# SUM

What Does It Do ? Horizontal 100 Vertical 100 200 300 =SUM(B8:B10) Single Cells 100 200 Multiple Ranges 100 200 3000 400 500 600 =SUM(B18:B20,D18:D20) Functions 100 200 300 400 500 600 =SUM(AVERAGE(B24:B26),MAX(D24:D26)) 100 200 300 600 =SUM(I21+I22+I23) =SUM(I21:I23) =I21+I22+I23 300 =SUM(B14,C15,D14) Note Many people use the =SUM() function incorrectly. Formatting No special formatting is needed. Syntax =SUM(Range1,Range2,Range3... through to Range30). 200 300 =SUM(B5:D5) This function creates a total from a list of numbers. It can be used either horizontally or vertically.

The numbers can be in single cells, ranges are from othe

This example shows how the SUM has been combined w The formula is actually doing more work than needed.

It should have been entered as either =C48+C49+C50 o

Excel Training

14th September 2005

Rohan Fernandes

otal from a list of numbers.

izontally or vertically.

ingle cells, ranges are from other functions.

Range3... through to Range30).

UM() function incorrectly.

w the SUM has been combined with plus + symbols.

oing more work than needed.

ered as either =C48+C49+C50 or =SUM(C48:C50).

Wrong!
Correct Correct

Excel Training

14th September 2005

Rohan Fernandes

AUTOSUM
Instead of using the AutoSum button from the toolbar, you can press Alt and = to achieve the same result. Try it here : Move to a blank cell in the Total row or column, then press Alt and =. or Select a row, column or all cells and then press Alt and =. Jan North South East West Total 10 20 30 40 Feb 50 60 70 80 Mar 90 100 200 300 Total

Excel Training

14th September 2005

Rohan Fernandes

SUMIF
Item Brakes Tyres Brakes Service Service Window Tyres Tyres Clutch Date 1-Jan-98 10-May-98 1-Feb-98 1-Mar-98 5-Jan-98 1-Jun-98 1-Apr-98 1-Mar-98 1-May-98 Cost 80 25 80 150 300 50 200 100 250 =SUMIF(D5:D13,">=100") Total cost of all Brakes bought. Total cost of all Tyres bought. Total of items costing £100 or above. Total of item typed in following cell. tyres =SUMIF(B5:B13,"Brakes",D5:D13) =SUMIF(B5:B13,"Tyres",D5:D13) =SUMIF(D5:D13,">=100") =SUMIF(B5:B13,E19,D5:D13) Formatting No special formatting is needed. =SUMIF(B5:B13,"Brakes",D5:D13) Syntax What Does It Do ?

This function adds the value of items which

=SUMIF(RangeOfThingsToBeExamined,Cri

Excel Training

14th September 2005

Rohan Fernandes

on adds the value of items which match criteria set by the user. If value is >=100 the value is added to the total. angeOfThingsToBeExamined. Excel Training 14th September 2005 Rohan Fernandes .D5:D13) D5:D13. Totals the respective figures in D5:D13 Examines the values in D5:D13. Identifies the entries for Brakes.CriteriaToBeMatched."Brakes".RangeOfValuesToTotal) Examines the names of products in B5:B13.">=100") formatting is needed. 5:B13.

000 £5. =COUNT(Range1. Syntax What Does It Do ? This function counts the number of numeric entries in a It will ignore blanks. Formatting No special formatting is needed.000 Hello #DIV/0! Jan £1.Range2. text and errors.Range3.COUNT Entries To Be Counted 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 Item Bricks Wood Glass Metal Count =COUNT(C16:C19) £2.000 £1.25477289 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 Feb Count 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 Mar =COUNT(B5:D5) =COUNT(B6:D6) =COUNT(B7:D7) =COUNT(B8:D8) =COUNT(B9:D9) =COUNT(B10:D10) =COUNT(B11:D11) =COUNT(B12:D12) =COUNT(B13:D13) Example The following table was used by a builders merchant to for various products in each month.000 20 0 -20 1-Jan-88 21:30 0... through to Range30 Excel Training 14th September 2005 Rohan Fernandes .000 £1.

through to Range30) formatting is needed. Excel Training 14th September 2005 Rohan Fernandes . text and errors..on counts the number of numeric entries in a list. e blanks.Range2. ange1..Range3. ng table was used by a builders merchant to calculate the number of sales products in each month.

The school needed to known how m The school also needed to know how How many pupils sat each Exam..COUNTA Entries To Be Counted 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 Hello #DIV/0! 20 0 -20 1-Jan-88 21:30 0. Maths English Art History The =COUNTA() function has been u =COUNTA(C17:C21) Excel Training 14th September 2005 Rohan Fernandes . Syntax What Does It Do ? It will ignore blanks.Range2. This function counts the number of n =COUNTA(Range1.85483382 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 Count =COUNTA(C5:E5) =COUNTA(C6:E6) =COUNTA(C7:E7) =COUNTA(C8:E8) =COUNTA(C9:E9) =COUNTA(C10:E10) =COUNTA(C11:E11) =COUNTA(C12:E12) =COUNTA(C13:E13) Formatting No special formatting is needed. 1 1 3 3 1 Fail 2 Each exam passed was graded as 1.Range3. Maths Alan Bob Carol David Elaine Fail 1 Fail 2 English Art 1 History Exams Taken By Each Pupil Example The following table was used by a sc 1 Fail =COUNTA(C21:F21) A failure was entered as Fail.

.Range3. The =COUNTA() function has been used because of its ability to count text and numeric entries. The school also needed to know how many exams were taken by each pupil.What Does It Do ? This function counts the number of numeric or text entries in a list.. =COUNTA(Range1. 2 or 3. Excel Training 14th September 2005 Rohan Fernandes . The following table was used by a school to keep track of the examinations taken by each pupil. The school needed to known how many pupils sat each exam. A failure was entered as Fail.Range2. It will ignore blanks. through to Range30) No special formatting is needed. Each exam passed was graded as 1.

COUNTBLANK Range To Test 1 Hello 3 0 1-Jan-98 5 Syntax =COUNTBLANK(RangeToTest) Formatting No special formatting is needed. Blanks =COUNTBLANK(B5:B12) What Does It Do ? This function counts the number of blank cells in Admin Factory 1 Factory 2 Factory 3 Factory 4 Factory 5 Factory 6 Factory 7 Factory 8 Factory 9 Factory 10 Y N N Y Y Y Accounts N Y Production Y N Y Personnel N N N Y Y =COUNTBLANK(C16:F25) Example the company should have a no smoking policy. Y N N N Y Y Y Y The =COUNTBLANK() function has been used to Votes not yet registered : Excel Training 14th September 2005 Rohan Fernandes . The response to the question could be Y or N. The following table was used by a company whi Each of the departments in the various factories As the results of the vote were collated they we have no yet registered a vote.

NTBLANK() function has been used to calculate the number of departments which t registered a vote.on counts the number of blank cells in a range. Excel Training 14th September 2005 Rohan Fernandes . lts of the vote were collated they were entered in to the table. ng table was used by a company which was balloting its workers on whether departments in the various factories were questioned. se to the question could be Y or N. LANK(RangeToTest) formatting is needed. ny should have a no smoking policy.

How many Tyres have been bought.COUNTIF Item Brakes Tyres Brakes Service Service Window Tyres Tyres Clutch Date 1-Jan-98 10-May-98 1-Feb-98 1-Mar-98 5-Jan-98 1-Jun-98 1-Apr-98 1-Mar-98 1-May-98 Cost 80 25 80 150 300 50 200 100 250 Formatting How many Brake Shoes Have been bought.E19) No special formatting is needed. Type the name of the item to count."Tyres") =COUNTIF(D5:D13.C The criteria can be typed in any of the foll To match a specific number type the numb To match a piece of text type the text in q To match using operators surround the exp Excel Training 14th September 2005 Rohan Fernandes .">=100") =COUNTIF(B5:B13."Brakes") =COUNTIF(B5:B13. Syntax What Does It Do ? This function counts the number of items w =COUNTIF(RangeOfThingsToBeCounted. How many items cost £100 or above. service =COUNTIF(B5:B13.

(RangeOfThingsToBeCounted.">100") formatting is needed."Hello") using operators surround the expression with quotes. such as =COUNTIF(A1:A5. such as =COUNTIF(A1:A5. such as =COUNTIF(A1:A5. specific number type the number. Excel Training 14th September 2005 Rohan Fernandes .CriteriaToBeMatched) can be typed in any of the following ways.on counts the number of items which match criteria set by the user.100) piece of text type the text in quotes.

Mon Temp Rain 30 0 Tue No Reading Wed 32 0 Thu 29 4 Fri 26 6 Sat 28 3 Sun 27 1 Average =SUM(C18:I18)/COUNTA(C18:I18) =SUM(C19:I19)/COUNTA(C19:I19) Note To calculate the average of cells which contain text or blanks use =SUM() to get the total and then divide by the count of the entries using =COUNTA().Excel Function Dictionary © 1998 . Average =AVERAGE(C5:I5) =AVERAGE(C6:I6) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the average from a list of numbers. through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed. .Range3.Range2.. If the cell is blank or contains text. the cell will not be used in the average calculation. If the cell contains zero 0..2000 Peter Noneley Average Page 14 of 41 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T AVERAGE Mon Temp Rain 30 0 Mon Temp Rain 30 0 Mon Temp Rain 30 0 Tue No Reading Tue 31 0 Tue Wed 32 0 Wed 32 0 Wed 32 0 Thu 29 4 Thu 29 4 Thu 29 4 Fri 26 6 Fri 26 6 Fri 26 6 Sat 28 3 Sat 28 3 Sat 28 3 Sun 27 1 Sun 27 1 Sun 27 1 Average =AVERAGE(C13:I13) =AVERAGE(C14:I14) Average =AVERAGE(C9:I9) =AVERAGE(C10:I10) Syntax =AVERAGE(Range1. the cell will be included in the average calculation.

800 £3.MAX Values 120 Dates 1-Jan-98 25-Dec-98 31-Mar-98 27-Dec-98 4-Jul-98 800 100 120 250 Maximum =MAX(B8:F8) Maximum =MAX(B5:F5) What Does It Do ? This function picks the highest value from Syntax =MAX(Range1. In the following example the =MAX() funct Excel Training 14th September 2005 Rohan Fernandes .500 £3.000 Feb £6.000 Mar £4.Range2.000 £4. through Formatting No special formatting is needed.000 £6.000 £2. month and overall.500 £12..000 Region Max =MAX(C14:E14) Example each region. Sales North South East West Month Max =MAX(E14:E17) Overall Max =MAX(C14:E17) Jan £5.000 £10.000 £7.Range3.000 £5..

Range3. through to Range30) formatting is needed.on picks the highest value from a list of data.. month and overall. ge1.. wing example the =MAX() function has been used to find the highest value for n.Range2. Excel Training 14th September 2005 Rohan Fernandes .

500 £12.000 Mar £4.000 Feb £6.000 £6.000 £7.Range3.000 £10. through t Formatting No special formatting is needed.000 Region Min =MIN(C14:E14) Example each region. month and overall.000 £2. In the following example the =MIN() funct =MIN(E14:E17) Overall MIN =MIN(C14:E17) Excel Training 14th September 2005 Rohan Fernandes ...000 £5.MIN Values 120 Dates 1-Jan-98 25-Dec-98 31-Mar-98 27-Dec-98 4-Jul-98 800 100 120 250 Maximum =MIN(B8:F8) Minimum =MIN(B5:F5) What Does It Do ? This function picks the lowest value from a Syntax =MIN(Range1.500 £3.Range2.000 £4. Sales North South East West Month MIN Jan £5.800 £3.

. month and overall. ge1.on picks the lowest value from a list of data. wing example the =MIN() function has been used to find the lowest value for n..Range3.Range2. Excel Training 14th September 2005 Rohan Fernandes . through to Range30) formatting is needed.

0) =IF(OR(D7="Visa". AB001 AB002 AB003 AB004 Cost 1000 1000 2000 5000 Payment Type Cash Visa Cheque Delta Handling Charge =IF(OR(D5="Visa".D5="Delta").5. AB001 AB002 AB003 AB004 Cost 1000 1000 2000 5000 Payment Type Cash Visa Cheque Delta Example The following table shows a list of orders ta A handling charge of £5 is made on all orde The =OR() function has been used to deter Excel Training 14th September 2005 Rohan Fernandes .0) =IF(OR(D6="Visa".D6="Delta").D8="Delta").0) =IF(OR(D8="Visa".0) Order No.5.D17="Delta").5.5.0) Syntax =OR(Test1.Test2) What Does It Do? This function tests two or more conditions t It can be used to test that at least one of a Normally the OR() function would be used i Note that there can be up to 30 possible te Formatting When used by itself it will show TRUE or FA Handling Charge =IF(OR(D17="Visa".D7="Delta").OR Order No.5.

sed to test that at least one of a series of numbers meets certain conditions. Excel Training 14th September 2005 Rohan Fernandes . charge of £5 is made on all orders paid by Visa or Delta cards.on tests two or more conditions to see if any of them are true. by itself it will show TRUE or FALSE. there can be up to 30 possible tests. ng table shows a list of orders taken by a company. he OR() function would be used in conjunction with a function such as =IF(). function has been used to determine whether the charge needs to be applied.

Formatting When used by itself it will show TRUE or FALSE.C8<=52) What Does It Do? This function tests two or more conditions to see if they It can be used to test that a series of numbers meet cer It can be used to test that a number or a date falls betw Normally the AND() function would be used in conjunctio Syntax =AND(Test1. Name Alan Bob Carol David Eric Fred Gail Harry Ian Janice Averages Maths 80 50 60 90 20 40 10 80 30 10 English 75 30 70 85 30 60 90 70 10 20 Physics 85 40 50 95 Absent 80 80 60 20 30 Passed Example 1 The following example shows a list of examination result The teacher wants to find the pupils who scored above a The =AND() function has been used to test that each sc The result of TRUE is shown for pupils who have scored =AND(C27>=AVERAGE(\$C\$18:\$C\$27).AND Items To Test 500 500 25 800 25 500 12 Result =AND(B5>=100.C5>=100) =AND(B6>=100.Test2) Note that there can be up to 30 possible tests.C7>=100) =AND(C8>=1.E27>=AV Excel Training 14th September 2005 Rohan Fernandes .D27>=AVERAGE(\$D\$18:\$D\$27).C6>=100) =AND(B7>=100.

ll show TRUE or FALSE. s been used to test that each score is above the average.r more conditions to see if they are all true.E27>=AVERAGE(\$E\$18:\$E\$27)) Excel Training 14th September 2005 Rohan Fernandes . up to 30 possible tests. hows a list of examination results. ERAGE(\$D\$18:\$D\$27). at a number or a date falls between an upper and lower limit. at a series of numbers meet certain conditions. d the pupils who scored above average in all three exams. tion would be used in conjunction with a function such as =IF(). own for pupils who have scored above average in all three exams.

D38*10%. The discount is only given on product The =AND() function is used with the the value of the order is above £1000 Excel Training 14th September 2005 Rohan Fernandes .C28*5%) =IF(C29>=D29."Achieved".C30*10%.000 500 3. one of tw Syntax The Condition is usually a test of two =IF(Condition."Not Achieved") Achieved =IF(C6>=D6."Not Achieved") =IF(C21>=D21.ActionIfFa The ActionIfTrue and ActionIfFalse ca Formatting No special formatting is required.IF Name Alan Bob Carol Sales 1000 6000 2000 Target 5000 5000 4000 Result Not Achieved =IF(C5>=D5."Achieved"."Achieved"."Achieved". the C Example 3 Product Wood Glass Cement Turf Special Offer Yes No Yes Yes £ £ £ £ Order Value 2.0) Discount Total This example uses the =AND() within A builders merchant gives 10% discou is £1000 or above. Example 1 Name Alan Bob Carol Sales 1000 6000 2000 Target 5000 5000 4000 Result =IF(C20>=D20."Not Achieved") Not Achieved =IF(C7>=D7.000 2.ActionIfTrue."Achieved".D38>=1000).C29*5%) =IF(C30>=D30.C28*10%.C30*5%) The following table is similar to that in If the Sales are greater than or equal This time the Commission to be paid t If the Sales do not reach Target. If the condition is met it is considered If the condition is not met it is conside Depending upon the result.C29*10%.000 =IF(AND(C38="Yes"."Not Achieved") =IF(C22>=D22."Achieved"."Not Achieved") What Does It Do? This function tests a condition."Not Achieved") The following table shows the Sales fi Each has their own target which they If the Sales are greater than or equal The =IF() function is used to compare If the Sales do not reach the target th Note that the text used in the =IF() fu Example 2 Name Alan Bob Carol Sales 1000 6000 2000 Target 5000 5000 4000 100 Commission =IF(C28>=D28.

The following table is similar to that in Example 1. =IF(Condition. If the condition is met it is considered to be TRUE.What Does It Do? This function tests a condition. when the Order Value is £1000 or above. Depending upon the result. This time the Commission to be paid to the sales rep is calculated. If the Sales do not reach the target the result of Not Achieved is shown. The =AND() function is used with the =IF() to check that the product is on offer and that the value of the order is above £1000. If the condition is not met it is considered as FALSE. A builders merchant gives 10% discount on certain product lines. This example uses the =AND() within the =IF() function. If the Sales do not reach Target.ActionIfFalse) The Condition is usually a test of two cells. If the Sales are greater than or equal to the Target. No special formatting is required. Excel Training 14th September 2005 Rohan Fernandes . The =IF() function is used to compare the Sales with the Target. the Commission is 10% of Sales. If the Sales are greater than or equal to the Target the result of Achieved is shown. such as A1=A2. The following table shows the Sales figures and Targets for sales reps. text or calculations. the Commission is only 5% of Sales. Note that the text used in the =IF() function needs to be placed in double quotes "Achieved".ActionIfTrue. one of two actions will be carried out. Each has their own target which they must reach. The discount is only given on products which are on Special Offer. The ActionIfTrue and ActionIfFalse can be numbers.

Example 1 This table is used to find a value based on Type a month to look for : Which row needs to be picked out : The result is : =VLOOKUP(F25.FALSE) Jan Bob Eric Alan Carol David 10 20 30 40 50 Feb 80 90 100 110 120 Mar 97 69 45 51 77 Alan 3 Feb 4 The RangeToLookIn is the range of data w The ColumnToPickFrom is how far across t The Sorted/Unsorted is whether the colum Formatting No special formatting is needed.\$C\$19:\$F\$23.VLOOKUP The column numbers are not needed. col 1 Jan Feb Mar What Does It Do ? This function scans down the row headings col 2 10 80 97 col 3 20 90 69 col 4 30 100 45 col 5 40 110 51 col 6 50 120 77 When the item is found.F13.B7:G9.RangeToLookIn.F26.FALSE) Excel Training 14th September 2005 Rohan Fernandes .Co The ItemToFind is a single item specified b Type a month to look for : Which column needs to be picked out : The result is : =VLOOKUP(F12. it then scans acro Syntax =VLOOKUP(ItemToFind. they are part of the illustration.

75 67.TRUE) Excel Training 14th September 2005 Rohan Fernandes .75 73.Student A B C D E F Average 50 61.25 Grade Points 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 Grade F F D C B A A+ Example 2 Use the Points and Grade Table to Lookup =VLOOKUP(C37.\$F\$32:\$G\$38.2.75 64.25 59.

/Unsorted is whether the column headings are sorted. tem is found. Excel Training 14th September 2005 Rohan Fernandes .on scans down the row headings at the side of a table to find a specified item. ToLookIn is the range of data with the row headings at the left hand side. it then scans across to pick a cell entry. nToPickFrom is how far across the table the function should look to pick from. FALSE for no. TRUE for yes.RangeToLookIn. P(ItemToFind.ColumnToPickFrom.SortedOrUnsorted) oFind is a single item specified by the user. formatting is needed. s used to find a value based on a specified individual and column.

nts and Grade Table to Lookup the respective grades for each student Excel Training 14th September 2005 Rohan Fernandes .

it th Syntax =HLOOKUP(ItemToFind.F12. they are part of the illustration.HLOOKUP Jan 10 20 30 40 50 Type a month to look for : Which row needs to be picked out : The result is : Feb 80 90 100 110 120 Mar 97 69 45 51 77 Feb 4 =HLOOKUP(F11.D4:F9. What Does It Do ? This function scans across th When the item is found.FALSE) Formatting row 1 row 2 row 3 row 4 row 5 row 6 The row numbers are not needed.Rang The ItemToFind is a single ite The RangeToLookIn is the ra The RowToPickFrom is how f The Sorted/Unsorted is whet No special formatting is need Jan Bob Eric Alan Carol David 10 20 30 40 50 Feb 80 90 100 110 120 Mar 97 69 45 51 77 Mar 4 Example 1 This table is used to find a va Type a month to look for : Which row needs to be picked out : The result is : Excel Training 14th September 2005 Rohan Fernandes .

FALSE) Excel Training 14th September 2005 Rohan Fernandes .F26.=HLOOKUP(F25.\$D\$18:\$F\$23.

The RangeToLookIn is the range of data with the column headings at the top. Excel Training 14th September 2005 Rohan Fernandes . =HLOOKUP(ItemToFind. This table is used to find a value based on a specified month and row.RowToPickFrom. TRUE for yes. it then scans down the column to pick a cell entry.RangeToLookIn.What Does It Do ? This function scans across the column headings at the top of a table to find a specified item. The RowToPickFrom is how far down the column the function should look to pick from. The Sorted/Unsorted is whether the column headings are sorted. No special formatting is needed.SortedOrUnsorted) The ItemToFind is a single item specified by the user. When the item is found. FALSE for no.

B16)-1) =LEFT(B17.C5) =LEFT(B6.C8) =LEFT(B9.C6) =LEFT(B7. Full Name Alan Jones Bob Smith Carol Williams First Name =LEFT(B15.FIND(" ".LEFT Number Of Characters Required 1 2 3 6 4 Text Alan Jones Alan Jones Alan Jones Cardiff ABC123 Left String =LEFT(B5.FIND(" ".NumberOfCharactersRequired) Formatting No special formatting is needed.B17)-1) Example The following table was used to extract the first name of a p The length of the first name is therefore the position of the The =FIND() function was used to locate position of the spa The =LEFT() function can now extract the first name based Excel Training 14th September 2005 Rohan Fernandes .FIND(" ". Syntax =LEFT(OriginalText.C9) What Does It Do ? This function displays a specified number of characters from piece of text.C7) =LEFT(B8.B15)-1) =LEFT(B16.

Excel Training 14th September 2005 Rohan Fernandes . me is therefore the position of the space minus one character.specified number of characters from the left hand side of a berOfCharactersRequired) used to extract the first name of a person from their full name. as used to locate position of the space between the first and second name. n now extract the first name based on the position of the space.

RIGHT Original Text Alan Jones Alan Jones Alan Jones Cardiff ABC123 Number Of Characters Required 1 2 3 6 4 Right String =RIGHT(B5.LEN(B17)-FIND(" ".C8) =RIGHT(B9.LEN(B18)-FIND(" ". Full Name Alan Jones Bob Smith Carol Williams Second Name =RIGHT(B16.C6) =RIGHT(B7.NumberOfCharactersRequired) Formatting No special formatting is needed. The =RIGHT() function can then extract the second name.B17)) =RIGHT(B18.C9) Syntax =RIGHT(OriginalText. This function displays a specified number of characters from The following table was used to extract the second name of The length of the second name is calculated by subtracting the overall length of the full name.LEN(B16)-FIND(" ". The =FIND() function locates the position of the space betw Excel Training 14th September 2005 Rohan Fernandes .B16)) =RIGHT(B17.C5) =RIGHT(B6.C7) =RIGHT(B8.B18)) Example What Does It Do ? piece of text.

name is calculated by subtracting the position of the space from cates the position of the space between the first and second name. Excel Training 14th September 2005 Rohan Fernandes . can then extract the second name.specified number of characters from the right hand side of a mberOfCharactersRequired) used to extract the second name of a person from their full name.

UPPER Original Text alan jones bob smith carOl wiLLiamS cardiff abc123 Upper Case =UPPER(B5) =UPPER(B6) =UPPER(B7) =UPPER(B8) =UPPER(B9) Formatting No special formatting is needed. Syntax =UPPER(TextToConvert) What Does It Do ? This function converts all characters in a piece of text to upper case. Excel Training 14th September 2005 Rohan Fernandes .

characters in a piece of text to upper case. Excel Training 14th September 2005 Rohan Fernandes .

Syntax =LOWER(TextToConvert) What Does It Do ? This function converts all characters in a piece of text to lower case.LOWER Upper Case Text ALAN JONES BOB SMITH CAROL WILLIAMS CARDIFF ABC123 Lower Case =LOWER(B5) =LOWER(B6) =LOWER(B7) =LOWER(B8) =LOWER(B9) Formatting No special formatting is needed. Excel Training 14th September 2005 Rohan Fernandes .

a piece of text to lower case. Excel Training 14th September 2005 Rohan Fernandes .

What Does It Do ? are converted to lower case. and all subse Excel Training 14th September 2005 Rohan Fernandes .PROPER Original Text alan jones bob smith caRol wILLIAMS cardiff ABC123 Proper =PROPER(B5) =PROPER(B6) =PROPER(B7) =PROPER(B8) =PROPER(B9) Syntax =PROPER(TextToConvert) Formatting No special formatting is needed. This function converts the first letter of each word to uppercase.

and all subsequent letters Excel Training 14th September 2005 Rohan Fernandes .f each word to uppercase.

and all subsequent letters Excel Training 14th September 2005 Rohan Fernandes .irst letter of each word to uppercase.