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Meeting the demand for air-conditioning comfort

Electronic speed control Grundfos pumps with electronic speed control mean that pump operations always match system loads. This ensures maximum efficiency and a minimum of energy consumption. Operating profiles can be adjusted to meet both seasonal and climatic changes, as well as being able to cope with any future changes in needs. Speed-controlled pumps can be controlled by variations in pressure, temperature, flow, differential pressure or any other specific measurable parameter. This provides tremendous opportunities for using these pumps to optimise the way that other components in the air-conditioning system work. Grundfos pumps thus not only improve overall efficiency, but also provide energy savings of as much as 2050%. If solutions with more than one pump are required, this is provided by external Grundfos control panels. Know-how adds up Full access to Grundfos technical data, know-how and experience provides comprehensive support right from the initial planning stage. This is the way to get the very best airconditioning results, which meet and exceed customer requirements and expectations.

Grundfos pumps and system support for

air conditioning

Comfort an agenda with results In modern offices, dwellings and industrial premises, the demand for higher standards of comfort is rising steadily. Effective air conditioning plays an important part, contributing to greater working efficiency, staff satisfaction and a sense of personal well-being. To achieve these results, the system provider must be in a position to ensure a constant, comfortable temperature twenty-four hours a day, all year round. Grundfos Flow Thinking makes a difference in air conditioning Pumps are the heart of any circulation system. They influence how efficiently other individual components work, as well as exerting a major influence on overall system performance. When designing an air-conditioning system, it therefore pays to focus on pump selection. The quality, performance and reliability of the pumps and pump control systems make a crucial difference in the operating profile and profitability of the system as a whole. Getting the pumps right by using Grundfos knowledge and equipment provides major opportunities for optimising the comfort, reliability and efficiency of the entire air-conditioning system. Using water as coolant Modern air-conditioning systems make increasing use of water as the coolant, not least due to increasingly stringent environmental constraints. Pumps are used at many key points in these air-conditioning systems. The low temperature differences involved in water-based air-conditioning systems require larger pumps compared to heating systems, and their operational parameters are even more crucial. Accurately controlled circulation is therefore the key to the comfort and efficiency of the entire system.

It pays to install Grundfos It pays to install Grundfos pumps and control systems in airconditioning systems of every kind. Grundfos pumps feature the quality, performance and reliability that are essential if air-conditioning systems are to live up to specifications. Grundfos pumps cover the complete range of capacities, from 1 m3/h up to 4000 m3/h or more, and with both in-line and end-suction designs.

Complete range There are Grundfos pumps to meet every need: in-line and end-suction designs dry-runner or wet-runner (rotor canned) from 1 m3/h up to 4000 m3/h (or more) special shaft seals for use in low temperatures Speed-controlled solutions for virtually any system specially coated pump houses.

Total control Grundfos electronic speed control and other control systems mean that pumps for air-conditioning systems provide complete control, on the basis of: constant curve constant differential pressure proportional differential pressure (calculated) proportional differential pressure (measured) temperature control.

For further information about Grundfos pumps for air-conditioning systems, please consult


For more information on the recommended use of pumps in modern air-conditioning systems, please consult the Grundfos CBS System Guide. This also provides recommendations for the optimum design of heating, pressure boosting and wastewater pumping systems. All Grundfos product documentation and selection tools, including WinCAPS and WebCAPS are freely available. WinCAPS includes details of the viscosity and density of virtually every anti-freeze medium used for circulation systems.

This leaflet is a brief introduction to how to design one of the best possible air-conditioning systems in terms of comfort, Life Cycle Cost and reliability. For further information, please consult the Grundfos System Guide or our website at, or contact your Grundfos consultant directly.

Primary pumps To ensure the most energy-efficient operation of the chiller, there is a need for a constant flow through the evaporator. Using a speedcontrolled pump for this purpose, instead of a fixed-speed pump with a throttle valve, is one way of keeping the Life Cycle Cost (LCC) of an air-conditioning system to a minimum. The speed-controlled pump is set at a constant speed, at the correct duty point. If several chillers are operating in parallel, the use of speed-controlled pumps can also ensure constant flow at all times.

Grundfos pumps ensure full control of the entire air-conditioning system

Cooling tower Heat recovery Fan coils Cooling ceiling

Cooling surfaces A common way of distributing cold air is via the ventilation system. The chilled water is used to cool the air via a cooling surface. To achieve the highest level of efficiency in the cooling surface, a constant flow is required. One way of keeping the Life Cycle Cost (LCC) of an air-conditioning system to a minimum is to use a speed-controlled pump for this purpose instead of a fixed-speed pump with a throttle valve. Such a speed-controlled pump is set at a constant speed, at the correct duty point.

Secondary pumps The main pumps supply chilled water, the need for which varies round the clock and throughout the year. To ensure low LCC, it is essential that these pumps adjust themselves to match these fluctuations, thus eliminating day-to-day and seasonal variations. One way of doing this is to use two-way valves instead of three-way units and to install speed-controlled pumps. The different needs associated with each particular system define the optimum number of pumps that can be operated in parallel as main pumps. Pressure holding

Cooling ceiling/fan coils One way of transferring the cooling effect to a room is to use a cooling ceiling/fan coil. To ensure greater comfort and to avoid condensation, the media temperature should be higher than that produced by the chiller in the main circulation system. The recommended temperature varies according to the load characteristics. Individual room controls make it possible to vary the flow, making it beneficial to install a speed-controlled pump that optimises the LCC.

Cooling tower When the heat produced in the condenser exceeds what is needed to preheat the hot water in the heat recovery process, this excess energy is pumped to the cooling tower. The aim is to keep the water fed to the condenser at a constant temperature of 27C. The performance of the cooling tower varies according to outside conditions so pumping requirements vary accordingly. The most energy-efficient pump for a cooling tower is therefore a speedcontrolled unit controlled by temperature.


Primary pump

Cooling surface

Buffer tank

Secondary pumps

Heat recovery To ensure maximum overall thermal efficiency for a building, the heat produced in the condenser can be used to preheat the hot tap water for the building. The pump normally starts at the same time as the chiller, in order to keep the water fed to the condenser at 27C. The most energy-efficient way to do this is by using a speedcontrolled pump with temperature control.

Buffer tank One of the challenges of designing modern air-conditioning systems is to combine the constant flow on the primary side with the need for variability on the secondary side. This challenge can be overcome with a built-in buffer tank between the primary and secondary sides, making it possible to have a constant flow on the primary side along with a variable flow on the secondary side. This buffer tank also controls when the chiller starts and stops, and the size of the tank determines the intervals between starting and stopping. UPS UPSD Primary pumps Secondary pumps
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Pressure holding Grundfos recommends installing a pressure holding unit in order to maintain the correct static pressure in larger systems. This can be combined with a de-aeration system.

Real-life proof
TPE/TPED Series 2000 TPE/TPED Series 1000 TP TPD NB NK NBE NKE HS CR In connection with the renovation of one particular 23-year-old air-conditioning system, all the three-way control valves were replaced with two-way valves, to alter the system from constant flow to variable flow. The constant-speed pumps were also subsequently replaced with Grundfos variable-speed pumps. The following example shows the impact on the main pumps. Area with air conditioning: 23,000 m Cooling season: Fan coils: Air handling units: Total cooling power:

System 1 Flow: constant Configuration: one constant-speed pump selected at best efficiency point. Pump configuration:

Life Cycle Cost 20 years operation EUR 250,000 200,000 150,000

Cooling tower Cooling surfaces Cooling ceilings Fan coils Heat recovery Pressure holding

System 2 Flow: variable Configuration: two speedcontrolled pumps Control: PFU (PO) Pump configuration:

100,000 50,000 0 System 1 Energy cost System 2 Maintenance cost

7,000 hours 450 pcs. 35 pcs. 1,200 kW proportional pressure control measured within the system.

Initial cost