations of the B-group (G. the two loops do not cross). Let j be a primitive parabolic element of the non-elementary B-group (G. then both cusped regions lie in noninvariant components of G. f(A) and f(A').15. j is not accidental. call them .224 1X. since B contains no limit points. W fl A is precisely invariant under J = <j> in G. d). D. By D. Proposition. d' c B.J and d'. intersect in at most one point of B2. Then B is precisely invariant under J in G. Two simple closed curves on the sphere intersect in at least two points. Suppose j e G is accidental parabolic. in particular.D) is defined to be the number of non- . j is not accidental.15.

I.H.15. Then the axes (or pairs of axes) A. We also assume that G contains no accidental parabolic transformations. We use V. From here on we assume that G 0 H.e. then H has two invariant components Ao A and A'. and K(gHg-') in A. i. and let H = Stab(A'). . (ii) Let J1. or G contains accidental parabolic transformations.19... .3 + n of them. Then (i)r253p-3+n. Let fl: A .G.... 14.. Assume there is another component A'.. Let g e G . Proposition. Just as we defined axes of elements of G. then g(A') is different from both Ao and A'.H.. D. . = fixed point of Jm.G. Let (G.. If G = H.(J).. Jk be a complete set of maximal non-conjugate cyclic subgroups of accidental parabolic transformations. The proposition above states that given the non-elementary B-group (G.E. let convex region in H2 of f. there is a nearby point that coincides with an axis of a hyperbolic element of H. = A.9). be the so we can define the convex region for any subgroup J of G. then G is degenerate.). Theorem.15). If A is the only component of G. then Am is precisely invariant under the stabilizer of the fixed point of Jm. the accidental parabolic transformations in G can be recognized by a system of hyperbolic loops on A/G. set A. B-Group Basics 225 conjugate maximal cyclic subgroups of accidental parabolic transformations in G. is not the true axis. For some fixed element g of G .18) in H2 to observe that for every point in the tangent space of fl(U). there are at most 3p ..G.13)..5 (see also V. A) be a non-elementary B-group. Let (G. assume that the intersection of these sets has non-empty interior U. Then by V. where A/G has signature (p. or G is degenerate. then G is quasifuchsian. is the true Otherwise. A) be a B-group. Proof. nor quasifuchsian.H2 be a Riemann map. Then either G is quasifuchsian.21.Jk) in G. then the convex region K(J) = f-'(K(f*(J))) (see V. . n. together with the fact that if A.D. where each loop in the system determines a primitive accidental parabolic transformation (see V... A). set A. Let A. The endpoints of A are the fixed . . U jm(A. .20.. Ak) is precisely invariant under (Jl. a and b are both loxodromic. . be the axis of If A'. and lies on the axis B of b e gHg -'. similarly with gHg-'.. v1. there is a half-turn jm in the stabilizer of the axis of Jm. G has infinitely many components (V. Then (A . Since G has no accidental parabolic transformations. we assume that H is neither degenerate. v..).IX. A. Proof. project to disjoint simple closed curves on A/G. D. Hence there is a point z e U which lies on the axis A of a e H.. Statement (ii) follows almost at once from D. D. since G has at least three components.E.. consider the sets K(H).

make up a simple closed curve. Q D. We have shown that for every g e G .E.(H) is finitely generated (see V. H is of the second kind (for a Fuchsian group of the first kind. This contradicts the fact that there are limit points of H in B separating Ao from A'.22. the convex region is the whole disc). It follows that f. We remark that the three possibilities mentioned in D.e.Stab(A). and [G: H] > 1. IX. B-Groups points of a on o4'.J). contradicting the assumption that G contains no accidental parabolic transformations.H. and g(A' ). hence it has infinitely many components. Similarly. where B fl A is precisely invariant under Stab(A) in H. Then for every h e H . int(K(H)) is precisely invariant under H. h(A) fl B = 0. Hence there are no limit points of H.226 IX.e. such an isomorphism is induced by a . together with the fixed points of a. hence h(B) fl B = 0.4) the stabilizer of every boundary axis is hyperbolic. Then j has an axis in A and an axis in A'. modulo the group. for d' and g(A') are disjoint. These two simple closed curves meet at z. that is. An Isomorphism Theorem E. there is also an axis B' for b in g(A'). and let j be an element of StabG(A).(H) is a Fuchsian group whose convex region. The axes A and A'. It follows that [G: H] = oo. other than the fixed points of Stab(A)..(H) is infinite..l4 and the references in V. Hence f. Let A be a boundary axis of K(H) in A. f. i. the metric in both cases is of course the Poincare metric). Further. the hyperbolic area of K(H)/H is less than the area of A/G (the statement that int(K(H)) is precisely invariant under H in G is equivalent to the statement that there is an isometric embedding of int(K(H))/H into A/G. Since G contains no accidental parabolic transformations. j is loxodromic. and can meet at no other point.G. in B. then it is geometric. Let B be the topological disc bounded by W.(H) is a geometrically finite Fuchsian group of the second kind.F. K(H) and K(gHg-' )) = g(K(H)) have disjoint interiors. i. Then (VI. A'. There are degenerate groups with accidental parabolic transformations (see 1. We conclude that B is precisely invariant under Stab(A) in H. hence the area of HZ/#.21 are not mutually exclusive. hence there is also an axis A' in d' for a. We have shown that j is parabolic. these two axes can be combined to form a simple closed curve W. together with the fixed points of b. Since H is non-elementary. This theorem asserts that if a type-preserving isomorphism between Fuchsian groups preserves boundary elements in both directions. The smallest normal subgroup of G containing H has at least three components: Ao.I. has finite area.11). int(K(H)) 96 0. and two distinct axes in A meet in at most one point. Since int(K(H)) is precisely invariant under H in G. so do B and B'. One of the most important theorems in the theory of Fuchsian groups is the Nielsen isomorphism theorem.

there are certain elements for which we make a choice of axis.E.RAJ with qi o a o 0-' = P(a) If F is hyperbolic cyclic. the axis off in 0--02 crosses the axis of g if and only if the axis of (p(f) crosses the axis of V (g). Set a = log(A)/log(A). and let tp: F . For each Fuchsian group F containing half-turns. A proof of this theorem is beyond the scope of this book. also. parabolic cyclic. and j of hyperbolic elements of F. We first take up the case that F is elementary. our additional hypotheses are that the isomorphism is type-preserving. for every pair of hyperbolic elements f and g of F. the axis of j separates the axes of f and g. The same function t/i(re'e) = r°e'° commutes with a. and conjugates b into bb. If F is trivial. and that it preserves both intersection and separation of axes in both directions.P be a hyperbolic isomorphism onto another Fuchsian group. elliptic cyclic. If F = 712 * 712. for every triple f. Lemma. Since p(a) is a (geometric) generator for P. The isomorphism gyp: F -+. similarly. Let F be a finitely generated Fuchsian group. That is. if and only if the axis of V(j) separates the axes of p(f) and (p(g). then normalize F so that it is generated by a(z) = 11z. except for coincidence.P is called geometric if there is a homeomorphism 4: fH02 . Then F is either trivial. is called hyperbolic if p is both type-preserving and preserves intersections and separations of axes. Let F and F be Fuchsian groups. normalize so that a(z) = Az generates F. this homeomorphism is the restriction of a deformation. Similarly normalize P so that (p(a) = a. From here on.3. with disjoint axes. hyperbolic cyclic. we will show that the theorem is true for certain two generator Fuchsian groups. and note that qioa = cp(a)ogi. that is. and b(z) = Az. E. and.Iz. E. An isomorphism cp: F -. If a is a (hyperbolic) boundary element of F. there is a a/i c. Then 0 is geometric. but we will prove a weaker version.9). we assume that F is non-elementary. there is nothing to prove. F.H2 inducing V. then (p(a) is a boundary element of F. also normalize P so that it is generated by cp(a)(z) = a(z) _ . E. set cli(reie) = rete. If F is elliptic or parabolic cyclic. and then use combination theorems to glue together the homeomorphisms. except perhaps for orientation. . or 712:712.IX. g. and cp(b)(z) = b(z) = Jz. Theorem (Nielsen [78]). Also our conclusion here is only the existence of a homeomorphism from H 2 onto itself (but see F. then let a be (geometric) generator of F. as opposed to true axis. an axis separates two others if and only if the corresponding true axis separates the corresponding true axes. An Isomorphism Theorem 227 homeomorphism of H2 onto itself. The proof uses building blocks. It is easy to see that two axes intersect if and only if the corresponding true axes intersect.2.4.

simply replace b by b-'. first reflect in some line M. and no axis of P crosses X. For example. . If M and N intersect inside H2. M is orthogonal to. Let M' = a(M). B-Groups Proof. in the case that say a is parabolic. and the product c b a = 1. then reflect in N. b. there is a unique hyperbolic line. and they do not cross at the base point). 3). Similarly. and then reflect in some line N. or passes through or ends at B. It might be (although in fact it does not happen) that c is hyperbolic and M and N lie on opposite sides of L. of course.228 IX. c is elliptic. or a disc with two special points. b. we can find a set of generators a. 0 E. then L is orthogonal to A. in this case. in this case. In all these cases. Let L be the full hyperbolic line on which L' lies. if M and N meet at a point on the circle at infinity.S. and b is hyperbolic. and C of c. L' is orthogonal to B. the common perpendicular of M and N is the axis C of the hyperbolic transformation c (see V. b. That is. the axis of a. replace half-turns by reflections. Since (p and gyp-' preserve intersection and separation of axes. For each pair of the these generators. and c is necessarily parabolic. no axis of P lies in A`. Similarly. they are disjoint except at the base point. the only way we can have f($) fl P # 0 is for f(A) = I. We are free to cyclically permute the elements a. we require that if any of these three elements are hyperbolic. we can find corresponding generators for F. In the remaining case. one of the halfplanes bounded by A contains axes of hyperbolic elements. then that point is a fixed point of c. or the fixed point of a if a is parabolic. and its finite endpoint on the axis B of b. call the other one P. Since P is non-elementary. then c is. we can write b as a product of first reflect in L. or line segment L' orthogonal to both axes. and if a is elliptic. or an annulus with one special point. Let H be the boundary halfplane bounded by A. the three loops are essentially disjoint (that is. and c. and the arguments become equally valid in H2). We can write a as a product of two reflections. This shows that 13 is precisely invariant under Stab(A' ). which we also call a. Similarly. Note that if a is hyperbolic. if a is parabolic. We define the axis A to be the ordinary axis of a if a is hyperbolic. and then reflect in L. then L passes through A. and let N' = b-' (N). c-' is then the composition of: first reflect in M. Of course. then L ends at A. c. then the point of intersection is of necessity a fixed point of c. We first prove our theorem in the special case that °S = (°Q(F) fl H2)/F has signature (0. L' is a half line with its infinite endpoint at the fixed point A of a. For reasons that will become apparent in the next section.B for the analogous discussion in H'. We likewise define the axis B of b. c for RI (°S). Then for f E P. where each of these generators is defined by a simple loop from the base point that winds once around a boundary component of °S. the fixed point of a in l l2 if a is elliptic. or a sphere with three disjoint closed discs removed (a sphere with three disjoint closed discs removed is sometimes called a "pair of pants"). Using the natural homomorphism. we assume that either S = H2/F is a sphere with three special points.

we can construct the fundamental polygon D. B fl D.. and that c is the composition of reflection in N followed by reflection in M).E. 15). Since A. on M. wk be a maximal system of loops on °S and let Y. i/i(A. Then °S is a finite marked Riemann surface.. or units.. and construct the lines ai. M'. c fl b) onto the corresponding parts of D. let w1... construct the line L. We make one further requirement of this homeomorphism 0. set °S = (H2 fl °12(F))/F. o b = b o 0. It follows that C cannot separate d from D. We conclude that there is a homeomorphism 0 from the closure of D onto the closure of b that commutes with the identifications. If this were not the case. we require that 0(A. B and C are all orthogonal to the sides of D. of the system (see V.. We need to observe that if c is hyperbolic. from D. the intersection of the sides 1N and R (and the intersection of the sides a' and R') is completely determined by the type of c. . Exactly as above. Exactly as above. joining. C). or orthogonal to these axes. this follows at once from the fact that D is symmetric about L. There is no difficulty in using the action of F and F to extend /i to a homeomorphism of H2 which realizes gyp. then the angle of intersection is also determined. . N. We next consider the group F generated by a = cp(a) and b = Wp(b). then a and R lie on the same side of L. B. where F is a finitely generated Fuchsian group. C) = (d . and R'. Hence one of the half-planes bounded by C has no limit points on its boundary and contains no elliptic fixed points. An Isomorphism Theorem 229 Fig. R. We turn now to the general case.C ). E. it is easy to verify that the hypotheses of Poincare's polygon theorem are satisfied (the only thing remaining to verify is the condition on the sum of the angles if M and N intersect. the sides of D are identified by the elements a and b. If for example a is not hyperbolic.1 The lines M. . M'.E. Since c is a boundary element. so is c.G. IX. that is.0 . then the axis C of c' would cross L. be the building blocks.IX. we define the axes of a and b. It is easy to choose i/i1D so that it maps (A fl D.. and N' bound a polygon D. E. and on N'. B. If c is elliptic. then it is no restriction to require that ¢(A) = T. o a = d o 0.6. separating d. the axis of a. C) = ( 9 . where again. . B.7. Y.

when restricted to W. and there is a half-turn g2 e G2. = 41. . and. lying over Ym. and let 0. and for each choice of Tm. Then every point of 2 is a G. and T2/G2. and the boundary half-plane is precisely invariant under the hyperbolic cyclic group J = Stab(W). in particular. be the three generators of G. and choose T2 so that T. so that Y. again using the fact that cp preserves separation and intersection of axes. 132) is not a proper interactive pair. and then we extend 4112 as far as possible by the requirement that 41120g(Z) = cp(g) u 12(z) forge <GG2). and B2. We now use VII. and 02 both map W onto the same axis IV. G2 is elementary. The two homeomorphisms. B-Groups We assume we are given a type-preserving isomorphism rp from F onto another Fuchsian group F. is precisely invariant under G. The homeomorphisms 41.H2 be the homeomorphism which conjugates G. G2). in all of F.(T). Since cp preserves intersections and separations of axes. where two hyperbolic elements of F have intersecting axes if and only if their images under (p have intersecting axes. then it is a boundary element. choose some T.. and both have the same invariance property. W is a boundary geodesic.-translate of some point of &. with g. factored by <G.230 IX.. lying over Y.2(viii) to conclude that the convex region of <G. onto 6. this implies that G.C. with g2(W) c B1.: 0-fl2 . is precisely invariant under J in Gm). Then there is half-turn g. Let Y = Y. Gm}block (if W is the true axis. then it is a boundary element of G. It is easy to modify them in a neighborhood of W. Since T. Choose Y. where B. ry.5-6. note that if any of these is hyperbolic. and T2 have a common geodesic.B. 01 and 1'/2. there is a homeomorphism 0 that conjugates G.) onto (p(Gm). Extend W to a full circle.12I T2 = 412. let T c LO2 be some connected component of the preimage of Y.. then B. with the boundary components corresponding to W identified. and c.. on their boundary. (W) a B2. 0. Looking from the point of view of G./G. ). so that they agree on W. Let a. We conclude that (C 132) is proper. = qp(G. = Stab(T. and let G = Stab. and the axis of f e F separates the axes of g and h if and only if the axis of qp(f) separates the axes of (p(g) and cp(h). We next use combination theorems to glue together these different homeomorphisms. . One sees at once that Ii2/G is a planar surface with three boundary components.. This yields three distinct axes for J which cannot be. b. and observe that this circle bounds two closed discs B. and Y2 have at least one common boundary curve. ). = Stab(T. and . A Suppose (13.. Set G2 = Stab(T2). let G. is a strong (J. W is also a boundary axis. a G. We now define a new map 4P2 by 012 IT. E. and if any of these three generators is hyperbolic.(T1) and fi2(T2) are disjoint. . but now the other half-plane is precisely invariant under J. Start with some Y. we know that *12 is well . C = rp(G) is generated by three elements. G2) is the union of T. whose product is the identity. Similarly.(W) and 4i2(W) have the same orientation. We conclude from the analysis in E. Looking from the point of view of G2. is elementary. for some m. call it W. are both homeomorphisms of W onto the same axis. that for each Ym.

We conclude that 0" is injective. we deform O' near W2 so that on W1. Call these axes W. We will need the following special case of E.5.) lies on the boundary of i/i'(T'). are not true axes. H = Stab(T)* f. where T' is the union of the H-translates of T There are closed outside discs B. We observe exactly as above that the new 0' is a homeomorphism of T' onto a region bounded by certain axes. We want to extend O' continuously to T'. and let f be an element of F mapping W. is T/F with the two boundary components corresponding to W..10. factored by H. An Isomorphism Theorem 231 defined. E. two adjacent regions are mapped onto adjacent regions. Of course ii' is defined on a connected set of these preimages. F0=F.1 1. is hyperbolically convex.) E. is an axis on the boundary of T'.E.9. i/r' o f = (p(f) o 0'. and so that they map the regions bounded by true axes (these are slightly larger than the regions bounded by the corresponding axes) onto regions bounded by true axes. and W2 glued together. so that f maps the outside of B.IX. onto the inside of B2. U B2. and W2. (This argument needs modification in the case that one or more of the boundary axes of the T. and the convex region of H. Since cp preserves separation and intersection of axes. and so that 41' still maps W2 onto the corresponding axis in F. Then by VII. then the axis of V(W. we arrive at a subgroup F0 of F where F0 and F agree in their actions on each of the regions T.. lies over some Y. O . The total number of boundary geodesics for any of the subgroups mentioned above is at most 2k. We continue in the above manner until we have a homeomorphism 0' defined on a full set of preimages of the Y. then since T is bounded by axes of hyperbolic elements of F.9. and 02 so that they map true axes onto true axes. hence hyperbolically convex. where k is the number of geodesics in the system of loops. there must be two such axes that are F-equivalent. necessarily. it must be that distinct such regions are mapped by 0 onto distinct such regions. of course. but not equivalent under Stab(T). We adjoin f to Stab(T). If this occurs. it is easy to extend 0. and satisfies the right invariance properties. and W2. and we get a new region T'. and they have exactly the same boundary elements. However we do not immediately know that 4/1' is injective. Wherever defined. is locally a homeomorphism. we decrease the number of boundary geodesics by two. and W2. bounded by W. respectively. In order to achieve this. = Stab(Wm). 412 maps each such region onto a region bounded by disjoint axes. E.2. and B2. then.E. It is clear that we can do this once we have the new /i' continuous near both W. It is clear that there are points of H2/F not in the projection of B. and is bounded by axes. if W. call it T If T is not all of 112. Each of the regions T. onto W2. to get a new subgroup H of F. Hence after a finite number of steps. Let J. Each time we perform the operation described in E.

3. respectively. so that fm(m)E1) . which asserts that given any two finite marked hyperbolic Riemann surfaces and an orientation reversing homeomorphism between them. F. p F.232 IX.2. We mention Bers' simultaneous uniformization theorem. so that Q(G)/G is (conformally equivalent to the union of) these two surfaces. d and A'.F be a hyperbolic isomorphism. jm(D) converges to the attracting fixed point of j. If F were of the second kind. } be a sequence of points of W. Let l''. then it would. In the case that . others were constructed in VIII. and let j be a loxodromic element of G. #' be the Riemann map from respectively.. the content of the above lemma is that W is a simple closed curve. Let G be a quasifuchsian group with components A and A'. then there is some choice involved. Fuchsian groups of the first kind are special cases of quasifuchsian groups. Let W be the axis of j in A. Let fi. there is a homeomorphism from A onto d' that covers the given homeomorphism between the surfaces and commutes with every element of G.-oo. A'.I.E. Quasifuchsian Groups F. respectively. where A/G is a finite Riemann surface. El IX.3). Let cp: F . for then the result is just a restatement of E. Any sequence of points of W accumulates only to a point of W or to a fixed point of j. there is a quasifuchsian group G. Lemma. W'. Proof. see F.4. .3.(j). The full axis W of j is the union of W. jm(D) converges to the repelling fixed point of j. or one of these two points. Proof. Then P is also of the first kind. and for m . so would F. It suffices to prove that F is of the first kind. and let W = #`(W). and there is a (possibly orientation reversing) type-preserving similarity between F and F. respectively. for example. The curves W and W' are called.+oo. W' = (if the axes are not the true axes. Note that for m .2. W be be the axis of f. also.F. and let D be a fundamental set for J = Q>. onto the upper and lower half planes. Recall that G is a quasifuchsian group (of the first kind) if G is a Kleinian group with two invariant components.have a boundary axis. For each m. choose D to be an annulus. and then by E. where D is bounded away from the fixed points of j. B-Groups Corollary. including one boundary curve. and the two fixed points of j. the axes of j in A. find jm E J. Hence x is either a point of W. where x.x e C. where F is a finitely generated Fuchsian group of the first kind. and F is Fuchsian. Let {x.

(W)) .3 induces a hyperbolic isomorphism between F and F. d) be quasifuchsian groups. then h(W) and W touch but do not intersect at the fixed points of J.17. then its axis W is precisely invariant under its stabilizer. Let J be a loxodromic cyclic subgroup of the quasifuchsian group G. 0 F. For each m. let J he a maximal cyclic loxodromic subgroup of G. any type-preserving similarity A --+. Let (F. Note also that by D. no translate of W can cross W. we have shown that w fl g(W) # 0 if and only if g stabilizes the pair of fixed points of J. Proof. Normalize G so that oo a °Q(G). and the radii tend to zero. in fact. A) and (P. Let {g. and the radius of this circle tends to zero.F. These centers accumulate only at A(G). Of course. Let W be a simple J-invariant loop. Let D = {z11 5 Iz1 S IAl } be a fundamental set for J. IA. Lemma. Two translates g(W) and h(W) are distinct if and only if g and h lie in different left cosets of G/<j>.9-14. distinct translates of W need not be disjoint. as opposed to the true axis. Proof. and g is a half-turn stabilizing the true axis. . Since G is discrete. a J. where W fl A(G) = A(J). then there are two choices each for W and W'. As in the Fuchsian case. is called hyperbolic if cp preserves intersections and separations of axes. The proof is an easy adaptation of VII.. o jm. Choose these so that if h is a half-turn stabilizing the true axis. Then gm(W) lies inside the isometric circle of g. this can occur only if W is not the true axis.4. replace gm by an element of the form g. If the primitive loxodromic element j e G represents a simple loop in A. and so that J is generated by j(z) = Az. Let G be a quasifuchsian group. j.'.F. where J represents a simple loop in A (that is. Quasifuschsian Groups 233 W is not the true axis.B. and the points of intersection are exactly the fixed points of J. the isomorphism induced by P is type-preserving. Since go J.J.Ol2 induces a hyperbolic isomorphism. so if g(W) fl W # 0. an isomorphism q : F . there is only the one translate of W intersecting W. Let g be some element of G . so that Stab(W) is loxodromic cyclic. 0 F. the axis of J in A is precisely invariant under its stabilizer) and let W be the full axis of J. W lies outside the isometric circle of g. this can happen only if they meet at both fixed points of J. Lemma. We have defined the axis. Note that a Riemann map fl: A ..(W)} be a sequence of distinct translates of W.IX. Hence for m sufficiently large. G)-block. Since W projects to a simple loop. Two axes in the lower half-plane can intersect in at most one point.l > 1.S. so that the center of the isometric circle of the new g. Observe that w fl D is bounded away from A(G). In this case. then these two loops meet at one of the fixed points of J. lies in D.0. Then dia(g. Then W is a strong (J.

that is.4. so is the composition gyp'. then (V. H 2) to (G.(ym) = 0 ojm(ym) = fr(xm) necessarily tends to O(x). taking (G. The triangle groups were taken care of in IX. If {xm} is a sequence of points approaching x from inside H2. For ze H2. B-Groups Using F. Consider .G. Hence (gm(W) nests about some point. L) that induces rp'. If x is a limit point of F.is bounded away from x. It is immediate that /i is continuous at x from inside any horoball centered at x. the diameter of this sequence of loops tends to zero. F. A'). and for all z c.x. let fl: d . A). O(xm) . so we can assume that G is not a triangle group.. as we have defined it. taking (F. Since all three of these isomorphisms are type-preserving and hyperbolic.6. A).(G) be the Fuchsian model of (G. If the points y.Q(F). . Observe that i/i. and since W is a G-block. Then the axes gm(l) have the right separation property. where x is not a parabolic fixed point. it is easy to see that if G is a quasifuchsian group with components d and A'. and there is a sequence { fm} of elements of F so that fm(W) nests about x. call the disc containing the parabolic fixed point fi(x) the outside. The loop fi(A) bounds two discs. jm(A) . then (fl').) . there is a type-preserving but possibly orientation reversing similarity ii' from (F. and let gm = cp(fm). We now define the homeomorphism qi: Q(F) -> Q(G) as follows. Let W be the corresponding full axis in G.11. O(z) = (fl')-' o 0'(z). A') to (F'. The isomorphism ip' = (fl').234 IX. then the identity isomorphism between (G.H2 be a Riemann map. taking (G. and let (F'. o jm(A) = o VI(A). Complete fr(A) to a loop by adjoining the fixed points of the (p-images of Stab(A).0. Since the points fi o jm(ym) = fr(xm) all lie inside 1'(A). Theorem.3. L) onto (F'. then there is some axis A of F that separates all the ym from 8B.C. then their image under 0 lies in a compact part of Q(G). A). L). By F. but outside some fixed horoball B centered at x.x. If x is a parabolic fixed point of F. Of course the identity isomorphism is type-preserving. Then f-' is the restriction of a deformation. A) to (G. Proof.17) there is a simple axis W. for all feF. is continuous from inside Q(G) at the non-parabolic limit points. Let f' be a Riemann map from A' onto Let cp be the isomorphism the lower half-plane L. and for z e L. then the identity. A') is hyperbolic.7. L) be the corresponding Fuchsian model. If the points ym tend to a point y on i)H2. 41 (z) = fl`(z). call it 4i(x). necessarily different from x. It is easy to check that iji o f(z) = rp(f) o ii (z) for all f e F. then define fi(x) to be the fixed point of the corresponding parabolic element of G. Let (G. then we can find elements jm a Stab(x) so that ym =j-'(x. with of= (f-'). F. so (p(jm) o 4. Since A does not pass through x. there is a homeomorphism q': C -' C. Then by E. and let F = f. dia(gm(W)) . all lie in a compact part of H'.(f)o4. o (p can be thought of as the composition of first ip. A) be a quasifuchsian group. and (G.

F. let F be the Fuchsian model of G. then >ji can be chosen so that 1k. Since G and ti have the same basic signature. Since the map z . then there is a sequence of points of 0. hence i/i(x) = y. F. If y is any limit point of G. Theorem (Nielsen [78]).IX. Then there is a deformation i/r of G onto 0. Let (G. It is immediate from the way we have defined qi that it is an injection from C into itself.B. we can assume that we are given kio. The reflection z .E. F. d). Since F is of the first kind. Normalize so that the fixed point of g is at oo. Note that x is necessarily a limit point of F.z induces an isomorphism of a Fuchsian group F onto itself that commutes with every element of F.z reverses orientation. Every quasifuchsian group is analytically finite. We can now sort out the two seemingly different definitions of "quasifuchsian group" (see VIII. Let cp: F -+ G be a type-preserving hyperbolic isomorphism between two finitely generated Fuchsian groups of the first kind. the corresponding element f e F is necessarily parabolic. Hence d'/G has finite genus.2). F. Theorem. and let d' be the other component.12. continuous and conformal on H2. By F.10. Choose a subsequence so that x.6. Each boundary component of d'/G corresponds to a maximal cyclic subgroup <g>. where #(d) = 3. and there is a precisely invariant horoball. Let (G. call it {kxm)}. = ('o)* Proof. By F.3 and B.6 there is a deformation 0 of F onto G. Quasifuschsian Groups 235 F.2. d) be a quasifuchsian group. Then there is a possibly orientation reversing deformation 41 of F onto G inducing cp. and that the image of C covers Q(G). if we are given a type-preserving similarity 0o: A . Let (F. and let (F. Then g is parabolic. d) be quasifuchsian groups with the same basic signature. and has at most a finite number of boundary components. it is an orientationpreserving homeomorphism. Since any topological precisely invariant horoball contains a circular precisely invariant horoball. d) and (ti.x. d). .d. the boundary component of d'/G is a puncture. Since i/i is bijective. Since every quasifuchsian group is a deformation of a Fuchsian group. F. so that d'/G is homeomorphic to L/F. approaching y. H2) be the Fuchsian model for (0. Further. there is a deformation 0 1 from F onto G. and commutes with every element of G. Corollary. In the case that G is Fuchsian. and the image under i/r of this horoball is a precisely invariant topological horoball near the fixed point of g.9. so does the map >/i. and . there is a homeomorphism 0 that interchanges the two invariant components.11. H2) be the Fuchsian model for (G. for every quasifuchsian group G.6 gives us a stronger version of E.F. Proof.

that is. Proof. where a (0. After proving the existence of degenerate groups. and let F.6). v2. Let £ be the set of translates of A under F.G.3. Let F be a finitely generated Fuchsian group of the first kind.. or w divides °S into two subsurfaces. so that J = Q> is the stabilizer of A. let E. In the special case that the signature of F is (0. where (413). V2. 3. We choose A to be the axis. G. 3. Let w he a simple loop on °S = H2 fl °Q(F))/F. Proof: The hypotheses on w are equivalent to saying that w is a simple loop that does not bound either a disc or a punctured disc on °S. The construction of one such group is an exercise (see VIII. rather than true axis. Degenerate Groups G. Lemma. and E2 be the regions on either side of A. V1. then the corresponding loop w is hyperbolic on every Fuchsian group of signature a. and is precisely invariant under an infinite dihedral . Also.2. where w is either non-dividing.. one of these regions is bounded by exactly two axes. Then w is hyperbolic. let j be a hyperbolic element of F determined by a lift of w. V3). ]. By F..H. B-Groups there is a deformation 02 from F onto C. V1. Theorem.. It follows from F. its Fuchsian model cannot be a triangle group. so that Q/G has signature a. G. Let a = (p. I that a degenerate group cannot have signature (0. each of which either has positive genus. let w be a hyperbolic simple loop on °S as in G. with signature a # (0. 3. there is a deformation 03 from F onto F. according as w is dividing or non-dividing. Recall that a B-group is degenerate if it has exactly one component. We know from C. or has at least three boundary components. is a type-preserving similarity of F onto F. = Stab(Em). if there is one Fuchsian group of signature a on which w is hyperbolic. v). The axes in £ divide H2 into regions. be the signature of a non-elementary Fuchsian group. necessarily simply connected (one also sometimes speaks of any Kleinian group.2. v. There are two cases to consider. Then the composition 02 o 03 o 411 ' is a deformation of G onto C whose induced isomorphism is qio.12 that the problem is purely topological. that is.2. v2. which is finitely generated but not geometrically finite.I. IX. Let F be a Fuchsian group of signature a._. and let A be the axis of J. ' o 4.0 o.Then there is a degenerate group G. = [4. we will show that degenerate groups are finitely generated but not geometrically finite./i.9.4. v3).2. n. we first take up the case that w is dividing. v3). 02' o o o 0. v.2.236 IX. We will need the following fact about Fuchsian groups. as being degenerate).

the argument is essentially the same in the other case. hence is a proper interactive pair. and also replace all the corresponding translates of A by their full axes. In fact. Then there is an element f2 C if. call that region E. In any case. where these two surfaces are joined along the common boundary loop w (K(F) is the convex hull of the limit set of F). F.C. and E2 have been enlarged. We have shown that the hypotheses of VI1. onto A2.2 are satisfied for the group F' = <F1. Hence the (hyperbolic) area of K(Fm)/Fm is not greater than the area of 0-12/F.F2>.e. J c F'. if A is not the true axis.4. Since F2 is non-elementary.2(viii) H2/F is the union of K(F1)/F.. preserves E. either keeps A invariant. Let g be some element of F... the translate of A crossed by C as it leaves f.. (A) on ME. have the same orientation. It follows that Em/Fm is embedded in ai12/F. Pick a point z on A and connect z to g(z) by a (hyperbolic) line C. It is almost immediate from the way E. if airy. i. Every element of F. from which it follows that F.5. We next replace A by its full axis A.IX. the subgroups F. Since the area of 0I2/F is finite. and E2 are inequivalent under F. into f. in any case. of the common boundary of these two sets. none of the half-turns with fixed points on the true axis lie in F2.G. Even if A is not the true axis. If A is also the true axis. Since w is dividing. The complete axis A divides C into two closed discs. Degenerate Groups 237 group containing J.. mapping A onto A. the intersection of C with A and the intersection of C with A. is precisely invariant under F. with its reflection in the real axis. but is a (J. and B. and so on. there are points of H2 that are not F2-equivalent to any point of B2. We conclude that f. Suppose that C passes through E. we can require that F2 be non-elementary. together with the interior points. Proof. and K(F2)/F2. B.. A2 is precisely invariant under J in F2.(A2). F2> = F. B2 is precisely invariant under J in F2. is not precisely invariant. Proposition. hence 6.C. F' = F. the element f. we also replace Em by the union of E. . in this case. is elementary. When we do this. C leaves by crossing some translate A. containing E2. Since J = StabG(A). . have been defined that Em is precisely invariant under F. is finitely generated. then F. by VII. We remark that since w is dividing. Q G. While the sets E.(A2). e F and that if C does not end at A then C continues on past A. = f. and F. is precisely invariant under J in F. Similarly. so is the area of K(Fm)/Fm. We have shown that F' = <F. FZf1 ' mapping A. then in fact the closed disc B. After passing through E. since F is non-elementary.. is precisely invariant under J in F. in F. in F.. )-block. and B2 containing E. We observed above that E. and F2 remain unchanged.. so we can assume that g(z) is not on A. G.. E. so. or it maps A onto an axis on the boundary of E.

of o k-'. For each t there is the natural homomorphism cp. we can slide and bend the construction as in VIII. and the entries in the images of the generators of F2 in G(t) are polynomials in the following variables: the entries in the generators of F2. and.C. G. there are only countably many complex numbers t so that tp. and Im(t) > 0. Let t e C.e. there are only countably many p for which there is a t = pe'B so that for some hyperbolic f e F.G(t). where 0. F2(t)>. including 0 and oo. and F2. Proposition. G(t) is quasifuchsian. The limit set A.C. and let k.(f) are solutions of a quadratic equation whose coefficients are polynomials in these variables.: Q(F) -+ Q(G(t)). the limit set A (G(t)) is a simple closed curve passing through 0 and cc. and as the obvious isomorphism. the upper component 4(t).(z) = tz. We now fix the choice of F. near A so that OJA) = W(t). (R2) is contained in the lower half .2.S.. G. and for all t = poe'B. i.(f) is parabolic. the fixed points of q. Let G(t) = <F. of cp.IJ = 1. Similarly. VIII. that for t = poe'a. defined as the identity on F.G(t). Q(G(t)) has two components.: F . Now that we have constructed F. B.238 IX. where B. By F. For any f. Let T be the set of numbers t = poeie for which there is a loop W(t) dividing C into two closed discs. it is Fuchsian. For each hyperbolic f e F.T. so that in the original Fuchsian group F. then 4(t) 012. again including 0 and cc (see fig. and the square of the trace.. on F2. using the same argument. For t c. It is easy to see. For every f e F. If t e T. Normalize F so that J has its fixed points at 0 and oo. The images of the generators for F.(f )) 96 4 for all hyperbolic f e F. lies on the positive reals. it is easy to deform 4i. e F f. /t and 1/ f . and the lower component 4'(t). B-Groups G. and B2 is the right half-plane. and F2.(t) is a (J. of F. Proof.6. F. G(t) is quasifuchsian (see VIII.. (p. the groups F.: F .E.F2k('. and B2(t) is precisely invariant under J in F2(t).2(ii) it is discrete. the fixed points. is the left half-plane. R. by VII. -Since F is countable. 0 small. it easily follows from this theorem that for each to T. where F2(t) = k. Then tr2(f) is a polynomial in the entries in these generators. the complement.(f) is parabolic. in G(t) are identical with the generators in F. )-block. B..7. Lemma.12. induces the type-preserving isomorphism rp. The limit set A2 of F2(t) lies on a ray R2 in the third quadrant. and so that F acts on 112. and F2(t) satisfy the hypotheses of VII. Pick generators for F.E. there is a homeomorphism . For every t E T. (t) and B2(t). Since (p.E. Fix p = po so that tr2((p.2-3.3). For t = po. maps A onto a J-invariant loop. Proof. f -a k.(f) are holomorphic functions of t. 0/i..8). G(t) preserves 02.

where E is bounded away from both 0 and oo. (t) and B2(t). G.) and A (F2(t)) are contained in the closed sector between R.E. We choose P. S divides D(to) into two regions: D. Then f. f2 o fl(R2) is contained between f2(RI) and R1.IX. and the lower component A'(t) gets smaller. Leave P.) is contained in the smaller sector between R.po) would be contained in the right half-plane. and define it in S so that it preserves the modulus. Since the limit set of G(t) is the closure of the translates of A. It is clear that we can interchange the roles of F. and F2(t) in the above argument. be the simple closed curve given by the definition of T. fixed and define P2(t) = k. if .T. Hence it suffices to choose t' so close to t so that after rotating these finitely many translates of B2(t) by arg(t . Of course. o f2(R. then the limit set of G(. that these others do not intersect W(t) follows from the J-invariance of W(t). T is an open subset of the circle of radius po.(to) in the right half-plane. and P2 wo that they are both contained in some fundamental polygon E for J. Choose a sector S = {zI Iarg(z) .11. The other G2(t') translates of W(t) that intersect E remain far from W(t). Let To be the arc of T between to and t *. between R.2(vii). Then there are only finitely many G2(t)-translates of B2 intersecting E in a sufficiently small neighborhood of W. that is. we see that all the translates of both A (F.A(t) defined as follows.t/2l 5 S}. As t traverses To counterclockwise from to to t*. There is also a homeomorphism tfi. VIII. at arg(t) = 0. We now fix a fundamental polygon P. G. Define 0. P.: H2 . and ft(R2). and A2.po were in T. for F. This defines a homeomorphism of D(to) . f2(R. and R2 in the lower half-plane. the elements of G(t) all preserve H 2. in 012.(P2). for any f2 e F2(t). Lemma.9. By VII. The point to = po is surely in T. Let E be a fundamental set for J. and traverse counterclockwise until we reach some first point t* not in T. and is a linear function of the argument. Degenerate Groups 239 plane.) is also contained in that smaller sector. G. Proof. This shows that A(t) also contains the half-plane {arg(t) < arg(z) < arg(t) + tt). there are translates of W(t) other than those intersecting E. G.t') they are still disjoint from W(t) = W(t'). to be the identity in D. and P2(t) together bound a fundamental domain D(t) for the action of G(t) on A(t) (see Fig. and likewise fix a fundamental polygon P2 for F2 in 0l2. in some sense the upper component A(t) gets larger. Likewise.8). to be a rotation by t in D2(t). That there is such a point follows from the fact that at arg(t) = it. so G(t) would not have two components.C.(t). Let t c. Set G = G(t*). and D2(to) in the left.G.10. Continuing in this fashion. so that P2(t) is a fundamental polygon for F2(t) in the appropriate half-plane. We start at this point. bounding the discs B. A(G(t)) does not intersect 112. and R2. and let W(t). likewise. where 8 is chosen to be sufficiently small so that S is precisely invariant under J in F.12.

ofo 0. where C is either contained in D1(to) or in D2(to). I F2 both converge algebraically. In order to complete the proof of Theorem G. for the case that w is dividing. for it is homeomorphic to H2/F. Hence we can extend 0. is precisely invariant under J in This means that t* would lie in To. has been defined that as t -+ t*. D. Let U be some nice open set in D(to)fl H2.6).E. we need only show that G has no accidental parabolic transformations. G is Kleinian. is a homeomorphism of H2 onto A(t). As t . Let D* be the marked surface obtained by identifying the sides of D. We have shown the following. It is also obvious from the way 4p. 4t maps ll2 homeomorphically onto some open invariant subset of A. Hence D* is a finite Riemann surface.. where B. the complete axis A would divide Q' into two closed discs. I F1 and 4p. It then follows that ti. is type-preserving for every t.t *. Every non-compact end of H2/F corresponds to a parabolic cusp on the boundary of D(to). Then for every f # 1 in F.G(t) converges to a homomorphism cp: F .: F . hence cp. G. (p(f)(U) lies outside D.: F -+ G(t). is an isomorphism. This cusp lies inside a cusped region C. We chose po so that cp. Proof.16.(f)(U) lies outside D(t).15. to a local homeomorphism of H2 into A(t). Lemma. Then U is also a nice open set in D(t) for every t e To. that is. B1 and B2. G. B-Groups onto D(t) that preserves the identifications of the sides. hence by Chuckrow's theorem (V. We can now define 0 mapping H2 onto A by using the fact that is defined on D(to) so as to preserve the identifications of the boundaries. Since D. on generators.I D(to) converges to a homeomorphism of D(to) onto its image. G is a B-group. it is clear that cp.5.G. . G.14.13. and D is precisely invariant under the identity in G. gi. Proposition. Proof. with a simply connected invariant component. since 4. and so its translates under G fill out the component A. Hence tp. Hence if G were quasifuchsian.4 be the component of G containing D. Then 0(C) is a cusped region for the corresponding parabolic subgroup of G. Hence in the limit. Then A is a simple axis. G. where A/G is a finite Riemann surface homeomorphic to H2/F. is a fundamental domain for the action of G(t) on A(t). Let .7'. defined by (p. the image of H2 is all of A(t). and for all t E T.240 IX. Let A be the axis of J in A. G is not quasifuchsian. acts as the identity on F1 and is an isomorphism of F2 onto F2(t) that preserves J. The induced homomorphism rp.(f) = 0. Lemma. We then extend 0 to all of H2 by requiring that iP -f(z) = (p(f) o bi(z). 4p is a type-preserving isomorphism. is an isomorphism. then D* is a toplogically finite Riemann surface. (p. We know that Eli is a local homeomorphism. which it does not.

Let A. note that D has two sides on A. an upper component D.. is a strong (1m. be some axis lying over w. together with the two arcs of A. so that J. We constructed po so that if f c.(Jr). Fix a fundamental polygon Do for To so that j. and two sides on A2. it is easy to see that G(t) is quasifuchsian. maps the circle A. For t sufficiently close to 1.F is not parabolic.. Then. then neither is cp(f ). G. and its reflection. let T be the region cut out by .b)/(-z + x). Choose po so that for every 0. and their conjugates. Fo)-block. of those of F. (t) and W2(t). except that we use the second combination theorem. write t = pei0. passes through these two sides. let J..21). = Stab(A 1). we can also require that a hyperbolic generator j2 for J2 identifies two of the sides of Do. . and so that the axis A. also B.5 is applicable.. where the sides of D(t) are exactly the sides of Do.E. there are many limit points lying between B. and that the axis A2 of f2 passes through these two sides.17. and A2 on its boundary. Given po. be the closed disc bounded by Am. the element f. Also. let T be the set of all t = poe1° so that the following hold. = k. and a lower component D2(t) contained in the lower half-plane. of J. identifies two of the sides of Do. There are loops W. Degenerate Groups 241 for we know that it is a non-elementary B-group.IX.5. where Wm(t) bounds a disc Bm(t) that is precisely invariant under tp. This defines a fundamental domain D(t) for G(t). f -t. Since w is non-dividing. so that f(1) = 0. Let B. has its fixed points at I and x > 1. We give the proof in broad outline only. As t moves along T (on the circle of radius po) in the positive direction.) and let J. and the two line segments of {arg(z) = n/2 + arg(t)) that these are mapped onto by f. Let k. The proof is essentially the same as that given above.E having A. We saw above that these all represent punctures in A/G. and Bt and B2 are jointly f-blocked. G(t) has no parabolic elements other than the images under rp..G(t). where B. We turn now to the case that w is non-dividing.E. Hence the only elements of G that are parabolic are the conjugates of the parabolic elements of F.(z) = tz. This fundamental domain D(t) has two components. = fJ. For every t. fl B2 = 0. so they are not accidental. f. and so that f(x) = oo. the lift of v determines an element f e F. we can write f(z) = (bz . Let A2 = f(A. and B2 that are not translates of any point of either of these sets. and not quasifuchsian (see D. onto the line through the origin: {arg(z) = n/2 + arg(t)}. ignoring our usual determinant condition. be the complete axis of J. of and let G(t) _ <Fo. and F2(t*).>. Let f. Starting at some point lying over z on A. (t). we obtain a fundamental domain D for F from Do and its reflection in the real axis. rather than the first. and let f. Hence VII. For fixed t e T. a hyperbolic generator for J. there is the obvious homomorphism: cp.. and let FO = Stab(T). Let I be the set of translates of A. Then B. and A2 under F. Using VII. Normalize F so that J2 has its fixed points at 0 and e. there is a simple loop v that crosses w at exactly one point z.: F .-blocked. and has the same signature as does F. (t) and B2(t) are jointly f.G.

This cannot be. there must be infinitely many translates of D meeting A.. there are two disjoint cusped regions B and B' in Q(G).242 IX. the lower half space. B-Groups D. Since G is geometrically finite and has no parabolic elements. Then RIG is a closed orientable 3-manifold M. Since j is doubly cusped. Since the Euler characteristic of a closed orientable 3-manifold is zero [28 pg.. for m > 1. i. hence /3(B) and fJ(B') are two disjoint cusped regions in H2 for Jt*(j)c. This contradicts the assumption that G is non-elementary. and we have S = Sl/G embedded in M. and D2(t) is decreasing. i. call it x.e. The proof that G is degenerate is very similar to the proof in the preceding case.(x) are all distinct. We next assume that G contains an elliptic element j. this is impossible. S has genus 1.19.82.. and z e 0. Since D is bounded away from A. Hence R and M have the same homology groups [34 pg. there is a sequence { g. one can find a degenerate group representing any given marked finite hyperbolic Riemann surface. G.(t) is increasing. Assume that G is geometrically finite. We remark that this result can be significantly improved. 283]. the Euclidean closure of D is bounded away from A(G). other than a sphere with three special points. From here on we assume that G contains no parabolic elements. that is. Theorem. Let A be the axis of j in H'.1S.(A) converges to a point z on the Euclidean boundary of D. we can assume that Stab(x) = Q>.. and dividing M into two halves. Using standard methods in quasiconformal mappings. there is exactly one endpoint of A in 9.e. and g. Finally. we first take up the case that G contains a parabolic element j.F. The limit set A(G) is still the same subset of C. and is left to the reader. one can find a degenerate group of any signature as above. R is the union of the upper half space. } of elements of G. and any given conformal structure. Since every Euclidean subgroup of F is cyclic. Since its complement in C is connected and simply connected. Since every elliptic element of F has exactly one fixed point in 0. any sequence of distinct translates of A is divergent in 1-8'. Since R and 0 are both contractible.A. and Q(G). Since G is discrete. G. Let D be a finite sided fundamental polyhedron for G. Proof. There is then a first point t* which is not in T. 0 . We conclude that gm(x) . with fixed point x. ttm(R) = nm(M) = 0. Let G be a degenerate group without accidental parabolic transformations. and let F be the Fuchsian model of G. that is. Let /3: 0 -+ H2 be a Riemann map. Set G = G(t*). with all distinct. we take up the case that G is purely loxodromic. 201]. Let R = §' . its complement in §' is contractible. it cannot be accidental. and so they have the same Euler characteristic.z. Since only one endpoint of A lies in Q. where the points g. z is necessarily in Q. Stab(x) is cyclic. Since j is doubly cusped. Consider G as acting on S'. g. Then G is not geometrically finite.(A) n b 0.

Proof. called structure loops. that does not intersect R. If W' 4 W and Stab(W') = Stab(W). with Stab(A) = Stab(A'). there is however one case in which this is not so. the closed outside disc B is precisely invariant under J. Hence Wt and W2 are not the true axes.3. A and A'. Let H be a structure subgroup of G. Since A(H) c A(G). but h(x) = x. H.H. A contains no limit points of H.4. Since there are no elliptic fixed points on w fl 0. Assume that there is a structure loop W' with Stab(W') = Stab(W). and let A(H) be the primary component of H. then there is an element h e J. so there is a single structure region R lying between them. H. then there is a structure region R where Stab(R) is infinite dihedral. Groups with Accidental Parabolic Transformations H. every element of G either stabilizes R or maps it to some other structure region R'. Groups with Accidental Parabolic Transformations 243 IX. and Stab(R) is equal to the stabilizer of the true axis. Since h(x) = x. if we have two true axes. In the Fuchsian model. Proposition. let H = Stab(R). then A = A'. J' = hJh-t commutes with J.IX.H. which. this occurs only when H is infinite dihedral. called the outside disc. Stab(W) is the parabolic subgroup of Stab(R). it follows that 9 is precisely invariant under J in H. Let R be a structure region. Hence R is an (H. Since H stabilizes A. J' = J.2. Then there is at most one other structure loop W' with Stab(W) = Stab(W'). A) is a non-elementary B-group with accidental parabolic transformations. and Stab(A) is hyperbolic cyclic. In general. Since W is precisely invariant under J = Stab(W) in G. w fl o is precisely invariant under J. These loops divide A.3. Let R be a structure region. where x is the fixed point of J. Hence if W is not precisely invariant under J. Every element of H . (G. A(H) of H.J maps W to another axis on the boundary of R. G)-panel. Denote the set of axes of accidental parabolic transformations by £. By H. and W and W' are the only structure loops on OR. it is also precisely invariant under J in H. Since J is parabolic cyclic. then £ is a set of simple disjoint loops. A(H) is called the primary component of H. Q(H) DO(G). but the two axes on either side of the true axis. Since the stabilizer of the true axis is a Z2 extension of Stab(W). and let H = Stab(R). . Throughout this section. H. in this case is necessarily infinite dihedral. the stabilizers of the structure regions are called structure subgroups. The regions in A are called structure regions. Hence A is contained in a component. there cannot be a third axis between W and W'.I. with W' = h(W) # W. Each axis Won a(R) bounds a closed disc B. Since £ is G-invariant. Since every Abelian subgroup of the Fuchsian model F is cyclic. and p(W no) is a simple loop. and J is a maximal cyclic subgroup of G. into regions. and t. Let W be a structure loop. H also stabilizes its primary component.

The structure region R. Then both discs bounded by W are precisely invariant under H in G. Then A is precisely invariant under its stabilizer in H. let H = Stab(R). Then R = R'. Provj.7. and containing R'. A Kleinian group is elementary if and only if it is a finite extension of an Abelian group. By H.5. H.244 IX. A structure subgroup H is elementary if and only if it is infinite dihedral. has at least one structure loop W on its boundary. if H is elementary. this contradicts H. hence J = H. By H.6. and let W be the structure loop on r3R between R and R'. then the structure region R stabilized by H has exactly two structure loops on its boundary. Further. assume that H is cyclic. both stabilized by the parabolic subgroup of H. Proposition. the stabilizer of an axis is a maximal cyclic group. Let 1) be the open disc bounded by W. hence J e H. since Stab(R) is cyclic. stabilized by H. Proposition. Let W be such a structure loop. h(W) = Wis also a structure loop on OR. Stab(R') = H = Stab(W). For any half-turn h e H. Proof. Let R be a structure region. Since G contains accidental parabolic transformations. contrary to our basic assumption that G is non-elementary. and 12 * 12. Hence W is the unique structure loop on OR. No structure subgroup is cyclic.5. A parabolic element that stabilizes a simple closed curve stabilizes both sides of the curve. let H = Stab(R) = Stab(R'). H. both are J-invariant. Hence the Fuchsian model of H is a 12 extension of a hyperbolic cyclic group. Proposition. Let R and R' be structure regions with Stab(R) = Stab(R'). and H = Stab(R) is elementary. then it would also be a 12 extension of the same parabolic cyclic subgroup stabilizing . there is no other structure loop W' with Stab(W') = J. Hence if H is elementary. so G = H is elementary. then the structure region R' on the other side of W is stabilized by a non-elementary structure subgroup. If the stabilizer H' of an adjacent structure region were also elementary. H. W and W' are the only structure loops on OR. The only elementary groups that stabilize a disc are the cyclic groups. then the structure region R has exactly two structure loops on its boundary. if W is a structure loop on OR. so H is a 712 extension of a (n accidental) parabolic cyclic group. Since R' c A. with Stab(W') = Stab(W). there must be at least one structure loop on OR.3. where Stab(R) is elementary.3. the Fuchsian model of H is also elementary. B-Groups We have shown that if the closed outside disc is not precisely invariant under its stabilizer J. Suppose R 96 R'. In the Fuchsian model. Proof. and Stab(W) is the parabolic subgroup of H. Then J = Stab(W) is parabolic cyclic.

(j) is an elliptic element of F. Then Stab(B) c Stab(R).. Let j be a parabolic element of G. so that j e H. Normalize the Fuchsian model F so that j(z) = z + 1. or maps it onto another structure region. Proof. the (Euclidean) distance between the endpoints of T is not more than 1. Hence I does not intersect { Im(z) > I). R is precisely invariant under H in G. Since fl-(x) is a fixed point of j. If j is accidental. fl-'(x) lies in some structure region R. v.1O. Then (H. Let j be an elliptic element of G. The key fact in the proof above can also be proven directly.(j). fl projects to a punctured disc on H2/F.19). Let fi be the Riemann map.H. j lies in the structure subgroup. Y is bounded by the projections of these axes. then there is a j-invariant structure loop W. so that j has a fixed point in R. If G has signature (p..IX. Groups with Accidental Parabolic Transformations 245 the structure loops on its boundary. If j is not accidental. so that R is a connected component of p-'(Y). H. Proof. Stab(R).3 + n of these loops on .9. this is a collection of simple disjoint loops. This is equivalent to saying that there is an open subsurface Y c S = A/G. so j stabilizes the structure regions on either side of W. Lemma.. Proposition.3. i. n. Proposition. in particular. Let I be the true axis of f e F corresponding to an accidental parabolic transformation in G.8. we can choose R so small that it does not intersect any of the images of these axes.] = f. and let F = f-'Gf be the Fuchsian model of G. Since R is defined by the axes of the accidental parabolic transformations. then there is a cusped region Ll c 0-02 for the maximal parabolic subgroup of G containing.6-02 be a Riemann map.. j(R) = R. as above. A(H)) is a B-group without accidental parabolic transformations. v1. so j e H = Stab(R).). H. and j(z) = z + 1 lies in F. Every element of G either keeps R invariant. contradicting H. Proof.e. Then there is a structure subgroup H c G. H. Let H be a structure subgroup of G. Then B = f-' (l) is a cusped region for j that is entirely contained in some structure region R. Let fl: A . and let F be the Fuchsian model of G. This would give three structure loops with the same stabilizer. Let R be the structure region stabilized by H. Then there is a structure region R. hence it has a fixed point x in H2. Since there are no elliptic fixed points on axes of accidental parabolic elements of G.. Then j = f. then there are at most 3p . since there are only finitely many equivalence classes of axes of accidental parabolic transformations (D. Since no translate of A can intersect A. Then A is precisely invariant under its stabilizer in F.

S) as a function of k. it remains to show that d(H) is simply connected. Since there are only finitely many of these punctured discs. if l3 = co). call it the inside. Let W be an axis on the boundary of R. Hence there is a cusped region C c d. Hence V is contractible in A (H). If V is any loop in d(H). Let G be the cyclic group generated by z -i kz. Let j be some parabolic element of H. then clearly. If j is not an accidental element of G. R+) = (H. 08) standard if sp(a) is elliptic of order a (or parabolic. with vertex x.2.246 IX. if we take R and adjoin the regular points of B to it (that is. and so obtain a set R.3 that R+ = d(H).15.e. then the image of j in the Fuchsian model of G represents a power of a small loop about a puncture. G = <a. Wp(b) is elliptic of order fi (or parabolic. R+/H is a finite Riemann surface. and qp(b o a) is elliptic of order y (or parabolic. B-Groups S (see D. where the image of qp is not discrete. d(H)) is a B-group. 1. Let won S be the projection of the positive imaginary axis. Call a homomorphism rp: G . For which or.19). in fact. we can deform it so that it lies entirely in R c A. then the axis of j is a structure loop W on OR. Since d is simply connected. D IX. W bounds a ball B whose interior contains no limit points of H. we obtain a set contained in d(H). j is not accidental in H. we obtain the following. if a = oc). Since R+ is H-invariant. and let B be the closed outside disc bounded by W. Let a and b generate a triangle group G. We have shown that there are only finitely many H-equivalence classes of axes on OR. with punctured discs (the images of the outside discs) sewn in at the boundary loops. and contained in d(H). It follows from D. and is precisely invariant under Stab(x) in H. We conclude that A (H) is simply connected. Express m(w. if y = oo). Hence. and any one of them can appear at most twice on the boundary of R. b: as = bo = (boa)' = 1 >. Then C is also contained in d(H). If j is accidental as an element of G. contains no limit points of G. y is there a standard homomorphism cp. Combining the above statements. one side of V. we have shown that H is a B-group. and let S be the annulus 1.I. (H. j is not accidental in H. adjoin the points of B other than the fixed point of J). so that C is precisely invariant under Stab(x). .. Since J is parabolic cyclic.PSL(2. We do this for every axis on the boundary of R. we can deform V in d(H) so that it does not pass through any of the axes on OR. k > 1. R'/H is the subsurface Y. /3. By D.12/G. Exercises U. Then the inside of V surely contains no limit points of H. and that H contains no accidental parabolic transformations. every point of A is a point of d(H). which is both H-invariant. i. Here again. let J = Stab(W).

Construct a degenerate B-group that contains accidental parabolic trans- formations. Construct a Kleinian group G. j is accidental in G2. Exercises 247 1.11.C2) is precisely invariant under (J1..-z maps F onto itself).i = <F.).A) I. Let F be a Fuchsian group acting on H2.IX. where F contains the primitive parabolic elementj(z) = z + 1.C.4. and let { w1. both circular discs. (Hint: Show that G2 is a 712 extension of the group G. and j is accidental in G1. and the true axis of J contains elliptic fixed points. 1. starting with a degenerate group. and VII. Let S be a finite marked hyperbolic Riemann surface...C. Then G. every wm corresponds to an accidental parabolic transformation.5. call a parabolic element g weakly accidental if there is another Kleinian group C.}. Let F be a Fuchsian group with two non-conjugate maximal subgroups of parabolic elements.) . and neither invariant. (Hint: Use VIII. . 1. for J. J1 and J2. necessarily not analytically finite. 2 and C2 = C21 U C22 be doubly cusped regions. (Hint: use a construction similar to that of 1. f.5. Construct a B-group (G. are isomorphic? I. (b) For which i and j is G0 a B-group? (c) Which pairs of these four groups {G. but is not the restriction of a deformation. constructed in 1. is Kleinian.Q(G). . so that under the natural homomorphism. For any Kleinian group G. Repeat 1. . where (C1. acting on H2. and J2. and F is invariant under reflection in the imaginary axis (that is. and let G. be an element of M mapping the outside of C1. and let F2 = hF1 h-1. and a homeomorphism 0: Q(G) . j = 1. Suppose G also has a third component d3. 2. Let h(z) = z + 4i.10. onto the inside of C2J. Let h(z) = .. be a finitely generated Fuchsian group of the first kind.7.. Then Stab(d.) is elementary.2. respectively. 1.9. Let C1 = C11 U C.4.I. that is. so that cp(g) is loxodromic. i. (a) Show that Gi. Then G2 = <F.8.. Let j.) I. = <F F2> is a B-group. 1.3. wk } be a system of loops on S.4. and there is an isomorphism lp: G -+ t . where j(z) = z + I is a primitive element of F.7 but starting with F a 712 extension of a Fuchsian group. where 0 commutes with every element of G. and .z + 4i. Let G be a Kleinian group with two invariant components.6.4. Let F.) 1. (Hint: use II. h> is a B-group.42. conjugation by z .J2). (a) Which elementary groups contain weakly accidental parabolic elements? (b) Show that every parabolic element of a finitely generated Fuchsian group is weakly accidental. F has exactly two components.^ with a topological projection p: A -' S.

There is a nice proof of this fact in the "folk literature".S). (The interested reader can find the necessary facts about quadratic differentials in Kra [43].6. A. D. and the necessary facts about Schwarzian derivatives in Duren [22].3 and V. A. Then the Schwarzian derivative of f is a quadratic differential on the sphere with three special points.18 to show that the simple closed curve A(G) is not differentiable at a dense set of points. then m* (w. see also [70] and [71]. G. An easy computation shows that zero is the only quadratic differential on the sphere with at most three poles. Jenkins [35] showed that if rz.I. Let G be a quasifuchsian group that is not Fuchsian.12. see also Strebel [87]. [71]. A more extensive treatment of extremal length can be found in Ahlfors [5]. as follows. E. (S) is finitely generated. Yamamoto [101]. This theorem first appeared in [62]. C.) CS.I. see also Tukia [92].5. f e M. S) = m(w. Vogt and Coldewey [104].4. . See Thurston [90] for a study of quasifuchsian groups from the point of view of hyperbolic 3-manifolds. 324ff]. IX. Use V. [15]. A. F. Notes A.248 IX.E. This theorem is due to Greenberg [29]. there is another proof by Kra and Maskit [45]. The theorem of Bers is in [13]. we can assume that the similarity f is conformal on 1-12. hence it is regular everywhere except for at most simple poles at these three points. The original theorem is due to Nielsen [78]. G. a proof can also be found in Kra [43 pg.J.G. [62]. This fact was observed by J.21. F. A proof of the Nielsen isomorphism theorem can be found in Marden [54]. or Zieschang. GA Degenerate groups were discovered on the boundary of Teichmiiller space by Bers [ 17].3. Since there is conformally only one sphere with three distinguished points. see also Marden [52] and Thurston [90] for the torsion-free case. B-Groups 1.B. The fact that a hyperbolic triangle is determined by its angles can be found in Beardon [I I pg. Since the Schwarzian derivative of f is zero. see also [ 15].6.19. 148]. Matelski.I.I.P. Ahlfors [4]. A.

Let p: (9. One can describe a normal subgroup of rz. can be topologically realized by a regular function group. and the second is to show that every regular covering of a finite Riemann surface. and that this regular covering is independent of all the base points. where the covering surface is planar. We say that N is the normal closure of the set { wm }. One can define a function group either as a finitely generated Kleinian group with an invariant component. be Let N be the smallest the element of n. it depends only on the set of loops {wm}.A. where d/G is a finite Riemann surface. this theorem however is beyond the scope of this book. or..e.. one can define it as a Kleinian group G.. with an invariant component d. It is easy to check that N is independent of the spurs vm. >. we say that p: 9 -+ X is the highest regular covering of X for which the loops {wm} all lift to loops. where the covering surface is planar. choose a spur v.. while one needs Ahlfors' finiteness theorem to go from the first to the second... In this case. The Planarity Theorem A. Let a. x0) be the regular covering with defining subgroup N. . w2. x0) containing the loop vm w. Let X be a manifold. (X. as defined here. Using similar techniques with quasiconformal mappings. geometrically finite) function groups up to deformation. xo) in terms of a set of loops (wm ) on X as follows. X. it is almost immediate that the second implies the first. We prove this last fact as a corollary of our decomposition of function groups. and we write N = <w1... from x0 to the base point of w. 20) . (X. For each m. one can prove that every planar regular covering of a finite Riemann surface can be conformally realized by a regular function group. is analytically finite.I.(X.xo) containing all the elements {am}. Function Groups This chapter has two main purposes.(X. The finiteness theorem also has an extra dividend: one obtains that a function group. normal subgroup of n. as we do here.. and let x0 be some point of X. These two definitions are equivalent.Chapter X. and regular (i. In this section we give a description of all regular coverings of an orientable surface. the first is to classify function groups up to similarity.

p(Wk) is some vm wm v.. Let W be a homotopically non-trivial loop on S. Let S he an orientable surface.3. and V* lies over w*. there is a second point of intersection s". Proposition. Since p is a local homeomorphism. Choose base points go on S and so = p(go) on S. . U and V intersect. AA. so any lifting of wk is disjoint from any lifting of w. V and V*. Lift u and v starting at some point s"o lying over so. Then the intersection number V x 17 is the same as the intersection number V x V*.. Then S is planar. An easy corollary of this is that a surface is planar if and only if the intersection number of any two (homology) 1-cycles is zero. then since w = wm is simple. Proof. Hence W is freely homotopic to a product of the form: r[ W. for some m. Proposition. raised to some positive power. Let w. we say that WEN. there is a simple loop w*. Hence the arc of U between so and s. Since u and v intersect only at so. where u and v intersect at exactly one point so ES. at go. It follows that V x V 0. projects to a loop that does not lift to a loop.2. freely homotopic to w. w* is "parallel" to w). and let {wm} be a set of simple disjoint loops on S. Then v w v-' is homotopic to a product of conjugates of the w.. wm.) = so. where w and w* are disjoint (i. Function Groups If the loop w on X lifts to a loop on A". vm connecting so to the base point of w = p(W).'. so are their liftings.. Then S is planar. Let p: S' -+ S be the highest regular covering of S for which the loops {w.. without multiplicity. We conclude that for any two loops W and W' on WxW'=0..250 X. A surface S is planar if it is topologically equivalent to an open connected subset of C. Since S is planar. Y W For k # m. where V* is freely homotopic to V. The Jordan curve theorem asserts that S is planar if and only if every simple closed curve on S is dividing.. with a slight abuse of language. hence the intersection in homology of any two such liftings is zero.. Hence W is homologous to the sum.S be a regular covering. The proof given here is due to Gromov. where S is a planar surface. If S is not planar. respectively. } all lift to loops. also choose spurs v. A. we only prove it for topologically finite surfaces. Let p: S ... p(s. and every loop on S lifts to a loop on S.. Wk n wm = 0. If. where for each k. A. respectively.e. # so. The converse of the above theorem is also true. then. V and V are both liftings of the same loop w' = w.. Proof... be the loop w. then there are simple loops u and v. Since w and w* are disjoint. to loops U and V.

This is equivalent to the assumption that the universal covering group is purely hyperbolic. so we can assume that S is the interior of a compact 2-manifold. . . and is simply connected. there is a unique geodesic in each free homotopy class of loops on S (see V. Then there is a simple loop w. since S` is not simply connected). the group of deck transformations on 9. Then there is a finite set {w.. is a power of a simple loop.G.lifts to a loop. where each w.4.6. From here on..4 is an induction argument. which is also the universal covering of S. lies in N (that . so that w° e N .'. in addition to the assumption that S in not simply connected.S is the highest regular covering of S for which the loops {w. Suppose we are given simple disjoint loops w1. which act freely on all of Sl. that the universal covering of S is 0-U'. Normalize any one of these groups so that the limit points are at 0 and oo. We state this as a separate theorem. If S is the Euclidean plane. Theorem (Strong version of the planarity theorem). we observe that it implies A. or the Euclidean plane. where . or the punctured plane (S is not the plane. Let p: S -. If S is simply connected. disjoint from wt U integer a.A. so that p: S . so that Nk = <w".8). which is the only case we need to consider. Let N be the defining subgroup for this covering..6. which gives us a slightly stronger result.. From here on we assume. since the universal covering of S is again the plane.} of disjoint loops on S.6 gives us a first simple loop which. the only regular covering surfaces of S are the plane. Our theorem is purely topologi- cal. ak. The main step in the proof of A. If S is a torus.. } all lift to loops. A. . if two loops on S are disjoint then their corresponding geodesics are either equal or disjoint. the hyperbolic plane. but Nk N. is either the sphere. The sphere covers only itself. Hence every regular covering of S is the highest regular covering for which some power of w lifts to a loop. and there is nothing to prove. then we take the set of loops to be empty. is one of the elementary groups considered in V. If S is the punctured plane. For k = 0. The Planarity Theorem 251 Theorem (the planarity theorem)... where S is planar.9 is planar. Before going on to the proof of A. If S is the punctured plane. then. and there is a positive A.X. we assume that S is not simply connected. The uniformization theorem tells us that the universal covering S of S.Nk. wk on S.. and we are given positive integers a 1. and observe that the unit circle projects to a power of a simple loop. is the smallest integer for which w. AS. then S is either a torus.S be a regular covering of the hyperbolic Riemann surface S. .. then there is a simple loop w on S that generates n i (S). Second. and the groups 7L + 7. where a. The only groups with two limit points. w> e N.. the punctured plane. We will use the following two facts about hyperbolic surfaces. or another torus. when raised to some power.. First.F. then G. Let p: S -+ S be a regular covering of the topologically finite Riemann surface S.7. are the loxodromic cyclic groups. A. U wk..

. and let U. c N.. Let £k be the collection of liftings of the loops { w1. we are finished.. Then once we have found k disjoint such loops. U . wk}. £k is a set of loops. one on either side (see Fig. Proof.. . so are their liftings. WO Nk. and v 0 Nk.. wk are simple and disjoint. and N = w. There is a homotopically non-trivial loop w' on S. Since we are on a hyperbolic surface.. 1).. is a power of a simple geodesic. Pick one of the arcs U of A between s" and s. Let s" be one of the points of intersection of V with A..A. and U2 be arcs that are close to U (i. Follow V pasts to the next point of intersection s. and then follows V Fig. ..6 gives us a (k + 1)-st. we can assume that each of these loops is a geodesic. the other follows U 1 in the opposite direction. and they are all simple crossings...15 that there are at most 3p . there is some loop v. when raised to this power. We saw in V. they do not intersect any loop in £k). It is easy to deform v so that it intersects w. V is freely homotopic to the product of two loops. At that point.252 X..e.G.. # N.A... Function Groups is. wk }. with A.3 + 2n simple disjoint geodesics on a hyperbolic Riemann surface of genus p with n boundary components. Since wk *k e N.8. A. X. A and V have only finitely many points of intersection... X. Lemma. U wk only at a finite number of simple crossings. and w' is disjoint from w.. this process terminates.N. U U wk. Since w. pick a loop A in £k that crosses V. If V does not cross any of the loops in £k. . we have found a finite set of disjoint geodesics {w.. . if it does. one follows V from nears to near s then follows Ul 1 back to the starting point near s'. after a finite number of steps.. where v c.1 . where each w. Hence. Let the loop V be some lifting of v. it lifts to a loop). where WEN. wk>. Since N. A.

2). where v. we have introduced no new points of intersection..9. = p(V. Since a set of loops on S is simple and disjoint if and only if the corresponding geodesics are simple and disjoint. and let w be the shortest element of E.A. after a finite number of steps.6.A. and let v1.) and v2 = p(V2) are both in N (i.N.. where the two tangents to the curve are not parallel.N. We first observe that if W is a loop in S lying over w.X. we reach a loop W'. then W is simple.). .. some of the loops might coincide. Continuing inductively.2 from a point near s'. Call these two loops V. . hence at least one of them is not in Nk. = p(V. pick any one of them. and V2 are both loops). either v. we can assume that the loops w. This in turn occurs if and only if no translate of tf intersects If. . They and their corresponding geodesics are both shorter than w. Since V. Let £ be the set of geodesics on S that lift to loops on 9. wk are all geodesics (in passing to geodesics. the Fuchsian universal covering group of S. or v2 also lies in N . where the projection w' = p(W') lies in N .. 0 A.e. then we could write W = V. and V2. ). v. and V2 both have fewer points of intersection with 2k than does V (since the loops in 2 are simple and disjoint.A. which does not intersect any loop in 1k. X. but do not cross any of the wm. V. Let W be the axis in H2 lying over w. V. but that causes no difficulty). and we have eliminated the points of intersection at s and s`. If not. There may be several shortest such geodesics. to the other point nears (see Fig. and V2 are both loops. The Planarity Theorem 253 Fig. Their product is not in Nk. X.Nk. We now complete the proof of A. V2. w is a power of a simple loop on S if and only if W is precisely invariant under its stabilizer in F.. Hence w is not a power of a simple loop if and only if w has a double point. and v2 both lie in N. Since we N .

= P .A. since their product lies in N . since W. Write W.3 . c2. Of course. W. and W2 intersect at a second points".. or S can be shorter than the other three. so that IPJ+IQI=IRI+ISI=IW11=IW21. It is important to note that the planarity theorem is a pure existence theorem. so the corresponding geodesics must be shorter. Let leg be some point of p-' (s). or IPI = ISI. W2# W. X.P"') (P . be the lift of w starting at s". W2 = R . and let (a. and.Nk. Since S is planar. Since s is a double point.A. given by the Poincare metric on H2. Function Groups Suppose w has a double point s. Although W2 does not in fact start at s. by Wi '. where P and R go from s to s`.. IPI + IRI = 21PIsIW1I. let S be a closed Riemann surface of genus 2. and Q and S go from s`. R. and IR-QI=IRI+IQI=IPI+IQI=IW1I.. X. at least one of them lies in N .S would both project to loops that are shorter than w. Again. . then R . if necessary. in general. and S all have well defined lengths. For example.Nk. Q. For example. R. the corresponding geodesic would be even shorter. at least one of these loops projects to a loop in N . back to s. replace W. If necessary.Q. # s. b2 ) be a standard set of generators for n.. Also. a2.. (S) (see Fig. Q. s.S). The arcs P. reparametrize it so that it does... Now W. Since the tangents to these two curves at s' are distinct... there is also another lift W2 of w passing through s. contradicting the fact that w is the shortest geodesic in N .P-' and P . No one of the paths P. Since s is an actual double point. the projections of both these two loops have corresponding geodesics that are shorter than w.Nk.S. A.10.. the projections of these two loops have a corner at s (that is. The only other possibility is that IPI = IRI. and c3 be the geodesics on S freely Fig. is simple. Since W2 is homotopic to (R . and let W. if P were shorter than all the others. the set of loops {w. the derivatives are discontinuous at s). replace W2 by its inverse.254 X. b.3 for one example of such a set of loops) Let c. wk} is not at all unique.Nk. so that IPI 5 1 Wt 1/2. so that IPI = IRI.

. Let { w . and b2 is the same as the subgroup generated by b. b2) = <b. that this is a reasonable set of requirements. and b. and the analysis of B-groups with accidental parabolic transformations (IX. b2. Let T be a panel lying over Y. b2. d).A. and b. b.(S. b2> = <b. its conjugacy class is.H). Let w be one of the loops we let w be a lift of w. wk} be a system of loops on °S (see V. Once we choose a starting point for the lift of w. we consider the following situation. .. let S = d/G. i.. X.X. . Our final requirement is that if the element j. We are given a function group (G.. If we pick a base point so. then StabG(x_) is required to have rank 1.15). where j.. it determines an element j.. The highest regular covering of S for which any two of these three loops lift to loops is the same as the highest regular covering for which all three lift to loops. and let j be the element of G determined by this lift. For a general loop w. <b.b2. X. Panels Defined by Simple Loops 255 Fig.G. An equivalent statement is the following. Panels Defined by Simple Loops B.B. respectively (see Fig. T is a connected component of p-1(Y). the element jm corresponding to a lifting of w be either trivial. X. Note that °S is an analytically finite Riemann surface. and let °S = (d fl °Q)/G = °d/G. we specifically require here that for each m. elliptic. b2. or parabolic. The same statement is then true for the smallest normal subgroups. these are simple and disjoint. that is. While the element jm is not uniquely determined by wm.A. Set J = <j>.. which is the same as the subgroup generated by b2 and b. starting at some point on OT. B. and let Y be one of the building blocks cut out by the system. maps the starting point of this lift to the endpoint. Set H = Stab(T). then the subgroup of x.2. It follows from the planarity theorem.I. b2). and note that T is precisely invariant under H.e.so) generated by b.4 homotopic to b. b2. In this section. one expects the corresponding element j to be loxodromic. .B. e G..4).. is parabolic with fixed point xm.

let J = StabG(W). Proof. or h(W°) fl W° = o. If the sets gm(B) are all distinct. j°-`(w) is a loop. we have produced a simple J-invariant loop W on aT. Function Groups If j is trivial. W is a simple. then there is a neighborhood U of p-` (z). Proposition. Proof. with xm . Since w is simple. Let W be a boundary loop of T. a point on some w. Since w is simple. We note incidentally that j is necessarily a geometric generator of J. W is simple. and h(W) and W lie over the same loop w. with xm a gm(B). If j is elliptic. we might have that W and g(W) meet at the fixed point of J. starting at the endpoint of w. Let he H. We can complete W° to a closed curve W by adjoining the fixed point of J. B3. look at the open arc: W° = It is clear that W° is precisely invariant under J. gm a H. and let {xm} be a sequence of points of T. Since the sets gm(B) are all in T. and w is precisely invariant under the identity. . The first statement is essentially immediate from the fact that S is orientable. Note that if J is parabolic. then xm converges to the same point. T is J-invariant. even though there might be a parabolic fixed point on it. call it W. and W° is precisely invariant under J in H. and let W° = W fl Q(G). gm(B) = g(B).4. etc. then there is a precisely invariant disc B c T. J-invariant loop... either h(W°) = W°. In any case. the elements gm are all in H. then w j(w) . We call this loop W a boundary loop of T. Choose U so that it is contained in T. z is either a puncture. then j(iv) is a lift of w. and p is a local homeomorphism. or is a limit point of H. both as a transformation of C. then the points xm converge to the g-image of the parabolic fixed point at the center of B. and as a transformation of W. Hence x = lim gm(p-`(z)) is a limit point of H. Proposition. B.x. Since S is analytically finite. j2(w) is a lift of w. Let x be a boundary point of T. then gm(B) converges to some limit point of H on 8T. 1ff is parabolic. and there is a sequence of distinct elements {gm} of H with xmegm(U). so that `(xm) converges to the parabolic fixed point on B. If the sets gm(B) are all the same. starting at the endpoint of j(iv). Since p(W°) = w. we say that W lies over w. then w is already a loop. If z is a puncture. If z is an interior point of Y. or an interior point of Y.256 X. Choose a subsequence so that p(xm) -' z. Then J c H. and there is a sequence of elements gm a G. Every element of J preserves orientation. If a is the order of j. since gm(U) fl T s 0. then h(W) is again a boundary loop of T. Hence every element of J preserves the two discs bounded by W. in particular. Every boundary point of T either lies on a boundary loop.

Pick a base point on each wm. as above. Further.7. and W2 on aT both project to the same boundary component of Y (i. from the base point of W. As a loop on t. and the outside disc. Since W. then gm(z) . h(B) fl B = o. or (ii) J is parabolic. and let B be the closed outside disc bounded by W.B. which contains T. and either G or H is geometrically finite.A. let x be its fixed point. g e H if and only if W. Proposition. Now assume that J is parabolic. there is a neighborhood U of z. Panels Defined by Simple Loops 257 If z is a point on some wk.6. or it maps W onto a disjoint (except perhaps for a parabolic fixed point) boundary loop of T Since h(W) cannot lie in B. g e H) if and only if there is a path 6 in T. and since locally. and W. If the elements gm are all distinct. Since every g e G preserves orientation. then x is doubly cusped in G. the inside disc. Let W be a boundary loop. x lies on the boundary loop 8. If H is geometrically finite. that is. If G is geometrically finite. Every h c. The subsurface Y is a connected component of the complement of S Looking at Y as a surface. while if the gm are all equal to some g.H either stabilizes W.. each wm corresponds to at most two boundary components of Y. This shows that B is a block. Then B is a (J. x is doubly cusped in H. U U corresponds to one of the loops wm.) = W2. Then the loops W. and there is a sequence of elements {gm} of H. We already know that 1 U W° = B fl S2(J) = B fl Q(H) is precisely invariant under J in H. then.X.x. B. B is strong in either of the following circumstances: (i) J is not parabolic.5. and W2 both lie on the boundary of T. be G-equivalent loops on OT. so of course it is doubly cusped in H. and pick a base point on each boundary loop. so that the base points on the boundary loops lie over the base points on the wm. Proposition. Then B is precisely invariant under J = Stab(W) in H. H)-block. so that xmegm(UflT). and W2 by choosing an orientation on w = p(W) = p(W2). Let B be the open outside disc of the boundary loop W. B. W bounds two topological discs. Hence Y has at most 2k boundary components. a loop has exactly two sides. and W2 both have the same orientation as loops on 3T. there is a g e G. Let W. Let W be a boundary loop of T.(x) has rank 1. each boundary component of Y {w. in which case h e J. so x is a limit point of H.e. with g(W. Orient W. Proof. then by VI. which is disjoint from T. let J = Stab(W). Proof. we can speak of them as having the same or opposite orientation as boundary loops of T. We have shown that there are at most finitely many G-equivalence classes of loops on 3T. it is of course strong if J is not parabolic.10. We know that Stabc. to .

Since J = Stab(B) is either trivial. when raised to some power. W. 0 X. or parabolic cyclic. except perhaps for a parabolic fixed point.9. or a closed disc with one point removed from the boundary. Proposition. There are finitely many H-equivalence classes of boundary loops.I. it is clear that any loop can be deformed so as not to intersect such a set. and both sides of W are in Y. There are finitely many components of Y' . Under the natural projection. Proposition. Function Groups that of W2. Structure Subgroups C. By the planarity theorem. each of these complementary components is the image of some closed outside disc B. Let °d = d fl °Q. on the boundary of T. Since T is H-invariant. W3 must be H-equivalent to either W. excluding any parabolic fixed points that may lie on them. and the open outside discs bounded by these boundary loops. or W2. In either case. since there are only two choices for orientation.e.8 yields the following. Let T' be the union of T. Suppose that d is not simply connected. and let S be the analytically finite marked Riemann surface d/G. T') is a function group.8. . lifts to a loop. In this case. which projects to a loop v in Y. This can occur only is w is a non-dividing loop. and (H.. T' is a component of H. elliptic cyclic. in particular. together with its boundary. d) be a function group. In any case v is a loop on S. Then II. Y is a subsurface of Y'. and W2. B. there is a finite set {wm} of disjoint simple closed curves on °S. We conclude that T'/H is the surface Y to which we have adjoined discs along the boundary components. B. when raised to these powers. T'/H is a finite Riemann surface. then there are loops W. We have shown the following. so if v is not a loop on Y (i. and p: °d . and let °S c S be the image of °d under the natural projection p.C. lift to loops. Proposition. one for each boundary component of Y (we saw above that these are in one-to-one correspondence with H-equivalence classes of boundary loops).Y. perhaps with one special point in it. Let Y' = T'/H. the boundary loops of T. if W3 is a third loop on OT. then v crosses w on S at exactly one point. that project to different boundary components of Y. If w is non-dividing on S.F.T is either a closed disc. Every component of T' . and W2 are not H-equivalent). Every loop in T' is freely homotopic in T' to a loop in T Proof. so that each wm.258 X.°S is the highest regular covering of °S for which these loops. B/J is again a disc. Let (G. It is immediate that T' is H-invariant.

.. . G)-block. . wq. preliminary structure loops lying over different preliminary dividers are disjoint.) is a proper subset of {wt. be the minimal positive power of wm that lifts to a loop. Then. Since there are only a finite number of preliminary dividers. vk. there are q special points xt. for every preliminary structure loop W lying over w. Note that J might be trivial. lifts to a loop. then we need only one loop in this set. we then find a system of loops [w .... . wt .. wk } satisfies the conclusion of the planarity theorem... since J is finite. xq with finite marking on S.. it is strong. so that { lvt . .. C3..) -+ 0. when raised to certain powers. and we look at the normal closure in rrt (°S) of some proper subset of {(wt) . We also assume that the set { wt ..4.. called preliminary structure regions... ... hence the set of preliminary structure loops is a set of simple disjoint loops.. wk are called the preliminary dividers on S.... . Since distinct preliminary dividers are disjoint. hence each preliminary structure loop W is a (J.) of distinct elements of G so that W. w. wq.S. or lies over one of the w. if { v 1 .. and W is J-invariant. Having found wt.X.... . In this case w is sometimes called an of-divider.B. all lie over one preliminary divider. Proof.. . wk}. we can assume that the W. .. for which the loops wt. be the minimal positive power of wm that lifts to a loop... . vk.. = g.. hence the results of the preceding section are applicable. lift to loops. Each connected component of the preimage of a preliminary divider is a simple loop. in which case x = 1.. Let Then dia(W.14. .. each raised to the minimal power for which it lifts to a loop. We can also state this minimality condition in algebraic terms.. for each x. . there is a cyclic subgroup J of G. wk } is minimal... (wk)°k }. call it wt. . Proposition. The loops w1.2. .. is in fact higher than the covering p: °d ... C.. Each preliminary structure region lies over a component of S . that is. where J has order of. That is. choose a small loop w. First..(W)... Each preliminary structure loop projects onto. called a preliminary structure loop. C. Structure Subgroups 259 If °S is the punctured plane. w k } on °S. p: 'd -'S is the highest regular covering of °S for which these loops..n about Note that each wm. For each preliminary divider w there is a smallest positive integer a. These divide d into regions.. Since each preliminary divider is simple. vt.. If °S is not the punctured plane. then the highest regular covering of S. The result now follows from the remark above and VII. when raised to some power. wk}.{w. there is a sequence (g. 1vq. be a sequence of distinct preliminary structure loops. where this proper subset con- tains all the then this normal subgroup is properly contained in N = the defining (normal) subgroup for the covering p: °d °S.. If we let P. and Wan a-structure loop.C. so that w° lifts to a loop. and let a. then we choose our set of loops {wm} in the following fashion. That is. each preliminary structure loop W is precisely invariant under its stabilizer J. .

H is called a preliminary structure subgroup. ). gm'(x) is bounded away from gm' (W. Every elliptic element of G lies in a preliminary structure subgroup. # (j.4).8 that (H. with W.} of distinct elements of G. and there is a sequence { g. necessarily. As in IX. then define the j-number. Let V be a loop in d(H). Let R be a preliminary structure region. hence these building blocks are the projections of the preliminary structure regions. The lift of an appropriate power of a small loop about a special point with finite ramification number is a small loop about an elliptic fixed point in Q. A(H)) is a function group. or bound outside discs. Also. no preliminary structure loop intersects this set. Let R be a preliminary structure region with stabilizer H. then x is a point of approximation. A (H) is also H-invariant. and g. all raised to various powers. they are also contractible in d(H). Since the preliminary structure loops all lie in °d. Suppose there is a fixed point x of j in A. Since v lifts to a loop.7. and. since the closed outside discs are entirely contained in d(H). Proof. C. ). . Proof. V is freely homotopic to a loop in R. and let H = Stab(R). Let x be a limit point of G.} of preliminary structure loops which nests about x. A(H)) is a B-group. Choose a base point in S.'(x) can accumulate only at limit points. Lifts of powers of preliminary dividers either lie in outside discs.2.. hence we can assume that V c R. By B. The preliminary dividers divide S into building blocks. Hence V is homotopically trivial. R) of a preliminary structure region R to be the minimal number of preliminary structure loops a . Since W contains no limit points of G. gm' (Wm) = W separates gm' (x) from gm' (W. we still have to prove that d(H) is simply connected. = gm(W).6. Then p(V) = v is a loop on S. Each connected component of the inverse image of one of these building blocks is a subset of . If there is a sequence {W.5. Function Groups Proposition.H. j keeps that preliminary structure region invariant. for all in. Let j be an elliptic element of G. v is homotopic to a product of conjugates of preliminary dividers. Since A is H-invariant. Then.260 X. C. We already know from B..4 bounded by limit points of G and by preliminary structure loops (see B. Proof. Proposition. we define the primary component d(H) to be the component of H containing A. Then (H.9. If j has no fixed point in d. Choose a subsequence so that there is a single preliminary structure loop W. and spurs to the preliminary dividers. x lies in some preliminary structure region. Then gm' (x) is bounded away from gm' (z). Proposition. C. and small loops about special points. In any case. for any point z on a spanning disc for W. hence contractible in Q.

we can change V' so that instead of of crossing W. Assume that A passes through a preliminary structure loop W. and adjoin the fixed point x of j to V' to obtain a loop V. replaced by A' and its <j>-translates. After a finite number of steps as above. Every parabolic element of G lies in a preliminary structure subgroup. where V crosses the minimal number of preliminary structure loops. Hence there is an Ro with # (j. After this change. let A' be the arc of V'. Structure Subgroups 261 path between R and j(R) must cross. with A. so we can modify V' near x. and x2 lies entirely inside R1.. modulo J. Choose some arc A'.. call it V'. up to the order of j. j(A') fl A' = 0. Extend A to a j-invariant arc V'. C. Then V lies in some preliminary structure region.X. assume that # (j. Let Ro be a preliminary structure region which minimizes # (j. C. we have a new j-invariant loop. there is a preliminary structure region R. Let V' be the loop V. Then. so that V' enters and leaves R. no two points of A are Q>-equivalent. Proposition. 2. Ro) > 0. where this new loop has fewer crossings of structure loops. The new loop V * is < j>-invariant. If j stabilizes both R1 and R2. Let j be a primitive parabolic element of G. Of necessity. then j stabilizes the preliminary structure loop on OR. lying between the crossings with W. R). let x. and let x2 be the second. Proposition. A lies entirely inside a fundamental set for the action of J on V'. Let R2 be the preliminary structure region V' leaves before it first enters R. and V' crosses no preliminary structure loop between these two crossings of W. where x does not lie on any preliminary structure loop. Since distinct preliminary structure loops are disjoint. Proof. and draw a path A from x to j(x).9. and its <j>-translates. R0) = 0. . Choose some point x e A.. it runs parallel to W. fit together to form a closed curve. than the original loop did. and x2 so that it does not even touch W at or near these points. Sincej(R1) 0 R1. Then V and W cross at a second point. that is. lying entirely in R2 and connecting x1 to x2.. call the new loop V *.S. which we again call V. lying between them. by crossing the same preliminary structure loop W. If j e G stabilizes two distinct preliminary structure regions. and has fewer crossings of preliminary structure loops than does V. we arrive at a j-invariant loop V which crosses no preliminary structure loop. the points x1 and x2 are not Q>-equivalent. be the first point of crossing of V' and W. Since j(W) fl W = 0. The paths j°(V). as in the argument above. so that the arc A of V' between x. Let V be a path from some point z e Ro toj(z). . For a = 1. Proof.C. and Q> > = Stab(V) lies in the corresponding preliminary structure subgroup. then j is either elliptic or the identity.

D. C. These loops are called the oo-structure loops in R. or degenerate. as with the preliminary structure loops.17). we can simultaneously deform all the axes of accidental parabolic transformations so that the deformed curves are all still simple and disjoint. this cannot occur if H is elementary or quasifuchsian (see IX. H is either elementary. Note that the set of structure loops is a set of simple disjoint loops which. . so that this set of loops is G-invariant. except for the parabolic fixed point. It might be that w passes through some number of preliminary dividers.262 X. even up to free homotopy. Each connected component of the preimage of a building block is called a structure region. these are the regions cut out of A by the structure loops. Since the preliminary dividers are in general not unique (see A.10). Let R I. Let R be a preliminary structure region. Since (H.2I ). up to G-equivalence. there are. the structure loops are uniquely determined. 1 5 a 5 co.. and let H = Stab(R).D. and so that the deformed curve is still precisely invariant under J. except for the parabolic fixed points on the oo-structure loops. except that if there is a half-turn which stabilizes the true axis. then the structure loop is determined only up to free homotopy. For a B-group. lie in J. Recall that the preliminary structure loops on the boundary of R project to small loops about ramification points in d(H)/H. quasifuchsian (including Fuch- sian). except for the parabolic fixed points.. neither are the preliminary structure loops. . and so that J = Staby(A) is cyclic. only finitely many preliminary structure regions in A.D. and then we use the action of G to define the full set of oo-structure loops. A(H)) is a B-group. The projection of the set of structure loops is then a system of loops {w. they all lie in R. The structure regions are precisely the regions cut out of d by the structure loops. and A.. Since each preliminary structure region lies over one of the subsurfaces Y.11. but can occur if H is degenerate. We adjoin the appropriate parabolic fixed points to these deformed curves to get a set of simple disjoint loops which lie.. . For a general function group.. be a complete list of non-equivalent preliminary structure regions. Let A c A(H) be the axis of an accidental parabolic transformation. We now take up the case that H has accidental parabolic transformations.. In each one of them we rind a finite set of non-equivalent oo-structure loops as above. we can deform A so that. R. The full set of structure loops is the set of all a-structure loops. . entirely in R. which divide t. the axis is defined so that it projects to a simple closed curve w on d(H)/H.. The dividers divide S into building blocks Y1 . into regions. Function Groups C. in the presence of at least two preliminary dividers on d/G. wk} (different k) on S.... as in IX. YQ (different q).10. In fact. the cc-structure loops are also not unique.. the set of structure loops is a set of simple disjoint loops in C. it lies entirely in R. or H contains accidental parabolic transformations (IX. and each deformed curve is precisely invariant under the parabolic cyclic group that stabilizes the original axis.9. That is. called dividers. Hence we can deform w on d(H)/H so that it does not meet any preliminary divider.

to make clear the frame of reference. Let W be an oo-structure loop stabilized by the parabolic element j. By C.B. neither does H'. Since the Fuchsian model of H' contains no rank 2 Abelian subgroup. it is accidental in H'. It follows that the H'-stabilizers of these regions do not change as we vary the ac-structure loops. C. We sometimes need to specify that a structure subgroup. or G-structure loops. H' = Stab(R') containing any parabolic element of G. the fixed point x of j lies on 8R'. in particular. but the corresponding oo-structure loops need not be. We conclude that Stabo(x) = Stabn. in particular. Of course. Note that R is an (H. For a fixed such cyclic subgroup J. Since H' is a B-group containing an accidental parabolic transformation.12. or structure loop. G)-panel. Each structure region R is contained in a preliminary structure region R'. Once we have H'. it is non-elementary. We will sometimes refer to these as G-structure subgroups. and let H be an H'-structure subgroup. rather than in terms of some subgroup of G.8-9. there is a unique preliminary structure subgroup. We need to show that the structure subgroup H is well defined. or structure region is defined in terms of G. Once we have chosen the preliminary dividers. We now know that the set of dividers on S satisfies the requirements of B. We know that there is a precisely invariant oo-structure loop for each maximal cyclic subgroup of accidental parabolic transformations. and on the boundary of no other preliminary structure region. Let H' be a preliminary structure subgroup of G. Proof. .(x) has rank 1. then J is a maximal cyclic subgroup of G (see V.I. independent of the choice of oo-dividers. or G-structure regions.X. the regions cut out by these loops have the same limit points of H' on their boundary. there are no limit points of H' between them (but there might be limit points of G between them). Then H is a G-structure subgroup. and the corresponding structure subgroup H = Stab(R) c H' = Stab(R'). Proof. Then StabG(x) has rank one. Structure Subgroups 263 The stabilizer of a structure region R is the corresponding structure subgroup H. Since j stabilizes a structure loop. j.11). and let x be the fixed point of j. Then for any choice of co-structure loops in d(H'). Proposition.C. then f e Stab(R') = H'. the accidental parabolic transformations are well defined. One easily sees that if W is a simple loop that is precisely invariant under a parabolic cyclic subgroup J of some Kleinian group G.1. so if j' is any element of Staba(x). any two precisely invariant loops project to freely homotopic loops on d(H')/H'. and so lift to homotopic loops based at the fixed point of J. the B-group H' is well defined. Proposition. and every parabolic element of StabG(x) lies in Stabo(W). hence we can use the results of X.

C. p(V) is a loop which lifts to a loop. Proof. Let R be a structure region stabilized by H. Every point of 4'(H) lies in the exterior of d. quasifuchsian. Every non-loxodromic element of G is contained in some structure subgroup.D. Let H be a quasifuchsian structure subgroup of the function group G. stabilized by j. then by IX. and every loop in A (H) can be deformed to a loop in R. this shows that H is a B-group. then by IX. Since j is accidental in H. Then R" = A (H). Proposition. so 4' is actually a component of G. Let H' be the preliminary structure subgroup containing H. It is clear that every structure loop lying between R and W is also stabilized by j.8-9. the fixed point x of j lies on OR. For the same reason. hence p(V) is freely homotopic to a product of powers of small loops about special points. Since j stabilizes R. By C.15. H is a G-structure subgroup. so j is also accidental in H'. We know from B. For any loop V in R. and let R' be R with all outside discs adjoined. the primary component 4(H) -D A. g lies in some preliminary structure subgroup H'. and every limit point of G lies on 84.13. C. By C. g lies in an H'-structure subgroup H. hence it is either elementary. j is not accidental in H.14. Proposition. Proof.H. If H is quasifuchsian. Then H is a B-group without accidental parabolic transformations. then it has two components. The lift of an appropriate power of a small loop about a special point with finite ramification number is a small loop about a point of Q. Proposition.D. then there is a structure region A between R and W.15. as in B. . Let g be a non-loxodromic element of G. If W lies on OR. Let H be a G-structure subgroup. both discs bounded by the axis of j contain limit points of H. or bound outside discs lying entirely in d (H).8 that H is a function group.7-8. disjoint from d. in particular the structure loop on OR between R and W is stabilized by j. with finite ramification number.12.8.264 X. These are also limit points of H'. Then 4'(H) is a component of G. If W does not lie on OR. A structure subgroup H is a B-group without accidental parabolic transformations. Function Groups C. and let R' R be the preliminary structure region so that Stab(R') = H'. Suppose there is an accidental parabolic transformation j e H. x e W. and the secondary component 4'(H). and powers of preliminary dividers. Hence every loop in d is homotopic to a point. Proof. Of course 4(H) c 4(G). j is not accidental in H. By IX.15. Hence 4' c Q(G). Lifts of powers of preliminary dividers lie in outside discs. Hence there is an oo-structure loop W in R'. or degenerate.

Since J1 and J2 are both maximal cyclic . then observe that since each W.17.4.I. . G}block. see C.J. Then J is a maximal cyclic subgroup of G. i. H1 fl H2 C J2. fl H2 is trivial unless J1 = J2. C. has the same fixed points. If there is a sequence { W. Assume that every G-structure loop is a strong block. Since W.. ifJ. Since J'. = Stab(Rn). and let x be a limit point of G. the maximal cyclic subgroup of G containing J. Since W is strong. j'(W) fl woo. and there is a sequence {gm} of elements of G.16. Up to G-equivalence.. Proof. h(W. Then. hm(x) and hm(z) are uniformly separated. Hence H2 fl H. x is a limit point of G. Let W be a structure loop. h(W.B. C. Since there are only finitely many G-equivalence classes of structure loops. from h(R2). then R2 and h(R2) lie in distinct complementary components of R. = Stab(W1). then there is a fixed point of J in each of the discs bounded by W. for every j' E J' . Proposition. Let W. be the structure loop on the boundary of R. Let H.) of structure loops nesting about x. Likewise. Proof. = If W is a preliminary structure loop. separates R 1 from R2. hence we can assume that there is a single structure loop W = W. Proposition. separates x from W.0. the block is strong if and only if J is doubly cusped in G. Suppose not. Since { Wm} nests about x. Then H. there are only finitely many structure loops. The block is automatically strong if at < oc. Proposition. Choose jm t= J = Stab(W) so that zm = hm(x) = jm o gm' (x) lies in a constrained fundamental set Do for J.J. then dia(W. W separates gm' (x) from gm'(W).) .) separates h(R1) = R. for any z on a spanning disc for W.19.C. . If a = oc.11). Structure Subgroups 265 C. . except perhaps for a parabolic fixed point on W. then x is a point of approximation. and R2 are distinct G-structure regions. It is immediate from the definition that every a-structure loop with stabilizer J is a (J.) is disjoint from W. Suppose R. where J = Stab(W) is non-trivial. If W is an oo-structure loop. c J. If J is elliptic.e. = Stab(Wm).X. Proof. Similar remarks hold if j is parabolic (see V.IS. if h is not in J1. Proof. C.14.=J2. Let It be some element of H1 . Proposition. W separates hm(x) from so the distance between hm(x) and hm(W) does not go to zero.=J2. This contradicts the fact that W is precisely invariant under J. Of course. so that W. Also. . If {Wm} is a sequence of distinct structure loops of G.then H1f1H2=J. Similarly. separating R1 from R2. the result follows at once from V1I. the points zm are bounded away from W. and let J.

W and W' are homotopic (or W and (W')-` are homotopic). (°S)/N. (ii) There is a structure loop W on OR. Adjoin spurs to W. Since f(W) 96 W. fl H2 = J.. Let W be the structure loop on the boundary of R between R and R'. if one. but observe that the 1-dividers are trivial in it. there is a structure region R' # R. f 0 H. (iii) There are exactly two structure loops on OR stabilized by H. let W and W' be the v-structure loops on OR. (1) There is a structure region R' # R. Theorem. which is what we want to prove. Let R' be R with the outside discs of the 1-structure loops adjoined. with Stab(R') = H. We next assume (iii). Now assume (ii). In the former case. with f(W) = W'. The argument above shows equally well that p(W) and p(W') project to loops on °S that are equivalent in n. then W' is a small loop about z. or there is only W.20. = J2. W'. there is an element f e G. N is defined as the smallest normal subgroup containing certain powers of certain simple disjoint loops. there is an integer a so that k = f °(R). Hence w = p(W) and w' are equivalent in it. c Hm. or J. Proof. where H c Stab(le). It follows that either there are exactly two v-structure loops on OR. and let W' be the connected component of p-`(w') near z. Suppose first that (i) holds. Since there are a minimal number of preliminary dividers. We have shown that w is not needed for this definition. which is what we now assume. either J. Also.e. 0 C. we have contradicted the minimality of the number of dividers. since J. Function Groups subgroups of G. Then the following statements are equivalent. Since H is finite. fl J2 = (1). i. while the i-structure loops do not. Also if W' # W is a structure loop on OR. = {1 }. that is. Since Stab(R) = H. up to orientation. with Stab(R') = H. Suppose there is a structure region R where H = Stab(R) is elliptic cyclic of order v. A(H) = 0. In R. this means that R is bounded exactly by the finite number of structure loops on its boundary. then since Stab(W') is a maximal cyclic subgroup of G. It is now immediate that f . We cannot expect to project this homotopy to °S. no other elliptic fixed point can lie in R. of these conditions hold. fl J2 = J. Hence f(R) is the structure region on the other side of W' from R. H. a minimal set of others needed to define N. Let w' be a small loop about p(z). this can occur only if p(W) = p(W'). these loops were chosen as first. (iv) There is a primitive loxodromic element f E G that commutes with every element of H. and hence all. small loops about ramification points. either Stab(W') = {1}. Then by C. Equivalently. where Stab(W) = H. H.19 H = Stab(W). and there are only finitely many structure loops on OR. = J2. and second. and H has exactly one fixed point z in R. including w'. and the finite number of structure loops on OR. where N is the defining subgroup of the covering p: °d -* °S. then for every structure region T. (°S)/N. fl H. or Stab(W') = H. (°S)/N. in the latter case. Observe that every v-structure loop on OR separates the fixed points of H.266 X.

22. Let R be a structure region. lima +.. R c °Q(G). elliptic cyclic. and there is no third H-invariant structure loop on the boundary of R. Let W. and R2. is homotopically trivial. on the boundary of R.5. f(R) 0 R. Proof. Then the identity is the only structure subgroup. and R is bounded by these structure loops.) were disjoint from the projections of W2. Also f conjugates H into itself.) = Stab(R2)Then Stab(R I) is either trivial or elliptic cyclic. then k = f °(R) for some a. then R c R'. Proposition. that is. El C..19 that H = Stab(Rm) is either trivial. and Stab(Rm) would be a cyclic structure subgroup of Stab(R'). where Stab(R) = { 11.) would be a redundant divider..X. and Stab(f(R)) = fHf -' = H.23. .. W.12 that if H is an H'-structure subgroup. W be the structure loops on R. Let R be the structure region stabilized by H. then there would be a preliminary structure region R' containing both R.. and all structure regions are G-equivalent.C. Proof. or f conjugates every h e H into its inverse. Finally.._. It follows at once from C. where Stab(R. Continuing with this case. Since f is loxodromic. Then Stab(R') would be a non-elementary B-group. W. we assume (iv) and prove (i). since R is precisely invariant under the identity in G. Proof. F is the full set of structure regions stabilized by H. in this case H is an H'-structure subgroup. Structure Subgroups 267 is loxodromic. Since the structure loops between any two structure regions stabilized by H is H-invariant. and let R' be the preliminary struc- ture region stabilized by H'. Orient them so that they all have the same orientation from inside R. then p(W. then the product W. Proposition. so either f commutes with every element of H. this contradicts IX. there is a W. Let R..H. If say p(W. the latter case can not occur.. then by C.. Then H is a G-structure subgroup if and only if H is an H'-structure subgroup. if k is a structure region with H c Stab(le). We conclude from C.20 that H' = H. Stab(R) fl Stab(R') = H fl H' = H is contained in Stab(W). or parabolic cyclic. that is. .. If R fl R' # 0. . Hence for each W. We know from C.. and a subgroup of H'. If this last possibility were to occur. Since f # H. Let H be a subgroup of the preliminary structure subgroup H'. Since f is loxodromic.. C. where W is the structure loop on OR' separating R' from R. Then there is a primitive loxodromic element f e G that commutes with every element of H. let F be the set of structure regions of the form f '(R). dia(f'(W)) . Assume that H is both a G-structure subgroup. then it is a G-structure subgroup. a e Z. Since Stab(R) is trivial. 0 R2 be structure regions. Proposition. C. Choose spurs to a base point in R.0. If R fl R' = 0. every structure loop on OR is a 1-structure loop.21.19.

) = W. Stab(R 1) and Stab(R2) are both non-elementary. the two J-invariant structure loops on DR are the only structure loops stabilized by J.19. Theorem. there is exactly one structure region R between R. compact without boundary). By C. A(H)) is a B-group without accidental parabolic transformations. By IX.H for further discussion of this case). with these identifications of the boundary. Since there are two J-invariant structure loops on OR. Every elliptic element of a degenerate or Euclidean group has exactly one fixed point lying in the limit set. Let (G.7. then by C. (i) There is a structure loop Won the common boundary of R. = J2 = J. If J is parabolic cyclic. with stabilizer H'.24. in particular. and let J. A) be a function group. is already closed (i. The only possibility left is that H is finite. or (ii) J is parabolic cyclic.. Let W.25. 96 H2 be structure subgroups. the two structure loops on the boundary of R are J-invariant. hence H is not quasifuchsian. Proposition. R1. H is a B-group without accidental parabolic transformations. and there is a g. The limit set of a quasifuchsian group separates the fixed points of every elliptic element. Hence every structure region is G-equivalent to R. the primary component of H contains both fixed points of J. and R2 has finite stabilizer. R2. or elementary. and J is either elliptic or parabolic cyclic. R has two boundary structure loops separating R1 from R2 (these may or may not be different from W1 and W2). there are at most two structure loops stabilized by J. then j e H. it is all of S. hence it is either quasifuchsian (including Fuchsian). E G.3. be a structure region stabilized by H. We assume that the first case does not occur so that there is at least one structure region R between R1 and R2. from R2. and the identity is the only structure subgroup (see X. and R is stabilized by an infinite dihedral group. C. and R all lie in some preliminary structure region R'. Proof. it is stabilized by an infinite dihedral group. (ii) if x e A (H) is the fixed point of the parabolic element j e G. Let H. and R2. be the structure loop on the boundary of R. Since J stabilizes both W1 and W2. 13.. A subgroup H of G is a structure subgroup if and only if H is a maximal subgroup of G satisfying the following conditions: (i) (H. and let R.H.. . C..H. If H1 fl H2 = J 0 111.9. then one of the following possibilities occurs. Since the projection of R. Then by IX. there is a unique region R lying between W1 and W2.268 X. Function Groups also on the boundary of R. = Stab(Wm). degenerate. By C. separating R...e. Set H = Stab(R). Assume next that J is elliptic cyclic. it also stabilizes every structure loop that separates them. and R2. J. with gm(W. and Stab(R and Stab(R2) are both non-elementary: or (iii) J is elliptic. and every structure region lying between R..

Since neither Euclidean nor Fuchsian groups contain non-cyclic finite groups. We first prove necessity. J is accidental in K. hence H is a subgroup of a non-elementary preliminary structure subgroup. by IX. let J = Stab(W). Since both discs bounded by W contain limit points of K. Suppose there is a subgroup K c G. then both fixed points of H lie in R. Condition (i) is just C. By IX. 13. k(R) R. Since W does not separate limit points of K. Hence the fixed point of H lies in I(R). We now know that every structure subgroup satisfies these two properties. it is not finite. and K properly contains H. and their G-translates divides H3 into regions. where the product is hyperbolic). assume that Ro 0 R. where K has the above two properties. K is non-elementary. W can only be an oo-structure loop. the structure loop W on OR that separates R from Rp is an oo-structure loop containing x. stabilized by the structure subgroup H0.B. Next assume that H is rank 2 Euclidean. where j e Ho. j e Stab(W) c Stab(R) = H. Let k be some element of K . There is no isomorphism between a rank 2 Euclidean group and any Fuchsian group.D. Since A(H) # 0. It follows that the parabolic subgroup of H is accidental in K.H. This contradicts the fact that K contains no accidental parabolic transformations.16). Structure Subgroups 269 Proof.15. H is not cyclic. every structure loop on OR is a v-structure loop. Wo must be an oo-structure loop.5. W c Q(K). it is easy to see that the region 1(H) spanning R is precisely invariant under H. Since the stabilizer of a parabolic fixed point on a structure loop has rank 1 in G (C. If Ro = R. Since H = StabG(R). it is infinite dihedral. such a group cannot be a subgroup of any Fuchsian group. In particular. If H is elliptic cyclic. Every structure loop on OR has finite stabilizer.X. Since K does not have a single fixed point in 0-03. We first take up the case that H is non-elementary. there is a structure region R0. and there is no H-invariant structure loop on OR. stabilized by j. Since the fixed point x of j lies in both OR and aRo. It follows that C(W) separates the fixed point of H from that of k(H). so K must also be a rank 2 Euclidean group. and K properly contains H. and containing x. so the Riemann map from A(K) conjugates H into Z2 * 7L2 (this is the group generated by two half-turns. let C(W') be a spanning disc for W' (see VII.11). For each structure loop W' on OR. Since StabG(x) has rank 1. If H is finite and non-cyclic. Hence C(W) separates . and A(K) is connected. we have reached a contradiction. The set of all these spanning discs. and so is a strong block.12.H. Similarly. with fixed point x e A(H). then H has a fixed point in I13. Let Wo be the structure loop on aRo separating it from R. There are now several cases to consider. W is an oo-structure loop. we still have to show that it is maximal. and W separates the limit point of H and from that of kHk-t. v < oc. with the same fixed point. and the axis of H lies in I(R). then j e H. Since H is elementary. Let j be a parabolic element of G. Next assume that H is a rank I Euclidean group with fixed point x. By C. Since x e W. Let W be the structure loop on the boundary of R that separates R from k(R).C.

as above. K c Stab(R'). We first take up the case that K is non-elementary.C. the axes of H and k(H) do not intersect. etc. or there is a sequence of preliminary structure loops nesting about x. it follows that K is finite. We now prove the second half of C. c 8k(R) which separates k(R) from k2(R). for then its stabilizer would be accidental in K. This cannot be. we saw above that this is impossible. and the axis of H passes through 1(R'). either x lies on the boundary of some preliminary structure region R. where f has its fixed points at the fixed points of H. We noticed above that for every limit point x of G.. hence A(K) is neither hyperbolic nor parabolic. every non-trivial element of G is loxodromic).270 X. and f(W. then K has a fixed point at one of the fixed points of H. there are exactly two such structure loops W. K = Stab(R). There cannot be an cc-structure loop in R' which separates A(K). C. Hence the limit set of K is not connected.e.20.25. There are again several cases to consider. Hence there is a nested sequence of preliminary structure loops which nest about the attracting fixed point of k. Hence. so there is a single preliminary structure region R' with x e DR'. where H(k) stabilizes the preliminary structure region R(k). Then K C Stab(R'). no power off is in K.) = W2. i. so K is not finite.6). for f is loxodromic. then R' is a structure region of the form f '(R). Finally we take up the case that H is trivial. Hence A(K) lies on the boundary of a single structure region R. Now consider the case that H is elliptic cyclic. then K and Stab(R') are both maximal Euclidean . Hence every non-trivial element of K is loxodromic (in fact. Since K is maximal. If K is non-elementary. then there is a preliminary structure loop on the boundary of k2(R) which separates k2(R) from k3(R). We have reached a contradiction in this case. there is some preliminary structure region R'. and W2 on 8R.26. For every k e K. there is an element f e G. as in the preceding case. Both fixed points of H lie in A(K). and there are H-invariant structure loops on OR. Assume that K is a maximal subgroup of G satisfying the two properties. H has two fixed points in A(K). There is a preliminary structure loop W. x e 8R(k). so K is non-elementary. and has fixed points at the fixed points of H (see II. it follows that K c Stab(R). also. and for either a Fuchsian or Euclidean group. By C. Since A(K) is connected. in particular. Then every structure subgroup is trivial. only one fixed point of each elliptic element lies in the invariant component. If Stab(R') is also Euclidean. and every structure region is G-equivalent to R. then every parabolic element k e K lies in some preliminary structure subgroup H(k). If K is Euclidean. If K is a Euclidean subgroup of G with fixed point x. Then k(R) is not one of the structure regions of the form f '(R). k(R) is not stabilized by H. Function Groups the axis of H from that of k(H). Since W. Since K stabilizes A(Stab(R')). separates the fixed points of f. so that A(K) c OR'. then one of the 1-structure loops on OR separates the axis of H from the limit set of K. this implies that K is not finite. Note that if R' is a structure region.

e.G. so K and H(k) are maximal finite subgroups of G with the same fixed point in 0-13. then every structure subgroup is trivial. called the marked 2-complex. By IX. The converse is also true. It is immediate that if R.. K = H(k) for every k.15. Let R = g(R 1).H. By IX. H is either elliptic cyclic. Let R1 and R2 be G-structure regions.D. i. Finally we take up the case that K is finite and not cyclic. K H. Proof. Then every element k E K is contained in some structure subgroup H(k). the connected components of X are the . Since H(k) is maximal.D. so they are equal. if K is trivial. it contains K. observe that Stab(R) = H2. there is a marked finite (disconnected) Riemann surface X. in this case R 1 and R. and there is exactly one structure region stabilized by K. called the Schottky number. The marked 2-complex contains two kinds of objects. The signature of a function group consists of both a geometric object K. C. Signatures D. so that R2 = f '(R). and a non-negative integer t. and R2 are G-equivalent structure regions.H. Signatures 271 subgroups of G with the same fixed point.H. and it contains some number of structure subgroups. are G-equivalent. there are exactly three structure regions stabilized by the parabolic subgroup of K. It follows that K has rank 1. then our result follows from C. H1 and H2 are G-conjugate if and only if R1 and R2 are G-equivalent.I.7. then it is a B-group. it depends only on the function group.5. The former case occurs only if there is a loxodromic element f c. X. by IX. then Stab(R. The definition depends on some choices. every parabolic element of K is contained in some structure subgroup of H'. If R R2. Proposition. then since H = Stab(R) = Stab(R2).X. and thus whose stabilizer H contains the parabolic subgroup of K. In this section we define the signature of a function group. H is not cyclic. First.27. and let Hm = Stab(Rm). Since our conditions are necessary. If K is finite and cyclic. If H' = Stab(R') is not Euclidean. The latter case occurs only if every structure region is G-equivalent to every other structure region. We also write down some necessary conditions for the signature of a function group.9. or trivial. Assume there is an element g e G with H2 = gH1 g-1. hence there is at least one structure region whose boundary contains the fixed point of K. we show in the next section that these conditions are sufficient as well as necessary. Since K is maximal. so K must be infinite dihedral. we show that the signature is well defined.) and Stab(R2) are conjugate structure subgroups of G.

wk. where the dividers w.. In Figures X. cut S along w.. or surfaces. This is the marked 2-complex K in the signature of (G. If wm is a 1-divider. or surfaces. For any other function group. and fill in these two boundary curves with discs. After performing the above operations with each of the dividers w1. satisfying the following.a is a v-divider. Except for its endpoints. the two endpoints of each connector have the same ramification number. and make it a special point of order v. whose genus is one less than that of S. We now start with a function group (G. If (G.5. . i) to be the same if there is a homeomorphism from K onto R.. Having done this.1 .272 X. 2 5 v 5 co. there is a finite set {w1.D. w4 are marked respectively with the numbers 1. X.. is disjoint from X. Function Groups parts of K. Fig. A connector connecting two points of order v is called a v-connector..D. 1. d)..wk} of dividers on S = d/G. with two boundary components.D. The end points of the connectors are special points of X.. we obtain either a new connected surface. We consider two signatures a = (K. Join these two new special points of order v with a v-connector c. 2._. called connectors. 3... There are also some 1-cells. and the Schottky number t. so as to produce two boundary curves on this new surface. and t = 0.ck}... Fill in each of these two boundary components with discs..2. . the two endpoints of cm are distinct special points with the same ramification number v.4) is a B-group without accidental parabolic transformations. we arrive at a possibly disconnected marked finite surface X. then K is the marked surfaced/G. where the homeomorphism preserves distinguished points with their orders. a finite set of disjoint connectors {c1. and a collection of connectors. or a new surface with two connected components. each c. If w. these operations are demonstrated on a closed surface of genus 5.. D. d). A theoretical signature is a marked finite (disconnected) Riemann surface X.1 through X. and t = i. and construct its signature. then we cut S along wm to again get a new surface. and each special point of X is an endpoint of at most one connector. choose one point in each disc. v > 1. t) and Q = (R.

D.2 Fig.3 Fig. signatures 273 Fig. X.D.X.4 . X.D.D. X.

cut S along all the dividers.genus(K). The above operations can be performed all at once. Cut S along w. and observe that this surface is again S.ro + 1. if there is any. v > 1.1) = genus(S) . so that K becomes a marked surface.D. v > 1. . or w1 does not divide S. and if the divider is a v-divider. The 2-complex K has a well defined genus. sew in discs. It is easy to see that t can also be defined as the maximum number of 1-dividers on S that can be cut open without dividing S. X. and join these two points by a connector c. The genus of K is the sum of the genera of the fattened connected components of K. in which case S and K1 have the same genus. is entirely accounted for by the 1-dividers. adjoin a v-connector from a point in one of these discs to a point in the other. Either w1 divides S into two surfaces. The difference between the genus of S and the genus of K is the Schottky number t. two for each divider. Proof. in going from S to K. t is the maximal number of homologically independent 1-dividers. in which case there is a difference of I in the genera of S and K1. That is. keeps To invariant. Hence t = rl .5 3 Let r1 be the number of 1-dividers. obtained by "fattening" each connector into a handle. Now fatten c to obtain a surface. pick a point in each disc. Cut S along w1. Hence the difference between the genus of S and the genus of K. Proposition. D3. that is. 0 D. fill in discs. v > 1. and sew in two discs to obtain K1.(To . The operation defined by a v-divider. instead of sequentially. Function Groups D Fig.4. hence t >. Let w1 be a 1-divider on S.0. and let ro be the number of connected components of K (two parts which are connected by a connector lie in the same connected component).274 X. Then the Schottky number t = T1 . Let w be a v-divider on S.

since qp is a similarity.R+/1l is a finite surface. consisting of the disjoint closed discs. hence A is precisely invariant under 7 in 13. respectively. where W = rp(W). or parabolic cyclic. respectively. and that (H.: G -+ C. fl e(R))/7 to RI!?. If H is non-elementary.9. As in B. R be the closed outside disc bounded by W. with the obvious identification of (W fl d)/7 as the boundary curve of RI!?. D. Form the set A+. and the complement.D. and since H is a structure subgroup of G.5. then there is a precisely invariant disc C c R. Set A = cp(R). Now suppose that j is a parabolic element of R. Let R be a structure region stabilized by H. and let (p: A preserving similarity with induced isomorphism cp.8. is type-preserving. If H is elementary. We start the proof of this theorem with the following.(J) = Stab(W). hence. we call the image of this injection the real part of P.X. then so is 1?. We have shown that 1 is a B-group without accidental parabolic transformations. each 7is either trivial. and 17 contains every parabolic element of 0 whose fixed point lies in A(17). as in B. Then j = q -'(J7) is parabolic. Let H be a structure subgroup of G. maps structure subgroups onto structure subgroups.8. Then (i) cp. We write these as Re(P) and Im(P). The discs in lm(P) are sometimes referred to as imaginary discs. Hence A' is a B-group. there is an injection from the building block into the corresponding part P. Let (G. and let 13 = (p. We next show that the signature of a function group is well defined independent of the choice of dividers. and no parabolic element of an elementary group is accidental. Proof. W. Lemma. Then (17. elliptic cyclic. A) and (ti. there is a one-to-one correspondence between the building blocks and the parts. Since rp. Let B. Hence. Note that q establishes a homeomorphism between R/H and /7/R. Then cp(C) is precisely invariant under j. Each part P is obtained from the corresponding building block by filling in discs along the boundary curves. hence we can obtain 1'/13 by adjoining a finite number of sets of the form (. . d(g)) is a B-group without accidental parabolic transformations. hence j is not accidental in g. is the imaginary part of P. and then marking at most one of the points in the disc. we can deform P so that it lies entirely inside A. which is simply connected. Signatures 275 The dividers divide S into building blocks. Then J= cp. and let J = Stab(W). there are only finitely many of the Won OR. A is precisely invariant under A? in C.6. j is not accidental in H. A') be function groups. Up to H-equivalence. Let W be a structure loop on OR. as in B. and (ii) G and d have the same signature. Since w fl A is precisely invariant under J in H. Let V be a loop in d(1?). (H).A(13)) is a function group. Theorem. W fl d is precisely invariant under 7 in R. be a type- D. It follows that A+ = A(17').

15.6-7. Apply D. and the fixed d-point x of f lies in A(A). let x the the parabolic fixed point on W. C3 . It is clear that if H is Fuchsian.276 X. there is a homeomorphism from P onto P. If H is a structure subgroup of G.5.8. then it would be properly contained in a maximal such group R'. we can assume that if the elliptic or parabolic subgroup J c H lies over a small loop about the special point x on P. and let P be the corresponding part of R. there is a structure region R. Assume that R' -A R. If R' = R.25.e. In particular. For our purposes.7. it follows from this that f eStab(1P) c Stab(I) = 13. P. Function Groups Suppose f is a parabolic element of C. Since H and 13 are B-groups without accidental parabolic transformations. quasifuchsian. D. which preserves special points with their orders. ff. there is a one-to-one correspondence between the structure subgroups of G and those of 6. W = cp-' (l$') is an oo-structure loop. D. there is a one-to-one correspondence between the parts of K and those of R. it is maximal. Then by V. that is. 13' is a structure subgroup of C. By D. . we could choose this homeomorphism so that its induced map on homotopy is that given by the projection of cp. but we do not need such a strong result. Let j = cps' (f ). Note that D. the images of the special points on the parts of K need not be uniquely determined. or degenerate. By C. and every parabolic element has exactly one equivalence class of precisely invariant circular .7 is conclusion (i) of Theorem D. that is. In fact. To prove the second part. Hence z lies in the intersection of the boundaries of and k. it suffices to observe that there is a homeomorphism of any connected surface to itself. Since H is a structure subgroup. Hence the maximal Abelian subgroup of C containing Stab(W) is Stab(t'). i. lying over the real part of P. by C. Let R' be a struc- ture region stabilized by H'.R satisfies conditions (i) and (ii) of C. Proof. We know that f stabilizes IT' and that the fixed point x off lies on A(I?). then every elliptic element of H has exactly one fixed point in A(H). then 17 = tp. we first prove that there is a homeomorphism between the parts of K and R. Let W be the structure loop on OR separating R from R'.27. 11. Lemma. and that H' : H.6.. which implies that je13. and let A' = cp(R'). then (p*(J) lies over a small loop about the image of x in 13. lT' separates 1 from k. let W = p(W).G. W a Oft. and x lies on 11 Since 1$' is not entirely contained in d.25. By C. respectively. If 17 were not maximal. and the isomorphism p* maps the structure subgroup H = Stab(R) onto the structure subgroup R = Stab(I ). By D.7.6 in the reverse direction to conclude that H is not maximal. Let P be a part of K. Unfortunately. j lies in some structure subgroup H'. the corresponding Fuchsian or elementary groups have the same basic signature. then H' = H. taking any set of n distinct points to any other set of n distinct points. there is a typepreserving isomorphism from each of them onto a Fuchsian or elementary group.(H) is a structure subgroup of 0. Stabo(x) = Stabu(W). Then by C. I H.

or (O. then there is a connector between z. so 7 stabilizes both l$'. fl l2. Let ft be one such structure region.3) (see V. there is a corresponding divider on S. and R2. Then there are structure regions R. projects to the imaginary disc containing xm. as we observed above. v > 1.C. v odd. This means that the corresponding building blocks have a v-divider. with stabilizers H. These are structure subgroups of C.24. J is a maximal elliptic or parabolic cyclic subgroup of G. or parts. which is what we wish to prove. so there are structure regions Rm. which lifts to a homeomorphism of d(H) that commutes with every element of H. and there is a v-structure loop W on the common boundary of R. all stabilized by T.3. but. by assumption. and H2. from the parts of K to those of R.f. = P2). Observe that . 2. Let 17. we can modify f so that it does. and the outside disc of W. v > 1.3. If W. can be modified so as to preseve endpoints of connectors. and x2. where xm lies on the part P. It is not necessarily true that f maps xm to zm. For a finite group H. there is a homeomorphism from d(H)/H onto itself. where x is the endpoint of the connector c. 3. The same statement is true for rank 2 Euclidean groups. viewed from the point of view of Rm.9.10. = cp. or equivalently.7-8). 2. and K2. by C. a parabolic cyclic group has two classes of precisely invariant discs. Also. respectively. where Stab(Am) = 17m. This is equivalent to saying that the corresponding part m has a special point Xm of order v on it. there is a corresponding boundary loop on the corresponding building block. then it is the only structure region between A. # W2. and which interchanges two special points on d(H)/H. We continue with our assumption that PV. Let c be a v-connector in K connecting the points x. and 1'2. where two of these discs are in the same class if they have non-trivial intersection. from the point of view of Rm. and both these regions have . then there are some number of structure regions between R. and that there is a region ft between them. as a common boundary loop.2.*(Hm). projects to the imaginary disc about xm.D. (it is not excluded that P. and f2. D. and let rvm be the structure loop on the boundary of Rm that separates k. We start with the observation that for each special point x on K. from f2. v). so that R. and x2 on K have a connector between them if and only if the corresponding boundary curves on the boundaries of the corresponding building blocks are in fact the same. If not. Let J = Stab(W) = Ht fl H2. 17 = Stab(f) is either finite or infinite dihedral. two special points x. Let 7 = q (J). Our next goal is to show that the homeomorphism. = a'2. D. where the outside of W. Signatures 277 discs in d (H). and R2 lying over the corresponding building blocks. and i=. and R2. This means that if P has one of these signatures. This in turn occurs if and only if there are structure regions R. we may not have chosen our homeomorphism correctly. We first take up the case that Stab(f) is infinite dihedral.X. if and only if H has signature (0. and R2 have a structure loop W as their common boundary.7 c R. but false for rank 1 groups.

The structure loop 141.7.24. Let W be the structure loop on the boundary of R separating it from R. = R2 = J. nor H2 is elliptic cyclic. while keeping them invariant under 7. We conclude that there is a connector c between the two special points on P. we assume that J is elliptic. R.. We now have three distinct structure subgroups. the outside disc bounded by it is precisely invariant under 7. and there is a loxodromic element f which commutes with J.. both kept invariant by R.11. that H is finite. and R2. Function Groups non-elementary stabilizers. R. and H2. and R3-m . R> and . from either point of view. Likewise there are two structure regions. with an R-invariant structure loop between them. Let W. and.7 and R2 .7 from those of both R.12. and R2. or 1412. This is equivalent to saying that the connector c has both endpoints on the one part P. H. and that neither H. In particular R.. Then H. and H2. H. and R2 are all stabilized by J. and R2 are adjacent. Observe that the argument above applies equally well if either H. Since cp is a similarity. 2. every structure region stabilized by 7 is of the form f°(R). Then by C. and there is a loxodromic element f mapping out of these boundary loops onto the other. and let = cp(W). Similarly applying VHI.2 to <R. and R. and staying in the complement of the fixed points of R. The projection of 141. and let R be a structure region stabilized by H. Let R be the (unique) structure region stabilized by H. v. lies between the structure regions stabilized by R. We have eliminated the possibility that Stab(A) is Euclidean.278 X. This contradicts our assumption that R.C.R lies between 1R. This means that there are at least three distinct structure regions stabilized by J.20. R> represents a sphere with four special points. R. and that 141. even though .C. and R2.7 from those of both R . D. be the structure loop for t7 separating A from Am. Then R. that is. Notice that W. in a non-trivial fashion. or H. Let 0 be the subgroup of C generated by R. which in turn means that there must be at least two structure loops stabilized by J. separates the elliptic fixed points of R. Then H = qp#-' (Stab(R)) is an infinite dihedral subgroup of G. It follows that 141 necessarily intersects either 4P. = H2 = J. We assume that it intersects YD. . so 7 = R.2. . there are exactly two structure loops and three structure regions stabilized by J. all containing J. v). By C. we cannot deform these loops into loops which do not intersect.7. From here on. Let H = cp*' (R). D. and A2. is elliptic cyclic. hence we can apply VII. and the (unique) such structure region stabilized by the elementary structure subgroup H lies between the other two. of signature (0. We now take up the case that 7 is elliptic and R is elliptic cyclic. Then the two structure loops on OR are both stabilized by 7. projects to a simple loop on this surface. to conclude that <R.7. and H is a structure subgroup different from both H. l ' separates the elliptic fixed points of elements of R . to this surface is a (power of a) simple loop that separates two of the special points from the other two.

of either x' or y'. where x' and y' are adjacent points of intersection on both W and W. Let 17' be the loop formed by traversing C from x to y. C and D together bound a disc that contains no elliptic fixed points and no limit points. Let v be the projection of P to S. . where D contains no Stab(W)-translates of x or y (see Fig. (The projection of W. 9' has no points of intersection with any light loop (Of course there might be points of intersection with heavy loops along D). that is. 9' projects to a simple loop. Let C be the arc of A between x and y. except for traversing D. is of course a power of a simple loop.. under the stabilizer of the heavy curve. and WZ so that they remain simple . call them x and y. and there are no points of intersection of C with any light curve. but now they have only simple crossings.6). we can find two such points of intersection. or W2.X. D has no points of intersection with any light curve. consider the set of all 0-translates of IV. It is easy to see that one of the segments of the heavy curve contains no translates. Then we can deform 1V to follow D instead of C. there is an arc A of IP between x' and y'.. which contains no other point of intersection with iI Of course. The heavy curves form a set of simple disjoint loops. In this case. Observe that. we see that 0 represents a sphere with five special points. The first possibility is that v is homotopically trivial on °S. it also projects to a (power of a) simple loop on d/C. and the third building block has one special point and two boundary components. and reduce the number of points . think of these as heavy loops. and W2 form a system of loops on Q(G)/G = S and separate it into three building blocks. where the projections of IV. and there is an arc B of W. Signatures 279 172. .D. Consider the set of intersections of a heavy curve and a light curve. It is easy to find a pair of division points x' and y'. so do the light curves. W has non-trivial intersections with W. so that x and y are adjacent on A. also consider the translates of both W. then v is a loop which lifts to a loop. so that it now runs parallel to D. then they divide the heavy curve and the light curve into two segments each. and W2 as being light. W. If x' and y' are two adjacent points of intersection on the heavy curve. and let D be the arc of W between x and y. This set of intersections divides each of these loops into segments. X.7-invariant loops. so it necessarily projects to a (power of a) simple loop on S. and so that the same light curve W passes through both x and y. which contains no other points of intersection with W. and does not intersect the projection of either W.D. We deform IV. then D from y back to x. where two of these building blocks have two special points and one boundary component. Since there are no translates of x or y on D.) Since W projects to a (power of a) simple loop on d/G. In Q(C). These intersections divide each of these loops into segments. that is. between x' and y'. Let 9 be the simple loop obtained from 17' by deforming it near x and y and along D. there may be points of intersection with other light curves on A.

D. it lies on one of the building blocks. there is no B-group whose signature consists of exactly two surfaces of signature (0. for v is a simple loop that lifts to a loop. But none of these are possible. We saw in D. and W2 by two. Each of the building blocks is a sphere with three boundary components (either two special points. Q D. and W2 are precisely invariant under . and we know that the special points all have order at least two. Since v is simple.6 of intersection of iP with W. which has order at least two. and x2. or one special point and two boundary loops). Function Groups Fig. and R2i it follows that there is a connector between the special points on K corresponding to the points x. and K and k are homeomorphic. for example. and one boundary loop. in this case. A theoretical signature a = (K.280 X. Hence v is freely homotopic either to a small loop about a special point. or the projection of W2. or W2. and does not cross the projection of either W.13. 0). we say that the B-group realizes the signature. Since S and S are homeomorphic. t) for which there is a B-group with signature a. we can assume that this does not happen. homotopically non-trivial. We have shown that there is no structure region A lying between A. . It is clear that not every theoretical signature occurs as the signature of a B-group.14. t = 1.3 that the Schottky number can be defined as the difference between the genus of S and that of K. and that W. X.. D. is called a real signature. Since there are necessarily points of intersection. or the projection of W. This completes the proof of the fact that we can modify the homeomorphism between the parts of K and those of K so as to preserve the connectors.1.

. (F) If P. Proof of (D). ce). (A) If there is a part P with signature (0. 2. is a subsurface of S. properly oriented. wp are homologically independent on S. Theorem. 2. 0). Suppose there is a part P of signature (0. 00). where Stab(W) = Stab(R) is parabolic cyclic. and there would be an .20.20. v1. which appears only once on Y. this cannot occur. It is also a connected closed surface. w. Suppose we had two (0.. v. hence it is S. Let w1. D. Let Y be the preimage of Re(P) in S. Suppose that these loops are not homologically independent on S. then P is the only part of K.D. and P2 are distinct parts. has signature (0. then there are two such structure loops. v). Then the corresponding structure subgroup H is finite cyclic.5. (E) If P is a part with signature (0. Then there would be adjacent structure regions R. Suppose there is a connector c with at least one endpoint on P. 00) parts P.. then there is no o0-connector between P. or. I < v < oo. v. There can be no part with signature (0. the product of all the boundary loops of Y. Suppose there is a part P of signature (0.. D. H is a structure subgroup of H'. A real signature a = (K. The closure of Y.. 2. 2.. Since Y is planar. then the other endpoint of c is also on P. lying over the real part of P. hence each one appears exactly twice on OY. 2. We conclude that the loops w1. Proof of (B) and (C). and c is a connector with one endpoint on P. 2. This can occur only is H is contained in some preliminary structure subgroup H'.. D. Proof of (A). v). and they are G-equivalent. if there is one H-invariant structure loop on the boundary of the corresponding structure region. This means that there is a structure loop W on the boundary of a structure region R. 2. contradicting the minimality of the number of dividers. Signatures 281 D. D. V1 # v2.16. Then the corresponding structure subgroup H is parabolic cyclic.21. be the 1-dividers on Y. = Stab R. v1. By C.19. 2. v < oo. t) satisfies the following. v2). The corresponding statement for connectors is (E). so there is at least one of them.H. Hence w1 is freely homotopic to a product of other dividers. v. assume it is w1. 2. Proof of (F). 1. then some subcollection of them divides S. 0 v..0). (D) If P is a part with signature (0. (B) There is no part with signature (0. each with signature (0. because there can be no basic group with these signatures. 2. (C) There is no part with signature (0. and Y is planar. cc). is freely homotopic to the identity. . and R2. and by IX. 2.X. where H. Proof of (E). 3.17. oc). 1. cc. v. v) or (0. 2. and P2. with these boundary loops pairwise identified.18. . We conclude that P is the only part of K. and P2 with an o0-connector between them. by C.15. 3.. then Y is bounded entirely by 1-dividers. D. Suppose there is a part P with signature (0.). then there is no connector having an endpoint on P. 3. v).

2. This will both give us information about the structure of these groups. Let p: 9 .{w}. w is a v-divider. X. V. with all four structure loops stabilized by the same parabolic subgroup. after cutting along the non-dividing 1-dividers.. and degenerate groups. .S be a regular covering of a finite Riemann surface S. By the planarity theorem.282 X. then one of loops w would simultaneously be freely homotopic to a product of 1-dividers. so parts (D) and (F) do not apply. wk} assures that there can be no part with signature (0. .E. where there is a connector connecting a special point of this part with a special point of some other part. as follows. the amalgamated or conjugated subgroup is always either trivial or elliptic or parabolic cyclic.. The basic groups here are the elementary groups. lift to loops.. v). A v2..F that every admissable signature is real. v). Then R. We will show in X. we can construct the theoretical signature associated to this covering by cutting S along these loops.2.2. As in B.21. In our situation. there are no co-connectors. and show that every function group can be built up from certain basic groups using combination theorems.. and v2 as the smallest power for which it lifts to a loop. El D. let Y be a connected component of S . D. Finally. If D. wk } be a complete set of dividers on S. A signature satisfying conditions (A) through (F) above is said to be admissable. let v be the integer associated with iv. v..15(A) were false.22. This contradicts C. we would be left with a surface of genus zero with a divider on it. and adding v-connectors where appropriate. then one of our dividers w would have both v. 1. that is. If there were a part with signature (0. d) be a function group. 2 < v < co. where is planar.. Exactly as in D. and have v as the smallest positive power for which it lifts to a loop (see III. we decompose function groups using combination theorems. 2. the minimality of the set of loops {w1. Let (G. Fuchsian and quasifuchsian groups. let S = d/G. and R2 would each have two cc-structure loops on their boundary. when raised to certain positive powers. In this section.I. filling in discs or punctured discs. and let To be a panel lying over Y.C.24. v2 ).15 for this case. then every divider would be a 1-divider.... We can repeat theorem D.. This last divider is freely homotopic to a product of the non-dividing 1-dividers. there is a minimal set {w. Decomposition E.. v > 2. E. and let {w1.2-3). If we had a part with signature (0. Function Groups cc-structure loop W between them. v. In the use of the combination theorems. Let w = wk be one of these dividers. wk} of simple disjoint loops on S so that p: 9 -+ S is the highest regular covering for which these loops..1.

B are applicable. then there is exactly one special point of order v is each of these discs.25. then there are two Go-equivalence classes of structure loops on 3T0. Decomposition 283 The set £ of all structure loops lying over w is a set of simple disjoint loops (as usual. and H contains every parabolic element of G whose fixed point lies on A(H). then Stab(W) is either trivial. i. By C. Proposition. Every structure loop on the boundary of To projects onto w in S.X. let To be the region To with all boundary loops and outside discs adjoined. and let J = Stab(W). If R c To is a G-structure region. and To /Go is Y with discs sewn in along these two boundary components. As a subgroup of G. elliptic cyclic. or parabolic cyclic. Let W be a structure loop on dTo. then Y is the only component of S . Then To = d(G0).Go whose fixed point x lies in 4 (H). or a disc with one point of finite ramification.. and H is maximal in G. E. Also. H' = H. and To /Ga is the surface Y with a disc sewn in along the boundary component. while if w is dividing. M. then H = Stab(R) is a Go-structure subgroup.{ w}. if v > 1. If w is non-dividing. (H. Hence there is a Go-structure subgroup H' so that H c H'. E3. so that H = Stab(R). A(H) is still simply connected. Since j 0 Go. and the third remains true for any subgroup of G. while if iv is dividing. Since H' c G. if v > 1. then StabG(x) has rank 1. Then B/J is a disc. Let W be a loop on OT. we adjoin the appropriate parabolic fixed point to each connected component of p`(w)). there is a structure loop . and (H. If H is a Go-structure subgroup. Let T be the region containing To and let Go = Stab(T) = Stab(T0). hence the results of X. Proof. except for parabolic fixed points. H is a maximal subgroup of G satisfying the following properties: 4(H) is simply connected. Note that if w is non-dividing. it is one of the two components. or a punctured disc.E. 4(H)) contains no accidental parabolic transforma- tions. We saw in B. H is a maximal subgroup of Go satisfying the properties mentioned above. there is only one.5. 4(H)) still contains no accidental parabolic transformations.e. then there is exactly one special point of order v in this disc. If w is dividing. If w is non-dividing. then Y has only one boundary component.8. if v = oc. if Stab(W) is parabolic with fixed point x.. then Y has two boundary components. that Go is a function group. which divides C into regions. then there is a G-structure region R e To. As in B. Proof. Proposition. H is a G-structure subgroup. which we consider to be a disc with one point of infinite ramification. The first two properties are independent of G.8. Suppose there is a parabolic element j e G . let B be the outside disc bounded by W.

Hence. We next show that H is a maximal subgroup of G with these properties.. That is.. Hence j e Go. x lies on W.. Hence H is maximal in G. If v < cc.. Since His a Go-structure subgroup. which we have already eliminated. there is a G-structure subgroup H'. Function Groups Won 0. and w is non-dividing. If H is trivial.. Since j is parabolic.. and every parabolic element of Stab(x) lies in Stab(W). the question we need to answer is: Does every loop that lifts to a loop do so as a consequence of the fact that these particular loops lift to loops? .'So is the highest regular covering for which p(W. Hence. Since H stabilizes both sides of W. all lift to loops. H = H'. Since K 4 Go.A (Go). . Let W. ). ). Two of these structure regions are G-equivalent if and only if their stabilizers are G-conjugate. an element of G mapping one of these structure regions into another lies in Go. where there is exactly one loop for each Go-equivalence class of branch points. In general. then one of these loops can be taken to be a boundary loop of To. then there are exactly two of these loops that we can take to be boundary loops of To. and x E A(H) c aTo.. then every Go-structure subgroup is trivial (C..).6... and that H is not maximal. or is disjoint from it.. We now know that the Go-structure subgroups are precisely the stabilizers of the G-structure regions in To. or parabolic cyclic.. there is a structure loop W' on OR that separates R from To. when raised to these powers do lift to loops in this covering. be the G-structure loop on aTo that separates To from R. E.p(Wk). jEH.. Then H c Stab(W'). E. Assume that H is non-trivial. Since To is precisely invariant under Go in G. In particular.11. in particular the stabilizers of the G-structure regions contained in To are trivial. every G-structure subgroup is trivial.e.7. we know that these loops.. there is a G-structure subgroup K H.. i.'So. The G-structure loops in the interior of To can serve as a complete set of Go-structure loops. Since every G-structure region is either contained in To. To that separates To from j(T0). W be a complete list of non-conjugate preliminary structure loops for G in the interior of To. Hence H is either trivial. Proposition. Let W.23). Stab(x) has rank 1. the defining subgroup for the covering p: °A(G0) . or elliptic cyclic. so that H C-_ H' c Go.p(Wq)> = No. Of course. Since H is maximal in Go. H stabilizes the G-structure region which lies in To and has Wt on its boundary..p(W. Wq be small loops about branch points in A(G0). structure loops and structure regions are not uniquely determined. We first need to show that <p(W. two Go-structure subgroups are Go-conjugate if and only if they are G-conjugate. .284 X.. this is the cause of the awkward phrasing below. when raised to appropriate powers.. Let R be a structure region stabilized by K. By C. R 4 To.). that is. if v < oo. H = Stab(W. p(Wq ). Let W. and w is dividing. Proof.... and x C. p: °A(G0) ..

9. By B. then of course J = Stab(W) is accidental in G. is also in To. in do. the fixed point of J cannot lie outside To. every J-invariant loop separates A(H). there are . this J-invariant structure loop does not lie on aTo. we can deform V inside Ta so that it lies in To. and Stab(R3) is non-elementary. Since W' is in the interior of To. so the projection of V to Y is homotopic to a product of projections of preliminary structure loops in to. except that there is no connector in Ko corresponding to tv. and perhaps some loops lying in outside discs. Next let W' be an oo-structure loop in the interior of To.8. We now know that the preliminary structure loops for G in to can serve as a set of preliminary structure loops for Go. Hence there is at least one J-invariant cc-structure loops in A. v > 1. Hence. are redundant for the definition of No. It is clear that none of the w. Since the preliminary structure loops for G which lie inside T. Since W' is in the interior of To. and Stab(W') is accidental in H. Hence J is accidental in any larger B-group. R. El E. and R2. This shows that No is normally generated by the projections of the preliminary structure loops and the small loops about branch points. If w is a non-dividing v-divider. on the other side of this other structure loop. It remains to show that every accidental parabolic transformation in Go is Go-conjugate to an oo-structure loop in fia. but not accidental in Go.. If J is a cyclic subgroup of accidental parabolic transformations in Go. Decomposition 285 Let V be any loop in A(Go) = T.. the structure regions. Hence if say Stab(R2) is elementary. instead of w. from which it follows that J is accidental in G. J is accidental in H'. where H' H. Hence Stab(R. for a homotopy among the projections of the W. then there is a second cc-structure loop on OR2. Hence there are limit points of Go on both sides of W'. there is a preliminary structure subgroup H' for G. Since J stabilizes To. V is homotopic to a product of preliminary structure loops lying in To.E. so Stab(W') is accidental in Go.X. If W e aTo is an oo-structure loop. Since J is accidental in H. in particular. on 'So. and W. then J is accidental in some preliminary structure subgroup H of Go. then V is homotopic in d to a product of preliminary structure loops and small loops about elliptic fixed points.) and Stab(R2) are both contained in a preliminary structure subgroup H G. including boundary loops. and projections of small loops about elliptic fixed points in fia. then the parts of Ko are precisely the parts of K. and the loops lying in outside discs are homotopically trivial in do. would equally well be a homotopy among the projections of these loops on S. and the structure region R3. Pick a base point and add spurs. We are now in a position to compute the signature ao = (K. are exactly the preliminary structure loops for Go. it suffices to assume that V c To. small loops about elliptic fixed points in do. W' is not G-equivalent to any boundary loop. Since the stabilizers of oc-structure loops on aTo are not accidental in Go. on either side of W' are also in To. on So. to) of Go. hence there is at least one J-invariant structure loop in to. and the connectors of Ko are the same as those of K. That is. The boundary loops.

and S2. and let H = Stab(R). since H is quasifuchsian. then there is no connector in K corresponding to w. As above. let J = Stab(W). (iii) Go is geometrically finite. then H contains a half-turn h. Let W be a v-structure loop on dTo. and the genus of S differs from the genus of K by at least one. and that every non-elementary structure subgroup of Go is quasifuchsian. and that it is strong if any of conditions (i). + t2. or T2. the set of parts of K is the disjoint union of the set of parts of K. Let R be the structure region in To bounded by W. then it divides S into two subsurfaces. cut out by £. If H is elementary. (i)v<oo. Let W be some connected component of p-' (w). (ii) G is geometrically finite. B is strong if any of the following conditions are satisfied. then K is the disjoint union of K.1. We now assume that v = cc. Of course. and to = t .10. We now finish our analysis in the case that w is non-dividing. where h 0 J but hJh-' = J. If H is non-elementary. and let B be the closed outside disc hounded by W. so int(B U h(B)) is a pair of disjoint open discs that are precisely invariant under J in Go. If w is dividing. Let Qm = (Km. Hence the connectors in K. each containing one point of ramification of order v. then in addition to the disjoint union of K. Ko = K. = Stab(T. E. In this case. and these. If w is a v-divider. Then B is a (J. Also. (iv) Every non-elementary structure subgroup of Go is quasifuchsian. Also in this case. tm) be the signature of G. We already know from B. t = t. form a complete set of dividers on S. Every divider other than w lies in either S. + t2. v > 1. there is a precisely invariant disc B' c d'(H). on either side of W. (ii). the genus of So is one less than the genus of S. and the genus of Ko is one less than the genus of K.). and then return to the case that w is dividing in E.9. or (iii) hold. together with w. Proof. If w is a non-dividing 1-divider. and K2. .15. Theorem. If w is a 1-divider. and the set of parts of K2. and K2. Since the difference between the genus of S and that of K is the sum of the differences of the genera of dm/Gm and Km. Function Groups two discs. Since the outside disc B is contained in d(H). hence to = t. El E. Since every structure region in d is G-equivalent to a structure region in either T. while the other lies on K2. t = t. one endpoint of c lies on K. Then i U k is a pair of precisely invariant discs for J. and T2 be the two regions. where p(Tm) = Sm.G0)-block.286 X. and those in K2 are also connectors in K. d'(H) U B = 0. Also So differs from S in that there are two discs sewn in along the two boundary curves obtained by cutting S along w.. so there is a secondary component . and let T. or S2. K also contains the connector c corresponding to w. then it is quasifuchsian.4'(H) on which it acts.6 that B is a block. call them S.

where W. = Stab(Wm) = Stab(Bm). these two statements are sufficient to guarantee that B.X.5 is not empty. Let B..5.. from g(T0).f) . and J2 are cyclic. hence the set A.. Let g a G. There is an element f e G . or B2. and let J. hence the conclusions hold for the combined group. onto the inside of W2. hence are precisely invariant. be the structure loop on 8To that separates To from g(T0). Decomposition 287 Proposition. Now let WW be the structure loop on the boundary of T. of VII. Since f is not in Go. for some h e Go. Then every Go-structure subgroup is a G-structure subgroup. f )... this element is of the form g2 = g. and one of the building blocks cut out by w is a surface of genus zero. = h of -'. there are two structure loops W. Since W.E. f ). onto W2.. The second statement follows from E. we reach g(T0). = h of. Since w is non-dividing. after a finite number of steps. Since w is non-dividing. let W. There is a g2 E <Go. and W2 are not conjugate in Go. with exactly two special points on it. or W2. the closed discs of W. B2) is precisely invariant under (J.<Go. has diameter converging to zero. onto some outside disc bounded by a translate D2) is precisely invariant under (J. Also. o h o J'o g g2 = g. together with the observation that since w is non-dividing. We have shown that (B. Since there is an element h in <Go. Assume that w is non-dividing. we note that since J. and let T2 be the translate of To immediately on the other side of WW. for we know that (B1. a <Go.5 are satisfied. and on W2 is cyclic. then g(T0) # To.3. This includes conclusion (iii). f) mapping To onto g(T0). Since a sequence of distinct translates of W. is Go-equivalent to either W.E.11. Every element of Go maps B. E3 E.4.E. the points of To are not Go-equivalent to any point of either B. be the outside disc bounded by W. We next show that G = <Go. In order to complete the hypotheses of VII.. In fact. or g. f) which maps To onto T. they are surely geometrically finite. every building block on S has a lifting to a structure region contained in T. be the translate of To on the other side of IV.(T0) = Go. and B2 are jointly f-blocked. o It of -' o g. this is obvious if v < oc.'. We now know that the hypotheses of VII. this case does not occur.5. The only other possibility for the stabilizer is for it to be infinite dihedral. f) which maps or of the form T. onto T2. The first statement is just E. and let T.B2) is precisely invariant.E.. and every G-structure subgroup is G-conjugate to a Go-structure subgroup.12.Go mapping W. but this occurs only when w is a dividing loop. As we observed in VII. Proof. and W2 on 8T.J2) in Go. or if v = oo and the stabilizer of the parabolic fixed point on W. hence g c. If g tf Go. this element is either of the form g. E. both or order 2.J2). h -' o g e Stab. f maps the outside of W. that separates T. <Go.E. there is a g.

this includes conclusion (iii).E. or G2. then d' is G-equivalent to some noninvariant component of Go. and let Gm = Stab(T.5. Let T. Dm is precisely invariant under J in G. we make the remark that if w itself lifts to a loop.5.16. hence the conclusions also hold for (G. (xii) If d' # A is a component of G. then the structure region in T.. = J2 = { 1).4 and the observation that every building block in S has a lifting to either T. do not fill up all of B3_m.14.. If v < oo. we also have the following. If Stab(x) is not cyclic in say G.(x) is not cyclic.e. Before turning to the case that w is dividing. Looking from the point of view of T. It is easy to see that if StabRom(x) is cyclic. Gm}block.. Conclusion (xii) follows from conclusion (ix) of VII. and T2 be the regions on either side of W. let E be the set of G-translates of W. In addition to the conclusions of VII. Every structure subgroup of either G.15.. or G2. E. Conclusion (xiii) follows almost immediately from the fact that To is precisely invariant under Go in G.E. together with the observation that since J has at most one limit point on W.). and. in particular. hence (h DZ) is a proper interactive pair. but if v = oo. E. Since B. so that J. it is a (J. We now know that the hypotheses of VII. then the entire closed disc is precisely invariant. is an outside disc. Function Groups E. with W on its boundary is infinite dihedral. the stabilizer is infinite dihedral..288 X. Proposition.. We turn now to the case that w is dividing. the projection of To covers all of d/G. G2>. Theorem.5. Hence if Stab. It follows from C.13.C.2 hold. Stabo2(x) is. The second statement follows from E.. W bounds a closed outside disc. and (xiii) two structure subgroups of Go are conjugate in G if and only if they are conjugate in Go. Proof. Let W be some structure loop lying over w.. or G2 is a G-structure subgroup. The first statement is just E. then G is the free product of Go and the cyclic group <f>. there is one case where this is not so. call it B. E. for W is precisely invariant under J in either G. i. then the Gm-translates of B. then E divides d into regions.. . except for w. Proof. this occurs when the stabilizer of the fixed point x of J is not cyclic. Let J = Stab(W). Q(G)/G and Q(Go)/Go differ only in the projections of their invariant components. Every G-structure subgroup is G-conjugate to a structure subgroup of either G..24 that we cannot have two adjacent G-structure regions whose stabilizers are both elementary and both contain the same parabolic cyclic subgroup. or T2.

(T2 )) = g. G2 ). is a structure subgroup of G. We observed above that cutting S along a dividing 1-divider splits G into a free product of two subgroups. that is. and there is a g. Q E. Since W is a block. each G.18. Let G be a function group whose signature (K. (T2) separating g t (T2 ) from g(W).C. If g 4 G. (i) G is geometrically finite if and only if every structure subgroup of G is geometrically finite.. we arrive at an element he <G. the invariant component of G is formed from the invariant components of G. In addition to the conclusions of VII. on OT. then there is a g2 a Stab(g. U T2 covers all of d/G. we also have the following. Conclusion (xii) follows from VII. G2g. then there is a structure loop W. We inductively cut S = d/G along dividers as above. e G1 with g. also of course g. s GR.. Proof. i. are both G-conjugate to H. onto the structure loop on the boundary of g. 0 E. and G2. this sequence is finite.2. (xii) If d' # A is a component of G. are G-conjugate if and only if there is a structure subgroup H of either G. and H. d) be a function group.14 that cutting along a non-dividing 1-divider splits G into a free product. where We have shown that we can write G as a free product G = F * G1 F is free of rank t. If g(W) lies on Og. We observed in E. Proof. Theorem.19. and.. Each of the Gk can be viewed as the stabilizer of a region in d which covers a building block containing no structure loop in its interior. Then G is a free product.17... together with the observation that since J has at most one limit point on W. .20. have disjoint projections to d/G. with h(W) = g(W). G2 ).X. then g-1 og2og1e Stab(W ). or G. Let (G. and T2 are disjoint. then there is a g2eStab(g. We next show that G = <G1. separating T. We continue in this fashion. and there is one for each conjugacy class of structure subgroups of G. where one of the factors is cyclic. Hence G = <G. E. Theorem. or G2.(W) = g(W). so that H. Proposition. t) contains no connectors. If g(W) is not on 3g. and so generate a sequence of distinct translates of W that a path from W to g(W) must cross. * . Decomposition 289 E. from g(W). except for w. G2 ).. .2(viii). and (xiii) two G-structure subgroups H. the projection of T. after a finite number of steps.. (W) = WI. then d' is G-equivalent to a non-invariant component of either G.E. G = F * G.' that maps W. and H.(T2) lies on the other side of Wt. and G1. there are exactly t such operations. where F is a free group of rank t.(T2)..(T2)) so that g2og.e. G is a complete list of non-conjugate structure subgroups of G. Each structure loop lying over any of these dividers has trivial stabilizer.C. no two of these are conjugate. (T2 ). * G.. Conclusion (xiii) follows easily from the fact that T. Let g e G.

We first take up the case that w is non-dividing. If k = 0.2(xi) G is geometrically finite. degenerate. the G-structure subgroups are conjugates of the Go structure subgroups. Then by VII. A' 96 A. the G.-structure subgroups are all geometrically finite. If G is geometrically finite.21.E. Let To be a region lying over S .5(x). every G-structure subgroup is geometrically finite. G is geometrically finite. We turn now to statement (ii). Of course H is also a G-structure subgroup. A' is G-equivalent to a non-invariant component of Go. By the induction hypothesis.C. G has no accidental parabolic transformations. so every G-structure subgroup is geometrically finite. every Go-structure subgroup is geometrically finite. so there can be another component only if G is quasifuchsian. By IX.I dividers on So. and G2 are both geometrically finite. Note that there are exactly k . We now assume that w is dividing.10. then. and to is the number of connected components of K. and G2 are both geometrically finite. If every G-structure subgroup is geometrically finite. Then by induction. note that k = r2 + rO . If every G-structure subgroup is geometrically finite. By E. and that our results hold for every function group with fewer than k dividers. Proof. Construct G. where the number of dividers = k > 0. Now assume that (G. then by E. and G2 is geometrically finite. Since there are no oc-connectors. E. A) is given. G is either elementary. . then there is a unique quasifuchsian structure subgroup H. so that A' = A'(H).21. using E.I2(xii).15. and let Go = Stab(T0). hence we can assume that it is a non-invariant component of Go. Note that both A. there is a quasifuchsian Go-structure subgroup H. By the induction hypothesis. 15. and A2/G2 have fewer than k dividers on them. G. see D.2(xi).15. We prove statements (i) and (ii) by induction on the number k of dividers.C.5(x) Go is geometrically finite.290 X. every structure subgroup of both G. Then by E. then by VII. so that A' = A'(H).1 + t. G. Let A' be a non-invariant component of G. Function Groups (ii) If A' is a component of G. Then by E.10 again. Go is geometrically finite. Then by the induction hypothesis. quasifuchsian. Since G itself is the only structure subgroup of G. every G0-structure subgroup is geometrically finite. Let w be a divider on S = A/G. Elementary and degenerate groups have only one component.22.-structure subgroups and the G. where r2 is the number of connectors.w./G. (i) is automatic.D. so by induction.E. then A is simply connected.2. then by VII. E. then by VII. or G has accidental parabolic transformations. If G is geometrically finite. (iii) G is analytically finite. and G2 as in E.

Theorem. every component of DIG is a finite marked Riemann surface. that d' is G-equivalent to a non-invariant component of either G.15 are needed here to guarantee that the signature of (G. t = 0. and let a = (K. Recall that the number of dividers is given by k = t2 + t0 .I. and let G be the group of deck transformations. and to > 1. as follows. or G2.18. The main ingredients in the proof are the combination theorems.F. Since every quasifuchsian group is analytically finite (IX.1 + t. By hypothesis. F.10). If k = 0. t) be an admissable signature with k > 0 dividers.X. Now assume that every admissable signature for which the number of dividers is less than k can be realized by a Koebe group. Then (G.F. Let p: d -+ P be the branched universal covering. to is the number of connected components of K.O). then let ao = (K. hence we can assume that d' is a non-invariant component of say G.1). where t2 is the number of connectors in the 2-complex K. Let a = (K. let K2 = K .20 that such a group is necessarily geometrically finite. be a connected component of K. t) be an admissable signature. then let K. This case is taken up starting with F.23. let d' be a non-invariant component of G. Let G. the proof proceeds via induction on the number of dividers on the underlying surface. it is a G-structure subgroup. (i) If t > 0. By C. . X. Then by induction. there are only finitely many distinct conjugacy classes of structure subgroups. or the disc. We saw in E.K and let am = (Km. We choose one of the dividers and delete it. Since H is a G.F.A0) with signature ao. Statement (iii) follows almost at once from (ii). hence DIG has only finitely many components. F. and K consists of exactly one marked surface P.. (ii) If t = 0. there is a Koebe group (GO. where the branched universal covering surface d is either the sphere. t . A) is a function group with signature a (conditions B and C of D.2. We know from E.27.-structure subgroup H so that d' = d'(H). there is a G. the plane.-structure subgroup.3. Existence 291 For the second part. d) is indeed a). and t is the Schottky number. then to = 1. Then there is a Koebe group with signature a. be a Koebe group with signature am. E. A function group in which every structure subgroup is either Fuchsian or elementary is called a Koebe group. Existence F.(xii).9.

Let H be the structure subgroup containing J.0). so that B. Let c be one of these connectors. We next observe that B. and let G. and E2 are both open circular discs. = Stab(Bm) is trivial. and U2 be neighborhoods of x. We are given the Koebe group (Go. on So. note that J. K is connected. let K. Since their projections are disjoint. we are given distinguished points x. 0).c is still connected.292 X. and K2 be the two connected components of K ..9. Let U. then let K. and let Go be a Koebe group with signature a0. # x2. In case (i). and x2. it also does so on d(H)/H. since J represents two punctures on S = d0/G0. = P2. (iv) If there is no v-connector as above. of Go. we can also regard x. hence Go is a B-group.9. simply connected. be the closure of ISm. Note that in case (v). (iii). where K . Let So = d0/G0. then let co = (K . We can assume without loss of generality that A. and in cases (iii) and (v). and there is a connector c that does not divide K. G0)-block. hence H is . v < co. F. of order v. respectively. where U. where b0 = D0 fl do is connected. 0).4. Let Wm = OB. and U2 have closures that are disjoint. We first take up cases (i). and. 0).c. be some connected component of the preimage of Um in do.c. fl B2 = 0. t = 0. let am = (Km. set am = (Kr. The argument for this case starts with F. and x2. and K2 be the two connected components of K . x. ro = 1. and there is a v-connector c in K. to). connected. where these points are not endpoints of any connector in K0. if v = oo. and disjoint from all dividers on So. and they all divide K. be a Koebe group with signature am. Since xm e Re(Pm). and x2. d0) with signature co = (K0. (vi) In the only remaining case. and x2 as being distinct special points of order v on So. be a Koebe group with signature am. where Jm has order v. we can regard xm as lying on the corresponding brick Ym. it is not excluded that P. and every divider is an oo-divider. and (v). It is immediate that Bm is a strong (1. with v < co. Let B. B. and let G. choose some constrained fundamental set Do for Go.c. the only other possibility is that they have a common parabolic fixed point.c. and that (B B2) is precisely invariant under ({1}. and B2 be disjoint closed circular discs in the interior of b0. The remainder of this subsection is devoted to the construction of the analogous strong blocks in cases (iii) and (v). Let A. includes the appropriate parabolic fixed point. The argument for this case starts with F. then let K0 = K . and let Go be a Koebe group with signature a0. and let B. fl o is precisely invariant under Jm. this can occur only if there is a cyclic parabolic subgroup J of Go representing both punctures. Function Groups (iii) If t = 0. on K0. but there is a v-connector c.{1})inG0. (v) If every connector is an oo-connector. every connector is an oo-connector. since x. there is a part Pm with xm a Re(Pm). Since xm is not an endpoint of a connector in a0. Note that there is a maximal cyclic subgroup J. let a0 = (K0.

B. We remark that B. U U2) where 8U. and B2 are disjoint closed circular discs contained in 0. t).. Let f be some element of #t. In . i. FS. in which case f commutes with every element of J.(B.5 are all satisfied. = J2. together with the requisite points of OB1. FA Our next goal is to show that (G. It follows from VlI. Let 15 be 15. 2. and B2 are jointly f-blocked. onto the inside of B2. where bo = Do fl Ao is connected.. has limit points of G on both sides (in particular.5(viii)). B' is disjoint from B. It easily follows that if g is any element of G. = J2. there can be no connector in K with an endpoint at either special point of such a part. hence Fuchsian. where A is the common exterior of B. with W2) generate G. The connector c in K is an oc-connector with one endpoint on the part P corresponding to H. where f maps the outside of B. In all three cases under consideration. We still need to show that B = is strong. ). = Stab(B. is also disjoint from all its own translates. f>. and f maps the fixed points of J. so that 15 is a connected component of the constrained fundamental set D = (Do fl A) U (Do fl r)B. cc). This contradicts the assumption that c is non-dividing. i.E. Since A'(H) is a non-invariant component of G. onto J2. Let G = <Go. and let H be the structure subgroup containing J =. and B U B' is precisely invariant under J in G.. A) has signature (K. J is doubly cusped. Hence its projection is a simple loop. That is. (B1. or B2.F. and is precisely invariant under J = J. let Do be a maximal constrained fundamental set for Go. 2. and B2 (see VII. and does not have signature (0.E. The only other possibility is that H = J.. then we can draw a path in Q(G) connecting 15 to g(6). hence there are no other connectors with one endpoint on P. 2. where H is infinite dihedral. Note that the hypotheses of VIl. Hence the elements of G which identify the sides of 15 (including f. By assumption. there must be points of Ao that are not covered by any translate of either B. 0C). By D. Then there is a precisely invariant disc B' c A'(H). 3. it separates the fixed points of f). It follows that f conjugates J. The loop W = 3B. Since Go is a function group. the elements of Go which identify the sides of bo generate Go.(U. 0C. i. is disjoint from every translate of B2. Existence 293 not Fuchsian. and OU2 are identified.X. J2) in Go. and W2 = dB2 in at most finitely many points. and B2 are circular discs. The argument above shows that in fact B. U B2). G has an invariant component A z) D. We have shown that (B. J2) in Go. the corresponding part has signature (0. there are no v-connectors with v < cc.e.E.B2) is precisely invariant under Q. = aB. and dDo meets W. We saw above that H is non-elementary. in G. ). which identifies W.1 5(D). it might be that J.e. B2) is precisely invariant under (J. which is not null homotopic in A. or power of a simple loop w. so we assume that v = cc. onto those of J2. The only other possibility is that there is structure subgroup H containing J..e. and B..5(ix) that A/G is S . . Since J2) B.

Function Groups cases (i) and (iii). In case (v). onto that of J2. and small loops about elliptic fixed points. is also connected. it is almost immediate that any loop V in °d is freely homotopic to a product of loops. is that the stabilizer of a tentative oo-structure loop is accidental parabolic in G. and small loops about elliptic fixed points in d. Stab(W. Proposition. H=Go.E. the invariant component of G. First. Then there is a preliminary structure subgroup H for Go containing ho. then h stabilizes some tentative oo-structure loop. lift to loops. that is. where no Vm crosses any tentative structure loop. Let L. Since there are limit points on both sides of W. Proof. which is the closure of the translates of 4(G0). hence G is a Koebe group.) is accidental. or W2. so there is nothing to prove if ho stabilizes a Go-translate of either W. The G-translates of the Go structure loops in do. hence the signature of G has exactly the same parts as does the signature of Go. where each of these loops contains at most one point not in °d. The statement of the proposition involves several different statements. when raised to appropriate powers. there is a cusped region C .°S is the highest regular covering for the which the projections of the tentative v-structure loops. the projection of those loops stabilized by elliptic elements or the identity. it is accidental in G. h is conjugate to some element ho of Go. Third. is a minimal set of dividers. Inside Rm. and these are all Fuchsian or elementary.5(ix). together with the G-translates of Wt can serve as a full set of structure loops for G. We are now in a position to apply the results of the preceding section.294 X. . it follows from the strong version of the planarity theorem that w can serve as a divider on S = Q(G)/G. In either case. these are as follows. hence the Go-stabilizer of the fixed point of ho has rank 1. together with small loops about special points. Let T = do be the region cut out by Z so that H = Stab(T) z) Go.. v < oo. the G-stabilizer of its fixed point has rank 1. We call the loops under consideration the tentative structure loops.7. Since h is accidental in G. which is clearly true. any loop is freely homotopic to a product of tentative v-structure loops.. By E. Now suppose that ho is not accidental in Go. Second. F. By VII. also raised to appropriate powers. We note that while Stab(WI) is not accidental in Go. so its projection can serve as a divider on S. this is equivalent to saying that p: `d . then by VII.E. G is also a B-group.10. Since the set of tentative structure loops is a set of simple disjoint loops. The fourth statement. every loop in °d is freely homotopic in °d to a product of tentative v-structure loops.. fl V. Also from E. Suppose h is an accidental parabolic element of G.be the set of preimages of w in d. lies inside a translate of a Go-structure region.13(xiii). Since f maps the fixed point of J. Then each V. Hence V is freely homotopic to such a product.5(iii). the G-structure subgroups are precisely the conjugates of the Go-structure subgroups. Then H is either a non-elementary B-group or a rank I Euclidean group. the limit set of G. call it Rm. Go is a B-group. the set of conjugacy classes of G-structure subgroups is precisely the set of conjugacy classes of Go-structure subgroups. if h e G is accidental parabolic. v < rG.

then h stabilizes the appropriate translate of this structure loop. is elliptic. If there were a free homotopy in A among some set of tentative structure loops and small loops about special points. or W2. follows almost at once from the minimality of the set of Go-structure loops. Existence 295 in A(H) for ho. on Km.. then this free homotopy would equally well hold in An. of order v. there is a point xm in Km. and then gluing the boundaries together. = D.. Gm)-block. If ho stabilizes either W. choose a neighborhood U. Let B. then it is generated by z . we also have picked out a distinguished point xm. we normalize G. Normalize G. We normalize G. n A. We have shown that either ho is accidental in G0. As in the preceding case. and normalize G2 so that. further so that if J. = Stab(Bm). so the Schottky number for both S and So is zero. In case (ii). v < cc. in cases (iv) and (vi). of xm. since the two 2-complexes are the same. or W2. then it stabilizes an oc-structure loop. there are no 1-dividers on either S or So. is a block. be the closure of a connected component of the preimage of Um. fl Q(Gm). or ho stabilizes W2. the Schottky number for G is one greater than the Schottky number for Go. and choose a closed circular disc B. Clearly. We have shown that G has signature a = (K. In cases (iv) and (vi). we can assume without loss of generality that B. In cases (iii) and (v).7 that the connectors in the signature of G are precisely the connectors in the signature of Go. together with one additional connector corresponding to W. is a circular disc. where D. and x2 (these are the discs B. The minimality of the set of tentative v-structure loops. so that A. and 62 is the upper half-plane.F. Then we can regard xm as being a special point of order v on S. where xm is the endpoint of the connector c. fl S2(Jm) = B.. and B2). so that xm a Re(Pj).E. We turn now to cases (ii). and the genus of S is one greater than the genus of So. If we are in case (ii). is the lower half-plane. while if J. where the closure of U. is connected and simply connected. so that A. In case (i). that 6m is precisely invariant under J. F.5(ix) that S is obtained from So by cutting holes about the points x.z + 1. or ho stabilizes W. Hence S has two fewer special points than does So. We see from VII. is a strong ({1}. t). hence C is also a cusped region for ho in G. (iv). for Gm.4. then It stabilizes the appropriate translate of W. is the lower half-plane. and (vi). Note that B. there is a part P.62 is the upper half-plane. It follows that hp is not accidental in G. and does not intersect any divider on Sm. i. We have two Koebe groups G. c K. F.X. Since xm in not the endpoint of a connector in Km. which contains A.9. . We have shown that K is the 2-complex in the signature of G. = dm/Gm. Exactly as in F. We can regard the parts of the signature of G as being the same as the parts of the signature of Go. is connected. If ho is accidental in Go. B. and G2. this is all we have.8. in the interior of 6m. is parabolic. choose some constrained fundamental set D. we see from F. and that B. we can choose C sufficiently small so that it intersects no Go-translate of either W. Using this identification.e.

both of these sets are not empty. )/G. then we can write it as a word in these generators. be a maximal constrained fundamental set for Gm. in this case B. J.C.B2) is an interactive pair. then condition D. is trivial. It is clear that W is precisely invariant under J in both G.2 are satisfied.11. W= P. We have shown that J * G. If the structure subgroup H. If J = Gm is parabolic cyclic. With these normalizations. . and G2 if J is either trivial or elliptic cyclic. We next verify the hypotheses of VlI.15(D). fl B2) U (62 fl B. If Hm is elementary.10. or G2. then the connector c has both its endpoints on the corresponding part. D. Let 6m = Dm fl dm. fl B2) U (D2 fl B. and so find a path in Q(G) connecting 15 to g(6). = d(G. Function Groups it has its fixed points at ±i. contains a half-turn h which anticommutes with every element of J. Similarly.2 that (B1. 0 0. this possibility is eliminated by D. and D.Gm)-block. F. but if it is not. fl B2 96 0 or D2 fl B. if the G.2(viii) that A(G)/G can be obtained from S.296 X. We next observe that B. and identifying their boundaries. and that it is proper as soon as either D. The first observation is that D.) is a component of the constrained fundamental set (D. then W need not be precisely invariant under J in Gm.B2) is a proper interactive pair. since d'(Hm) is disjoint from J is doubly cusped.2. Proposition.-structure subgroup con- . then there is a precisely invariant disc in the secondary component d'(Hm).C. is elliptic cyclic. where aDm intersects W in at most finitely many points.15(E) asserts that if J = G. and J # G2. = J2 = J. Proof. contradicting the assumption that c divides K. is a (J.15(F). and these sides do not lie entirely in Bm. containing J is infinite dihedral. This shows that A/G is a finite Riemann surface. By D. generate Gm. that is. It follows from VII. is a strong block. Let W be the common boundary of B. We have shown that G is a function group. F. and B2. We now know that the hypotheses of VII.C. 2. we still need to show that J e G J 96 G2. and that (B1. oo).15(D) assures us that it is not cyclic. then the corresponding part Pm has signature (0.6 generate G. Then the identifications of the sides of D. If g is any element of G.C. this shows that G has an invariant component A. and it is clear that the identifications of the sides of . fl W = D2 fl W. there is nothing to show if J is elliptic. so we can use the conclusions. oo. containing J is Fuchsian.1 5(A) eliminates the possibility that J = G.). W is precisely invariant under J in either G. Then 6 = (6. It is clear that we can choose Dm so that a generator of J identifies two of the sides of 6m. If J is parabolic. and there is a connector with an endpoint on one of the special points xm of Pm. and U2. We saw in VII. We already know that B. assume that it is parabolic. Since the projection of Bm to Q(Gm)/Gm has non-empty exterior. U h(Bm) is a precisely invariant pair of discs. Let D. Hence H. and S2 = d(G2)/G2 by cutting out the discs U. then the structure subgroup of G.

0 for every g. is Euclidean. Since there are limit points on both sides of W. for every g. which is the closure of the union of all the G-translates of A(G1) U 4(G2). is parabolic cyclic or infinite dihedral. since every divider in both K. (B. Hence g2 o g. . In case (vi). if g. 2. G. every element of G1 has a fixed point at the parabolic fixed point on W. each have only one part of signature (0. Existence 297 taining J is infinite dihedral. x). Proof. can serve as a full set of structure loops for G. By the strong form of the planarity theorem.) fl B. a G. is connected.14.E. and g. (B. Similarly. has a parabolic puncture. (B. F. the set of G-conjugacy classes of structure subgroups is just the union of the set of conjugacy classes of G1-structure subgroups and the set of conjugacy classes of G2-structure subgroups. Then since g.) fl B. w can serve as a divider on S. w on S = JIG. In cases (ii) and (iv). and there is an ac-connector between the two parts. and K.X. these are as follows. Then g1(B1)c2. in G1. together with the G-translates of the G. and G2. Hence W is precisely invariant under the identity in either G. Stab(W) is accidental. is loxodromic with one fixed point in the interior of B. so G. First. We conclude that w can serve as a divider. where w is not freely homotopic to a small loop about a special point. if h e G is . so G is also a B-group. a G. Since B. every loop in °d is freely homotopic in °d to a product of tentative v-structure loops. G. .13. This shows that the parts of the signature of G are exactly the parts of K. then G2 is also infinite dihedral. then J is parabolic. The G-translates of W. The only way this can occur is if K. Since G. . 2.J.15 that the structure subgroups of G are just the G-conjugates of the structure subgroups of G. This cannot occur by D. fixes the parabolic fixed point on W. F. For any 92eG2 . W projects to a homotopically non-trivial simple closed curve. Since Q(G1)/G. It follows from E.12. 96 J. Proposition. Hence g.I5(F).18(xiii).. then the G2-structure subgroup containing J is not. 92og1(B1) c 92(A2) c A1. or power of a simple closed curve. We next show that G has limit points in both the upper and lower half planes. The statement of the proposition involves several different statements. if there is no g2 E G2 so that g2(B2) c A. are applicable. or G2. (B1) fl B.) fl B.J. First assume that there is an element g. and K2 is an oo-divider. and G2 are both B-groups. A(G). Second.F. is the parabolic fixed point on both W and g1(W). and the projection of W can serve as a divider on S. 3. is a block. and the G-translates of the G2-structure loops in d2. = 0. then by E. 0. Since the limit sets of G.-structure loops in d. is infinite dihedral.. so that g. We call this set of loops the set of tentative structure loops. and G2 meet at oo. and the other in Now suppose that there is no such element g. F. hence the results of X. G. since there are limit points in both the upper and lower half planes. v < oo. and small loops about elliptic fixed points in A. in G.

We see from VII. n V. h is conjugate to some element ho of either G.C. We have shown that every accidental parabolic element of G stabilizes a tentative structure loop. If H is elementary. since W is precisely invariant under J in either G. or the identity. lies in °d. or G2. There can be no such relation. or G2. we can make the cusped regions smaller so that they do not intersect any structure loop. If H is Fuchsian. Since the set of tentative structure loops is a set of simple disjoint loops..-structure subgroup containing ho. then ha is doubly cusped in G1. and K2. Since ho does not stabilize any translate of W. and small loops about elliptic fixed points. for the dividers on both S. the genus of K is exactly the sum of the genera of K. It follows from the above that the connectors in the signature of G are exactly those in the signature of G and those in the signature of G2. and let T be the covering group.. Suppose there is a free homotopy among the tentative dividers with finite marking. V.C. Then each V. where both cusped regions lie in A. Function Groups accidental. then ho is doubly cusped in G. and x2. . which has its endpoints at x. Since no tentative divider crosses W. crosses any tentative structure loop. the set of these loops stabilized by elliptic elements. then h stabilizes some tentative structure loop. . Third. Since the Schottky numbers for both G. raised to appropriate powers.298 X. and T is a free product. we can have such a relation only if there is a relation among the tentative dividers on S raised to appropriate powers. together with the one additional connector corresponding to W.2(iii). where each V. assume for simplicity that ho e G.S be the branched universal covering of S. Since h is accidental in G. If h e G is accidental parabolic. so it does not lie in any such subgroup of G. and a lift of S2. Assume that ho is not accidental in G and assume that ho does not stabilize any translate of W. and S2.. it does not lie in any rank 2 parabolic subgroup of G. each containing at most one point not in d. these are just the tentative structure loops on MRm. amalgamated across a lift of W. any loop V in °d is freely homotopic to a product of loops. is minimal.. In case (ii). lies in a translate of some structure region of either G. of a lift of S. We have shown that the 2-complex in the signature of G is just K.. and no V.15. and S2 are minimal. raised to appropriate powers. We can lift this free homotopy to a relation among the lifts of the tentative dividers. Inside Rm. and G2 are zero.2(viii) that the genus of S is exactly the sum of the genera of S. is freely homotopic to a product of loops on the boundary of Rm. Let H be the G. Let p: U . call it Rm. The same result therefore holds for V. then by VII. and the other lies in the secondary component of H. where one of the cusped regions lies in d.S. Hence ho is not accidental in G. In either case. these cusped regions do not intersect any translate of B. branched to the same orders as the covering p: A .. so is the Schottky number for G. or G2. Q F. or there is a relation among the tentative dividers on S2. in F.

d) be function groups of the same signature a = (K. Combining IX.2. This completes the proof that G has signature or = (K. (ii) If G and Zi are both geometrically finite. G is a Koebe group.I. d) and (t.G. or equal. then the restriction of the deformation to d is a type-preserving similarity. Similarities and Deformations 299 In cases (iv) and (vi). so G and t. d) be function groups. with invariant component d. X. Similarities and Deformations G. then by D. where the deformation maps d onto d. t). again by 8. we have proven that every planar regular covering of a finite surface can be realized by a Kleinian group. Then . and there is a homeomorphism 4: 9 -'.. K 1. is a deformation of G. The proof of the converse will occupy the rest of this section. d) and (d. then c is a deformation of G if and only if G and 0 have the same signature. are the same. A) and (C. Let (G. these are all either Fuchsian or elementary.5. where the homeomorphism preserves special points. this can occur only if 6 is quasifuchsian. we have shown the following. we prove a slightly stronger result.D. G and ti have the same signature.22.16. If there is a type-preserving similarity between G and t. t). G. in these cases also. If the deformation does not map d onto d. given by the two components. There is an obvious equivalence of signatures.21.: F . in this case again. (i) There is a type-preserving similarity between (G. Theorem. For a quasifuchsian group. K 2 and K all have exactly one connected component. and Gl and G2 have no 1-dividers. G.D.G is an isomorphism.2 and IX.3. Let F be the group of deck transformations on 9. where 5 is planar. if t = I. the two basic signatures. t) are the same. t) and it = (R. and their orders. p F. Let p: 3' . d) if and only if G and G have the same signature. so that tI.X.G. as follows. Finally. have the same signature. we say that two signatures a = (K.. Hence. This section is devoted to proving that a function group is essentially determined by its signature. G and 0 have the same signature. Let (G.18. and there is an orientation preserving homeomorphism between K and R.1 with the remarks in D. If t. More precisely.S be a regular covering of the finite Riemann surface S. Theorem. There is a Koebe group G. Theorem. the Schottky number for G is zero. then C has two invariant components. Combining F.4. the G-structure subgroups are precisely the Gconjugates of the G1-structure subgroups and the G2-structure subgroups.

12.5 that every type-preserving similarity maps structure subgroups onto structure subgroups. (w) determines a primitive parabolic element of C. the number of dividers on S = 4/G. we can extend it to be a deformation tit of G onto itself that is the identity outside A (see IX. Then by IX.d be a lift of Vii. are both Fuchsian. Since the parabolic subgroup of a Euclidean group is the unique maximal Abelian subgroup. then this similarity is the restriction of a deformation. Then 0 o 41. Since G and 6 have the same signature.300 X. In fact. w determines a primitive parabolic element of G. hence we can assume that G and 2'. Since G and 6 have the same signature. Let t': 4 . similarly for C. We know from D. there is a deformation 0 of G onto C so that ('Po)s = (p. there is a type-preserving similarity 1po between d and J.A.3-4 that every type-preserving similarity between such groups is the restriction of a deformation..H. in which case cp(G) = t is also rank 2 Euclidean (no other geometric basis group contains a rank 2 Abelian subgroup).F.I + t. then w determines a geometrically primitive elliptic element of G. Since ' preserves special points and their orders.6 that every quasifuchsian group is a deformation of a Fuchsian group.5.4). is the desired deformation. G. while if v = oc. If G is geometrically finite and non-elementary. we assume that . the lifting of 41i(w) determines a geometrically primitive elliptic element of c of the same order. we induct on k = r2 + ro .*: G -. 4) and (2.5.F. If G is elementary. there are parabolic elements of G that do not represent special points only if G is rank 2 Euclidean. we saw in V. then G is a B-group without accidental parabolic transformations. and (ii) If G and Cr are both geometrically finite. and that our theorem is true for all function groups with fewer than k dividers. The induction steps in the proof of this theorem are essentially the same as those in the preceding section. if v = oc. Each part of K corresponds to an equivalence class of structure regions in the invariant component of G. Function Groups (i) There is a type-preserving similarity between (G. We now assume that k > 0. and hence corresponds to a conjugacy class of structure sub- groups of G. then it is quasifuchsian. we need to show that it is type-preserving. there is an orientation preserving homeomorphism >%r between the marked surfaces S and S = d/c. and let w be a small loop about x. and also of 0. If v < oo.D. That is. if v < oo. then so is C. G. Hence the induced isomorphism rp = 0. d). It is clear that 0 is a similarity. We saw in IX. Since '-' o oo commutes with every element of G. We now prove part (ii) in the case that k = 0. we assume somewhat more. then by IX. Let x be a special point of order v on S. Every elliptic element of G represents a special point.C is type-preserving on the elliptic and parabolic elements representing special points. If k = 0.4. G. (p is type-preserving in this case as well.6.

do = Stab(`). to). Choose a 1-divider w that divides S into two subsurfaces S. where in case (i). and Go and do have the same signature (KO. Choose w so that K. we require that these be the same part. we assume that i preserves special points with their orders. cut these subsurfaces along these dividers. and there is a v-connector c in K. it is clear that one can extend OI R to R+ so as to map it homeomorphically onto A+. respectively. w. and preserves connectors. This defines a homeomorphism t. and S2 as follows. be the set of structure loops lying over w. and (v). where there is only one structure subgroup. v < oc. (vi) In the only remaining case. stabilized by the structure subgroup H. These additional hypotheses are consistent with the zero induction step. 7 be one of the regions of C cut out by £. simply by filling in discs.G. As in F.3.1. respectively. every connector is an oo-connector. then there is a non-dividing 1-divider w on S.X. so that K . while there are special considerations for each case. Call the resulting marked 2-complexes K. We form the sets R+ =J(H) and R+ = d(13). there are two general categories. (iii) If t = 0. We start with cases (i).13. Let Go = Stab(T). and let T. By E. There are some number of dividers on each of these surfaces. and they all divide K. the appropriate modifications will be made in G. (iii). (i) If t > 0. we can assume without loss of generality that t. and that ii be the identity on the special points of this part.3-8. and to > 1. with v < oo. then K is not connected.7. (ii) If t = 0. and mapping special points to corresponding special points.c is still connected. is connected.&: R+/H -+ A+/17. with invariant components do and do. Let c be one of these connectors. Let £. and a corresponding divider w on 9 = d/C = p(d) as follows. respectively. the even cases use the first. More precisely. There need not be a corresponding divider w on S. then 13 = (p(H) = tiHOr' is a structure subgroup which stabilizes some structure region R. As in the preceding section. Using the result of the preceding section. (v) If every connector is an oo-connector. G. Ko = K and to = t . as appropriate. and add connectors. then let w and w be dividers lying over c. and there is a connector c that does not divide K. then choose w and w to lie over c. Go and do are function groups. These are parts of K. the odd cases use the second combination theorem. and K2. and there is a non-dividing 1-divider w on S'. is a Koebe group. to = 1. . respectively. add discs or punctured discs. but there is a v-connector c. Similarities and Deformations 301 our similarity tfr maps any given structure subgroup of G onto a structure subgroup of t lying over the same part. one part. if R is a G-structure region. and no connectors. 1. then choose w and w to be dividers lying over c. and every 1-divider divides S into two subsurfaces. as appropriate. Further. and let w and w be dividers lying over c. we choose a divider w on S. (iv) If there is no v-connector as above. 1.

hence (IX. $ A2. . and x2. of = f o 00 on 3B. In case (i). Let qpo = (0o).12.10. we know that 4o maps distinguished points to corresponding distinguished points. we can choose I'. are mutually non-conjugate (Fuchsian) structure subgroups of Co.. where (q/. As we saw in E.. Hq be a complete list of inequivalent quasifuchsian structure subgroups of Go.11. Each H. Similarly. and extend *o to all of Q(G0) by invariance. so that it maps the disc B. By E.. So = d0/Go has two special points. By D. (B1. Rio o g = tpo(g) o 4o.20). By assump- tion. = t1Io(Hm) is also a structure subgroup of CO. Our next goal is to choose analogous objects. i.). and x2.) = W2.5(x) that G is geometrically finite if and only if Go is. the image subgroups. for C..o is also a Koebe group. . o = Jo/Co has two special points.. It follows from E. and so that 0. hence t.. there is a type-preserving similarity epo: do -+ do. to = 0. also in case (v) if Go is geometrically finite. 72. that G = (Go. be the closed outside disc bounded by Wm.5. corresponding to the endpoints of the connector c. z. In cases (i). we have already chosen the divider i7v.E. which preserves the order of special points. and let B.13 and VII. There is also the projected (smooth) homeomorphism / : So -* So. and so that they are not do-equivalent. In cases (iii) and (v). and (v). W2. where 0o preserves the equivalence between parts of Ko and conjugacy classes of structure subgroups. = tpolH. We can assume without loss of generality that t/io1 Q(G) is smooth. has a secondary component dm. if G is geometrically finite. then the similarity 0o can be extended to a deformation. Let H . and B2 are jointly f-blocked. J. x. and f. (iii). From here on we regard the similarity 0o as being defined on all of Q(G0). we can still extend 0o to a bicontinuous injection of Q(GO) into Q(60) as follows. since every divider is an oo-divider.) and 4(17m). as in E. We also have the assumption that if Go is geometrically finite.. Our additional induction hypotheses guarantee that the projected homeomorphism >[i: So -+ So maps xm to zm. and then alter the homeomorphism 0o. We also observe.12) we can find a similarity Y'. We now define 00 on d'(Hm) to be equal to 'Ym. is trivial. 71. be the induced isomorphism. we choose W. in particular. There are two structure loops W. 1P1.B2) is precisely invariant under (J. Go and to are both B-groups. there is a type-preserving similarity between d(H. In cases (iii) and (v). J2) and B. Set Stab(Wm) = Jm. By assumption. and W2 are not Go-equivalent. f >. corresponding to the endpoints of c. and B2 are both strong in cases (i) and (iii). but there is an f c G with f(W. We remark that B..1. Function Groups while in cases (iii) and (v). every non-invariant component of Go is Go-equivalent to one of these (E. R. then we regard qio as being defined on all of C. where W.: A'(Hm) -+ d'(Am).e.302 X. In case (v). We remark that even if Go is not geometrically finite. and W2 on aT. every structure subgroup of Co is also a structure subgroup of C. and YY2 so that they both lie over w. and l'2 so that cpo(Jm) = Stab(I1m) = 7m.F. onto Am. and the total number of connectors in Ko is n .

Do is a constrained fundamental set for Co. Note that Do fl Jo is a constrained fundamental set for the action of do on 2'o.. adjoined.B. then let Do fl do be some lifting of the complement of this dissection). replace t/io by a o t/io.i/io°f =f°41o Let D be the intersection of Do with the common exterior of B. so that A maps p ° t/io(Bm) onto p(17. D is a constrained fundamental set for G. We now have that 00 maps B. where Do fl do is connected. Once we have achieved this. with lT'.4. to extend t/io from D to A. homotopic to the identity. we can assume that £D meets D. it is easy to deform Rio near aB. if Go is geometrically finite. ). By IX. and let f be the element of t.5. We now have t/io(B. We start with a constrained fundamental set Do for Go. mapping D homeomorphically onto a subset of D. there are translates of D. and with it Do. Set a(z) = z for all z outside do. so that 00 maps B. and D2 project to compact subsets of So.5). we . a o r/io is again a type-preserving similarity or deformation. Choose a constrained fundamental set Do for Go. and B2. Let Do = i/i(DO). replace D. and B2 in its interior (it is almost immediate that one can do this. Also. and preserving the identification of the sides. replace t/io by fJ o t/ 0. the boundary of the new D2. extend Do to a constrained fundamental set by including appropriate sets in noninvariant components. both inside Do. and VII.So. p(B2) or the spur.) and p(D2). homotopic to the identity. It is clear that there is another homeomorphism. we can use the action of G. it is easy to construct a homeomorphism &: So . onto D. We now pick up cases (iii) and (v). Let D be the intersection of this new Do with the common exterior of D and D2. The set Do = t/io(D0) might not be a fundamental set for 43.E.9.5(viii).G Similarities and Deformations 303 G. so that on3B1.) to p(B2) by a spur. Let fl be the lift of A that commutes with every element of 0. and all their do-translates in only finitely many points. and D2 by these translates. where no element of the dissection intersects p(B. where Do is maximal with respect to both B. Since we are free to deform the boundary of Do in a small neighborhood of itself.X. then since t(io is a deformation. and B2. and D2.D. then choose a full dissection of So.). simply connect p(B. Since all the maps in question are orientation preserving homeomorphisms. Using the fact that p(D. We temporarily restrict our attention to case (i). Our goal is to deform 4/o. with W.E. onto I'Y2.Jo of I that commutes with every element of do (III..) and D. and Do contains both B.. Since D.. onto D and preserves the identification on the boundary.) and p(112) are disjoint closed discs. for there could be a noninvariant component of C that is not in the image of t/io. Note that with the new i/io.. By VII. that maps f3(ODo) onto a set that misses both p(17. adjoined.. We now have a map i/i = 0o 1 D. but they need not agree. G. the boundary of the new D.D.So. A: So . they meet the projection of C3Do in only finitely many arcs of sides of B. and A is the identity on p(r?Do). that maps Wt.. in fact. and D2 lying in the interior of Do = t/io(Do). of course some of these arcs may be single points. There is a lifting a: Jo .

there might be a noninvariant component not in the image of 0o. In case (iii). As in VII.7m in a non-invariant component. the point xm is not there. As in the preceding case.E.11. oo(Bm) n am # 0. ir(D) is a fundamental set for the action of 6 on J. note that the new . i/io(D) need not be a fundamental set for C. which we now call $m. We also redefine f to map the outside of the new D. by VII. projects to a neighborhood of xm on K.. onto the inside of the new $2.fo-/oI3Bi. adjoined. seta equal to the identity outside J.) onto p($.8. given by cp(g) = rGo o g o 0o t for g e Go. (this case can actually occur. after this replacement. We now start the definition of our similarity or deformation i/i by setting 0 I D = Rio I D (we have already done this in case (i)).: G . and g E G. stabilizes an outside disc s. B. Function Groups assume that aDo fl B. is a half-turn in an even dihedral group). let D be the intersection of Do with the common exterior of B.6.& (z). 0o maps B. ). If z E D.10. for example. and & maps fi o rfio(B2) onto p(B2 ). =.5. and Jm is accidental parabolic in 0.. there is a precisely invariant cusped region for . this defines 0 on °Q(G). projects to a disc with a distinguished point xm E So = do/Go (in case (v). /oofIaB. but not in Co. onto 6m. In both cases (iii) and (v). preserving identifications. but jo(Bm) is a closed disc which is precisely invariant under Jm. Since there can be at most two disjoint precisely invariant cusped regions. Replace qo by a o 'o. Since o maps B.5(viii). let a be the lift to J of &. If z is an elliptic fixed point in Q(G). any two such regions contained in d must intersect. so that D is a constrained fundamental set for G. Finally. is contained in a Fuchsian structure subgroup of Co. in the case that J. p( m) n p o Oo(Bm) contains a neighborhood of zm. there is an obvious isomorphism cp = 0. Hence we can extend i/ro(D) to a constrained fundamental set b for t. and J. G. we deform 4o in a neighborhood of Bt so that after this deformation. and tp(f) = . where a commutes with every element of CO. As we observed in VII.304 X. 6 maps p o tfio(B. where B..E. for do. onto Dm. and B2. xm is a puncture). G. There is also an element f mapping aR. In case (v). We know that J. our goal is to deform 4o so that it maps B.ff We next define 41 on Q(G). with appropriate points of 3B.9m is precisely invariant under the old J. onto aD2. As above. set qi o g(z) _ cp(g) o t.) U p o 00(BZ ). preserving the identification on the boundary. or onto another structure loop with the same stabilizer. consists of two arcs meeting at the fixed point of Jm. where a is the identity outside some connected and simply connected neighborhood of X90 U p(t12) U p o 00(B. it is easy to find a homeomorphism I of So onto itself. then z is G-equivalent . onto some Go-translate of Bm. since p(Bm) and p(Rm) can be regarded as being neighborhoods of the same point xm. in particular.D. Since Co is a Koebe group. As in G.

Hence t/i 1 A is continuous. (iii). it is a homeomorphism of d onto J. Proof. If g e G. the set of loops {tG o gm(W.) nests about x. this follows at once from the fact that tyo is a similarity. and 4io maps these homeomorphically onto the non-invariant components of Co. and assume that G is geometrically finite.5(vi). lies. Since every non-loxodromic element of G is conjugate in G to an element of Go. fixed point off onto the attracting. For an elliptic fixed point z on OD. 0 -f(z) = f o t/i(z). It is easy to see that if i/i were not continuous at some point of A.G. We next need the fact that tfi maps A bijectively onto d. Since every G-structure subgroup is conjugate to a Go-structure subgroup. repelling. 41 I A is a type-preserving similarity. respectively. except perhaps for one point. we have defined 0 so that for ze W1. fixed t/i o g = Mp(g) o 0. and (v). We extend the definition of i to the other non-invariant components of G by maps Q(G) homeomorphically onto Q(C). Since t/io maps A(Go) bijectively onto A(do). every non-invariant component of G is a G-translate of a non-invariant component of Go. Proposition. = t/i(B. Since 0o is a type-preserving similarity. dia(0 o gm(WW )) . o is a deformation of Go onto Co. then for every z on s. Ifs is a side of Do fl Ao. ) nests about some point. set t/i o g(x) = cp(g) o t/i(x). Thus defined. so by the induction hypothesis. Also. is an isomorphism. qp is type-preserving. point of f.13. Similarities and Deformations 305 to some point on D. where g(W. Since 00 is already defined on the non-invariant components of Go. We know that f and f are both loxodromic. Since t/i is continuous and bijective. in particular. Go is geometrically finite. then it would not be continuous at a corresponding point of b fl A. t' is defined. Since D. set t/i(z) = tyo(z).0. Q G. and . By VII. Note that t/i maps the union of the translates of A(G0) U A(< f >) onto the union of the translates of A(6) U A(< f >). ty is injective on D. and D fl d is a fundamental set for the action of 6 on J.E. Now assume that x is some point for which O(x) has not as yet been defined. set tli o g(z) = cp(g) o 0 (z). so 41 maps this sequence of loops homeomorphically into d.X.12. respectively. and g mapping s onto s' is the corresponding side pairing transformation. t/i o g(z) = cp(g) o tfr(z).) is a block.. this follows from the following set of facts: cp is an isomorphism. and maps D n d onto D n d. )} has the same separation properties that the original set of loops has. . We conclude that i o gm(W. we turn now to the second part of our theorem. there is a sequence {gm} of elements of G. This shows that 0 is continuous near D in A. repelling. the isomorphism it induces is type- preserving. Continuing with cases (i). on the non-invariant components of Go. Then by E. let ty map the attracting. We set 0IA(Go) _ 4oIA(Go). in A. then for a G-equivalent point g(z). 1i(x). Of course W. 0 is bijective on this set. and equal to 0o. and x e A(Go) U A(< f >).

the sets 00 ° hm(B. Write zm = gm(ym) where y. where x is not a translate of a limit point of Co. We have shown that 0: C . ) necessarily converge to x. or B2 (again. the region between A andj(A). the fixed point of 7t. the structure subgroup H.J.. a D. and tm a Do. )) 0. Pick an axis. containing J. and ty' of this nested sequence of loops is again a nested sequence of loops about some point x.) and the other lies in f -' (A'(H2)). To this end. so they also have diameter tending to zero. so dia(hm(B. there is a sequence of translates of W. and zm . Choose a generator j for J. Hence IL(zm) . by the continuity of 4o. the structure subgroup H2 JZ is quasifuchsian. which nests about z.5(vi). in this case. since G is geometrically finite.) = 4i0 o hm(B. in Go. Similarly. we assume it is B..O(x). H is non-elementary.) = 'YO(zm). Since 0o is a deformation. it suffices to show that tG is continuous from inside 0. and the hm represent the same coset of J. we saw in E. and the hm represent distinct left cosets. where hm e Go. 0 is continuous from inside any one non-invariant component.). Function Groups It is clear that the definition of O(x) does not depend on the particular sequence { gm }. Jm is parabolic cyclic. the sets c o h. Write zm = hm(tm). is precisely invariant under 71 = cp(J.. or every tm lies in either B. Since any sequence of distinct translates of D have (spherical) diameter converging to zero. we assume it is B. A divides A into two regions. Since Q is dense in C. call it A. then o hm(tm) = (p(hm) ° 1(tm) = (Vo)(hm) ° lGo(tm) _ 410 o hm(t. Since 00 is a deformation.) are all distinct. We know that 0 is continuous on both A and j(A). Also. for tW. in Go. Also. is parabolic. or B2 (for convenience.1I that since the projection w of W. when intersected with A is bounded away from x. The sets hm(B. or a translate of a fixed point of f..(B. iko(zm) -+ 00(x) = 4/(x) If every t. where x is not a translate of a limit point of Go or of <f ).306 X. and the same reasoning shows that the region inside J. We will also assume that y e . or elementary. if {zm} is a sequence of points of 0. We need to show that the points t/i(tm) are bounded away from fi(x). or every tm lies in either B. recall that since J.) and every hm represents the same coset of J. since the fixed point of J. we can assume that there is some fixed y e D so that y. If every t. lies in D. am increasing. then we can assume without loss of generality that the hm all lie in J. If the t. Since the hm are all distinct. Since A is simply connected. then O(zm) -+ q'(x). x is the fixed point of J1. that crosses the axis of J. ). .C is bijective. G and d are B-groups. is non-dividing.E. that is. Both of these cusped regions are disjoint from A. we could have started with a point z in 4(C). = y. There are now three cases to consider: either every tm lies in D. all lie in B. and the elements hm represent distinct left cosets of J.) converge to to(x) = fi(x). again by VII.x. then the sets hm(B. Since f -' maps the outside of W2 onto the inside of W we have two disjoint cusped regions for J. and find a subsequence so that hm = j am. Also the definition is invertible. lies in B. between the images of A andj(A) is bounded away from . is either quasifuchsian (including Fuchsian). accounted for. We first take up the case that x is a limit point of Go. one is in the secondary component A'(H. is the only limit point of Go in B. ) are all distinct.

It is clear how to use the interaction of G. . depending on m. G. and (vi).O). We turn now to cases (ii). It follows from (X. fi(zm) -+ O(x).t/i(x).) and (Mgk+1101) Since k -4 x as m -s cc. We chose w so that K. Similantics and Deformations 307 i(x). Let {w. and B21 so that fm(xm) = zm. We can assume without loss of generality that fm = f'. Then all the points 0(tm) lie between O(A) and 0 o j(A).13. w2. that is. It is no loss of generality to assume that Do was chosen so that Don An lies between A andj(A).. by w. .. Hence there is a type- .. Choose w so that it is freely homotopic to a product of the boundary loops. lies over K2. . This new divider w divides S into two subsurfaces. then for every m there is a k. If O(x) is defined by a nested sequence of translates of W1. . one of which lies over K1. If j = 1. hence they are bounded away from ty(x).. and L12. ivk} be the set of all 1-dividers on S. is connected. Then 6m is a function group with invariant component Am. e <f ). and signature (K.. and (v). Then there are elements f. where we may have to construct w. Then f/(zm) lies between cp(gk)(W. we assume that w is dividing. the common exterior of 11.. wj } are equal. where one of these subsurfaces is planar. properly oriented. that is. C. w is freely homotopic to (X. This completes the induction step for cases (i). . We start with some special considerations for case (ii).. dj. = Stab(9`m). where Pm lies over the connected component K. (iii). 4k+1. by w in the set of all dividers again yields a set of dividers (the minimality condition is easy to check). (W1). call it 72. We now change the set of dividers: replace iv. If j > 1. and has no special points on it. one of which lies over K1.G. the points t/i(zm) = tp(j 3. that is. where x is the attracting fixed point of f. the common exterior of B. It is now clear that since xm is increasing. contains all the boundary loops w. wj are the dividers on the boundary of 1P. There need not be a 1-divider w on S dividing it into two subsurfaces lying over K1 and K2.X.. It is clear that ty is also continuous at translates of these limit points. hence we can assume that R 1 = K 1. Order the {wm} so that w1.1) that the normal closures of 10 . so that zm lies between g. Since w is a dividing divider.... and there are points xm in A.n) o q (tm) _ j aT o t/i(tm) . Choose a structure loop 1 ' lying over w.. they divide S into subsurfaces F . Hence replacing w. and the other. and fm(A) converges uniformly to the attracting fixed point off We argue similarly if x is the repelling fixed point of f. then construct a simple loop ivon S separating it into two subsurfaces. (iv). call it T1 lies over K 1.I) m=1 / lwmY'.. where one of these regions.. there are two regions bounded by translates of one on either side. we have found a 1-divider on S that divides it into two subsurfaces... and rG to obtain the analogous result if x is a fixed point of a conjugate of f.. wj } and { w. Next suppose that zm -+ x. of K..(W1) and gk+. we are finished.... Let C. Then t/!(xm) lies in A'.... This concludes the case that x is a limit point of Ga.

induces an isomorphism cp: G . As in VII. but p'm(Am) = 1m o P. We now pick up with cases (iv) and (vi). as in G. our first goal is to construct a constrained fundamental set D for G. in Gm. and let xm be the special point on Sm corresponding to the endpoint of the connector c.. I W = J021 W. Since 41. Then find a homeomorphism 1m mapping 9m = dm/vm = Pm(Jm) onto itself. and a homeomorphism 0. Let G.B. We now have 0m(Bm) = $m.. lying over c. by using the identifications on the boundary. these two subsurfaces necessarily lie over K. and let Bm be the closed outside disc bounded by W (outside with respect to Tm. with primary invariant component A. so that. We define the homeomorphism i/i on D by . Let Sm = dm/Gm. 0). i/i. D is a constrained fundamental set for G. and let £ be the set of all structure loops lying over w./Cm = Pm(Am). let I be the set of all structure loops lying over w.' bounds an outside disc. Now replace 0. Choose a constrained fundamental set D. where am commutes with every element of Gm. and sp I(D2nB.. G. and T2 be the two regions having W on their boundary. = Stab(Tm).15. that is. Jm. where &m is homotopic to the iden- tity. Replace q/ by xm o so that the new 'Ym maps W onto some Cm-translate of W. Let 9m = J. There is a corresponding divider w on S. then so is Gm. Then Bm is a (J. we will return to case (ii) in G. Using the results of E. let Cm = Stab(Tm).). in a neighborhood of W. We next alter the similarity 0. where iv divides S into two subsurfaces.O). so that. and with signature (K. Am projects to a neighborhood of xm on Sm. which we call by the same name. after this deformation.C.. the similarity is the restriction of a deformation. where J is the stabilizer of B. nB2). Then C. or C.. Since both mappings are orientation preserving homeomorphisms. contains B. is a function group. it is easy to deform say 0. is continuous at every interior point of D. since Dm fl W = W. so that not only lies in the interior of &m o Pm o 0m(Dm). let T.I(D.15-18. in its interior.)_02I(D2f1B. in particular 0. £ divides C into regions. where Tm lies over Km. where ym a C. by ym o Wm. From the point of view of 1Pm. and K 2. and let zm be the special . we can extend Wm to map Q(Gm) homeomorphically into Q(Cm). and let D. Since there are no 1-dividers on 9.nB2)_q.7 about the intermediate cases is applicable here also. let Tm be the two regions lying on either side of W. where D.C. We also choose some structure loop VP c d. is chosen so that the new Wm maps W onto W. of course). be the closed outside disc bounded by I'. The remark in G.. Function Groups preserving similarity ci. in this case. fl B2). If G is geometrically finite.14. Choose some structure loop W lying over w. call it As in the preceding cases. and /2 agree on W. this connector divides K into two components Kt and K2.P I(D. in any case.308 X. with induced isomorphism (P m: Gm Cm.. mapping D onto a constrained fundamental set 6 for 6. define D = (D2 (1 B.(W) = 2(W). and signature (Km. for Gm.) U (D.: d. Let xm be the lift of &m. is also a function group with invariant component Jm. o Y1m(Bm). we know that G. lying over w..2. where Tm lies over Km. Gm)-block. Here the loop w lies over a connector c in K.

The lift of this deformed Wm is a new similarity 0m. Since 0. G. 4 is a type-preserving similarity. 0.G.9. Every elliptic fixed point in Q(G) is G-equivalent to some point of OD. or B2. (iv) and (vi). We first show that is continuous on all of D. As observed in VII. similarly with the sides of D in X. or perhaps some C. it is clear that we can do this. ). We have arranged matters so that D'. for o p(Bm) and pm(D&) are both neighborhoods of Xm.(Bm) = Let Dm be a constrained fundamental set for Gm.-translate of $m. Of course. with the same stabilizer.2(vii). int(. ) is a constrained fundamental set for C. that is. onto Dm. so that 0.C. G. We also have isomorphisms (pm: Gm . At least on d. and define tit on D by I (D.1 W = ty21 W. where rpm = (II/m)* maps a structure subgroup lying over a part P of K onto a structure subgroup lying over the same part P.5. and if G is geometrically finite. if say g(z) E OD n B. to the non-invariant components of Q(Gr). is strong."m. near B. = epm. then Dm is a constrained fundamental set for Cm. Proof. which now maps B. we extend 0. . then b = t/i(D). Finally. and 'Ym preserves special points and connectors. we deform say 0. Set D = (D. so that g(z) a D.. fl B2) U (D2 fl B. maps xm to As in G. By assumption. fl B2) = tP. . is well defined. agrees with D2 on W.15. where D. and where D. hence. in this case.18 and VII. For any point z in °Q(G). either in B. a is continuous on D. As in G. fl D2) U 02 fl D. to a constrained fundamental set for 6m by adjoining appropriate sets in some of the non-invariant components.gm) projects to a neighborhood of Note that P. if G is geometrically finite. if G is geometrically finite. corresponding to the endpoint of c. (D. and replace 0m by gm o Wm so that. we find an appropriate gm in Cm.C. ). fl W = D2 fl W. it is continuous in all of A. We now have a well defined map ql: Q(G) Q(C). We have 0 defined on D. is maximal with respect to Bm. and the isomorphism cpm: G. then by E. after this change. Proposition.X. If necessary. we can assume that Y'm is a deformation.A. fl B2 ).1 W = 021 W. agrees with tr(D). again by VII. Similarities and Deformations 309 point on S.C. . D is a constrained fundamental set for G. Since 1(i is continuous in a neighborhood of D in Q. set bi(z) _ (p(g-') o t/ o g(z). these define an isomorphism cp: G -+ C. Set D'm = tm(Dm). hence 0 is continuous at these points. then set ti(z) = cp(g`) o > i2 o g(z). t. In particular. For all points near D fl D'. = (D.2(xi). and observe that we can extend D.2(vii). the projection Wm: Sm Sm. so that 'Ym is a homeomorphism from Q(Gr) onto a (m-invariant set of components of him. where cp I G. is also geometrically finite. bi(z) = tu2(z). and t` I (D2 fl B. there is a similarity 'Ym: Am Llm. We now resume the discussion of all three cases: (ii). By VII.) _ q12 1 (D2 fl B.7. If D' is a translate of D abutting D in B then there is a g E G2 so that D' = g(D). we deform tm so that it maps pm(Bm) onto pm($m).C. there is a g e G.

then set o g(x) = p(g) o O(x). J is parabolic cyclic. 0 maps d bijectively onto J. and so has no degenerate structure subgroups. then we can assume without loss of generality that the coset is the trivial one. and x is not a translate of a limit point of either G. it is a similarity. The corresponding sets cp. is stabilized by a quasifuchsian a-structure subgroup 17.e. If the tm all lie in B. the hm all lie in J. and the hm represent distinct left cosets. There are three case to consider: either the points tm all lie in B2. 3' is in the image of cli. and they converge to the same point that gyp... (x) = fi(x). We first take up the case that x is a limit point of G. The images cp(gm)o fl(W) = nest about some point x. so that gm(W) nests about x (VII.310 X. it suffices to consider a sequence {zm} of points of d. then there is a sequence {gm} of elements of G. or 02. . (y) _ 0. Since / is continuous and bijective. /J. will then follow. If x is a limit point of G. Since 0 and f agree on the non-invariant components of G. so their (spherical) diameter tends to zero. and 02 are both type-preserving. with zm . Since 0. Set fi(x) = x. for G. o hm(y) converges to.) converges to the same point as does hm(y). By E. Every non-invariant com- ponent d' of t. We now assume that G is geometrically finite. necessarily quasifuchsian. or G2. As in G. fir. in order to show that 0 is continuous.-structure subgroup.-structure subgroup. or the points tm all lie in B.A(G). and the elements hm represent distinct left cosets of G.16. .. then the translates hm(B. with hm(tm) = zm.2(vi))..) are all distinct. and there are elements {hm} in G. and since rp is an isomorphism. or G2. and G and 0 are B-groups. Then (P-' (fl) is a G.. Function Groups Since s'(D fl A) =F) n J is a fundamental set for t. We write zm = gm(y) where y is some point of D. (hm) o 0. the case that x is a translate of a limit point of G. x is the fixed point of J. Then hm(B.15. so we can take all the tm to be equal to y. is a deformation. (hm)(A. we assume without loss of generality that R is a t. and x e A(Gm). and the case that x is a translate of a limit point of G. it maps the secondary component of cp`(17) homeomorphically onto the secondary component d`' stabilized by 17. we can assume that y lies on W. and the hm all represent the same left coset. is almost identical. is also geometrically finite. If x is a limit point of Gm.x c. E G. 0 G. In this case. We have already observed that if the structure subgroup of G. set O(x) = IIrm(x). In this case the result follows at once from the continuity of qi. If the tm all lie in B. i. ) are also all distinct. if g e G.. and we can take gm = h.12./J.C. R is a-conjugate to a structure subgroup 17 of either 6. Since the spherical diameter of gm(D) converges to zero. hence i/i is type-preserving. We have shown that li is a homeomorphism of Q(G) onto O(R). and the elements hm represent the same cosec of G.. If the tm all lie in B21 then they all lie in D. Of course this point is just fr. . or the points tm all lie in B. and every non-loxodromic element of G is G-conjugate to an element of either G. Then there are points {tm} in D1.

. then it is defined by a nested sequence of translates of W. C bounds two discs.= Q'. Using nested sequences of translates of lR we can define 0 on the set of limit points which are not translates of limit points of ?. it is of course quasifuchsian. not necessarily classical. and choose a generator j for J. including the endpoints. then by E. We sometimes say that G is the Schottky group on the generators g. A classical Schottky group of rank n is defined by 2n disjoint circles. .. g. C.. where gm(Cm) = C and gm(D) fl D = 0. which bound a domain D. Schottky Groups H. and the secondary component contains a cusped region for J.. ... . is defined the same way except that we permit the C. Write zm = j where tm lies in D.) = 0. is the classical Schottky group.. Going again to a subsequence.I. the disc containing D is called the inside. C. the fixed point of T.C C. and by n elements g.. which by definition nests about 4'(x). If x is not a translate of a limit point of either G... This completes the proof that 0 is continuous. Since the points 0(t. The group G = <g. and there is a cusped region for J in the secondary component. but we still require g.. the other disc is the outside. Hence D.0W. then the structure subgroup of G2 containing J is non-elementary. hence it is a deformation. D. Since 01A(Gm) = I/rmlA(Gm). The image of this nested sequence of 1' translates of W is a nested sequence of translates of 1V. in particular.2(vi).. The same statement is equally true for the double cusp at >/i(x).. If the G. C.. or G2. or G2. or V2. In any case.C. G. A Schottky group.(tm) are bounded away from fi(x).M.. we can assume that am oc..H..-structure subgroup containing J is non-elementary. and likewise.. g.. and on j(A). Observe that 0 is well defined on A.. by requiring that Dm lie between A and j(A).. tr(zm) = (p(j am)o m) ... not necessarily circles.. the double cusp at x can be chosen to lie entirely in non-invariant components. 0 maps A(Gm) bijectively onto A((im). or of V2. lies between A and j(A). contains a half-turn that anticommutes with the elements of J. and C to be simple closed curves. X.H.. g to be elements of M.17. which are fixed points of loxodromic transformations. fl A is bounded away from x. . If x is not a translate of a limit point of either G. then it is quasifuchsian. .18 and VII. the image of x is not a translate of a limit point of either C. Choose an axis A in G that crosses the axis of J. if it is elementary. then G. We further specify the choice for Dm. fl A. its image under 0 is bounded away from 'i(x). We have shown that 0 is continuous and maps C bijectively onto C. Each of the loops Cm.X. Schottky Groups 311 containing J is elementary.

Function Groups H. Since Go has no noninvariant components. (iv) D is a fundamental domain for G. Cut S open along w .. The proof is by induction on n.. Then (i) G is a function group with no non-invariant components. let G. C. and a fixed point inside C.. (iv). ).-.. and (v) follow at once from VII. (iii).'. the hypotheses of VI I. and g maps the outside of B. is a fundamental set for G). necessarily homotopically non-trivial. n) where K is an unmarked sphere.. The projection of C. (v) G is geometrically finite. Proof.. = p(C.. w = p(C).-I.. and every loop in D is freely homotopic to a product of boundary loops. Since (B. { Q) in Go. . . Do is a fundamental set for Go.. To show that there are enough of them. .. Hence the signature of G is (K. H. (viii). it is a geometrically finite function group. which lifts to a loop. Let G he a Schottky group on the generators g. and Kleinian.) is the only divider.. since g.. can serve as a set of dividers on S.-. maps the outside of C.. Also. w are homologically independent. neither does G. and the loops C... U U C. g. . let b0 be the (open) region bounded by C If n > 1. so g. there cannot be a second homotopically distinct simple disjoint loop... For n = 1. Proposition..E.. Hence G is loxodromic cyclic. and g.. Hence p(C. has a fixed point inside C. this yields a torus T..E.3.5(i). C.. (ii) G is free on then generators g. Let B. free (on the one generator).... Conclusions (ii).. We also note that B. Cut T along this loop. Call these w... so p(C.) is a non-dividing 1-divider on T. Since D is connected and the side pairing transformations of D generate G. K. which is an unmarked sphere. be the closed outside disc bounded by C.__ C.. n). and (x).. C. = <g. are disjoint. The minimality follows at once from the fact that w.. is a simple loop on T. and C.. D is a fundamental domain for G (we also note for future use that D U C. which lift to loops. w and fill in 2n disjoint discs to obtain an unmarked sphere. G is a function group. On a torus. Since G is elementary. respectively.. By the induction hypothesis.. where K is an unmarked sphere. and uses combination theorems.. It is fairly straightforward that {w..312 X. Fold together the sides of D to see that S = Q/G is a closed Riemann surface of genus n.. and B2 are both strong.. The dividers wm are all I-dividers. and let B2 be the closed outside disc bounded by C. We regard the trivial group as a Schottky group on no generators. observe that every loop in Q is freely homotopic to a product of loops.2. B2) is precisely invariant under ({ 1 }. (vi) The signature of G is (K. onto the inside of C. and let Do = U0 U C. (D) fl D = 0. C'. onto the inside of B2. project to n homologically independent simple disjoint loops.5 are satisfied.. We can obtain Q/G by folding together the sides of D. (iii). .. and fill in two discs to obtain the marked 2-complex. each of which lies in a translate of D. (iii) G is purely loxodromic...

there are no special points of finite order on P. and H is isomorphic to the fundamental group of P. it would be free of rank 2p. Proof. The first is that every subgroup of a free group is free [51 pg. P is the only part.. Suppose there is more that one structure region. let R be a structure region lying over P. (iii) Every structure subgroup of G is trivial.. i. that every structure region is G-equivalent to D. A/Stab(A) is a finite Riemann surface. since H contains no parabolics. that every structure loop is a 1-structure loop. let P be some part of K. A Kleinian group is locally analytically finite if for every component A of G. purely loxodromic Kleinian group. Go is a function group with invariant component A. C.}. Let G he a free. and the second is that if G is (isomorphic to) the fundamental group of a closed orientable surface of genus p > 0. C. under exactly these circumstances. (ii) The 2-complex K in the signature of G is an unmarked sphere. We already know that (i) implies (ii). C. Let D be a structure region in J. If there is only one structure region. P has genus 0. we will need two standard facts from combinatorial group theory. P is a closed orientable surface. Proof. 95]. That is. HS. We saw in C.X. Schottky Groups 313 Theorem. the elements which pair the structure loops on aD generate G. (i) G is a Schottky group. is free. G is finitely generated.. Then G is a Schottky group.3.e. and there are elements (g. then G is not free (to prove this. and that these structure loops are pairwise identified by elements of G. note that if G were free.. Then H is the branched universal covering group of the marked surface P. Since every structure region is G-equivalent to D. Let (K. H. then G is trivial. Since G is locally analytically finite.. The following statements are equivalent. Theorem.5). Go is a Schottky group.. C.4..23. Also. BB would freely generate G [51 pg. H is trivial. there are no special points of infinite order on P (IX. . For our next application..e. with g(D)f1D=Q. that there are an even number of structure loops on the boundary of D. then by passing to the commutator subgroup. The equivalence of (ii) and (iii) follows from the fact that there is a one-to-one correspondence between the parts of K. Since H has no elliptic elements. as a subgroup of a free group. We have shown that there is a region D. and let Go = Stab(A). where the structure subgroup is the branched universal covering group of the part. K = P.. but these 2p generators satisfy the one standard relation). by D. in particular.. t) be the signature of Go.15(A).. Then by H..H. and so the 2p standard generators A .A.andG=<gt. Let G he a function group. and there is nothing to prove. .. and let H = Stab6a(R). locally analytically finite.>.. i. . since A is invariant.. D is a fundamental domain for the action of G on A. Since H. and the conjugacy classes of structure subgroups.. bounded by 2n disjoint loops.. since one part P of K is an unmarked sphere...g. Let A be a component of G. of finite rank. I 10].

it is analytically finite. purely loxodromic Kleinian group. Then G is a Schottky group. it is also not freely homotopic to a boundary loop. Proposition.314 X. By Ahlfors' finiteness theorem. of So. H. for those are all represented by hyperbolic and parabolic elements of F. We form a new surface S by filling in each of these closed discs. since w is not freely homotopic to a boundary loop. or small loop about a puncture. . Proof. Go has only the one component A. Fo is a finitely generated Fuchsian group. and let °S = (H2 fl °Q(F))/F. Fuchsian Groups Revisited U. and w is not freely homotopic to a boundary loop. in particular. free. since G is finitely generated.I. The lifting of w determines the same elliptic element in Fo as it does in F. Let T be a component of p'(S0). A simple loop w on °S represents an elliptic element of F if and only if it is freely homotopic to a small loop about a special point of finite order. we now assume that w is a simple loop that determines an elliptic element of F. w lies in So. Function Groups By H. We first reduce the problem to the case that F is finitely generated. Since there is a homomorphism from n.(So) onto Fo. Most of the results in this section deal with Fuchsian groups of the second kind.2(i). We already know that the lift of a small loop about a special point of finite order determines an elliptic element of F. and let FO = Stab(T). then °S is an infinite surface. °S = (°Q(F) fl H2)/F is a finite marked Riemann surface from which a finite number of disjoint closed discs have been removed. every element of G must map A onto itself. and that w is not freely homotopic to a small loop about a special point of °S. in (H2 fl °Q(F0))/Fo. (So) is finitely generated. Let G be a finitely generated. Hence G = Go. Proof.6. If F is not finitely generated. but marking exactly one point in each disc with the symbol "co". Let F be a Fuchsian group acting on H2. and A is precisely invariant under Go in G. or small loop about a puncture. We conclude that it suffices to consider the case that F is finitely generated. X. Since F is finitely generated. or small loop about a puncture in So. w is not freely homotopic to a boundary loop of s = (H2 fl Q(F)/F. Then the branched universal covering group of S is a Fuchsian group P of the first kind. For a finitely generated Fuchsian group F. Since A = Q(G0) is dense in C. We start however with a general fact about Fuchsian groups. Corollary. It is easy to find a subsurface so c °S where n. it is locally analytically finite.

the two coverings p: °d °S. hence we can assume that F is of the first kind.5. and either K is an unmarked sphere. then every structure subgroup of F is either finite or Euclidean.X. and Q/F is its double.e. a. Since HZ is simply connected. and the signature of (G. necessarily invariant. where 1i. Since an element of F is parabolic if and only if it represents a special point of order oo. 1.°S. to be connected. In this case. Then the signature of G is (K. a). F has exactly one component.. a. which. d) be a Koebe group with this signature.I. a) a < oo. The signature of (F. it is a covering that is higher than q: (0-02 fl °Q(F)) . the only possible basic signatures for the parts of K are (0. Let (G.. and that °S is a finite surface. It is easy to see that this group keeps no disc invariant. we know that the only possibility for a connector is for the two special points on a part of signature (0. Mark the connector with the order of the elliptic element of F representing w. hence. when raised to certain powers.P is an isomorphism. Since p: °d . and (0. The only such groups are elliptic cyclic and parabolic cyclic. = tp: F . or has at least three special points on it. in particular. 2. a). qua Kleinian group. or divides S into two pieces. Hence the limit set of any structure subgroup of F is a point. Proof. and their preimages in d to obtain a regular covering r: A -+ 0-02 (see III. and attach a connector between these two special points. 0). 0 < 2 500. if F is finitely generated. Let F be a Fuchsian group of the second kind. with one special point each. Let G be a finitely generated Fuchsian group of the second kind.3. then H2/F is a topologically finite surface. r is a homeomorphism. Cut S along w. 2. hence. Proposition. and see which ones preserve a disc. this contradicts D. or K is a disjoint union of surfaces of signature (0. Since every structure subgroup is cyclic. i.S. each of which either has positive genus. the isomorphism induced by r is type-preserving. Fuchsian Groups Revisited 315 There is an obvious homeomorphism 0: S . Fill in the special points of °S2(F). Since w is either non-dividing. It is clear that fi(w) has the same properties that w has. I 5(D-E). . Since A (F) is closed and nowhere dense in P. as an elementary group. t). K has no connectors.8). there is a subgroup H c F. this procedure yields an admissable signature.F. 2. then it is a function group. It is an exercise to go through the list of finite and Euclidean groups.2. and certain small loops about special points. By D. If F is finitely generated. is the group 1 + 74. a. fill in two discs. lift to loops.°S are equivalent. H2) has no connectors. 1. every connected component of A(F) is a point. where t >_ 0. and every such special point is represented by a parabolic element of G. d) does.°S is the highest regular covering for which w. and q: (H2 fl °Q(F)) . Then the limit set of F is a nowhere dense subset of the circle at oo.

where 99 is planar. J. X. (S) orientation preserving if a determines an orientation preserving element off. State and prove a version of the planarity theorem for infinite surfaces. Let G be a geometrically finite Kleinian group. Let S be a non-orientable surface. J.7. and let F be the group of deck transformations. Fuchsian groups of the second kind with all these signatures were constructed in VIII. and wk lifts to a loop on S'. J. Prove that Stab(d) is geometrically finite.S be a regular covering of S. Call an element a in n. Let G be a function group.8. where w is orientation reversing. Let G be a function group.S is a planar regular covering of S. with signature (K.4. Proposition. a). hence geometrically finite.D. and let E be a connected component of A(G). Then by G. and let E be a connected component of 4(G). J.316 X. Then Stab(E) is analytically finite. let fi: U . then Stab(E) is a non-elementary B-group with A(Stab(E)) = E.2. Exercises J. and p: 9 . . Then G is a deformation of a Fuchsian group of the second kind. Let G be an analytically finite Kleinian group. where either K is an unmarked sphere.9.1. Function Groups 1. If S is a non-orientable surface. State and prove a version of the planarity theorem for non-orientable surfaces. If w is a loop on S. J. J. Let p: 9 -. and A(Stab(E)) = E. 2. 2 S a S co. List all the signatures that can occur as the signature of an elementary group with two limit points.6. J.J. t). or every part of K has signature (0.20. and K has no connectors. JS. Proof. and let A be a component of G. G is a deformation of any function group with the same signature. Show that Stab(E) is a B-group. a.4.3. and let E be a connected component of 4(G). G is geometrically finite. then there is a homotopically non-trivial simple loop w on S so that w to some positive power lifts to a loop. If Z is not a single point. then k is even. so by E.2.S be its universal covering. Every structure subgroup of G is elementary. Let G be a function group.

X. is an isomorphism.4 -. (f)XE0-A. purely loxodromic Kleinian group.17. 2) are B-groups. Call a loop w on °S universally hyperbolic if w determines a hyperbolic element of the (unbranched) universal covering of °S (this is the branched universal covering where all the special points have marking "oo").. a cyclic group of order 2.3. Let S be a marked Riemann surface.Q(G).10. Let G be a locally analytically finite. where S is planar. J. (e) xEd. . (c) x c. the order of the elliptic element can be at most six). Construct a function group G with the following property. containing an elliptic element with fixed points x and y. Then there is a Schottky group G. (b)xeA.16.A. then two of them are equivalent. then there is a possibly orientation reversing similarity 0: . all with the same stabilizer.13. = gyp. with topological projection q: Q(G) .S. yEQ . from the unbranched universal covering. Construct a Kleinian group that is locally analytically finite but not analytically finite. J. d) and (d. w is the universal geodesic. then there is a possibly orientation reversing deformation 1i of G J. Every universally hyperbolic element then has a universal geodesic. and w determines an elliptic element of F.yEQ-A. and there is a type-preserving isomorphism cp: G . so that p = q o r.15. and the stabilizer has order greater than three. J.19.18. Construct a function group (G. and they all have the same stabilizer. Y E Q . given by the projection of the axis. no two of them are G-equivalent.d (hint: for this part. (d)xed. so that (a)xeA. but the stabilizer has order three. yeA. and there is a covering r: 9 . and q : G onto 0.J.. Exercises 317 J. If (G.yEA. and a loop w on °S = (1-02 fl °Q(F))/F with the following properties: w is universally hyperbolic.11.S be a regular covering of the closed Riemann surface S. which is free on n generators. There are three distinct structure loops.10. Same as J. If there are three structure loops. Show that G is a Schottky group of rank n. Let p: S' . J. J. where 0. so that (p. J.14.yeA. d). If G and d are Schottky groups of the same rank. J.t?. Find a finitely generated Fuchsian group F. w is not simple.A.12. J.

16. The topological classification of function groups appeared in a series of papers [58]. A. a generalization to infinite surfaces appears in [61]. there is also a proof by Swarup [89]. These were observed by C.1. etc. and with no accidental parabolic transformations. Notes A. Some of these facts have been generalized to higher dimension (Gusevskii [31]). appears in [67]. and [68]. also in the conformal category. then H is a maximal subgroup of G with a simply connected invariant component. existence and uniqueness in general. in the conformal category. in those papers. Function Groups J. [59]. F. with a slightly different notation (translate "factor". J. H. The planarity theorem first appeared in [57]. [67]. [57].318 X. [65].5-7. [58]. Existence and uniqueness. . 1.3. factor loop. Sheingorn. to "structure" here). and an extension to infinite surfaces by Kulkarni [48]. and to more general groups of motions (Kulkarni [47]). as in factor subgroup. This is in response to a question of M.20. If H is a structure subgroup of the function group G.5-6.. the proof given here is due to Gromov (unpublished). Koebe groups are also discussed by Marden [55]. X. McMullen [72].K.4. for those Koebe groups whose signature contains no connectors was given by Koebe [41].

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.Cn [. [6 diaE 10 EN 53 E' 11 °Q 15 Q 23 < . f^53 Cl au5 °d 115 Stab 2-3 tr 2 A21 A 32 dia I. 244 11 P 53 0n54 M1 AA 2 ..Special Symbols An 53 ®n 53 .> 19.

G. 236 derived group 198 dihedral group 88 . L.. imaginary 225 .D. 212 bending 178.strong L41 boundary arc L06 .Index accidental parabolic transformation 222 Accola. 212 Bers. 181.Kleinian group 28 angle width L86 are 28 associated orbifold 128 ..V. L. 232 block L41 cycle transformation 62 . 222 Ahlfors.regular 42 curve 28 cusp 118 .. 97 240 circle at infinity L03 component of a Kleinian group 24 . 216 Ahlfors' finiteness theorem 28 L75 205 249 314 algebraic convergence 92 analytically finite (Riemann surface or (disconnected) Riemann surface) 22 secondary 264 . R. V.loop 256 branch point-see special point branched regular covering 49 .geodesic L46 .universal covering 50 building block L02 .infinite 22 deck group 44 defining subgroup 42 deformation 36 of a Fuchsian group 2113 degenerate group 217.element 196 . 177 doubly cusped region 112 .half-space L06 .M.primary 243 260 free LS dissection 28 divider 262 double dihedral group 102.removed 22 discontinuity 23 - Chuckrow.of a Fuchsian group LQ6 covering 41 .infinite 92 95 dilation 54 Dirichlet region 21 disc.3-manifold L28 atom 204 axis 105 LQ6 exceptional L42 excluded L42 (of an accidental parabolic transformation) 222 full 232 cusped region 112 cutting an edge L25 cutting and pasting 32 cycle of edges 62 infinite 29 B-group 214 Baumslag.subgroup 98 conformal 55 conjugate point 3 connector 272 convex region 65 ..invariant 84 .equivalent 42 .

for a parabolic transformation 5 normalization L6 outside boundary (of a convex region) 65 outside disc 243 252 pair of pants 142 panel 35 part.proper 160 invariant ball 64 inversion (see also reflection) 54 isometric circle 9 . 22 free product L36 Fuchsian model 217 function group 84 216 fractional reflection 2 fundamental domain 29 fundamental polyhedron 69 fundamental set 32 . T. 19.-.constrained L3 ... of a signature 272 .2-complex 271 minimal rotation 36 Mobius group 54 multiplier of a transformation 5 nested set of axes 148 of simple loops 149 of spheres 56 nice neighborhood 15 24 49 Nielsen isomorphism theorem 109 227 235 half-turn 7 85 height 53 HNN extension 157 horoball L 1 L6 . 46 limit point 21 limit set 21 locally free group 198 loop 28 -.of a Kleinian group 168 Klein's combination theorem 134 Koebe group 291 Euclidean group 91 extended Fuchsian group 195 . M 250 marked Riemann surface 26 .sphere 21 jointly blocked discs L60 Jorgensen.maximal 138 1.HNN extension 157 lift 41..imaginary 215 real 215 path 28 Picard group 82 247 212 point of approximation 22 L22 planar surface 254 planarity theorem 251 Poincare metric 54 Poincare's polyhedron theorem 75 polyhedron 68 induced isomorphism 36 85 infinite edge 22 inside boundary (of a convex region) 65 interactive pair 136 .60 geometric generator (of an elliptic transformation) 36 Gromov. 97 .6 hyperbolic space 54 index (of a covering) 48 non-elementary group 23 normal form for an amalgamated free product 136 for an HNN extension 157 for a loxodromic or elliptic transformation 6 . of a Fuchsian group 103 -.Index 325 edge 68 elementary group 23 elliptic group 92 ..extended 120 horocycle 2 horospherc 11..simple 28 Ford region 32.proper 138 interactive triple 138 . amalgated free product L36 .quasifuchsian group 196 extremal length 214 face 68 fiber 41 filling a region 174 length of a normal form.modular group 133 essentially finite (fundamental polyhedron) 121 killing a component L25 kind.

217.infinite 121 number 271 Teichmuller space }ft Thurston.. 184. 181.326 Index precisely embedded 1..of a Kleinian group 271 real 280 . 68 type-preserving isomorphism 32 . 191 universal covering 42 vertex 30 vertical 53 wildly embedded circle 202 Yamamoto.3ll . admissable 282 basic 84 .theoretical 272 similarity 85 216 simple (element of a Fuchsian group) 105 sliding 178.type group 82 169 Schwarzian derivative 248 side 29. 168.1 reflection 2. 25 134 135 120 topologically finite (Riemann surface) 26 trace 2 translation 54 triangle group 91 92.of an accidental parabolic transformation 222 .58 Riemann surface (disconnected) 25 rotation 54 Schottky group 82 1 . 216 . 232 small loop 49 spanning disc 142 special point 26 49 sphere at infinity 60 spur 45 stabilizer 23 stereographic projection 4 59 strip 223 structure loop 243 262 region 243 262 .45 invariant 24 3136 presentation 85 preliminary divider) 59 structure loop 259 region 259 subgroup 264 projection 41 puncture 21 quasifuchsian group L92.subgroup 243 263 system of loops 192 ramification number 49 84 point-see special point rank (of a Euclidean group) 9. W. 95 true axis L06 . H.similarity 217 unit 102 pairing transformation 29 69 signature.

Karoubi: K-Theory. Gihman/Skorohod: The Theory of Stochastic Processes II 219. and Categories 1 191. An Introduction 222. Stroock/Varadhan: Multidimensional Diffusion Processes 234. Bergh/Lofstrom: Interpolation Spaces. Lang: Introduction to Modular Forms 223. Grauert/Remmert: Theory of Stein Spaces 231 Kothe: Topological Vector Spaces II 238. Schutte: Proof Theory 226. Modules. Aigner: Combinatorial Theory 235. Elliott: Probabilistic Number Theory I . Lang: Elliptic Curves: Diophantine Analysis 232.. Athreya/Ney: Branching Processes 191. Gihman/Skorohod: The Theory of Stochastic Processes III 233. Graham/McGehee: Essays in Commutative Harmonic Analysis 239. Popov: Hyperstability of Control Systems 205. Grauert/Remmert: Theorie der Steinschen Raume 228. Ring Theory 192 Mal'cev: Algebraic Systems 193. Hasse: Number Theory 230. Klingenberg: Lectures on Closed Geodesics 231. Nitsche: Vorlesungen uber Minimalflachen 200. Dynkin/Yushkevich: Controlled Markov Processes 236. Gaal: Linear Analysis and Representation Theory 199. Andrd: Homologie des Algbbres Commutatives 201 Donoghue: Monotone Matrix Functions and Analytic Continuation 20$ Lacey: The Isometric Theory of Classical Banach Spaces 204. P61ya/Szego: Problems and Theorems in Analysis 1 194.Grundlehren der mathematischen Wissenschaften A Series of Comprehensive Studies in Mathematics A Selection 194.Homotopy and Homology 211 Schaefer: Banach Lattices and Positive Operators 217. Faith: Algebra: Rings. Gihman/Skorohod: The Theory of Stochastic Processes I 21L Comfort/Negrepontis: The Theory of Ultrafilters 212 Switzer: Algebraic Topology . Nikol'skil: Approximation of Functions of Several Variables and Imbedding Theorems 206. Schmetterer: Introduction to Mathematical Statistics 203. Segal/Kunze: Integrals and Operators 229. An Introduction 224. Faith: Algebra II. Igusa: Theta Functions 195. Stenstrdm: Rings of Quotients 218. Beck: Continuous Flows in the Plane 202. Gilbarg/Trudinger: Elliptic Partial Differential Equations of Second Order 225. Ringel: Map Color Theorem 210. Schoeneberg: Elliptic Modular Functions 204. Dold: Lectures on Algebraic Topology 201. Kiritlov: Elements of the Theory of Representations 22L Mumford: Algebraic Geometry I: Complex Projective Varieties 222. Berberian: Baer'-Rings 196. Duvant/Lions: Inequalities in Mechanics and Physics 220. Benz: Vorlesungen uber Geometrie der Algebren 198.

Zalgaller: Geometric Inequalities 286. Schapira: Microdifferential Systems in the Complex Domain 270.240. Ellis: Entropy. Elliott: Arithmetic Functions and Integer Products 273. Hormander: The Analysis of Linear Partial Differential Operators II 258. Hormander: The Analysis of Linear Partial Differential Operators IV 276. Krasnosel'skii/Zabrelko: Geometrical Methods of Nonlinear Analysis 264. L. Rudin: Function Theory in the Unit Ball of C" 242. I 268. Bishop/Bridges: Constructive Analysis 280. Neukirch: Class Field Theory 281. Gruman: Entire Functions of Several Complex Variables 283. Fulton/Lang: Riemann-Roch Algebra 278. Burago. Smoller: Shock Waves and Reaction-Diffusion Equations 259. A. Liggett: Interacting Particle Systems 277. Monge-Ampere Equations 253. Kodaira: Complex Manifolds and Deformation of Complex Structures 284.A Systematic Approach to Rigid Geometry 262. Grauert/Remmert: Coherent Analytic Sheaves 266. Suzuki: Group Theory II 249. Doob: Classical Potential Theory and Its Probabilistic Counterpart 263. Comfeld/Fomin/Sinai: Ergodic Theory 246. Naimark/Stem: Theory of Group Representations 247. Chung: Lectures from Markov Processes to Brownian Motion 250. Maskit: Kleinian Groups 288. Aubin/Cellina: Differential Inclusions 265. Elliott: Probabilistic Number Theory 1] 241.V. Large Deviations. Andrianov: Quadratic Forms and Hecke Operators 287. Scharlau: Quadratic and Hermitian Forms 271. Freidlin/Wentzell: Random Perturbations of Dynamical Systems 261. and Statistical Mechanics 272. Huppert/Blackbum: Finite Groups III 244. II 269. Aubin: Nonlinear Analysis on Manifolds. Lelong. Bosch/Guntzer/Remmert: Non Archimedian Analysis . Vol. Chandrasekharan: Elliptic Functions 282. Suzuki: Group Theory I 248. Dwork: Lectures on p-adic Differential Equations 254. Chow/Hale: Methods of Bifurcation Theory 252. Finn: Equilibrium Capillary Surfaces 285. Hi rmander: The Analysis of Linear Partial Differential Operators III 275. Arbarello/Comalba/Griffiths/Harris: Geometry of Algebraic Curves. Triples and Theories 279. Kubert/Lang: Modular Units 245. Duren: Univalent Functions 260. Nikol'skii: Treatise on the Shift Operator 274. Lang: Complex Multiplication 256. Hormander: The Analysis of Linear Partial Differential Operators I 257. Vol. Arnold: Geometrical Methods in the Theory of Ordinary Differential Equations 251. Huppert/Blackbum: Finite Groups II 243. Freitag: Siegelsche Modulfunktionen 255. Barr/Wells: Toposes. Arbarello/Comalba/Griffiths/Hams: Geometry of Algebraic Curves. de Rham: Differentiable Manifolds 267. Jacod/Shiryaev: Limit Theorems for Stochastic Processes Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg NewYork London Paris Tokyo .

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