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Environment + Technology Lectures

Buildings are very technical systems A machine for living in Architects need to understand technical implications of design decisions is window too small for good daylighting? is load too great for floor? is the choice of material suitable?

Need to be able to communicate with other members of the design team

Technology + Environment Teaching

Technology + Environment

Environment Heat Light Sound


Construction and Materials

Environment Tutors
Dr David Carter, Reader in Lighting and Sustainability Natural and artificial lighting systems; building services

Professor Barry Gibbs, Professor in Acoustics Structure-borne sound, particularly concerned with the prediction and control of noise and vibration in buildings
Dr Carl Hopkins, Reader in Acoustics Building acoustics, environmental noise, structure-borne sound, sound fields, vibro-acoustics

Dr Rosa Urbano Gutierrez, Lecturer in Sustainable Architecture Sustainable architectural design through the exploration of emergent materials and technologies.

Professor Steve Sharples, Professor in Environmental Design Climate design and climate change; sustainable design

ARCH 111 Syllabus

Week No. 9.00-10.00 1 27/9 Lighting terminology Human responses to natural light The sky as a source of light Sunlight protection Daylight and architecture Design of windows Heat transfer in buildings Ventilation design Sustainable design Environmental rating systems Introduction to ECOTECT DC DC DC DC DC DC SS SS SS SS SS

10.00-11.00 Architecture and the environment Climatic design around the world Solar principles Wind impacts Microclimate and site planning Thermal comfort Thermal mass Condensation in buildings Low and zero carbon energy Sustainable case studies Using ECOTECT SS SS SS SS SS SS SS SS SS SS SS

2 4/10 3 11/10 4 18/10 5 25/10

6 1/11 7 8/11 8 15/11 9 22/11 10 29/11 11 6/12 12 13/12

Review and Revision Lecture SS + DC



Professor Steve Sharples

things provided by buildings

light and warmth

clean water bathing and cleaning waste disposal

energy supply

water supply
waste and water disposal building materials

all of these factors inter-relate and have an impact

protection from rain and cold privacy and security

storage, cooking and eating of food socialising and recreation

Sustainability Issues

Acid rain

Ozone depletion

Biodiversity loss

Fuel depletion

Water depletion

Climate change

Public transport

Waste generation




Community Productivity Best value









Natural environment


Built environment

Global Environmental Impacts

Global Warming
Fossil Fuel Depletion

Ozone Depletion Transport Congestion

Air Pollution Waste Generation

Water Extraction Acid Rain

Water Pollution Mineral Extraction

Building Environmental Impacts

Impact of buildings on the environment Ozone depletion Global warming Climate change Use of resources

Leading to Green issues Sustainable aims Environmental design

Impact of Buildings
The environmental impact of buildings is immense Buildings consume ~50% of all energy production This is used to heat, cool, light, ventilate and service interior spaces Most of the energy comes from burning fossil fuels Buildings are responsible for ~50% of CO2 emissions

Transport Buildings


Typical energy use in developed countries

Globally, buildings are responsible for

40% of the worlds energy use 35% of the worlds CO2 emissions
30% of the worlds consumption of raw materials 50% of the worlds ozone depletion 40% of the worlds municipal solid waste

Long Term Implications

A building may be used for a long time (50 to 100 years)

Poor building design imposes large environmental, financial, social and health penalties on future generations
Most fossil fuel reserves may run out during the lifetime of new buildings

Good Global Warming

Some atmospheric gases (CO2, methane, nitrous oxide, water vapour) trap the long wave radiation emitted from the earths surface
This greenhouse effect is essential for life on earth Without it the earth would be 33oC cooler

Bad Global Warming

Impact of Climate Change on Planet

increase in rainfall

soils drying out (food production hit) more unsettled weather (storms, hurricanes)
loss of land (1m SL rise would flood 3% of earths land surface) rising sea levels due to ice caps melting environmental refugees

Impact of climate change on buildings

summer overheating damage from flooding structural damage due to higher wind speeds structural collapse due to subsidence, movement of foundations and cracking of walls (drier soils)

nuisance, trauma, possible health hazard and danger to life from all types of weather events
loss of site and buildings from coastal erosion and rising sea levels

Building Materials and the Environment

Buildings constructed from many materials (steel, concrete, brick, timber, glass, plastics etc..)
Each material has an environmental impact Quantified by the term embodied energy

Embodied Energy
How much is energy used in the total cradle to grave process

Life Cycle of a Brick

Can to bury tales - the Colas tale

Materials Transport

Australia Sweden/ Norway Sweden/ Germany England France Idaho Sweden/Siberia/ British Columbia


Mine Bauxite x 1/2 = Al-O2 Smelter Al-O2 x 1/2 = Al Water/flavored syrup/ phosphorus/caffeine/ carbon dioxide gas sugar beet phosphorus color cardboard forest pulp


Ore carrier ship

truck truck truck ship truck ship truck

Heated/rolled 500C cold rolled Punched/formed into cans washed, dried, painted x 2 laquered flanged sprayed inside with a protective coating inspected Palletised/forklifted

Throw the can away

harvested excavated from mines

sealed chemical manufacturer Palletized

Drink the cola

warehoused Washed/cleaned/filled milling/refining

Buy the cola


Reducing phosphate - electricity for 100,000 people

Aims of Environmental Assessment Schemes

Set criteria against which to assess a building

Provide a score or rating Can offer commercial value (green credentials)

Allows comparison with similar building types

Code for Sustainable Homes (CSH) OBJECTIVES

The Code measures the sustainability of a new home against nine categories of sustainable design The Code rates the 'whole home' as a complete package The Code sets minimum standards for energy and water use

The Code uses a two stage evaluation process design stage and post construction stage
The Code became mandatory in England on 1st May 2008

Nine categories of environmental sustainability

Energy/CO2 Waste

Water Well-being

Materials Management
Surface Water Run-off Ecology

The Barratt CSH code level six house

The Lighthouse

Environmentally Friendly Buildings

Environmentally Friendly Buildings

Sustainable Architecture
Buildings have a huge impact on the environment

Reduce building energy use through passive means site planning daylight solar gain natural ventilation thermal insulation thermal mass air tightness low energy building materials