HISTOLOGY OF ENDOCRINE SYSTEM  BRAVO Endocrine system, organ involve are: 1. hypothalamus 2. pituitary gland 3. thyroid gland 4.

parathyroid gland 5. pancreas 6. adrenal gland 7. testicle 8. ovary

PARATHYROID GLAND
Has 2 pairs; right & left lobe = 4 Embedded in posterior aspect of thyroid (superior & inferior( Action: increase blood calcium Parathyroid gland o Dark staining  c-cells & layer o Eosinophilic  oxyphil cells

PINEAL GLAND
part of the epithalamus secretes MELATONIN Histologic features o Pinealocytes w/c contains CORPORA ARENACEA Pineal gland contains o Neuroglia o Pinealocytes o __

PANCREAS
has 2 functions: o exocrine & endocrine Exocrine o Connective tissue capsule  surrounds pancreas o Septa divide it into sections o Is a compound acinar gland o Secretion: 1,500 – 3,000 ml pancreatic alkaline juices Endocrine o Made of islet of langerhans  A – glucagon – 20%  B – insulin – 70 %  Delta – somatostain – 10%

PITUITARY GLAND
located at the base of the brain, surrounded by circle of willis INFUNDIBULUM – connection to hypothalamus In sella turcica of the sphenoid bone 2 parts with separate embryonic origins: o ANTERIOR – glandular o POSTERIOR – neuronal (more fiber) *pars intermedia

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Anterior/ Adenohypophysis AKA: pars distalis Production of 7 peptide hormone o *4 are tropic hormones Also contains the pars intermedia Posterior/ Neurohypophysis pars nervosa has landmarks o pituicytes o herring bodies Hypophyseal portal system Superior hypophyseal artery Hypophyseal veins NOTES: Rathke’s cysts/ vesicles with colloid o Indicate that within pars intermedia Pars Distalis has 3 kinds of cells o Acidophils – red staining o Basophils – blue staining o Chromophobes – pale staining

ADRENAL GLAND
aka: suprarenal gland Adrenal Medulla o A modified sympathetic ganglion w/c produces:  Epinephrine & norepinephrine Adrenal Cortex (superficial) o Secretes corticosteroid o Has 3 structures:  Zona Glomerulosa – aldosterone  Zona Fasciculata – glucagons/glucose  Pale staining  Zona Reticularis – sex hormones  Deep staining o Zona glomerulosa  Clumps & follicle like structures  Cords of spongiocytes o Zona reticularis  Net of arrangement Clinical Correlation Congenital adrenal hyperplasia  ↓ cortisol & aldosterone  ↑ testosterone o Tx: dexamethasone  Controls ACTH & hydrocortisone o NOTE:  Steroidogenesis/ aldosterone pathway  Is inhibited & shift to androgen pathway  21-hydroxylase is missing

TESTES
secrete testosterone into bloodstream o from interstitial cells o stimulates sperm production along w/ FSH o for secondary sex characteristics INHIBIN  balance FSH o From sustentacular (sertoli) cells o Also contributes in blood testis barriers  protect the developing sperm cells Leydig’s cells  produce sperm cells

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OVARY
Estrogen  by ovarian follicles in response to FSH Progesterone  by corpus luteum in response to LH INHIBIN – balance in response in excess progesterone Estrogen – produced by theca interna

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THYROID GLAND
Location: anterior surface of trachea just inferior of thyroid cartilage or adam’s apple It has thyroid follicular cells o LE: Simple cuboidal epithelium o Produce & store thyroglobulin in thyroid follicles Has C (Chief cells) o Aka: parafollicular cells o Produce calcitonin o Interspersed b/w thyroid follicles o Action: decrease blood calcium

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EGBautistaII

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