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DEVELOPMENT OF ENDOCRINE SYSTEM VIBAR

PARATHYROID GLAND
5 week epithelium of the dorsal parts of the 3 & 4 pouches proliferates Chief/ principal cells differentiate during embryonic period o Oxyphil cells 5-7 yrs after birth ULTIMOBRACHIAL Body o fuses with thyroid gland forming parafollicular cells of C-cells Locations of parathyroid gland ?
th rd th

PITUITARY GLAND
Ectodermal in origin 2 sources o Oral Ectoderm hypophyseal pouch from roof of stomedeum located in adenohypophysis/glandular part o Neuroectoderm neurohypophyseal bud from the floor of diencephalons located in the neurohypophysis/nervous part Development of pituitary gland o Hypophyseal pouch/ rathkes pouch Upgrowth from roof of primitive mouth o Neurophypophyseal bud Downgrowth from the forebrain (diencephalons) Anomalies o Pharyngeal hypophysis Resistance of remnant of stalk of rathkes pouch o Craniopharyngiomas From remnants of the stalk of hypophysial pouch

THYROID GLAND
1 endocrine gland to develop/ 24 days after fertilization Median endoderm thickening in the floor of the primordial pharynx forms a small outpouching thyroid diverticulum As the embryo & tongue grow, the developing thyroid gland descends in the neck The developing thyroid gland is connected to the tongue by a narrow tube thyroglossal duct th By 7 weeks assumed its definitive shape & reached its final site in the neck Thyroglossal duct has normally degenerated proximal opening persists as foramen of cecum of the tongue
st

PANCREAS
Develops from the dorsal & ventral pancreatic bud that originate from the endodermal lining of foregut Dorsal pancreatic bud appears 1st

Histogenesis of thyroid gland Thyroid primordium solid mass of endodermal cells o Breaks into a network of epithelial cords th 10 week cords have divided into smaller cellular groups o Lumen is formed & the cells become arranged in a single layer th 11 week colloid appears called thyroid follicles Thyroglossal duct & sinus Normally, thyroglossal duct atrophies & disappears but remnant mey persists forming a CYST Painless, progressively enlarging movable mass asymptomatic unless becomes infected Following infection perforation of the skin forming a thyroglossal duct sinus that opens in a median plane of the neck *Cervial Thyroglossal duct cysts? Ectopic Thyroid Gland Lingual thyroid most common Clinically important to differentiate from a thyroglossal duct cyst to prevent inadvertent surgical Thyroid gland is in the level of C__ Pharyngeal Apparatus Paryngeal arches separated eventually by pharyngeal grooves/clefts internally separated by evaginations-the pharyngeal pouches th th 4 -5 weeks Pharyngeal pouches st o 1 nd o 2 rd o 3 inferior parathyroid gland th o 4 superior parathyroid gland th th o 5 if develops becomes part of the 4 paryngeal pouch & helps to form the ultimobrachial artery th 5 usually degenerates

VENTRAL pancreatic duct FORMS the HEAD (most) & UNATE PROCESS DORSAL pancreatic duct FORMS the HEAD (remainder), BODY & TAIL

o Fate of Ventral o Fate of Dorsal ANNULAR PANCREAS o growth of a bifid ventral pancreatic bud around the duodenum then fuse with the dorsal bud forming a pancreatic ring o produces complete obstruction/ atresia o or partial obstruction/ stenosis *NOTE: read on Histogenesis of pancreas.

ADRENAL GLAND
cortex from mesoderm medulla from sympathetic ganglion neural crest cells ectoderm Anomalies o CONGENITAL ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA Excessive androgen production during the fetal period In females, causes masculinization of external genitalia There is enlargement of the clitoris called VIRILIZATION

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