Wireless LAN

Seong-Lyun Kim slkim@icu.ac.kr Radio Resource Management & Optimization
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Wireless LANS
• • • • • • Introduction Applications of wireless LANs Challenges of wireless LANs IEEE 802.11 HIPERLAN/2 Summary

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Introduction
• Evolution of computers and LANs • Evolution of wireless phones • Wireless LAN is a natural way of merging these two systems.
– Introduce mobility of LANs – Introduce multi-media applications to cellular systems

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Applications of Wireless LANs
• • • • • Office automation Finantial services Medical and hospital systems Education and training industrial automation

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Applications of Wireless LANs
• Ad-hoc networks
– conference – education and training – project groups

• They do not replace wired solution
– they complement them

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Requirements of WLANs
• • • • • • Access to public networks Multiple networks and co-existance criteria Mobility Security Size and cost Spectrum and power requirements

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Requirements of WLANS
• Health hazards. • Licencing. • Roaming between different environments with the terminal.

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Expected Features
• High operating throuput • Delay.
– important for time-bounded services.

• Ability to serve data, voice, and video. • Fairness of access
– The MAC protocol should be able to resolve unfairness situations caused by fading, etc...

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Challenges of WLANS
• • • • • Medium access. The hidden terminal problem. The exposed terminal scenario. Different received signal power from individual MTs. Higher error rates compared to wired medium.

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Types of WLANS
• Ad Hoc networks • Infrastructured networks

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Ad Hoc Networks
• Group of mobile nodes get together and establish peer-to-peer communication among themselves.
– No help from outside infrastructure

Two possible aproaches
– Brodcasting/flooding – Temporary infrastructure

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Infrastructural Networks
• Similar to a cellular system
– APs connected to a common architecture. – APs can be base stations or repeaters. – Allows users to move around while connected.

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Structure of the Radio Interface
• The WLAN contains twp layers
– The physical (PHY) layer – The data link layer (DDL)

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IEEE 802.11
• • • • 1 and 2 Mbit/s. Supports both ad-hoc and infrstructure. Supports tim-bounded and data traffic. Three physical layers

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IEEE 802.11 Archetecture
• Distribution System (DS)
– Basic Service Set (BSS)
• Acess Point (AP) • Wireless Stations

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IEEE 802.11 Archetecture
• Ad-hoc networks
– A set of independent wireless stations

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Layers Description
• The 802.11 protocol covers the MAC and Physical layer.
– A single MAC which interacts with three PHYs (1 and 2 Mbit/s).

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Physical Layers
• Frequency Hopping SS in the 2.4 GHz band
– 1 mbit/s using 2-level GFSK – 2 Mbit/s using 4-level GFSK

• Direct Sequence SS in the 2.4 GHz band
– 1 Mbit/s using DBPSK – 2 Mbit/s using DQPSK – 11-chip barker code

• Infra Red
– 1 Mbit/s uses 16-PPM – 2 Mbit/s uses 4-PPM

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The Basic Acces Method: CSMA/CA
• The basic acces mechanism, called Distributed Coordination Function, is a Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance mechanism.
– A station desiring to transmit senses the medium • If the medium is busy the the station defer its transmission to a later time. • If the medium is sensed free then the station is allowed to transmit. – These protocols are effective when the medium is not heavily loaded. – More collisions at heavy loads and have to be accounted fo

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The Basic Acces Method: CSMA/CA
• • • The Ethernet uses Collision Detection (CD) to avoid collisions. Collision Detection is not possible in a wireless environment.
– – A full Duplex radio is needed which increases the price significantly. Not possible to assume that all stations hear each other.

Instead, the 802.11 uses a Collusion Avoidance (CA) mechanism together with a Positive Acknowledge scheme.

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CSMA/CA and the Backoff Algorithm
• Backoff is a method to solve contention between different stations willing to access the medium. • The Exponential Backoff Algorithm must be be excuted in the following case
– MS senses the medium before the first transmission of a packet and the medium is busy. – After each retransmission. – After a successful transmission.

• This meachanism is not used when the MS decides to transmitt a new packet and the medium has been free for more than DIFS.

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CSMA/CA and the Backoff Algorithm
• Each MS chooses a random number between 0 and CW. CWmax=255

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Hidden Terminal Problem
• • MS3 cannot hear MS1
– – It may start transmitting while MS1 is also transmitting. MS1 and MS3 cannot detect collision.

only the receiver can help avoid these collisions.

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4-Way Handshake

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Virtual Carrier Sense

Each station adujsts its Network Allocation Vector (NAV) for the duration.

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Frame Types
Three main types of frames:
– Data Frames: for data transmission – Control frames: to control access to the medium (e.g., RTS, CTS, and ACK), and – Management Frames

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Frame Formats
All 802.11 frames are composed as follows:
Preample PLCP Header MAC Data CRC

MAC Data

Frame Control Field

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Frame Formats
RTS Frame Format

CTS Frame Format

ACK Frame Format

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Synchronization in 802.11
• Timing Synchronization Function (TSF) • Used for power management
– Beacons sent at well known intervals – All stations timers in BSS are synchronized

• Used for Point Coordination Timing
– TSF timer used to predict start of contention free burst

• Used for Hop timing for FH PHY
– TSF timer used to time Dwell interval – All Stations are synchronized, so they hop at the same time.

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Synchronization Approach
• All stations maintain a local timer. • Timing Synchronization Function
– keeps timers from all stations in synch – AP controls timing in infrastructure networks – distributed function in independent BSS (ad-hoc)

• Timing conveyed by periodic Beacon transmissions
– Beacons contain Timestamp for the entire BSS – Timestamp from Beacons used to calibrate local clocks – not required to hear all Beacons to stay in synch

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Power Management
• • • • • Allow idle stations to go to sleep.
– – – – – – station’s power save mode stored in AP. AP announces which stations have frames buffered. Traffic Indication Map (TIM) sent with every Beacon. listen to Beacons. stations will wake up to hear a Beacon. TSF timer keeps running when stations are sleeping.

Aps buffer packets for sleeping stations. Power Saving stations wake up periodically. TSF assures AP and Power Save stations are synchronized. Independent BSS has similar power management but distributed.

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Roaming
• • • • • Stations decides that link to its current AP is poor Station uses scanning function to find another AP
– or uses information from previous scans

Station sends Reassociation Request to nw AP If Reassociation Response is successful
– – – – – then station has roamed to the new AP else stations scans for another AP AP indicates Reassociation to the Distribution System Distribution System information is updated normally old AP is notified through Distribution System

if AP accepts Reassociation Requiest

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Scanning
• Scanning required for many functions
– – – finding and joining a network finding a new AP while roaming initializing an Independent BSS (ad-hoc) network single or multi channel passive or active scanning Find networks simply by listening for Beacons On each channel
• Send a Probe, Wait for a Probe Response.

• • •

802.11 MAC uses a common mechanism for all PHY.
– – – –

Passive scanning Active Scanning

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Active Scanning Example

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HIPERLAN/2
• A short range mobile system under development by ETSI BRAN (Broadband Radio Access Networks). – 30 m indoor, 150 m outdoor. • Full coverage cellular system possible. • Minimum peak data rate 25 Mbps to the PHY layer. • Throughput of at least 20 Mbps in single cell environment. • At least 4 Mbps should be provided by the MS to the PHY layer in 95% of the area.

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HIPERLAN/2
• Designed for use in hot spot areas • Designed to operate in several scenarios
– Private LAN – Public access – Public access in combination with cellular systems.

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HYPERLAN/2
• H/2 is core network independent. • A network convergence sublayer is needed.

Core network

Core network

Core network

Network convergence sublayer HIPERLAN/2 DLC HIPERLAN/2 PHY
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Description of H/2
• A typical H/2 system consists of a number of APs connected to a backbone network.
– AP can use omni antenna, multi beam antenna, or a number of distributed antenna elements. – Each AP serves a number of MTs associated to it. – mobility between APs is supported on the same backbone network, i.e., handover between APs.

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H/2 Archecture
• HIPERLAN/2 supports two modes of operations
– Centralised mode (infrastructure based).
• Central controller connected to a core netwrork. • All traffic must pass by the AP. • A mendatory feature for all MTs and APs.

– Direct mode
• Central contoller does not need to be connected to a core network. • Direct exchange of data between MTs possible. • Optional feature.

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HYPERLAN/2 Functions

Convergence layer
– offers a service to the higher layers – Mapping between HL and DLC connections.

Physical layer
– Synchronization – FEC + Modulation – RF

Data Link Layer
– Error Control Coding (EC) – Medium Access Control function (MAC) – Radio Link Control function (RLC)

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H/2 - Physical Layer Overview
• Coded OFDM
– – – – – – – – 64 subcarriers: 48 for data, 4 pilots OFDM symbol duration of 4 microsec Guard interval of 800 ns 20 MHz carrier spacing 20 MHz samplig rate coherent modulation BPSK, QPSK, 16QAM (64QAM, optional) convolutional codes: 1/2, 3/4, (+9/16)

– Bite rates: 6, 9, 12, 18, 27, 36, (54 optional) Mbps.

• 5 GHz physical layer common with IEEE 802.11

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PHY Block Diagram

PDU train from DLC (transmit)

scrambling

FEC coding

interleaving

mapping

OFDM

PHY burst information bits (receive)

transmitter antenna receiver

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H/2 OFDM Characteristics
• Sampling rate: 20 MHz • Symbol duration: 4 micro seconds • ofdm symbol with cyclic prefix
– 64/(20 MHz) + 0.8 micro cyclic prefix

• Carrier spacing: 312.5 kHz

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DLC Layer
• The Data Link Control (DLC) layer comprises
– – – – – – Medium Access Control (MAC) Error Control (EC), based on Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ) Radio Control Protocol (RCP). 2 ms fixed frame duration with ressource allocation on a frame by frame basis. Built in support for sector antennas. QoS and flexibility with resonable complexity.

Load adaptive TDMA/TDD

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DLC Function Entities
• The RCP defines all DLC control information
– – – Association Control Functions (ACF) Radio Resource Control (RRC) DLC User Connection (DCC)

• The EC is responsible for detection and recovery of transmission errors not corrected by PHY layer (PHY). • The MAC is responsible for
– – – mapping control and user PDU (Protocol Data Units) into MAC frames (TDMA/TDD) MAC controlled by the AP (a central controller) MAC of MT set the uplink PDUs to be transmitted into granted part to the MAC frame.

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The MAC Frame Structure
• • Two modes: centralised and direct (DM) Random Access (uplink): contention based

MAC frame splitted into phases
Broadcast phase Downlink phase Uplink phase Random access phase

MAC frame splitted into phases with DM
Broadcast phase Downlink phase Direct Mode phase Uplink phase Random access phase

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PHY Burst Structure

Preamble

Payload

• The Preamble is a number of fixed (short) OFDM symbols
•AGC setiing, time (frame and clock) synchronization

• Broacast Channel (BCH)
• 4 symbols for preamble, 4 symbols of pauload (always BPSK) • Frame Control Channel (FCC) • 2 symbols preamble, pauloads depends on length of FCH

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Summary
• Wireless LAN offers very interesting solutions and possiblities • Design of wireless LAN equipments is very challenging. • Still a lot of work going on in this area.

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