THIRUKKURAL: a selection Translated by Dr M .D.


NOTE: Readers are requested to install KURAL soft-ware (3.2) in their systems to read the corresponding Tamil original.
Preface Thirukkural, attributed to Tamil Sage Thiruvalluvar, who lived 2000 years ago, is a work of axiomatic wise-sayings in the form of couplets containing four feet in the first line and three in the second line. The work is divided into three parts namely Aram (dharmic tenets in 38 chapters), Porul (dealing with polity, citizenship, friendship etc. in 70 chapters) and Inbam (relating to the love between man and wife in 25 chapters), containing 133 chapters in all, each chapter having 10 couplets. Though more than twenty English translations have appeared Thirukkural has a fascination for a practising translator and remains irresistible. Hence, the attempt. No attempt is made to follow the commonly accepted sequencing of thirukkural since the translator is of the opinion that chapterisation of kural couplets into ten each, perhaps, could have been the work of a later editor for the sake of uniformity. This could only be supported by a similar stance taken by earlier commentators like Manakkudavar and many others; and by the repetitive nature of some of the couplets which could have been interpolations done with with the need to have ten in each chapter. Readers are requested to closely observe the relevance of Kural to most modern concepts like etiquette at seminars, interviews and communicative skill in using language; life skills such as thrift, decisionmaking, abhorrence of evil, man-woman relationship, governance and so and so forth. The numbers against the couplets refer to the serial number of KURAL. 1. As Alpha is the first of sounding words so is God the founding first of worlds. (1) {As Alpha is the first of ‘letters’* so is God the first of all world.} Note: This rendering , of course , is the closest to the original. “Letters” must be taken to mean all literature and scholarship, as is to be found in another couplet No.392. The word does nor mean the alphabet alone. Similarly the word “world” should be taken to mean the entire universe in all its manifestations and ramifications, even as the tree is embedded inside a tiny seed. 2. What's the use of scholarship if one does not worship the feet of omniscient lordship ? (2) 3. Those who worship the feet of the lord seated on flowery hearts will for ever prosper. (3) 4. Besides producing food that people feed on rain remains itself a food. (12) 5. If not a single drop it rains, not a single blade of grass would sprout. (16) 6. World can't live without water; none ever-so-great can survive without bounteous rain. (20) 7. To recount the greatness of the renounced is like counting the heads of dead in the world. (22) 8.Great are those that venture and achieve; little are those that can't. (26) 9. Provoked, it's tough to withstand even the momentary wrath of seasoned sages. (29)


10.To be immaculate of heart is the best of dharmic acts; the rest of good words and deeds are not. (34) 11. Dharmic life-style demands dispensing with the four qualities – envy, ire, desire and fiery words. (35) 12. Proof ‘s not needed for dharmic deeds; observe the difference 'tween one inside the palanquin and the bearers. (37) 13. The householder is host and stay to hermits, the starving, and the dead. (42) 14. To possess love and righteousness are the qualities and benefits of being a householder.(45) 15. If a woman eschews all wifely virtues what is the use of a man having all comforts and wealth? (52) l 6. The woman who worships no god but her man is like the rain that stops at once at her command. (55) ( the sun that shines when told to though in cold winter) Note: the original text compares such a wife to the rain that comes down at one’ command, esp. when rain is most needed. The importance given to rain in Tamil Nadu, and India in general is not so in the temporate zone, where for instance, children are taught the rhyme “Rain, rain, go away/ Come again another day”. The change in the comparison is a deliberate deviation from the text, in an attempt to carry home the idea in the idiom of the target language. “Extending a warm welcome “ is a good example 17.What better security can locked doors and bars provide than a woman's own integrity? (57) 18.Joy to the body is in holding one's babies close; joy to the ears is in hearing them lisp. (65) 19.A father's duty to his children is to make them shine foremost in scholars' assembly. (67) 20.A son's duty to his father is to make others wonder what penance the father did to own such a son. (70) 21.Is there a bolt to lock the door of love? Love shows itself by tears dripping from closed eyes. (71) 22.Those lacking in love own all things, but even the bones of the loving ones are owned by one and all. (72) 23. Just as the sun scorches the boneless creatures the god dharma tortures the loveless ones.(77) 24. Love alone is life’s main stay; without which the body is merely a skeleton covered with skin. (80) 25. Even if it were a drug that averts death it is no good to have it having guests seated outside home. (82) 26. He who’s entertained the guests now leaving and looks forward to receiving new is a welcome guest at heaven. (86) 27. Just smell anicha flower and it languishes; so do guests anguish when looked at indifferently. (90) 28. To be humble and soft-spoken are ornaments to one; all else are not. (95) 29. If good words are spoken with good intent vices decrease and virtues increase.(96)


30. To utter bitter words while sweet ones are at hand is like choosing raw, rejecting riper fruits. (100) 31. Help done at most needed times, though small, is so much greater than the world. (102) 32. The value of help is not bound to its worth; it varies according to recipient’s worth.(105) 33.It's never good to forget the help one did, better still to forget the evil at once. (108) 34.Though money got by unfair means means money yet it is better to get rid of it at once. (113) 35.The undeserving and the deserving come to be known from children born of them. (114) 36. Fair merchant estimates his merchandise on par with other’s bartered goods. (120) 37. Restrain your tongue though not the rest of senses; failing which you'll ail for uttering bitter words. (127) 38.The burns caused by fire gets healed well from within, but not so the wounds caused by caustic tongue. (129) 39. Those who have not learned to live as the world goes howsoever learned remain unlettered. (140) 40.Coveting not another’s wife is greatest manliness for the dharmic self and the disciplined. (148) 41. One might do immoral deeds but it is good never to covet another's wife. (150) 42. Like the earth tha t suppor t s those who d ig i t deep , it is good to bear with those who ridicule us. (151) 43. A day's joy for him who punishes, but lasting glory unto him who forbears till the world lasts. (156) 44. Great ascetics who starve in penance stand next only to householders who bear with others’ abusive words.(160) 45. One jealous of a rich giving to the poor will end up with none of his relations having enough to feed and clothe. (166) 46. Envy the sinner, besides impoverishing the envious would push them into perilous fiery hell. (168) 47. Neither does the envious grow rich and prosper; nor does unenvious lose all they possess and suffer. (170) 48. Those who have conquered the five-fold senses would not covet others’ property to make up for the lack of things. (174) 49. Not to covet others' riches is the means to keep one's own intact. (178) 50. Good it's said," He never speaks of morals, keeps doing evil, yet backbiting he never does." (181) 51. Better die than to make a fake living by backbiting others. (183) 52. Those who can't with a smile make friendship faster break it by casting aspersions. (187) 53.Can there be harm to his own soul if he can see his own faults as well as he sees the others' ? (190)


If only men could spot their own errors as quickly as they do others' can there be harm to any, any time, any where? 54. He who utters meaningless words, annoying many would be detested by all and sundry.(191) 55. One wastefully verbose is no man; must be winnowed out from a forum of men of letters. (196) 56. Since evil deeds beget evil results to the doer, evil is abhorred more than fire. (202) 57. Never even in forgetfulness mean harm to others; doing, God will engross you in harm. (204) 58. Seek not to make up wants by doing wrong; for wants will grow the stronger and go longer. (205) 59. Damnation is sure to follow the evil-doer like the shadow at one's heels. (208) 60. It rains expecting no returns; so would the philanthropic do to the world. (211) 61.When wealth reaches the hands of the generous its like having an all useful medicinal tree. (217) 62. If charity would beget poverty it's worth getting it even by selling oneself. (220) 63.To give the poor alone is charity; all other giving is in expectation of some return. (221) 64. It’s good to give even though giving bars entry to heaven; to receive is evil though by good means. (222) 65.To feed the starving poor is a virtue that fetches the wealthy greater riches. (226) 66.To be charitable is to become glorious; nothing but that is the wages to the soul.(231) 67.Be born if you could earn fame; if you can’t better it is not to be born at all. (236) 68.The penniless do not possess the world; those without compassion have no place in heaven. (247) 69.The pauper will prosper someday but those that have lost grace can hardly ever retrieve it. (248) 70.Before penalizing the weaker, imagine yourself in his stead before some one stronger.(250) 71.How would God protect him who eats other meat to bloat his own flesh ? (251) Note: Valluvar’s views on non-vegetarianism and recommendation of vegetarianism must be considered as issuing from his strong humanitarian interests and love of all anima that governed him; they are purely regional, based on the place of one’s living. For instance, no sage or scholar can recommend vegetarianism to the Eskimos living in the Tundra, where there is no vegetation except lichen. They subsist on raw meat. So with people living in the Arabian deserts. However, wherever vegetarian food is available it is preferable to have it not only from the point of view of one’s own health, but also out of love that cannot put up with seeing the sufferings of animals butchered. Did not Vallalar Ramalingar shed tears on sighting withering plants ? 72. If the world would desist from eating animal meat, then butchers would not kill to sell. (256)


73. It is better not to fill your belly with animal kill than to offer a thousand things in ritual fire. (259) 74.Forbearance of one's ailments, and not harming any anima are true marks of penance. (261) 75. Like gold the more its burnt the better it glows, so with penitentiary; the more his sufferings the brighter his wisdom. (267) 76. To those who have acquired the powers of penance it is possible to defy death.. (269) 77. There is none so bad as one who 's not renounced at heart but puts up mere pretence. (276) 78.There is no need to grow nor tonsure your hair if you could keep off from doing what the world regards evil. (280) 79. Even to think at heart of grabbing others’ wealth by stealth is a sin.. (282) 80.Those who thrive by thieving will shrivel by doing all kinds of crime. (289) 81.If for a blemish less good uttered, even falsehood is as good as truth. (292) 82.Tell not lies with your conscience as witness; if told your conscience would prick from within. (293) 83.Water purifies the physical and the exterior; so does truth the interior. (298) 84. Restraining wrath toward the meek is restraint. what if he shows it not to others. (301) 85. If he would save himself he must spare his ire else his wrath would wreck himself. (305) 86. Evil done to others in the forenoon boomerangs on the doer in the afternoon. (319) 87. The best of all moral precepts is to share one's food with all living things and protect them too. (322) 88. However great the benefits of burnt offerings 'Not great' it's said for it's got after all by taking a life. (328) 89. Like the audience at a play- house, wealth stays with one a while and then leaves him. (332) 90. Better hasten to do good, before tongue gets stuck and life ends up in hiccup. (335) 91.The world has the pride to claim that he that was here but yesterday is no more this day. (336) 92.The bond between body and life is like the egg-ling breaking shell and taking wings. (338) 93.Death is like sleeping, and birth like waking from sleep. (339) 94. Suffers he not from such and such of the things from which he has withdrawn. (341) 95. To abandon five- fold sensory pleasures, an ascetic should abandon at once the means of coming by. (343) 96. Hold on to the love of the lord that has renounced; have that hold in order that you get rid of all holds. (350)


97. Dispense with desire, wrath and indecision, and you will be rid of their ill-effects. (360) 98. Desire is the seed of unceasing cycle of births for all living things at all times.(361) 99. Not only here but elsewhere too, there is no equal to the supreme wealth of renouncing desire. (363) 100. Renounce insatiable desire, and that stance will gain you trans-entrance to the place of enhanced trance.(370) 101. Good fortune causes one to work hard; misfortune causes laziness and loss of all you possess. (371) 102. Two different ways the world works: becoming rich is different from becoming wise.(374) 103. Even those who amassed millions can't enjoy and use it unless god willing. (377) 104. Lack of indecision, scholarship and bravery are a ruler's lasting qualities. (383) 105.Earning, creating sources of earning, preserving, and proper apportioning are hallmarks of a good government.(385) 106. Learn all things without lingering doubts; learning, learn to live accordingly. (391) 107. Numerals and all letters are both like two eyes to human beings. (392) 108. As sandy fount yields more of water every time you dig so does knowledge grow the more you read the deeper. (396) 109. Why does not one study till death knowing fully well all countries and towns claim a scholar their own? (397) 110.The desire of the unlettered to address an erudite forum is like the sexual urge of a woman having neither bosom. (402) 111. Penury of the learned and virtuous is less painful than the prosperity of the unlettered. (408) 112.When there’s no edutaining talk to feed the ears with, the stomach may be fed a little. (412) Note. ‘Edutainment’ is a portmanteau word by combining ‘educate’ and entertainment’. 113. Ears not delighted in hearing discourses capable though of hearing are only deaf. (418) 114. Inhuman those who never enjoy aural but only oral tastes; what if they live or die ? (420) 115. Whatever the matter whosoever utters it's wise to get at its truth. (423) 116. Not fearing the dangerous is sheer foolishness; to fear the fear-worthy is the feat of the learned elite. (428) 117. He who knows not the means of preventing blame, his life gets lost like haystack set on fire. (435) 118. Never boast of your greatness, nor presumptuously desire to do deeds of no good return.(439) 119. A king without wise elders to admonish him will lose all though he has no foes. (448)


120. Profit is not for those without capital; so is stability not for those without support of the elderly wise. (449) 121. Than the harm resulting from many an enemy, ten times worse is that from desertion of the elderly wise. (450) 122. The wise fear the company of the lowly nincompoops; the mean make them their relations.(451) 123. As soil spoils water’s purity so is man’s mind affected by the mean company he keeps.(452) 124. Purity of thought, purity of deeds, both issue from the virtuous company one keeps. (455) 125. Nothing gives greater good than the company of the virtuous; and no worse harm than that of the vicious. (460) 126.What ought not to be done ruins by doing; so does what ought to be done by not doing. (466) 127.Even the cart-axle breaks when more than its maximum load of peacock's feather 's laid. (475) 128. There's no care though the door of income 's narrow if only the doors of expense are not wide. (478) 129. For him that spends beyond his means, life appears though luxurious yet wrecks losing all. (479) 130. A crow can conquer an owl by day; so must a king know when to flout a foe. (481) 131. Go get the world targeting at it, if only you could plan the place and fix the time.(484) 132. Like a stork awaiting the opportune moment for a big catch, seize the day, come what may. (490) 133. The crocodile conquers in water but is conquered once outside water. (495) 134. The wheeled chariot can't ride over the sea nor could the yacht of the water go over the roads (496) 135. In marshes even a fox would fight a dauntless elephant which confronted many a lanced-soldier.(500) 136.Weigh the merits and defects of things take that which is the greater. (504) 137.Selecting without deliberation, and then suspecting the select, both end up in endless misery. (510) 138. Entrust work with one who has four qualities of love, knowledge, decisiveness and lack of avarice.(513) 139. Entrust a task to one after well assessing he by this means would well accomplish it. (517) 140.True relations never desert the ruler even when his riches are reduced to naught. (521) 141. The riches of one without relations would reach alien’s hands like rain- water overflowing a bank less-tank. (523) 142. Even like the crow that caw(l)s its kind finding food so benefited stands he who shares his rations with relations. (527) 143. Desuetude destroys glory just like misery kills the desire for knowledge. (532)


144. Remember the fallen state of the once -great, while you exult in your present fortune.(539) 145. It is easy to achieve one’s plans provided one constantly remembers them. (540) 146. King’s duty is to uphold justice by detecting and mercilessly penalizing the wrong- doer whoever it is. (541) 147. King's deed of punishing seeded criminals is like weeding out a field for better yields. (550) 148. Threaten hard but punish mild if desirous of lasting power and good. (562) Note: ‘Cawls’ is a coinage, combining ‘caw’ and ‘call’. 149. As the water born flower stalk is proportionate to the depth of water so is man’s greatness to his thought.(595) 150. Always set your goals high; though there might be some set backs that you can later overcome. (596) 151. The undiminishing flame of a family’s fame fades out as the soot of laziness spreads. (601) 152. Long delay, forgetfulness, laziness and sleep --- these four qualities take aboard those desiring death. (605) 153. Lose not your heart ‘cause the task is tough; perseverance brings you pride of honour. (611) 154. Generosity in one incapable of generating his income is like a coward’s wielding a sword on a battle-field.(614) 155. Continued endeavour brings increasing wealth; lack of it ushers in penury.(616) 156. Those who try untiringly will defeat 'fate', and turn it inside out as a feat. (620) 157. Laugh at approaching grief; there is no better means to tackle it.(621) 158. Never desires joys; but regards woes as natural; such a one will never have to grieve.(628) 159. Minister is he who knows weaponry, what to do, when and how.(631) 160. To divide foes, to retain present and restore lost friends are a minister’s forte. (633) 161. A scheming minister’s cunning begets more evil than from enemies seven crores. (639) 162.To master the art of rhetoric is the finest of all arts. there is no finer art like the art of tongue. (641) 163.Utter a word knowing full sure there is none other that could conquer it. (645) 164.Those fond of verbosity at scholars' forum know not the virtue of brevity. (649) 165. Good friendship provides productive funds; good deeds provide all one needs. (651) 166. Do not a deed that you might later rue in shame, if done once, see you don’t repeat the same. (655) 167. Even if your mother starves never do a deed despised by elders.(656)


168. What was got by tears would disappear in tears; though lost, but late, well-got money will come to help. (659) 169. Ill-got pelf loses itself and Self, like water kept in unburnt mud-pot. (660) 170. It is easy for any to proclaim but harder for one to perform as was claimed. (664) 171. Scorn not one on basis of size; he might be like king-pin to the rolling chariot wheel. (667) 172. One must get down to action only after assessing five thingsmoney, time, profit, place and weaponry. (675) 173. Like seizing an elephant by showing a rogue, one must, while doing a thing, have a related thing done at once. (678) 174. Love, understanding and studied utterance --these three are indispensable to ambassadors .(682) 175. Speaking smilingly using suasive sifted soft words are beneficial aids to embassy. (685) 176. Purity of thought, surety of amity dauntless utterancethese there are qualities of a faithful messenger. (688) 177. Neither near nor afar like warming by fire should one keep king's company. (691) 178. Avoid whispering in ears with a sly smile while in the assembly of the great. (694) 179. To take advantage of old friendship and to do uncivil things will bring down woes of sort. (700) 180. What is the use of eyes if, of all the senses, these cannot read the minds of others in their eyes? (705) 181. Like the mirror that reflects the objects near, one’s face reflects inner emotions of heart. (706) 182. Eyes alone are the measuring scale for one who can read one’s mind through eyes.(710) 183. Scholars having perfect knowledge of words and composition of the audience would speak accordingly. (711) 184. Those who know the benefits of rhetoric would speak in a manner fitting to time, place and occasion.(712) 185. Amidst the learned shine bright like lime-light; amidst the common look white like slack- lime. (714) 186. Speaking to a sensible and receptive audience is like watering a bed of seedlings. (718) 187. Those used to speaking to an elite audience should never utter mean words to a low audience.(719) 188.Country is where unfailing peasants, scholarly wise and moneyed merchants are present. (731) 189.Country is where neither extreme poverty, chronic diseases nor strong foes are present. (734) 190.Country is where many factions, infighting caucuses, smiling but murderous mischief- mongers are absent. (735) 191.Founts, rains, mounts and their springs, and secure bounds are components of a country. (737)


192. Despite the glorious things a king might have, if he has no spirited warriors, he stands insecure.(750) 193.There is nothing like wealth which makes a worthless person a thing of worth and respect. (751) 194. The lance that misses an elephant is more valuable than a dart that shoots a jungle rabbit. (772) 195. Friendship is not to smile and while away, rather to check and chide when he errs in excess. (783) 196. Friendship is not merely smiling face to face rather deep from heart to heart. (786) 197. No harm is greater than to unwisely befriend a fool for there is no redemption. (791) 198. Blessing it is to snap the friendship of one when known to be an ignoramus. (797) 199.Friendship with those who differ in deeds and words would it not disturb us even in our dreams? (819) 200. If a time comes when enemy turns a friend it's better to greet him with a superficial smile than to take him to heart. (830) 201. Idiocy is the worst of paucity; of the rest, the world regards none as greater poverty. (841) 202. Directed, he wouldn't do; nor would directly learn himself; his life, till it leaves the shell, remains an affliction. (848) 203.Not seen himself, nor learn when shown by those who have known, yet would show others the unknown. (849) 204. To be loving and born of a good family, both constitute the virtue of culture. (851) 205. Earn not the displeasure of the ploughmen wielding pen though you may of those who plough the war-field with their bows.(872) 206.Remove the thorny sapling while its young; once grown it would hurt the hands while trying to uproot it. (879) 207. Fear not foes who are like drawn-out swords, but fear those foes who lie close as kith and kin. (882) 208. Living with a false friend having a secret grudge is like living with a venomous snake in the same house. (890) 209. Those wary of harm, would not despise elder’s talents; but know that tact to be the best of all techniques. (891) 210. Escape is possible even for one surrounded by fire, but not to one who’s earned the wrath of elders. (896) 211. Unmanly submission to one’s wife prevents him from walking in pride amidst the company of wise men. (903) 212. Better take pride to be born a bashful woman than be dressed like a man in looks yet be a wife’s page.(907) 213. Man who runs errands at wife’s commands can’t enjoy neither the present nor (y)earn for the life-after. (909) 214. Sex with self-selling prostitute is like sleeping in dark with a corpse. (913) 215. Whores care no scruples; to hug their shoulders is like falling into hell from where there is no escape.(919)


216. There is no difference between the sleeping and the dead, and so between those drinking liquor and those taking poison. 217. When sober, watch some one intoxicated, then you would desist from drinking. (930) 218. Desire not to gamble though winning, its like a Foolish fish swallowing a golden bait. (931) 219. Like the gambler loves gambling every time he loses so does man love life the more suffering it brings.(940) 220. Decrease or increase in proportion of gas, bile and phlegm in body causes diseases. (941) 221. Our body needs no drugs as long as we know how much to eat and what we ate is digested. (942)


222. As joy abides with him who regards over- eating as demeaning so resides disease with a gourmand .(946) 223. Doctoring depends on diagnosing, finding the root cause and deciding the dose considering the patient's condition. (948) 224. A learned physician reckons with the patient’s age and condition, intensity of his disease, and treats at the opportune time. (949) 225. Smile, charity, sweet words, never scorning others are the four requisites for a home of pride.(953) 226. Blemish in those born of well-bred families strikes the eyes like dark spots on the moon in high skies. (957) 227. Just as the sprouting seed speaks of soil nature the words uttered by men speak of the pride of their family. (959) 228. Sense of shame is needed to obtain good qualities; humility is needed to preserve pride of family. (960) 229. Those who fall from high position are regarded like hair fallen from head. (964) 230. Those who die for shame are so sensitive as the mountain deer that dies when losing its hair. (969) 231. Glory unto him who aspires and shame to him who despises it .(971) 232. All are equal by birth, but unequal in greatness which by virtue of their achievements varies. (972) 233. Like self- defending chaste women, man can attain glory by remaining self-disciplined. (974) 234. True pride means boastlessness; it is mean to be boastful. (979) 235. The honourable always hide others’ flaws the lowly finds the faults alone. (980) 236. The touchstone for the supreme good is to admit defeat even before men, lower than oneself. (986) 237. Even if the oceans overflow the shores, the wise who stand as bounds to virtuous won’t shift their stand. (989) At the end of eons men of sterling character stand like deep sea encircled by strong shores. 238. The v i r tue o f be ing cu l tu red i s to possess l ove and be born of a good family. (992)


239. The world lives on because righteous men yet live; else it would have been devoured by the earth.(996) 240. Like good milk getting sour by the bad vessel into which poured is when riches reach uncultured hands. (1000) 241. A wealthy rich man not liked by townsmen is like a poisonous tree midtown, ripening with fruits.(1008) 242. The blush of a man for a shameful act and that of a beautiful woman in love are not the same. (1011) 243. The actions of people, shameless at heart, are like rope-held puppets' duping life. (1020) 244. For one, intent on uplifting home lack of time, other's laziness or regret having to log on would hamper it. (1028) 245. Peasants are like kingpin for they feed men of other professions too. (1032) 246. Worthy of life are the ploughmen who feed; all the rest bow in respect, feed and run after them. (1033) 247. Than to plough is to manure; irrigation is better; better still is protection of the crop. (1038) 248. Would penury return today like it killed me yesterday? (1048 ) 249. It is feasible to sleep in fire free from fear of anguish but the impoverished can never have a wink. (1049) 250. If without someone to seek and one to give, like lifeless puppets moving up and down the world would still survive. (1058) 251. If one should beg for his livelihood, let God creator be damned to go a-begging. (1062) 252. So different in act and thought but in looks none so alike as the rotten and the good men. (1071) 253. Asked, the mean would not give the poor aught, but if boxed on chin, would readily part with it. (1077) 254. Seeing the good well-dressed and eat well, the low and the mean grow envious and begin to slander. (1079) 255. Is it the destructive deity, constructed peacock or after all a woman ? I t ' s mind - bogg l ing to me. (1081) 256. Stern look of Pluto’s, love’s reciprocal look or deer’s dazed look? Her look combines all the three. (1085) 257. Like the mask covering the eyes of a rogue elephant is the front of her saree covering her breasts. (1087) 258.Two types of look she has; one causes illness; the other remedies the illness. (1091) 259.The momentary look she steals in love is not just half but more. (1092) 260.When I look she looks aground; when I don't she looks and softly smiles. (1094) 261.The common denominator between the lovers is the way they regard each other as unknown. (1099) 262.When the eyes of lovers do meet and fuse words are of no use. (1100)


263. Enjoyment by sight, sound, smell, taste and touch all five senses are present at once in my darling dear. (1101) 264. Where did she obtain that fire which burns when farther removed and chills when closer by?(1104) 265. Her embrace gives me the joy of living and eating together with one’s dear relations.(1107) 266.Like learning, every time, reveals ignorance the more so does making love show the yet unknown.(1110) 267. Pearly smile, lance like eyes, bamboo- smooth shoulders, tender leaf- like body – she’s naturally fragrant. (1113) 268. Twinkling stars blink unable to tell which is moon and which my lady's face. (1116) 269. aniccha flower and swan’s down are to my lady’s feet like the thorny fruit of nerunchi .(1120) 270. Saliva from her bright toothed gums is honeyed milk to me. (1121) 271.She feared to drink anything hot lest it should hurt her lover living in her heart. (1128) 272. I owned a sense of shame and chivalry till I became a over fit only for riding a horse of palm-leaf. (1133) 273.Those who have ne'er felt what it's to be love-lorn fondly laugh to scorn seeing me pass by. (1140) 274.Town's gossips manure, and my mom's admonitions water my ailment of love to grow. (1147) 275.Tell me if you do not go; speak of your return only to my survivor. (1151) Note: Lady to her husband. 276.Only when touched, fire scorches. Can it scorch like love-disease even after leaving? (1159)

277. The more I try to hide my anguish at love's separation, the more it increases like the spring when scooped out. (1161) 278. My body 's like a kavadi; on either side stands suspended shyness and love on the central staff, that's my life. (1163) 279.Why should my eyes shed tears now? It’s they who showed him to me once, and caused me to suffer at his separation. (1171) 280. Let my eyes weep themselves dry; it’s they that delighted seeing him repeatedly in sleep and wakeful day.(1177) 281. More than me mine eyes pine when I 've no wink of sleep first expecting and next fearing his return. (1179) Note: Young men and women of unfulfilled love would threaten their parents of committing suicide by riding a on a horse –like structure made of palm leaves which would cut into flesh and cause slow death. However, There has been no recorded instance of such a thing actually happening. 282.He snatched away my charm and shyness and in exchange gave me ache and pallor. (1183) 283. Pallor awaits to spread over me the moment he unbraces me, like darkness watchful of the flickering lamp. (1186) 284.Every one complains to me of developing pallor, but none, of his loveless parting from me.(1188)


285.The love showered by man to his love is like the rains that enliven the blessed living. (1192) 286. Why should stupid Cupid be partial to me while his role is to cause woe in common to both young lovers? (1197) 287. Love is lovelier than liquor since love delights even at the very thought. (1201) 288. My sneeze stops short ; may be, his thought about me was interrupted. (1203) Note: The lady muses about her absent husband. It’s a popular belief that sneeze indicates that somebody is thinking about oneself. 289. Not parting from heart though from spot, shine oh moon, that seeing I might devour him with mine eyes. (1210) 290. If my fish-like winkless eyes heed my words and sink into sleep I could tell my lover in dream of my plight. (1212) 291. My life still stays with me because I still dream of him, though there's no sign of his coming back. (1213) 292. If I am not awake my lover would never leave, but continue to be with me in dreams. (1216) 293. Is there a better paradise than the joy of reunion after being cross with the one inseparably blended like soil and water. (1223) 294. What good did I do Morning and what harm did I do to Evening that it should burn me so from within? (1225) 295. This my disease starts as a bud in the morning, opens its petals through the day and blossoms full in the evening.(1227) 296. By welling up with tears your eyes will tell the world about your love, though we try to hide. (1232) 297. Dear heart, won’t you suggest a remedy sure to cure me of my languor of separation? (1241) 298. Give up love or give up shyness dear heart I cannot contain both. (1247) 299. Like an axe, my love broke the bolt of shyness that kept me constant in my self-control. (1251) 300. Till yesterday I trusted I had continence, but today despite my attempt to hide, it exposes itself in public.(1254) 301. My eyes lost their luster looking for his return; so did my fingers waste marking lines on wall.(1261) 302. Let him come some day; I shall devour him by all means to dispel my disease called pallor. (1266) 303. Will I be cross? Or make love ? or cross till he resolves when my man returns home after long ? (1267) 304. A day gets protracted to a week for the woman who awaits her man's day of return.(1269) Note: Illiterate women would make markings on the wall to keep count of the days. 305. Like the thread stringing crystal beads is faintly visible though covered there’s anxiety while still in union I might part from her. (1273) 306. It was but yesterday my man left, but in just one day


my body lacks luster as if se'nnight has lapsed. (1278) 307.To become tipsy at the thought and to delight at sight are qualities of love but not of liquor. (1281) 308. Like the eye that fails to see the pencil while lining eye I see not his faults when he stands close by. (1285) 309. Deserting me, oh heart, you go after him; even as the saying goes that the sufferers have no stay. (1293) 310. End there is none to my agony, for my heart languishes for 's not hugging while away, and for fear of his leaving while hugging. (1295) 311. Like adding salt is being cross; too much or long of both spoils the taste of love. (1302) 312 Sans long and short spells of being cross, love-making . is like a tree without raw and ripe fruits. (1306) 313. Shade and water give instant joy; more so but deferred is in lovers' union after being cross. (1309) 314. Even if I wear flowers on my head she fires me with the query "To please whom?" (1313) 315. Me she blessed when I sneezed; crying, a query plied "Who remembered thee that you sneezed?" (1317) 316.The one that loses while being cross is the winner as is evident in their act of union. (1327) 317.Being cross adds joy to love; greater joy is found in physical union. (1330) Translator’s Address : Dr M.D. Jayabalan, M.A.,Ph.D. Principal Indo-American College Cheyyar House Address for Communication: 321, I Main St. Anna Nagar CHEYYAR – 604 407 TAMILNADU India Phone: 04182 222133 Cell : 9443080209


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