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# 2008 International ANSYS Conference

## Using FEA Results To Determine Stress Concentration Factors

W.D. Growney Engineering Specialist Eaton Aerospace, Conveyance Systems Division

## ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary

Agenda Overview of Eaton Corporation Background Stress Concentration Factors from FEA results Example: Finite Plate with a Central Hole Example: Square Shoulder With Fillet (Pure Bending) Summary

Vocabulary

## A F FEA Kt P max nom

Area Force Finite Element Analysis Stress Concentration Factor Pressure Maximum Stress Nominal Stress

## ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary

Eaton Worldwide

Founded in 1911 by J.O. Eaton World Headquarters in Cleveland, Ohio USA Customers in more than 150 countries More than 70,000 employees worldwide Chairman & CEO Alexander M. Cutler

## Eaton Business Groups

Electrical Fluid Power Truck Automotive

## A premier diversified industrial manufacturer A global leader in:

Electrical systems and components for power quality, distribution and control Fluid power systems and services for industrial, mobile and aircraft equipment Intelligent truck drivetrain systems for safety and fuel economy Automotive engine air management systems, powertrain solutions and specialty controls for performance, fuel economy and safety

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Background
Stress Concentration factors (Kts) for numerous simple geometries have been determined by researchers (analytical equations) Roark and Peterson have compiled these into easy to use tables Using simple Kts for complex geometries can induce error Determining stress concentration factors (Kt) for complex geometries can be difficult and expensive If strain gages cannot be applied to the maximum stress location, remote stresses must be used to determine the peak stress value (induces error)

## ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary

Using FEA Results To Determine Kts Kt = max / nom FEA results can be used to easily determine the maximum stress (max) Determining the nominal stress (nom) can be more difficult Knowledge of the stress gradient provides a means of determining the nominal stress (nom)

## Finite Plate With A Central Hole

Quarter-section Finite Element (FE) model.
Example (from Roarks Formulas for Stress and Strain, 7TH edition):

A2 = 0.06250 in2

A1 = 0.09375 in2

FEA Geometry (see Figure, quarter model shown): Length = Width = r= t= 1.500 in (Length (Roark) = infinite) 0.750 in (D (Roark) = 1.500 in) 0.250 in (r (Roark) = 0.250 in) 0.125 in

Length = 1.500 in

## r = 0.250 in Width = 0.750 in

A1 = 0.750 in * 0.125 in = 0.09375 in2 A2 = 0.500 in * 0.125 in = 0.06250 in2 Inputs (Area for applied load (pressure): P1 = 320 lbf/in2 F = 320 lbf/in2 * 0.09375 in2 = 30 lbf

## Uni-Axial Stress Gradient

Finite Plate w/hole Stress Gradient
1200 1000 Stress Gradient Uniform Stress Field

(lbf/in2)

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

## Distance (in), from hole free surface

The graph depicts the stress gradient for a finite plate with a central hole and a uniform stress gradient The uniform stress gradient is the nominal stress (nom)
That would exist if the stress concentration were not present

## nom for a finite plate with a central hole is simply:

nom = Pend * A1 / A2 or nom = Fend / A2 nom = 320 lbf/in2 * 0.09375 in2 / 0.0625 in2 = 480 lbf/in2

## Area Under Stress Gradient Curves

Finite Plate w/hole Stress Gradient
1200 1000 Stress Gradient Uniform Stress Field

(lbf/in2)

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

## Distance (in), from hole free surface

The area under the two stress gradient curves (stress concentration and uniform stress field) must be equal (equivalent energy)
The area under the uniform stress field curve is: AKt = nom * Distance (from hole free surface)

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## Area Under Stress Gradient Curve

Table 1 ANSYS Integration Operation Results (AKt ), Plate w/hole
S 0.000 0.008 0.017 0.025 0.033 0.042 0.050 0.058 0.067 0.075 0.083 0.092 0.100 0.108 0.117 0.125 0.133 0.142 0.150 0.158 SX 1115.5 1030.3 957.51 894.93 840.82 793.79 752.72 716.68 684.92 656.82 631.86 609.6 589.67 571.77 555.63 541.03 527.78 515.71 504.68 494.57 A Kt 0 8.9405 17.223 24.941 32.174 38.985 45.428 51.551 57.391 62.981 68.351 73.524 78.521 83.36 88.058 92.627 97.08 101.43 105.68 109.84 S 0.167 0.175 0.183 0.192 0.200 0.208 0.217 0.225 0.233 0.242 0.250 0.258 0.267 0.275 0.283 0.292 0.300 0.308 0.317 0.325 SX 485.27 476.69 468.74 461.35 454.46 448.02 441.96 436.25 430.84 425.7 420.79 416.09 411.56 407.18 402.92 398.77 394.7 390.68 386.71 382.76 A Kt 113.93 117.93 121.87 125.75 129.56 133.33 137.03 140.69 144.31 147.87 151.4 154.89 158.34 161.75 165.12 168.46 171.77 175.04 178.28 181.49 S 0.333 0.342 0.350 0.358 0.367 0.375 0.383 0.392 0.400 0.408 0.417 0.425 0.433 0.442 0.450 0.458 0.467 0.475 0.483 0.492 0.500 SX 378.81 374.85 370.85 366.81 362.7 358.5 354.2 349.77 345.2 340.47 335.56 330.44 325.1 319.5 313.63 307.44 300.93 294.05 286.77 279.05 270.86 A Kt 184.66 187.8 190.91 193.98 197.02 200.03 203 205.93 208.83 211.68 214.5 217.27 220.01 222.69 225.33 227.92 230.45 232.93 235.35 237.71 240

ANSYS Post1 (post processor) provides integration calculations via path operations Solve for nom:

AKt (ANSYS integration) = 240 lbf/in nom = AKt / Distance = 240 lbf/in / 0.5 in = 480 lbf/in2
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## Calculating The Kt (Finite Plate w/hole)

The Example from Roarks Formulas for Stress and Strain, 7TH edition (pgs. 773-774), provided photo-elastic stress analysis results with max = 1130 lbf/in2

The Roark (photo-elastic) Kt for a finite plate with a central hole is:
Kt (photo-elastic) = max / nom = 1130 lbf/in2 / 480 lbf/in2 = 2.35

The Roark (formula) Kt for a finite plate with a central hole is:
Kt (formula) = 3.00 3.13(2r/D) + 3.66(2r/D)2 1.53(2r/D)3 = 2.31

## The FEA Kt for a finite plate with a central hole is:

Kt (FEA) = max /nom = 1115 lbf/in2 / 480 lbf/in2 = 2.32

## Error (photo-elastic to FEA):

% error = {(Kt(photo-elastic) Kt(FEA)) / Kt(photo-elastic)} * 100 % error = {(2.35 2.32) / 2.35} * 100 = 1.3%

## Error (formula to FEA):

% error = {(Kt(formula) Kt(FEA)) / Kt(formula)} * 100 % error = {(2.31 2.32) / 2.31} * 100 = -0.43%

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## Conclusion (uniform stress Kt from FEA)

FEA results (path operations and integration to determine the area under the stress gradient curve) provides an accurate method of determining the nominal stress (nom) The Kt from FEA results provide a value with less than 2% error for a uniform stress field Reference documents (Kt analytical equations) are not required Kts are for actual geometry Further verification/validation of the methodology is required

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## Square Shoulder With Fillet (Pure Bending) Roarks Analytical model

Square shoulder with fillet in a member of rectangular cross-section Example (from Roarks Formulas for Stress and Strain, 7th edition)

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Square Shoulder With Fillet (Pure Bending) Half-section Finite Element (FE) model.
Square shoulder with fillet in a member of rectangular cross-section Example (from Roarks Formulas for Stress and Strain, 7TH edition):
L/2 (half model) r h (3 places)

Geometry (see Figure, quarter model shown): D= 3.000 in (Roark D = 3.000 in) r= 0.500 in (Roark r = 0.500 in) h= 1.000 in (Roark h = 1.000 in) L/2 = 1.500 in (Roark L = 3.000 in) Inputs (applied load (force): Fy = -1000 lbf

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## Square Shoulder With Fillet (Pure Bending) Roarks Analytical model

The h/r ratio = 2.0, therefore, the Kt was calculated using the two forms of the analytical equation 0.1 < h/r < 2.0 and 2.0 < h/r < 20.0 Square shoulder example (from Roarks Formulas for Stress and Strain, 7th edition) Both forms of the equation provide a Kt of 1.222 Kt Theoretical Calculations (from Roark's "Formulas for Stress and Strain" , 7th edition)
0.1h/r 2.0 h 1.0 L/D 1.0 C1 2.359214 D 3.0 2h/D 0.6667 C2 -2.171769 r 0.5 h/r 2.0 C3 0.471304 L 3.0 L/D 0.951366 C4 0.341252 Kt 1.221947 2.0h/r 20.0 C1 2.358758 C2 -2.171388 C3 0.470505 C4 0.342126 Kt 1.221649

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## Square Shoulder With Fillet (Pure Bending)

FEA model
The max stress (12,242 lbf/in2) occurs adjacent to the beginning of the fillet For ease of calculation (known cross-section and moment arm) the Kt is determined at the beginning of the fillet where the max stress is 10,900 lbf/in2 For pure bending max = MY/I = nom (stress if Kt did not exist) nom = MY/(bh/12) = 1.500 in * (1000 lbf) * (0.500 in) / ((1.000 in)*(1.000 in) / 12)) nom = 9000 lbf/in2

Fy = -1000 lbf

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## Square Shoulder With Fillet (Pure Bending) Stress Gradients

The area under the pure bending stress gradient is: AKt = max * Distance to neutral axis max = 2 * AKt / Distance Using path operations and integration, the area under the Rect_Bar_Gradient curve is:
AKt = 2166.30 lbf/in max = nom = 2 * AKt / Distance = 2 * ( 2166.3 lbf/in) / (0.5 in) = 8665.2 lbf/in2
Rectangular Bar Stress Gradient
12000

## Table 1 ANSYS Integration Operation Results (AKt ), Rectangular Bar

S 0.0000 0.0083 0.0167 0.0250 0.0333 0.0417 0.0500 0.0583 0.0667 0.0750 0.0833 0.0917 0.1000 0.1083 0.1167 0.1250 0.1333 0.1417 0.1500 0.1583 x 10900 10507 10115 9722 9454 9125 8796 8547 8258 7969 7734 7480 7225 7004 6777 6551 6341 6137 5933 5733 AKt 0.00 89.20 175.12 257.77 337.67 415.09 489.76 562.02 632.04 699.65 765.08 828.47 889.75 949.03 1006.50 1062.00 1115.70 1167.70 1218.00 1266.60 S 0.1667 0.1750 0.1833 0.1917 0.2000 0.2083 0.2167 0.2250 0.2333 0.2417 0.2500 0.2583 0.2667 0.2750 0.2833 0.2917 0.3000 0.3083 0.3167 0.3250 x 5548 5363 5178 5003 4833 4663 4493 4336 4178 4014 3867 3720 3560 3421 3283 3127 2995 2864 2712 2586 AKt 1313.60 1359.10 1403.00 1445.40 1486.40 1525.90 1564.10 1600.90 1636.30 1670.50 1703.30 1734.90 1765.20 1794.30 1822.30 1849.00 1874.50 1898.90 1922.10 1944.20 S 0.3333 0.3417 0.3500 0.3583 0.3667 0.3750 0.3833 0.3917 0.4000 0.4083 0.4167 0.4250 0.4333 0.4417 0.4500 0.4583 0.4667 0.4750 0.4833 0.4917 0.5000 x 2461 2335 2191 2070 1949 1807 1690 1573 1432 1318 1204 1064 952 840 701 591 480 342 232 122 12 ANSYS, AKt 1965.20 1985.20 2004.10 2021.80 2038.60 2054.20 2068.80 2082.40 2094.90 2106.40 2116.90 2126.30 2134.70 2142.20 2148.60 2154.00 2158.50 2161.90 2164.30 2165.80 2166.30 Inc. Proprietary

## Distance to Neutral Axis (in)

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

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Square Shoulder With Fillet (Pure Bending) FEA Kt Using the FEA smax (10,900 lbf/in2) at the beginning of the fillet and snom from the area under the curve, the FEA Kt for the square shoulder with a fillet geometry is:
Kt (FEA) = maxFEA / nom = 10900 lbf/in2 / 8665.2 lbf/in2 = 1.258

Analytical Kt (Roark) The Kt using the analytical formula from Roark is:
Kt = 1.222

## Error (formula to FEA):

% error = {(Kt(formula) Kt(FEA)) / Kt(formula)} * 100 % error = {(1.222 1.258) / 1.222} * 100 = -2.95%

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## Conclusion (Pure Bending stress Kt from FEA)

The Kt obtained from the equivalent energy method has an error of less than 3% to the analytical Kt Analytical Kts are obtained from empirical data Reference documents (Kt analytical equations) are not required Kts are for actual geometry Further verification/validation of the methodology is required