# Fluid Structure Interactions Research Group

Investigation on power flow analysis of nonlinear dynamic systems and applications
Jian Yang– jy1g09@soton.ac.uk - School of Engineering Sciences Supervisors – Dr. Ye Ping Xiong and Prof. Jing Tang Xing
Background
● Predicting the dynamic responses of complex systems, such as aircrafts, ships and cars, to high frequency vibrations is a difficult task. Addressing such problems using Finite Element Analysis (FEA) leads to a significant numerical difficulty. ● Power flow approach (PFA) provides a powerful technique to characterise the dynamic behaviour of various structures and coupled systems, based on the universal principle of energy balance and transmission. ● PFA is extensively studied for linear systems, but not for nonlinear systems, while many systems in engineering are inherently nonlinear.

Dynamic equation
For a single degree of freedom system:

  c( x, x) x  k ( x ) x  feit   mx
Equation of energy balance

    mx  c ( x, x) x 2  k ( x) xx  feit x x     P D U T

Kinetic energy change rate

Dissipated Power

Potential energy change rate

Instantaneous input power

Power flow of unforced van der Pol oscillator
In Eq. (1), 
(a)
0.3 0.2
Dissipated power

  0.1 ,   0 ,with initial condition ( x, x)  (1.5,0) .
Three dimensional figure Projection on x-x' plane

(b)

Three dimensional figure Projection on x-xdot plane

(c)

Three dimensional figure Projection on x-x' plane

2

2

0.1

Kinetic energy

1.5

0 -0.1 -0.2 -0.3

1

Potential energy
2 -1 1

1.5

1

0.5

0.5

0
-0.4 -2 2 -1 0 0 1 2 -2 -1 1

-2

0 -2 -1 0 0 1 -2 -1 2 1

x

0 1 2 -2 -1

0

x

x'

x'

x

x'

Fig. 1 Nonlinear seat suspension system for high-speed craft

Fig.2 Nonlinear wave energy harvesting device

Aims
● Reveal energy generation, transmission and dissipating mechanisms in nonlinear dynamic systems. ● Develop an effective PFA method for nonlinear vibrating systems . ● Apply PFA to vibration analysis and control of marine appliances, such as comfortable seat and energy harvesting device design.

Fig.3 power flow behaviours of unforced van der Pol oscillator: (a) Dissipated power ; (b) Kinetic energy; (c) Potential energy

Power flow of forced van der Pol oscillator
In Eq.(1), 
1.5

  0.1 ,   0.03 ,  0.98 , with initial condition ( x, x)  (0,0).

1

0.5

0.04

0

van der Pol oscillator -Nonlinear damping

input energy

x'

Typical nonlinear dynamic systems

0.02

0 1.5 1 -0.04 0.5 1 0 0.5 0 -0.5 -1 -1 -1.5 -1.5 -0.5

   ( x 2  1) x  x   cost  x
Duffing oscillator -Nonlinear stiffness

-0.5

-0.02

(1)
-1

1.5

  x  x  x   cost  x
3
6
1000 800 600

x

-1.5 -1.5

-1

-0.5

0

0.5

1

1.5

(2)

x

x'

Fig.4 Phase portrait of forced van der Pol oscillator

Fig.5 Input power of forced van der Pol oscillator

4

Discussion
● For unforced van der Pol oscillator, the plot of energy and power flow forms a closed orbit in extended 3-d phase space. ● For unforced van der Pol oscillator, the dissipated power is negative on some points, which is different from linear system. ● The power flow characteristics of forced oscillation of van der Pol oscillator are complicated and need further investigation.
-5 0 x 5 10

Damping force

2

400

0

Restoring force
0 2

200 0

-2

-200 -400 -600

-4

-6 -2

-800 -1000 -10

x
2 -2

-1

0

1

Future work
●To study the power flow characteristics when the system presents nonlinear behaviours (e.g. bifurcation). ● To develop and simplify the power flow formulation for nonlinear systems.

x'

Fig.1 Nonlinear damping property of van der Pol oscillator

Fig.2 Nonlinear stiffness property of Duffing oscillator

FSI Away Day 2010