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CHAPTER2:THEORIESANDISSUESIN HUMANDEVELOPMENT
WHATARETHEORIES,ANDWHYSHOULDICAREABOUTTHEM?

Doesbirthdaycakemakechildrenhyperactive?Thiscommontheoryisactuallynotsupportedbyresearch. BananaStock/Thinkstock

Ivegotatheoryaboutthat.Youveheardthissaidmanytimes,generallyfromsomeonewhohasan ideaabouthowsomethinghappenedorwhysomeonebehavedinacertainway.Weoftenbaseour actionsontheories,eveniftheresnoproofthatwereright. Forexample,someparentsdontgivetheirchildrensugar,fearingitwillmakethemhyperactive.There isnoscientificproofofthispopularmyth,butitcontinuestoinfluencemanyparents.Sometimes

inaccuratetheoriescanbeharmful,suchaswhentheystopparentsfromgivingtheirchildren vaccinationsthatcanpreventharmfuldiseases.

Inthischapter,weregoingtolookatpsychologicaltheoriesofhumandevelopment.Psychologistscall ideasabouthowpeoplethink,feel,orbehavetheoriesonlyiftheyaresupportedbygoodresearch, thetypewediscussedinthelastchapter.Generally,thepurposeofpsychologicaltheoriesistoexplain andtopredictthefuture.Theoriesalsohelpusmakesenseofawiderangeofdifferentbutrelated experiences(e.g.,howdifferentenvironmentschangeourstresslevels)andsuggestnewareasof research(e.g.,whatisasuccessfulmethodforreducingstress?). Sometimestheoriescanhelpchangethefuture.Forexample, wehaveawellsupportedtheorythatchildrenwhodonotget enoughtoeatdopoorerinschoolthanthosewhoreceive adequatenutrition.Fromthatinformation,wecouldpredict thatfuturestudentswhohavegoodnutritionwillshowbetter schoolperformancethanthosewhoarehungry.Thisprediction ledtothecreationofthefederalSchoolBreakfastProgramthat feedsmillionsofpoorchildren.KennedyandDavis(1998,p. 801S)citefindingsinMassachusettsschoolsthatshowa significantimprovementintestscoresandreducedabsenteeism forstudentswhoparticipateintheprogram.Thattheory changedthelivesofmillionsofchildrenforthebetter! Sincemodernpsychologybeganinthelastdecadeofthe1800s, thousandsoftheoriesabouthumanthinking,emotions,and behaviorhavebeenoffered.Somehavestoodthetestoftime
Atheorythathasbeensupportedbyresearchis thenotionthatchildrenwhohavegoodnutrition showbetterperformanceinschool. WendyHope/Stockbyte/Thinkstock

andofintensiveresearchstudies.Otherssoundedgoodatthe timebutwerenotsupportedbylaterresearch.

Agoodtheorymustbeabletopredictoutcomes.Forexample, fromAlbertBandurastheoryofmodelingbehavior,wecan predictthatyoungerchildrenwillengageinbehaviorsbasedonwhattheyseeolderchildrendo (Bandura,1985).Althoughthisoutcomeisnottrue100%ofthetime,itwilloftenbe,thusgivingusa toolforpredictingchildbehaviorwhetherthatchildispoorandlivinginDenver,middleclassandliving inSpringfield,orrichandlivinginBirmingham.Theoriesaremodifiedorrefinedtoimprovetheir predictabilityandbetterexplainresearchdata. Unlikephysics,psychologyisnotanexactscience.Inphysics,ifyoudroptwoballsofdifferentweightsin avacuum,theywillhitthegroundatthesametime,everytime.Thatdemonstratesoneaspectofthe lawofgravity.Inpsychology,ifwecanpredictsomethingwillhappen95timesoutof100,wecallit

significant.Withmanysignificantresultsofresearchstudiesonthesametopic,wecanbegintosaya theoryhassupport,eventhoughwearenevertotallysureitisrighteverytime. REFLECTONIT:YOURTHEORIES Haveyoueverhadatheoryaboutsomethingthatlaterturnedouttobewrong?Howdidyou discoverthatyourtheorywasincorrect?

THEORIESOFDEVELOPMENT
Youwillreadaboutmanytheoriesthatwillhelpexplainandpredicthumanbehavior.Thoughattimes imperfect,theyhaveneverthelessstoodthetestoftimeandhavebeenscrutinizedthroughcontinued research.Theyofferusthebestwindowsintothemind.Lifespantheoriesdontallfitneatlytogether likeLegoblocks.Sometimestheydontappeartofittogetheratall.Thatisbecausepsychological theoriesarelikethestoryofTheBlindMenandtheElephant. Thestoryisthis:Agroupofblindmencameupon anelephantinthefield.Theyhadheardofan elephantbeforeandwantedtounderstandwhatit waslike.Onegraspedtheelephantstrunkand said,Theelephantislikeabigsnake.Another grabbedalegandsaid,No,itislikeatreetrunk. Athirdheldanearandsaid,Youarebothwrong, anelephantislikeafan.Eachmanhadgrasped onepartoftheessenceofanelephantbutnotthe wholething.Andbecauseoftheirlackofsight, theycouldnotseethewholeelephant. Itisthatwaywithpsychologists,too.Wecan Psychologicaltheoriesareoftenlikethefableoftheblindmen examinespecificaspectsofthemindasit andtheelephanteachtouchesoneaspectofhuman development. develops,butthereisnouniversaltheorythat JohnLund/BlendImagesRM/photolibrary explainsorpredictseverythingrelatedtohuman development.However,themorethatweuseresearchtograbontodifferentpartsofthemind,the moreweunderstandaboutthewhole.

Theoriesofhumandevelopmentfallintobroadcategories.Each categorygivesusadifferentperspectiveintoourdevelopmentduring specificperiodsofchange.Eachtheoryowessomethingtooneofthe earliestmoderntheoristsofhumandevelopment,JohnLocke (16321704).Hesaidthatthemindofaninfantisatabularasa(a blankslate)onwhichtheworldwrites;allideascomefrom experience.Hewasalsoanearlyproponentofthemostfundamental principleofpsychology:empiricalresearch.Lockebelievedthat knowledgemustbediscoveredscientificallythroughresearchand then,toderivegeneralstatementsaboutasubject,analyzedfor commonelements(Locke,1690/1965).Lockesempiricalapproachis thekeytodiscoveringnewknowledgeineveryfieldofscience. Afterreadingthissection,youshouldhaveabasicunderstandingof infant'smindisablankslate,ortabula themajortypesoftheoriesthathelpexplainhumandevelopment, rasa,ontowhichtheworldexertsan includingsimilaritiesanddifferences.Herearethetypesthatwewill influence. discuss:(1)psychoanalytic,(2)psychosocialdevelopment(3)cognitivedevelopment,(4)moral development,(5)behavioral,(6)sociallearning,(7)ecological,(8)personalityandcareersatisfaction, and(9)eclectic(composite)theories.
JohnLockeproposedtheideathatan

Theoristsreallydoseemlikeblindmenfeelingdifferentpartsofanelephant,assomewillreadilyadmit.

SIGMUNDFREUDANDPSYCHOANALYTICTHEORY
Psychoanalytictheory,developedbySigmundFreud(18561939),wasthe firstmoderntheoryofpsychology.AsapracticingphysicianinVienna,Austria, hetreatedsoldierscomingbackfromWorldWarIandwasstruckbysomeof thebizarrebehaviorsthathewitnessed.Hefirstusedhypnosisanddrugsbut foundtheywerenoteffectiveenoughtodiscovertherootcauseofotherwise unexplainablebehaviors.Somepatientscouldnotmoveahandorarm, despitenophysiologicalproblems;othersexhibitedrepetitivebehaviorslike constanttapping;therewerealsounexplainedfearsofharmlessobjects. Freuddevelopedhispsychoanalytictheoryfromthesepatientssufferingfrom whatwenowcallemotionalproblems.
SigmundFreuddeveloped psychoanalytictheory,which wasthefirstmoderntheoryof psychology.

Freudsaidthatthemindcomprisesconsciousandunconsciousparts.The worldasweknowitisstoredinourconsciousmind.Theunconsciousmindis behindacloseddoor,whichweusuallycannotpenetrate.Itisfilledwith feelings,thoughts,urges,andmemoriesthatareunpleasantorsodisturbing thattheyarepushedoutofconsciousness.Theunconsciousmindinfluences

behaviorsinwaysthatwemaynotbeawareofandmaysendmessagestotheconsciousmind throughdreams.Forexample,apersonmayhaveanunexplainedfearofcats.Thepersonsunconscious mindcontainsaterrifyingmemoryasaninfantofbeingnearlysuffocatedbyacatlyingonhisface.The memoryishidden,butthefearremains,influencingconsciousbehavior.Althoughthegeneralideaofa consciousandunconscioushasendured,likemostofFreudstheoriesthereisactuallynoconsistent empiricalevidencetolendsupport. Freudtheorizedthatourearlychildhoodexperiencesand memoriesplayacentralroleinpersonalitydevelopment anditsinherentproblems.Basedonthecasesthathe encountered,Freuddevelopedtheideathatduringthe first5or6yearsofourliveswegothroughseveral psychosexualstages.Hefeltthatgratificationshifted duringthesestagesfromthemouth(oralstage)tothe anusandbladder(analstage)andthentothegenitals (phallicstage).Shouldanyoneoftheseearlystages eitherbeoverorundergratified,thepersoncould developafixationandbecomelockedintothatstageof development.Forexample,someonewhoreceivedtoo muchortoolittlemotheringintheoralstagemayact Freudbelievedthattheunconsciousmindmaysend immatureanddependent,especiallytowardwomenwho messagestotheconsciousmindthroughdreams. GeorgeDoyle/Stockbyte/Thinkstock representmotherfigures.AccordingtoFreud,people fixatedattheoralstagewouldbelikelytoengagein excessiveoralactivitieslikesmoking,drinking,overeating,andbitingnails(Freud,1924). AnotherofFreudsenduringcontributionsistheideathatanindividualspersonalityiscomposedof threeparts,theid,superego,andego.Theid,whichresidesintheunconsciousmind,isdrivenbyonly onething:thedesireforpersonalpleasure,me,me,me.Forinstance,ifyouhaveanurgetosatisfy yourhungerbuthavenocash,youmaysimplystealahotdogfromastreetvendor.Thesuperego,which mostlyresidesintheunconscious,isthesourceofwhatwecallourconscience.Itisthepartofourmind thattellsuswhatisrightandwrong,includingsocialnorms.Thesuperegowantstoobeystandards.If wedont,thenwemayfeelguiltyoranxious.Thesuperegowouldtelltheidnottostealthehotdog becauseitiswrongandyoumightgetarrested.Thethirdpartofthepersonalityistheego,which residesintheconsciousmind.Theroleoftheegoisthatofamediator.Itbalancesthedemandsofthe idwiththedemandsofthesuperego(Freud,1915).Whenyoureallywantthathotdog,theegodecides togototheATM,withdrawsomecash,andthengobacktopurchaseit,thussatisfyingbothidand superego.

Freudbelievedthatthemindtriestoprotectitselffromfrustrationandseveredistresssuchaswar, rape,death,andsoon.Hebelievedthatwehaveseveraltechniquesforthis,whichhecalleddefense mechanisms(Corsini,1994,p.390).Hereareafewcommondefensemechanismsthatyoumight recognize:

Displacement:Herewecannotsafelyexpressnegativefeelingstothepersonresponsible,sowe unconsciouslytransferourangertosomeonesafer.Forexample,yourbosschewsyououtbut youlashoutataninnocentcoworker. Compensation:Herewetrytoovercomefeelingsofinferiorityinoneareabyexcellingin anotherarea.Forexample,someonewhofeelsinferiorinsocialsituationsmayfocuson schoolworktofeelintellectuallysuperior. Rationalization:Herewelookforanacceptablereasontojustifyourthinkingorbehavior.For example,wedontwanttostudyatnightbuttellothersweneedtogetmoresleepsothatwe dontgetsick. Psychoanalytictheoryhasgivenusastrongplatformforunderstandingawholerangeofcommon humanbehavior.Regardlessofthelackofempiricalsupport,Freudstheoriesremainhistorically significant.Manyofthetermsthathe(orhisfollowers)coinedtodescribehumanbehaviorarenowpart ofpopularlanguage,suchasunconscious,fixation,ego,defense,repression,rationalization,anddenial.

ERIKERIKSONANDPSYCHOSOCIALDEVELOPMENT
Freudhadmanyfollowerswhocarriedonhiswork,includinghisdaughter, Anna.ErikErikson(19021994)wasadiscipleofFreudwhoagreedwith Freudsemphasisontheimportanceoftheunconsciousmindbutdisagreed withhisemphasisonsexualtensionsduringthefirst6yearsoflifeasthekey topersonalitydevelopment.Eriksonsgreatestcontributionishisfocuson psychosocialdevelopment,whichreferstothedevelopmentwithinthe socialenvironmentinwhichapersonlives,primarilyfocusingon relationshipswithotherpeople(Erikson,1968).Hisworkhashadamajor impact,popularizingtheideathatpersonalityisdynamic,changingand growingthroughoutlife.Eriksonsemphasisonhealthyegodevelopmentisa positiveviewpointsuggestingthatpeoplehavesomecontrolovertheirown development(unlikeFreudwhothoughtwespentourlifetimestryingto overcomethedemandsoftheid). Eriksonbelievedthatthereareeightstagesinhumandevelopment(towhich headdedaninth,oldage,lateinhislife).Hebelievedthateachstageis importantforthehealthydevelopmentoftheegoandafullyfunctional

Eriksonbelievedthatthereare certaintimeperiodsinwhich humansmustgaincertaininsights. Ifthoseinsightsarenotgained, thedevelopmentofthe personalitywillsuffer.

person.ThecoreofEriksonsideawaswhathecalledtheepigeneticprincipal.Hebelievedthatheredity andtheenvironmenthavebidirectionalinfluencesondevelopment.Hisstagesdictatethatwemustgain certaininsightsatpredeterminedtimes,andthoseinsightsbuildononeanothermuchlikethefloorsof anewbuildinggoingup.Duringeachstage,wefaceapsychosocialcrisis(thathelaterchangedto opportunityandconflictingtendencies)thatmustberesolved.Eachstageislikeaturningpointin life,offeringboththepotentialforgrowthandthedangeroffailing. Thetitlesofeachstageincludethewordversus,whichmeanstherearetwocompetingforcesatwork. Thefirstisthedesiredoutcome,andthesecondretardsthedevelopmentoftheego(personality). However,theresolutionofeachstageshouldnotresultinonesidedpersonalitygrowth.Forexample,in StageOne:TrustVersusMistrust,thedesiredoutcomeistrustofotherpeople.That,however,must bebalancedbyreasonablemistrustsothatthepersonisnotnave,whichwouldlaterhinderthe developmentofahealthypersonality(Erikson,1950).Thereisnofirmagreementabouttheagerangeof thestagesbecausepeopledevelopattheirownpace.Theageslistedaretheacceptedapproximations.

STAGEONE:TRUSTVERSUSMISTRUST
Infancyto1YearOld.Duringthefirstyearoflife,ababysentire existencedependsonothers.Infantscometotrustormistrust othersbasedonwhetherornottheirneedsareattendedto.If infantslearnto trusttheirparents,theywillmoreeasilytrustthe worldasasafeplace.AccordingtoErikson,thevirtueorqualityof hopeisassociatedwiththisstage.

Instageone,infantsmustlearntotrusttheir parents.
[DavidSacks/Lifesize/Thinkstock]

STAGETWO:AUTONOMYVERSUSSHAMEANDDOUBT
Ages1to3Years.Ifinfantstrusttheirparents,thenastoddlerstheycanmore confidentlyexploretheenvironment.Astoddlersbegintomasterskillslike crawling,walking,talking,anddressingandfeedingthemselves,theydiscovera senseofautonomythatleadstoselfesteem.Parentsmustguidethe developmentofthisindependencesothatchildrendevelopappropriate selfcontrolwithoutfeelingshamethattheyhavedonesomethingbadordoubt intheirownabilities.Thequalityofwill,ofwhatcanbeachieved,isdeveloped inthisstage.

STAGETHREE:INITIATIVEVERSUSGUILT
Ages3to4Years.Ifchildrenareautonomous,theybegintoshowinitiativein activitiesandtrytoacquireinfluenceorcontroloverobjectsandpeople,even temporarily.Ontheotherhand,adultsmay haveinfluenceinmakingchildren

Playisimportantinstage three,whenchildrenbegin toshowcontroloverobjects andpeople. Stockbyte/Thinkstock

feelguiltwhentheyassertthemselves.Eriksonthoughtplaywasvitalinthisstagetoallowchildrento controlsituationssafelyastheydevelopedthispartoftheiridentity.Thevirtuedevelopedinthisstage ispurpose,orthecouragetogoaftertheirgoalsdespiterisksorpossiblefailure.

STAGEFOUR:INDUSTRYVERSUSINFERIORITY
Ages5totheOnsetofPubertyatAbout12Years.Playbecomesmorepurposefulorgoalorientedas childrenlearnmoreaboutthewaysoftheworld.Iftheytaketheinitiative,theycanaccomplishthings,a senseofindustry.Iftheyfeelinadequate,perhapsbecauseoftheguiltfromtheearlierstage,children arediscouragedintheirattemptstoacquireknowledgeorcompletetasks.Inthatcase,theymayfeel incompetentandunproductive,leadingtolastingfeelingsofinferiority.Thevirtueacquiredinthisstage iscompetence.Itisbydiscoveringanumberofcompetenciesthatchildrenbegintobuildasenseof identity.

STAGEFIVE:IDENTITYVERSUSROLECONFUSION
Adolescence,AgesAbout12to18Years.Thisis thepivotalstageforErikson,theonewhichall theothershavebeenleadinguptoandwhichall therestaredependenton.Inthisstage, teenagerstrytodiscoverwhotheyreallyare, theirselfidentity,includingtheirsexualidentity, andwhattheywanttodoinlife.Eriksonused thetermidentitycrisistodescribeaconflict withinthepartsofonesidentitythathavebeen developedinthepriorstages:trust,will, competence,andpurpose.Thegoalinthisstage istoachieveanintegratedidentityinwhichall partsoftheselfimageareinharmonywitheach other.

Instagefive,teenagerstrytodiscoverwhotheyare. ComstockImages/Thinkstock

Whenthatdoesnthappen,teenagersthenanguishoverwhotheyareandhowtheyfitintotheirsocial world,astateofconfusion.Thequalitythatdevelopshereisasenseoffidelitytoothers.Whenthatis thecase,youngadultscanmoreeasilycreatefeelingsof(emotional)intimacy.Thinkaboutit;ifyoudo notreallyhaveastrongsenseofidentity,thenwhatkindsofthingscanyoureallysharewithanother person?Toexperienceintimacy,thefocusofthenextstage,youmustshareyourself.

STAGESIX:INTIMACYVERSUSISOLATION
EarlyAdulthood,AgesAbout18to25Years.Theadult stagesrestfirmlyonthesuccessfulresolutionofthe challengesofearlierstages.Althoughintimate relationshipsmayhaveformedpriortothisstage,the challengehereistoformdeepandintimate relationships.Insuchrelationships,youngadultsare ableto expresstheirdeepestfears,hopes,anddreams toanotherpersonandacceptthoseoftheirpartner.If theriskofdisclosureisnottaken,thenfullyintimate relationshipswillnotbeformed,andasenseofisolation Instagesix,thechallengeistoformintimaterelationships withotherpeople. fromothersmaydevelop.Eriksondoesnotlimitthese Jupiterimages/Comstock/Thinkstock intimaterelationshipstosexualintimacybutto relationshipswithspecialfriendsalso.Thequalitythatdevelopshereislove.

STAGESEVEN:GENERATIVITYVERSUSSTAGNATION
MiddleandLaterAdulthood,About25to65Years.Adultsseektoaccomplishgoalsthatmakethemfeel theyhavemadeadifferenceintheworld.Thisisthepayoffstageinwhichwecanusethepersonality thatwevedevelopedtoachieveouroccupational,social,andpersonalgoals.Wegainasenseof fulfillmentfromthoseaccomplishmentsbutalsoseekadditionalsatisfactionthroughmentoringyounger generations.Generativitymeanstheabilitytobeuseful,todothingsliketeachvalues,coachbaseball, andvolunteer.Inthisstage,parentsraiseandmoldthenextgeneration. Thevirtueofcareemergesinthisstageasweseektogivebacktosocietyin someway.Incontrast,somemaydotheir9to5stints,comehome,eat dinner,watchsomeTV,anddoitagainthenextday.Theydevelopasense ofstagnation,afeelingofselfishnessandselfindulgenceinwhichtheydo notwishtogiveback,justtocontinuetaking.

STAGEEIGHT:INTEGRITYVERSUSDESPAIR
AboutAge65andOlder.Althoughtheonsetofthisstageislikelylaterthan whenEriksonformulatedhistheoryin1950,thebasictenetsstillapply.If adultshavebeensuccessfulinpriorstages,asenseofpersonalintegrity emerges.Peopleaccepttheirlivesandwhattheyhaveaccomplished, includinggivingbacktoyoungergenerations.Theygainasenseof fulfillmentbylookingbackattheirlives.Thevirtuethatdevelopsinthis stageiswisdom.Thiswisdomleadsthemtoacceptlifeslimitations;regrets

Instageeight,adultsshould developthewisdomtoacceptlife's limitations. ComstockImages/Thinkstock

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aboutwhatmighthavebeenareuselesstodwellon.Thosewhodonotdevelopwisdomaresubjectto despairastheylongforanotherchanceattheirgoals.Theymayevenfeelangerordisgustfor themselves,fortheirperceivedfailures.Duringthisstage,thoughtsofdeatharemorecommon. Lateinhiscareer,whenhewasanoldman,Eriksonaddedthisninthstage.

STAGENINE:HOPEANDFAITHVERSUSDESPAIR
VeryOldAge.Inveryoldage,thephysical,mental,andemotionalstructuresthathavebeenbuiltovera lifetimebegintoseriouslyfail.Closefriendsandlovedonesdie.Mobilityisdifficultandthesizeofthe accessibleworldretreatstoperhapsjustaroom.Insomeways,theorganismhascomefullcircle,back inasingleroomandunabletofunctionwithouthelpfromothers.Inthisstage,individualsmakean adjustmentinselfimagetoacceptdependency;theydevelopinsightsorwisdomaboutthecycleoflife andtheinevitabilityofdeath.Thosewhocannotachievethisnextstepinthecycleoflifefallinto despairovertheirsituationandwhatistocome.

DANIELLEVINSON
YalepsychologistDanielLevinson,whowewillstudyindetailinChapter3,wasinterestedinthe changesthatmenwentthroughinadulthood,andlikeErikson,heseparatedhisdevelopmentalperiods intostagesthathecallederas.Levinsoncalledtheunderlyingpatternofapersonsdevelopmentalife structure,whichincludesalltherolesandrelationshipsthatapersonhasthroughoutlife.Withinthelife structure,wetrytoanswerimportantquestionssuchasWhatarethemostimportantpartsofmylife, andhowaretheyinterrelated?Levinsonbelievesthateveryonegoesthroughthesamebasicpatternof development,whichhelikenedtoseasonsoftheyear(his1978bookistitledTheSeasonsofaMans Life).Eachseasonhasitsownpurpose.Levinson(1986)statesthatpeoplegothrougheachstageinthe sameorderandatroughlythesameageandthatthe findingsofmanystudiessupportthis. Theprimarycomponentsofalifestructurearethe personsrelationshipswithothers.Eachrelationship evolvesovertimeandhasdifferentmeaningat varioustimes.Forexample,achildsrelationshipwith aparentisdifferentthanlaterasateen,ayoung adult,andanolderadultcaregiver.Levinsonbelieves thattherearetwoorthreecentral relationshipsmarriage,family,andoccupationin mostpeopleslives.Thesehavethegreatestinfluence onthepersonsdevelopment.

InLevinson'sLifeStages,achildmighthaveadifferent relationshipwithaparent,dependingonwhatstagethe childisin. JackHollingsworth/Photodisc/Thinkstock

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THEIMPACTANDEVALUATIONOFPSYCHOANALYTICANDPSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENTTHEORIES
AlthoughthepsychoanalyticandpsychosocialdevelopmenttheoriesofFreudandEriksonare establishedinpsychology,theyareprimarilybasedonobservationalstudies,ratherthanexperimental research,sopredictionsbasedonthetheoriesaredifficulttotest.However,theyhavegivenparentsa frameworkforviewingdevelopmentandsomeusefulguidelinesrelatedtochildrearing.Thesetheories alsohelpusunderstandadultbehaviors. Forexample,ayoungworkershowsextremeshynessinthepresenceofcoworkersandrefusestoask foradeservedraise.Eriksonsstagetheorywouldsuggesttheworkerhadnotmetthechallengeof StageTwo:AutonomyVersusShameandDoubt,whereselfconfidencewasnotgained.Thatcould leadtoanotherfailureinStageThree:InitiativeVersusGuiltthatlefttheworkerwithfeelingsofguilt fortryingtoassertherself.Likefallingdominos,theinabilitytoovercomethechallengesofStagesTwo andThreeleftherlessabletomeetthechallengeofStageSix:IntimacyVersusIsolation.Inthisstage, wheresheisnow,lackofconfidenceandfearofselfassertioninagroupmakestheworkerholdback, thusappearingshytoothers.Thechanceofbeingacceptedintoasocialgroupandtohaveintimate relationshipsisdiminished,leadingtofeelingsofisolationfromothers. Thisexampleshowshowpsychoanalyticandpsychosocialdevelopmenttheoriescanhelpusunderstand howsomebehaviorsmaybeviewedastheoutcomeofunresolvedfearsanddoubts.Accordingtothese theories,behaviorsareoftenrelatedtounresolvedemotionalissuesofthepast,whichpsychoanalysis seekstouncover. REFLECTONIT:PSYCHOANALYTICANDPSYCHOSOCIALDEVELOPMENTTHEORIES

Doyouthinktheid,ego,andsuperegoarepresentinyourpersonality? What,ifany,stageofEriksonsbestdescribeswhereyouareatinyourliferightnow?

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COGNITIVEDEVELOPMENTTHEORIES
RecalltheanalogyofTheBlindMenandtheElephant.Thepsychologistswhoproposecognitive developmenttheoriesareprimarilyinterestedinonepartofdevelopment:mentalgrowthinareaslike logic,learning,andmemory.Thesetheoriesemphasizethecognitive(mental)changeanddevelopment ofthemind.

JEANPIAGET
SwisspsychologistJeanPiaget(18961980)isgenerallyconsideredthe mostinfluentialcognitivepsychologist.Earlyonhebecamefascinated thatchildrenofsimilaragesgavethesamekindsofwronganswersto testquestions.Heconcludedthat,contrarytoacceptedtheoriesof thetime,childrenwerenotsimplyminiatureadults.Instead,they proceedthroughaseriesofspecifickindsofstages(discussedbelow). Piagetalsodevelopedatheoryofhowchildrengainknowledgewithin eachstage.Supposea1yearoldisexposedtoasoft,squishyballfor thefirsttime.Aftermanipulatingtheball,seeingitsactionsandwhat itfeelslike,andconductingminiexperimentswithit,thechild developsamentalstructure(awaytoorganizeandunderstandtypes ofexperiences)forball.Later,whenothersmallsquishythingsthat rollafterbeingthrownarepresented,theycanbeincorporatedinto thementalstructureforball.

Piagetmappedthestagesofachilds cognitivedevelopment.

Piagetcalledthisprocessof incorporatinginformationaboutnewbutverysimilarexperiencesthatfit intoanexistingmentalstructureassimilation.Ifthechildisthenexposed toabaseballandfindsthatitishard,muchheavierandkeepsrollinguntil itisoutofsight,thechildtakesintoaccountnewpropertiesofwhataball canbe.Piagetcalledthisprocessaccommodation,ormodifyingamental structurebasedonnewexperiences.Ifyoupreviouslyusedcomputers mostlyforsurfingtheWebandcommunicatingviaemail,youcouldeasily assimilatenewWebsites.Ifyouaretakinganonlineclassforthefirst time,youwillneedtoaccommodatethenewprocess. Piagetslifesworkconsistedoftryingtomapthestagesofcognitive development,especiallyinchildhood.Hefoundthatcertainbehaviorsonly occurafterchildrenhaveenteredtheappropriatematurationalstage.He theorizedthatchildrengothroughfourstagesofdevelopment,eachwith

Throughtheprocessofassimilation, afterlearningthataroundobjectisa "ball,"childrencanincorporateother roundobjectsintotheconcept"ball." Jupiterimags/Comstock/Thinkstock

anincreasinglevelofcognitivesophistication(1954,1977).Thestagesunfoldinafixedsequenceand providefeedbacktothechildabouthowtheworldworks,asdiscussednext.

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1. SensorimotorStage(Birthto1824MonthsofAge).Inthisstage,babiestrytoorganizetheir basicbehaviorssuckingandgraspingformaximumeffectintheirphysicalworld.They understandtheworldthroughtheirsenses(e.g.,thesoundandsightofarattlegotogether) andtheirmotoractions(e.g.,hitting,pushing,grasping).Bytheendofthisstage,babiesuse simplesymbols,likewords,toinfluencetheworld.Theybegintothinkabouthowtocreate desiredoutcomessuchashowtogetaballthatisacrosstheroom.Beforetheycan effectivelyusesymbols(next),theymustlearnobjectpermanence.Theyareegocentric, havingtheirownviewpointastheironlyperspective. 2. PreoperationalStage(1824Monthsto7YearsofAge). Childrenbeginusingsymbols(calledsymbolic representation).Forexample,aplaytruckbecomesareal truck;dollsbecomechildrenwhoareguestsatatea party.Theybegintolearnmeaningfulwords,phrases,and languagestructure.Theirattemptsatlogicalthinking sometimesconflictwithearlierbeliefs.Abellisalive becauseitrings.Acloudcanfeellonely,andabackfiring truckcanbemad.Atthisstage,childrenstillcannotfully graspconceptslikecausality,quantity,time,reversibility, orotherperspectivesthantheirown. 3. ConcreteOperationalThought(712YearsofAge). Childrenmasterthebasicsoflanguagestructureand Piagetbelievedthatbeforeacertain graspconceptslikereversibilityandconservation.They agechildrenwouldbelievethatifthey starttoimaginehowsomeoneelsemightfeelorthink. couldn'tseesomething,itwasno Theygraspabstracttermslikefriend.Theyseparatereal longerthere.Thismightexplainwhy babiesenjoythegameof"peekaboo" fromimaginedcauses.However,theyhavedifficulty BrandXPictures/Thinkstock manipulatingabstractideas. 4. FormalOperationalThought(12+YearsofAge).Aschildrenbecomeadolescents,they undergoyetanothermajorshiftinthinking.Theycanuseabstractideasandrelationships. Theycanemploylogical,organizedandsystematicplanstosolvepuzzles.Theycanthink whatifaboutvariousfuturesandcontemplateprosandcons.Theyseeinconsistenciesin rulessetdownbyparents,schools,andsociety.Inshort,theircognitivedevelopmenthas achievedmoreofanadultlevel. Piagetsmostfamousseriesofexperimentsinvolvesconservation.Piagetshowedpreoperational childrenthreeglasscontainers.Twoofthemwereshort,widebottomedbeakers,filledwithequal amountsofaliquid.Thethirdwastallandskinnylikeatubeandempty.Thechildrenwereableto correctlystatethatthesmallcontainershadthesameamountofliquid.Achildthenpouredtheliquid

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fromonewidecontainerintothetallglasswheretheliquidrosehigherbecauseofthesmallerdiameter. Whennowaskedifthetwoamountsofliquidwerethesame,childrenconsistentlysaidthetallerglass (becauseofthehigherliquid)heldmore.Theycouldnotgrasptheideathattheamountofliquid doesntchange.Whenthesameexperimentwasdonewithconcreteoperationalchildren,theolder childrencorrectlyreportedtheamountofliquidhadnotchanged.Theyunderstoodtheconceptof conservationofliquid.Youmayviewtheexperiment here:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YtLEWVu815o&feature=related. Piagetbelievedthattheoverridinggoalofchildrenistomakesenseoftheirworld.Todoso,theytry thingsandseewhathappens.Ifachildcriesandaparentcomes,thenthechildhasanideaofhowa pieceoftheworldisorganized.Ifthechildpushesajarofbabyfoodoffthehighchairanditfallsonthe floor(ratherthanhanginginmidairorfloatingaway),anotherpiecefallsintoplace.And,aswithall goodtheories,thechildmodifiesbehaviorsbasedonresults.Cryingdoesnotbringeveryone,thechild discovers,onlyaparent. Piagetacknowledgedthatthebiologicaldevelopmentofourmindsand motorskillsplayaroleindevelopment,andhealsobelievedthatthe instructionofparents,siblings,teachers,andfriendsplayarole. However,unlikeLevVygotsky(discussednext),Piagetemphatically statedthatchildrenactivelybuildmentalstructuresbythemselves. Onemotivationforthisdevelopmentistheircuriosityabouthowthe worldworks,andtheotheristoresolveconflictorfrustration,suchas whenababywantsapacifierbutcannotfigureouthowtoreachit.In bothcases,achievingthegoalisanactiveprocessthebabyworksto create. Piagetdefinesoperationalasamentalroutinethattransforms informationsoitcanbeused.Operationalroutinesincludetheuseof logicbyclassifying,subdividing,recognizingpartsofawhole,counting, andreversibilityliketheliquidconservationtask.Preoperational childrenmayrecognizepicturesofvariousvegetablesandfruitsbut cannotclassifythemintotherightcategories.

Piagetremainsaninfluentialtheoristbuthehasalsobeencriticizedfor underestimatingthecognitivedevelopmentofchildren,especiallyin theirabilitytolearnoperationalthinkinglikeconservation, classification,andnumbers.Manypsychologistsfindthattheseskillsareoftenpresentmuchearlier thanPiagetdemonstrated(Siegler,1998).Piagetsstagetheoryhasheldupreasonablywell,butas Piagethimselfstated,notallchildrenmasteralltasksineachstageatthesametime.Othercriticisms callintoquestionPiagetsbeliefthatthedevelopmentofbroadmentalstructuresallowsmasteryof

Piagetbelievedthatthroughcuriosity, childrenhelpthemselvesreach developmentaltasks.Forexample,a baby'smotivationtoreachapacifier wouldhelpdevelopmotorskillsinthe arm. iStockphoto/Thinkstock

similartasks(Flavell,1977).Flavellalsosuggeststhat,ratherthanPiagetsideaofstablestages bracketedbyperiodsofgreatchange,developmentoccursmoregradually.

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Itisnormalfortheoriestoundergochangeandrefinementovertheyearsasmoreandmoreresearchis done.Thatisthegreatvalueofthescientificmethodinhelpingustoseparatefactsfromconjecture.As theEnglishpoetCharlesLambsaid,Itwasabeautifullittletheorymurderedbyagangofbrutalfacts. Sciencerequiresthattheorieswithoutsupportmustbetossedout,nomatterhowappealingtheyare.

LEVVYGOTSKYANDSOCIOCULTURALTHEORY
LevVygotsky(18961934)wasaRussianpsychologistwhobelievedthat socialinteractionandculturewerethemostimportantpartsofcognitive development.Psychologicaltoolslikelanguage,memory,andmathematics giveusafoundationformentalgrowthbecausewehaveawayto understandtheworldsymbolically.Wegrowbymanipulatingthesymbols. Forinstance,oneculturemightteachmathbyusingmostlymanipulative objects,anotherbycalculatorsandcomputers.Themostimportantpart forVygotskyistheinteractionthatchildrenhavewithpeersandskilled adults.Theinteractionallowsthemtousethepsychologicaltoolsthatin turnwillprescribecognitivedevelopment. Atanygiventimeindevelopment,Vygotskybelievedthatachildhada rangeofpotentialforacquiringanewskill,aslongastherewassomeassistanceavailable.Whereasin theUnitedStateswearemostlyconcernedwithknowingwhereachildisdevelopmentally,Vygotsky wasperhapsaheadofhistimeinwantingtoknowwhereachildcouldbe.ThatrangeisVygotskyszone ofproximaldevelopment(ZPD).Itreferstotasksthat aretoodifficultforachildtocompletealonebut couldbelearnedifadultsprovidedguidance.Itis withinthatzonewhereparentsandteachersmust worktohelpchildrendevelop.Generallythisinvolves theadultgivingalotofhelpandadviceearlyandthen graduallylettingthechilddoitaloneasskillsand confidencegrow(Vygotsky&Cole,1978). Vygotskycalledthisstrategyofassistingchildren withintheirZPDs,scaffolding(meaninggivinghelp butnotmorethanisneeded).Itisnowacommon terminschoolsacrosstheworld.Atthesametime, though,conscientiousadultshavealwaysknownto givejusttherightamountofhelpsothatchildren

Vygotskybelievedthatscaffolding,orhelpingachilddevelop skillsthatcannotbelearnedalone,helpschildrenreachtheir potential. Jupiterimags/Comstock/Thinkstock

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remainchallenged.Weseethisapproachinallsortsoflearningtasks,fromridingabicycleto understandingmathconcepts.Infact,wecontinuetousethissameideaasadults,whetherweare gettinghelpinlearninghowtodoanewjoborfollowingtheadviceofacounselorinmakingarocky relationshipbetter.Wealltendtolearnbestwithguidancewhilebuildingnewskillsonthebackofold skills.

INFORMATIONPROCESSINGTHEORY
Informationprocessingtheorysuggeststhatthewayacomputerprocessesinformationcanhelpus understandhowthehumanminddevelopsinformationprocessingskillsinchildhood(Klahr,1992).Just likeacomputerlearnsyoursearching,fillin,andpreferencehabits,themoreinformationthatwelearn toprocess,themorewearelikelytounderstandlater.Asourlongtermmemorystoresgetlarger,they areusedtohelpusanalyzenewinformation.We alsolearntechniquestoprocessinformation moreefficiently.Forexample,wecanremember shortterminformation,likeaphonenumber, betterbyusingrehearsal,whichmeanswerepeat theinformation.Aswedevelop,webegintouse moresophisticatedorganizationaltechniquesto understand,store,andretrieveinformation.For example,everytimethatyougoshoppingatthe samestore,yougetbetteratfindingtheitems youneed.Youlearnthatputtinglistsofitemsinto Ifyouhaveeverbeengroceryshoppingandsuddenlyremembered categoriesorvisualizingthemmakesthemeasier thatyouneededanitemafterseeingitontheshelf,youhaveused recognitionmemory. toremember.
NoelHendrickson/DigitalVision/Thinkstock

Thislastpointisofparticularinterestbecauseof differencesbetweentwotypesofretrieval,recallandrecognition.Recognitionmemorymeansthatyou recognizetheinformation,suchasonamultiplechoicetest.Recallmemoryiswhatyouusewhen answeringfillinquestions;youhavetorememberinformationwithoutitfirstbeingpresented. Recognitionmemoryisquitedifferentthanrecallmemory.Somehow,cueshelpourmindslocatewhere informationisstoredwhenatfirstitwasunavailable.Recognizingananswerisoftenmucheasier becausethetaskisamatchingexercisewerecognizeawordorideastoredinourmemories,aphone numberorthecapitalofSouthDakota. Thecomplexityofthehumanmindisfargreaterthanacomputer,sothistheorywillonlyprovidesome insights,notthewholepictureofcognition.Andwhileitisusefulinunderstandingcognitivelearning,it isnotveryhelpfulinmanyotherareasofdevelopment.

REFLECTONIT:RECALLANDRECOGNITION

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Canyouthinkofatimewhenyouknewthatyouhadtheanswertosomethinginyourmemory butcouldntquiteretrieveit? Whatstepsdidyoutaketohelpyourememberit?

EVALUATIONOFCOGNITIVETHEORIES
InformationprocessingandVygotskyssocioculturaltheoriesbothassumethatcognitivedevelopment occursgradually,likehikingacontinuousmountainroad.TheyareincontrasttoPiagetstheorythat emphasizesdiscretestages,likeclimbingfromonemountainledgetoanother,higherone.Piagethas beencriticizedfornotexplainingindividualdifferences,andinformationprocessingtheorylacksbroad explanationsforthingslikeemotionsandsocialinteractions.Importantly,allthreeapproachesview cognitivedevelopmentasapositive,activeprocess. REFLECTONIT:THEVALUEOFCOGNITIVEDEVELOPMENTTHEORIESTOYOU Werelookingatadultdevelopmentfromoverlappingviewpoints.Cognitivedevelopmenttheorieshelp usunderstandhowthemindoperatesandhowitchangesthroughoutthelifespan.Yourcognitive abilitiesplayanenormousroleinthetypesofjobsyouhave,yoursuccessindoingthem,andyour abilitytofunctionintheworld(e.g.,balancingacheckbook,decidingifasalespitchmakessense).Ifyou cannotthinklogically,rememberimportantideas,combinerelatedideastoreachsoundconclusions,or organizestepsincompletingatask,thenyouareatadisadvantagewhenyoucompetewiththosewho candothosethings. Whenyouarefacedwithlearningachapterofmaterial,focusingoncognitiveoperationsofthemind willhelpyouunderstandthematerial: 1. Setspecificgoals.Rarelydoyouneedtomemorizeanentirechapter. 2. Breakuptheworkintomanageablesectionseachday,beingsuretofollowyourplanso thatyoudonotfallbehind. 3. Makealistofdailytopicsthatwillhelpyoufocusonconcepts. 4. Mosttopicsarebrokenupintosubtopics.Writeaonesentencesummaryofeachofthe subtopics.Youllseethatyouarecreatinganoutlineofthechapter,bothconcretely(on paperoronyourcomputer)andinyourmind.

Cognitivetheoryshowsusseveralimportantpointsaboutmemorythatyoucanuseinstudying.We remembermorewhenwecanrelatenewmaterialtothingswealreadyknow.

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1. UsePiagetsconceptofassimilationtoassociatenewideaswithsomethingfromyour experience.Thisprocessgivesthematerialmoremeaning. 2. Weremembermorewhenwecanvisualizetheinformation.Thisiscalledimagery,anditis apowerfulmemorydevice.Trytoseeexamplesoftheideaspresented,suchasPiagets theoryofconservation. 3. Weremembermorewhenwemanipulatetheinformation,notjustreadit.Youmightwrite asummaryordrawapictureofsomepartoftheinformation. 4. Weremembermorewhenwecancombineorchunktwoormoreideasoritemsintoone, justlikebreakingupa10digitphonenumberintothreesections. 5. Themoretimesthatyoureviewthekeyideas,themorelikelythatyouwillrememberthem. Thisisthelearningprincipleofrepetition.Ifyouaremanipulatingtheinformationwhileyou arerepeatingit,yourlearningwilljumpalotoverjustreadingyournotes.Timebetween reviewsalsohelpstoimprovememory. Learninghowtolearnisanimportantpartofanystudentsacademicpreparation.Wedonot instinctivelyknowhowtodothis,butbystudyingandpracticingthesetechniques,youcanunderstand andrememberfarbetterthanyoudorightnow.

LAWRENCEKOHLBERGANDMORALDEVELOPMENT
LawrenceKohlberg(19271987)wasanadmirerofPiaget.Hewasinterestedin theintersectionofpsychologyandthephilosophyofethicalbehaviorwhen facedwithmoraldilemmas.Hedevelopedatheoryofmoraldevelopmentby posingdifficultwhatifquestionstochildrenranginginagefrom10to16 yearsold,whomhethentestedperiodicallyforthenext20years.Hereisa summaryofaquestionthatheposed(Kohlberg,1981): ThewifeofapoormannamedHeinzwasdyingfromanincurable disease.Adruggistintheirtowndiscoveredacheapcure,butcharged $2,000adoseforit.Themanwasunabletobegorborrowthe$2,000. Hewenttothedruggistandbeggedforacheaperprice,butthe druggistrefused.Thatnight,themanbrokeintothedrugstoreand stolethemedicine.Shouldthemanhavedonethat?
Kohlbergbelievedthatspecific kindsofdevelopmentresultsin changesinmoral decisionmaking.

Bylookingatthevariousresponsestotheseandotherquestions,Kohlbergwasabletoclassifythe developmentofmoraljudgmentsintothreelevels:

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1. Atthepreconventionallevelofmorality(ages410yearsold)childrenbelievethatrulesare handeddownfromauthorityfiguresandmustbeobeyed.Theysay,Itsagainstthelawto steal.Thegoalistoavoidpunishment.Manyparentsofyoungchildrencanrelatetothespeed policesittinginthecarseatwholiketoreminddriverswhenthecarisexceedingtheposted speedlimit,evenby1mileperhour.Youngerchildrenbasetheirmoraljudgmentsabouta mistakeonitsseverity.If,forexample,onechildbreaksasmallwindowroughhousingwhile anotherbreaksalargewindowwhilehelpingaparent,youngerchildrensaythewrongnessof theactisdeterminedbythesizeofthedamage. 2. Conventionalmoralityreferstojudgmentsthatarebased onsocialnorms,especiallygroupnorms.Childreninternalize socialstandardsastheirown.Inthisstage,wherechildren arenowenteringtheirteens,theybelievethatpeople shouldhonorcommitmentsandliveuptotheexpectations ofothers.Theywouldsayofthemanwhoneedsthe medicine,Heshouldstealitbecausehisintentionsare good,andnooneshouldletanotherpersondie.Theysee thedruggistasevilbecausehismotivesareselfish.Ofthose childrenage12yearsandolder,80%pickedthisanswer. However,lateinthisstage,respectingauthorityisseenas importantformaintaininggoodsocialorder.Theysay, Whilehismotivesweregood,wecanthaveeveryonejust breakingthelaw. 3. Postconventionalmoralitydependsonselfchosenprinciples thatmaytranscendrespectforauthority.Theconceptofcivil Postconventionalmoralitysaysthat stealingtosavesomeoneslifemaybe disobediencearises.Civildisobedienceisdeliberately justifiedeveniflawssayotherwise. RadiusImages/photolibrary breakinglawsthatarebelievedtobeimmoralandbeing preparedtoacceptthelegalconsequences.TheAmerican CivilRightsmovementledbyDr.MartinLutherKing,Jr.,andtheindependencemovementin IndialedbyMahatmaMohandasGandhiareexamplesofmasscivildisobediencetoattaina moralgoal.Thosewhoexhibitpostconventionalmoralitysay,Heinzisjustifiedinstealingthe medicine.Itisfairandjustthatthewifebesaved,eveniftheftisnecessary.Thelawisflawed andshouldbechangedsoothersdontfacethissamedilemma.Theytrytodefineprinciplesby whichsocialagreementswillbethemostjust.Kohlbergsresearchshowedthat95%ofchildren and81%ofadultsdidnotachievestage3(Walker,deVries,&Trevethan,1987).

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EVALUATIONOFKOHLBERGSTHEORY
Kohlbergstheoryhasstoodupwell,althoughithasbeenmodifiedtofitnewerdata.Inaddition,many researchershavefoundcrossculturaldifferences(e.g.,Fuchs,Eisenberg,HertzLazarowitz,& Sharabaany,1986).OnemajorcriticismisthatKohlbergsresearchwasconductedexclusivelywith malesbuthasbeenappliedtofemales.AccordingtoCarolGilligan,malesandfemaleshavediffering viewsofmorality(Gilligan,Sullivan,&Taylor,1995).Althoughtherearesomesimilarities,Gilliganfound thatfemalesaremoreconcernedwiththecontextinwhichadecisionistobemadeandmalesaremore absolute. REFLECTONIT:MORALDEVELOPMENT WhatwouldyoudointheHeinzexample,andwhy? Whichmoraldevelopmentstagedoyouthinkthatyouarein? Canyouthinkofatimethatyouhavedisplayedpostconventionalmorality?Whatwastheissue, andwhatwastheoutcome?

BEHAVIORALTHEORIES
Behaviorismisoneofthelargestandmostinfluentialschoolsofdevelopmentalpsychologyinterested inhowwelearn.Behavioristsbelievethatwecanonlystudybehaviorsthatcanbemeasuredasaresult ofonesinteractionwiththeenvironment.Theybelievethatotherthanreflexesandinstincts,behaviors arelearned,notbuiltintogeneticwiring.InourBlindMenanalogy,thisareaofpsychologyholdsa differentpartoftheelephantthanotherswehavestudied.Totheircredit,thebehavioristsaretheonly psychologistswhohaveeverfiguredouthowtoteachachickentodance,asyoullseeinthesectionB. F.Skinner. Behavioristsaremostconcernedwithactionsthatareobservable.Traditionally,theyhavebelievedthat allbehaviorisafunctionoflearning.However,modernbehavioristsmorereadilyacceptthattheidea thatbiology(maturation)andeveninternalthoughtprocessesplayaroleindevelopment.Oneofthe mostimportantconceptsinbehaviorismisthatwelinkexisting,orlearned,simplebehaviorstogether intomorecomplexpatternsmuchlikebuildingabridgewithLegoblockssuchaslearninglanguage, socialskills,andmotorskills.

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IVANPAVLOV
IvanPavlov(18491936),aRussianphysiologistwhowonaNobelPrizefor hisstudyofdigestion,firstdemonstratedclassical(Pavlovian)conditioning. Whilestudyingsalivationindogs,heaccidentallydiscoveredthatdogswould salivatewithoutfoodbeingpresent.Whenhepresentedfoodtothedogs whileringingabell,Pavlovlearnedthatafterawhilethesoundofthebell alonewouldproducesalivation(Pavlov,1927/2003).Pavlovcalledthis processlearningthroughassociation;thatis,dogslearnedtoassociatefood withthesoundofthebellandrespondedthesametobothstimuli. Pavlovwasprimarilyinterestedinphysiology,sothesolefocusofclassical conditioningisonautomaticresponsessalivation,fear,nausea,andthe likethingsthatwehavenocontrolover.Pavlovfoundthedoorto behavioralexplanationsofdevelopment,butitwasJohnWatsonwho openedit.

InPavlov'sfamousexperiment, dogsassociatedthesoundofabell withfood,andlearnedtodroolat thesoundevenwhentherewasno foodpresent.

JOHNWATSON
JohnWatson(18781958)isthefatherofbehaviorism,whichbuildson classicalconditioning.Ittakesa verymechanisticapproachtodevelopment throughbuildingassociations,akintotheideathatifIflipaswitch(a stimulus),alightwillcomeon(aresponse).Hismostfamousexperiment waswithLittleAlbert,usinganexperimentalmethodthatwouldnotbe allowedtoday.Watsonfirstexposed9montholdAlberttoawhiterat. Albertappearedtoenjoytherat.LaterwhileLittleAlbertwasplayingwith therat,Watsonstoodbehindhimandstruckanironbarwithahammer, makingaloudsoundthatscaredthebaby.Hedidthisseveraltimes.When LittleAlbertwaslaterexposedtotherat,hecriedandwantednothingtodo withit(Watson&Rayner,1920).WatsonalsofoundthatLittleAlberthad generalizedhisresponsetootherfurrywhitethings,likearabbit,dog,even asealskincoat,butnothardobjectslikeblocks.Clickheretoseethe experiment:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xt0ucxOrPQE).
Watsonbelievedthatbehaviors canbetrained,measured,and changed.Todaythisphilosophyis knownasbehaviorism.

ToWatsonthisprovedthatthebasiccomponentofbothlearningand behavioristheassociationbetweenastimulusandaresponse,thestimulusresponse(SR)unit.These associationsarebuiltthroughrepetition.TheseSRunitsarethebuildingblocksofallbehavior.Linking simpleSRunitstogetheristhewaythatanycomplexbehavioriscreated,muchasyoulearntohitagolf ballbylinkingavarietyofsmallerbehaviors,likekeepingyourheaddown,twistingyourhips,pulling yourarmsback,andsoon.

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Watsonproposedthelawofrecency,whichstatesthatthemorerecentlyaresponsehasoccurredtoa particularstimulus,themorelikelyitwillhappenagain(Watson,1928).Hislawoffrequencystatesthat themoreoftenaresponseoccurstoaparticularstimulus,thestrongeranassociationisbuiltbetween themandthusthemorelikelythepairingofthatstimulusandresponsewilloccuragain.Forexample, whenyougetinyourcar,themoretimesthatyoubuckleyourseatbelt,themorelikelyyouwilldoso thenexttimeyougetinthecar.Watsonlaiddownthetheoreticalfoundationforbehaviorismand popularizedit,butitwasB.F.Skinnerwhobecameitsbestknownproponent.

REFLECTONIT:CONDITIONING Weoftenuseconditioningtoassociatetwobehaviorstogether.Wetreatphobias(unrealisticfears)by associatingtheobjectofthefearwithagoodfeeling,likerelaxation.Haveyouevertriedtoassociate somethingyouwerenervousaboutwithapositivefeeling? Collegestudentsarenotoriouslyoverstressed,sorelaxationtechniquesmayhelpyoumanageyour stresslevelsandreduceyourcurrentassociationbetweenschoolandstress.Themostcommon techniquesarethefollowing: Guidedrelaxation:http://www.ivillage.com/guidedrelaxationmp3download/108283. Meditation:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kKPGTMdz99A&feature=related. ProgressiveRelaxation(alsoknownastheJacobson technique):http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1nJpxoiPjA&feature=related.

InthesamewaythatLittleAlbertsfearwasstrengthenedeachtimethatWatsonhittheironbarinthe presenceoftherat,thestressresponseisweakenedeverytimeapersonrelaxesinthepresenceofa stressfulstimulus.

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B.F.SKINNER
B.F.Skinner(19041990)isoneofthefoundersofmodernpsychology. Histheoryofoperantconditioningisoneofthemostpopularand influentialtheoriesinthehistoryofpsychology. Remember,inclassical conditioning,theresponseisconditionedtoanartificialstimulus(likethe bell)thatcomesbeforetheresponse;inoperantconditioning,thisprocess isturnedonitshead.Inoperantconditioning,thepersondoessomething andtheniseitherrewardedorpunishedforit. BasedonEdwardThorndikeslawofeffect,Skinnerstheorystatesthat reinforcedbehaviorstendtoberepeatedandthosethatarenotreinforced tendtodieout.Ifastudentoutlinesthekeypointsofachapterthengets anAonthetest,thegoodgradeprovidesreinforcementforthebehavior InSkinnerstheoryofOperant andmakesitmorelikelythatthestudentwilloutlineforthenexttest. Conditioning,behaviorsthatare punisheddecrease,andbehaviors Whenpeoplegetpaidforgoingtowork,theyarelikelytocontinueworking. thatarerewardedincrease. Ifeatingaparticularfoodgivesyoupleasure,youarelikelytoeatitagain. Ontheotherhand,ifastudentdoesntstudyforthetestandflunksit,heis lesslikelytoengageinthatbehavioragain.Skinnercalledtheseresponsesoperantbehaviors.Seeitin actionhere: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mm5FGrQEyBY&feature=related Whilereinforcementincreasesthefrequencyofaresponse,punishmentdecreasesthefrequencyofa response.Ifaparentslapsachildshandeverytimethatthechildreachesforacookie,thechildwill decreasethefrequencyofthereachingbehavior(atleastwhiletheparentisintheroom).Thatisaform ofpunishment. Thetermsusedinoperantconditioningcanbemisleading.Punishmentmeanstoprovidearesponse thatwillweakenordiscouragerepetitionofbehavior,suchashandslapping.Takingawayachildstoyis alsopunishmentinthatitremovessomethingpositivefromthesituation.Reinforcementorreward meansprovidingapositiveelementthatstrengthenstherepetitionofabehavior.Whentherowdychild retreatstoachairandacoloringbookandaparentgivespraise,thatispositivereinforcementbecauseit addssomethingpositivetothesituation.Negativereinforcementisalsoareward(thisiswhereitgets trickytounderstand).Here,somethingnegativeisremovedfromthesituation.Forexample,arowdy childistoldtositquietlyinachairfor30minutes;ifthechildsitsquietlyfor20minutes,aparentmay takeawaythelast10minutesofpunishmentbyallowingthechildtogetup.Takingawaysomething negativeis,bydefinition,negativereinforcement.Thechildfeelsrewardedforquietbehaviorbecause ofthe10minutereprieve.

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Skinnerfoundthatreinforcementorpunishmentismosteffectivewhenitisdoneasclosetotheinitial behavioraspossible.Ifyourdogwetstherug,itdoesntdomuchgoodtoyellathimwhenyoufinditan hourlater.ThelackofimmediatereinforcementisonereasonwhysomanyNewYearsresolutionsonly lastafewweeksbeforetheyareabandoned. Skinneralsofoundthatforlearningtooccurandendure,thedesiredbehaviordoesnothavetobe reinforcedeverytime.Aslongasitreceivesperiodicreinforcement,ittendstoreoccur.Skinnerused operantconditioningtocreateallsortsofbehaviorsinpeopleandanimals.Usinghisowninvention,the SkinnerBox,hetaughtpigeonstoreadandmoveas hewantedthemto.Watchtheexperiment here:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I_ctJqjlrHA. OneofSkinnerskeyprocessesinlearningisshaping. Itinvolvesreinforcingbehaviorsthatarecloserand closertothedesiredoutcome.Aneasyformof shapingoccursinthisscenario:Onepersonyellshot orcoldwhenanotherpersongetscloserorfarther fromatargetedresponse.Itisthebasisforshaping complicatedanimalbehaviorstoo,suchasteaching Bygivingadogatreateachtimeitsitsforasecond,thena sealstoclapandchickenstodance,justlikeSkinner halfminute,thenaminute,thenacoupleofminutes,the trainedpigeonstomoveinacircle.Hereisanexample dogsbehaviorwilleventuallybeshapedintowaitingalong periodoftimeforatreat. oftheoutcomeoftrainingachickentodancethrough ClarissaLeahy/Cultura/photolibrary operant conditioning:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lUcTvhyof8I. OneofSkinnersmostenduringcontributionsistheideaofbehaviormodification,acommon behavioraltherapytechniquethatisusedtoeliminateunwantedbehaviorsortocreatedesired behaviors.Behaviormodificationoftenusesanassociationtechniquecalledcounterconditioningto graduallyeliminateundesirablebehaviors.Thistechniquehashelpedpeoplemodifybehaviorsbylosing weight,quittingsmoking,andimprovingsocialskills(Skinner,1938;Skinner,1957a;Skinner&Ferster, 1957b).

EVALUATIONOFBEHAVIORALTHEORIES
Althoughbehaviorismhasprovidedmanybenefitsandinsightsintohumandevelopment,itisalsothe subjectofcriticism.Manyfeelthatitoverreachesbyexplainingallbehaviorsassrchains.Behaviorism doesnotdowellinexplainingcreativity,creationofnewornovelsentences,thoughtsabout nonexistentevents,orimagingalternatefutures. Italsonowseemssimplistictopresumethatconditioningisnotaffectedbytheenvironment(for example,environmentalstressaffectsdegreeoflearning).Watsoneventuallyachievedhisgoalof

elevatingpsychologytobemoreinlinewithothersciences,butinmanyways,behaviorismistoo confiningtoexplainmuchofthethoughtsandfeelingsthatisthefocusofdevelopmentalpsychology. REFLECTONIT:BEHAVIORMODIFICATION

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Operantbehaviorsarepartofeverydaylife.ParentsandteachersuseSkinnersideastomodifythe behaviorofchildreninbothdesirableandundesirableways.Employersuseoperantconditioning throughpayraises,bonuses,praise,andparkingspots.Spousesuseit,too.Infact,nearlyeveryoneuses operantconditioningintheformofphysicalorverbalrewardsandpunishmentstotrytomodifythe behaviorofothersandthemselves.ThatiswhySkinnerisoneofthemostinfluentialpsychologistsin history.Youcanusetheideasofoperantconditioningaswell. Positivereinforcementcanbecreatedinthreewaystohelpyou: 1. Afteryouhavestudiedforyoursettimesay,1hourpraiseyourself. 2. Askyourfamilytopraiseyouforstudying. 3. Giveyourselfsomesmallreward,suchasasmallgiftorawalkaroundtheblock. Butyoumustbetough,andsomustyoursupportnetwork.Rewardsarenotgivenuntilthegoalis accomplished.Youalsoneedtousepunishment.Whenyouchoosetoplaywhenyouandthosearound youknowthatyoushouldbestudying,theyshouldaskyou,Whyarentyoustudying?Itdoesnthave tobeanymorepointedthanthattohaveaneffect.Ofcourse,youcanalsopunishyourself,suchas withholdingsomethingthatyoulikewhenyoudontearnitbystudying.Simplytellingyourselfthat youhavenotliveduptoyourownexpectationscanbeapowerfulstimulusforchange. Howhaveyouusedtheideasofoperantconditioninginyourdailylife?Haveyoutrieditonyour childrenoryourspouse?Howsuccessfulwerethoseattempts?Haveyouusedtheideaofpositive reinforcementtotrytomodifyyourbehaviors,suchaslosingweight,timemanagement,smoking,or otherthingsyouwanttochangeaboutyourlife?Howwouldyoudothatifyouwantedto? Thinkoftimeswhenyouhaveusedpunishmentandnegativereinforcement,perhapswithyour children.Whichwasmoreeffective? Howhaveyouusedbehaviormodificationtechniquestomakechangesinyourlife?Howdid theyturnout?

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ALBERTBANDURAANDSOCIALLEARNING
AlbertBandurasworkaroseasareactionagainstthebehavioristapproach thatfocusedexclusivelyonreinforcementandpunishment.Bandurasaid thatpeoplelearnandbehavebasedonobservingandimitating modelsthatis,bywatchingotherpeople.Childrenandadultsdevelopin certainwaysbasedonthemodelstheywatch.Psychologistscallthis processobservationallearning.Forexample,inthe1950sand1960s, millionsofpeoplewatchedtelevisionadsforcigarettesfeaturingarugged cowboycalledtheMarlboroMan.Heexhibitedmanlyqualitiesthat teenageboysadmiredtough,selfreliant,anoutdoorsman.Healso smokedMarlboros.Aswithmanyformsofadvertising,modelingledmany teenstotakeupsmoking. Onemajorvalueofobservationallearningisthatwedonothavetoperformanactioninordertofind outwhatitslikelyoutcomewillbe(Bandura,1977).Forexample,ifachildcriesandisrewardedwitha candybarinthesupermarket,otherchildrenwilltryoutthatbehavior,too.Althoughthefirstchild receivedreinforcement(thecandybar),thesecondchildatfirstlearnsstrictlythroughobservation. Dinersusemodelingwhentheylookathowothersholdchopsticks;studentsusemodelingwhen teachersdemonstratemathproblems;childrenmodelthebehaviorofotherchildrenwhendecidingto tryoutthenewequipmentatthepark.Becauseobservationallearning,ormodeling,involvespeople otherthanthelearner,psychologistscalltheseprocessessociallearning. BandurasmostfamousexperimentinvolvedtheBobodoll(Bandura, Ross,&Ross,1963).Itisconsideredtobethefirstexperimental demonstrationthatshowshowmodelingaffectsaggressivebehavior. Ninetysixchildren,ages36yearsold,saweitherareallife,filmed,or cartoondemonstrationofaggressionagainstaBobodoll,essentially,a 5foottallballoonthatpopsbackupwhenitishit.Inthe demonstrations,theBobodollwashit,kicked,andthrownbyadults, alongwithshoutslikePow!Totrackgenderinfluences,somechildren sawsamesexdemonstrators,whileotherssawoppositesex demonstrators.Acontrolgroupdidnotseeanydemonstration.Inthe secondphaseoftheexperiment,for20minutesthechildrenwereleft aloneinaplayroomwithattractivetoyslikeateaset,bears,carsand trucks,aswellasthe5footBobodoll.Comparedwiththecontrol group,boysandgirlsineveryexperimentalgroupweremoreattracted totheBobodollandshowedsignificantlymoreaggression.Youcan watchthedramaticresults

TheMarlborocampaignthat portrayedaruggedcowboysmoking ledmanyteenagerstomodelthat behavior. Imagebroker/photolibrary

here:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vdh7MngntnI.

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Inafollowupstudy,Bandura(1965)exposed4yearoldstothesamedemonstrations,butthistime somechildrensawthedemonstratorrewardedorpunished.Resultsshowedthatchildrenwhosawthe demonstratorpunishedlaterhitBobofarlessthanthosewhosawhimrewarded.Thissuggeststhatall thechildrenwantedtobehaveaggressively,butthefearofpunishmentrestrainedonegroup.These studiesarestillcitedashavingimplicationsrelatedtotheviolencethatchildrenseeontelevisionorin theirreallives,withthedangerthattheywillmodelthatviolence. Prosocialbehaviorisalsomodeled.Rushton (1975)foundthatwhenchildrensawadults donatingmoneytocharity,theywerealsomore likelytodoso.However,White(1972)foundthat childrenreadilygivewhenamodeldoes,butthey willnothappilygivewhentheyaresimplytoldto dosobyamodelwhodoesnotgive.Agreatdeal ofresearchwithchildrenclearlyshowsthat childrenarefarmoreinfluencedbywhatadults dothanwhattheysay.Itisthebehaviorofthe modelthatiscritical.
PerhapsyouveheardtheoldadagedoasIsay,notasIdo.Itis clearthatchildrenaremoreinfluencedbythebehaviorofadults aroundthemthanwhatadultstellthemtodo.Thismeansthat childrenoftenpickupthehabitsoftheirparents,goodandbad. TomasRodriguez/Fancy/photolibrary

Childrenalsouseobservationallearningtolearn genderappropriatebehaviors.Theylearn girllikeandboylikebehaviorsbywatching livemodelslikemothers,fathers,andpeersand alsothoseinthemedia.

EVALUATIONOFSOCIALLEARNINGTHEORY
Bandurasworkhasreceivedwidespreadacceptance.Itisthepsychologicalunderpinningforallofthe HowTovideosthatyoucanfindtohelpyoulearneverythingfrommakingacabinettogivingCPR. OneareaofdisagreementisamongthosewhofollowPiaget.Theysaythatsociallearningdoesnot emphasizePiagetsideathatchildrenspontaneouslypayattentiontonoveleventsfortheirownsake, ratherthanseekingthemoutasmodelsforlearning.TheyalsoobjecttoBanduraslackofemphasison stagesofdevelopment.Thisislikelyanothercaseoftheblindmenandtheelephant,wherethe theoristshaveholdoftwosimilarbutdifferentpartsoftheelephant.

REFLECTONIT:SOCIALLEARNING Howcanyouusemodelingtohelpyousucceedacademically?Modelingisdonenotonlyvisuallybut alsoverbally.Althoughyoucannotsitintheclassroomandwatchgoodstudents,thereareseveral productivewaysthatyoucanusemodelingtohelpyoudowellwithinthestructureofyouronline classes.Learningfromthepostingsisoneway.Herearethestepstofollow:

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1. Readthecommentsthattheinstructormakestothepostingsofotherstudents.Seewhich postingsreceivepositivecommentsandwhichonesarecriticized. 2. Readthosepostingstoseewhatelementseachgrouphasincommon,whattheinstructor thoughtwasimportant. 3. Modelyournextpostingonthoseofthegoodstudents,includingthosekeyelementsof theirposting.Thenmakesureyouhaveavoidedthemistakesoftheotherstudents.Lookfor thosekeyelementsthatyouhaveidentified,suchaslength,depth,examples,clear sentences,andsoon. 4. Usethecommentsoftheinstructortorefineyourpostings.Soonyoullbegettingpositive commentsjustlikethosestudentsyoumodeled. Couldyouusethisstrategyforimprovingyourstudyskills?

URIEBRONFENBRENNERANDECOLOGICALTHEORY
Ecologicaltheoryproposesthathumandevelopmentisbestexplainedin termsoftheinteractionbetweenindividualsandtheenvironmentsinwhich theyliveorhavelived.UrieBronfenbrenner(19172005)saidtherearefive contextsthatinfluencedevelopment.Theymaybethoughtofasconcentric rings,likeanarcherytarget,withthelargerringsinfluencingallsmallerrings withinthem,asFigure2.1shows(Bronfenbrenner,1979).

Bronfenbrennerbelievedthat theenvironmentsorsystems inwhichapersonlives influencethemtovarying degrees.

Themicrosystemconsistsofourprimarydailyenvironment:family,school, neighborhood,religiousandgroupaffiliations.Eachoftheseinteractionsmay rangefromexcellenttopoorandthushaveadirectimpactonthedaily developmentofchildren.

Themesosystemreferstothe connectionofallthemicrosystems influencingachild.Changesinone microsystemcanimpactothers.For example,fightingparentscreate distressinthehome,whichcan influencehowwellchildrenperformin school. Theexosystemconsistsofthelarger forceslikesocialprograms,the economy,fundingforschools, availabilityoflegalaid,and afterschoolprograms.Thesefactors candeterminethequalityofavailable services,especiallyeducation,which influenceschildrensdevelopment.

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Themacrosystemisthecultural context,thebeliefsandvaluesofthe Figure2.1Bronfenbrennersringapproach(drawingbasedon largersociety.ComparedtoAmerican U.Bronfenbrenner,Theecologyofhumandevelopment. children,Iraqishavegrownupwitha Cambridge,MA:HarvardUniversityPress,1979) differentperspectiveoffreedom, economicopportunity,culturalvalues,andofcourse,safety.SomepartsofAmericanculture emphasizeselfreliancemorethanothers.Schoolsandneighborhoodsareinpartproductsof thecultureinwhichtheyexist,sharingacommonidentityandoftenanacceptedsetofvalues, genderroles,andopportunities. Thesesystemsnotonlyinteractbutalsochangeovertime.Thechronosystemreflectspotentialchanges byincludingenvironmentaleventsandhistoricalcircumstancesthatinfluencedevelopment.For example,ifastateseconomycrashes,thensocialservicefundingiscut(exosystem),peoplelosejobs andfriendsmoveaway(mesosystem),andfamilystresslevelsrise(microsystem),whichmayleadto behavioralchangesinthechildren.Divorce,naturaldisasters,9/11,changesinvotingrights,and increasedjobopportunitiesforwomenandminoritiesareotherexamplesofsociohistoricalinfluences (Bronfenbrenner,2004).

EVALUATIONOFECOLOGICALTHEORY
AlthoughBronfenbrenner(2004)hasacknowledgedtheinfluenceofbiology(genes)andhasbegunto integrateitintohistheory,heisstillcriticizedfornotemphasizingbiologyenough.Inaddition,although

ecologicaltheorydoesagoodjobexplainingenvironmentalconnections,thereisscantmentionof cognitivefactors.Onceagainthough,thinkofitassimplyanotherpartoftheelephant.

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REFLECTONIT:ECOLOGICALTHEORY
Describetheinfluenceofeachofthesefourecologicalsystemsonyouduringyourteenage years. Howdideachhelpshapeyourdevelopmentandpersonality?

JOHNHOLLANDANDTHEPERSONALITYTHEORYOFCAREERSATISFACTION
PsychologistJohnHollandbelievesthatastronglinkexistsbetween personalityandcareersatisfaction.Hecalledthispersonalitytypetheory. Thetheorystatesthatpeoplefeelthattheirjoborprofessionisfulfillingif thereisamatchbetweensomeimportantfeaturesoftheirworkandtheir personality.Asimpleexampleisthatofanaturallycreativepersonwho landsafulfillingjobinthearts. Holland(1992)identifiedsixpersonalitytypesandtheirbestjobmatchesin hiscareersatisfactiontheory.YouwillnoteinTable2.1thatsome professionsappearinmorethanonecategory;thisisnotunusual. Professionsmayofferseveralmajorrewards,eachofwhichmayappealto differentpersonalitytypes.Forexample,anelectedgovernmentofficial mayfeelmostrewardedbyhelpingothers,bythepoweroftheoffice,orby thechancetosolvecomplexproblems.Table2.1iscertainlynotinclusiveof allthejobsofferingrewardsforeachpersonalitytype.Inaddition,peoplespersonalitiesareseldom totallydominatedbyonetype,somultiplecharacteristicsarelikelytoleadtoanumberofsatisfying careers.
Hollandlinkedapersons personalitytothecareersthat wouldbemostsatisfying.

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Table2.1JohnHollandsPersonalityTypes
PersonalityType Realistic Characteristics
Likestosolveconcreteproblems,work withhandsandtools,physicallabor, practical.Socialactivityjobsdonot appeal. Likestosolvepuzzlesanddiscover relationships,enjoysmathorscience ideas,valuesscientificandintellectual jobs.Enjoysexplorationofplacesand ideas.Sellingorleadingdoesnotappeal. Likescreativejobs,especiallyinthearts, valuesopportunitiesforselfexpression, creativityandindependence.Highly structured,repetitivejobsdonotappeal.

MatchingCareers
Firefighter,repairandconstruction, farmer,rancher,forestry,athlete, physicaltherapist,policeofficer, soldier,engineer,architect Lawyer,psychologist,reporter, scientist,engineer,computer scientist,professor,mathematician, finance,physician Actor,artist,author,dancer, graphicdesigner,fashiondesigner, model,marketer,publicrelations, musician,setdesigner,composer, radioorTVpersonality,teacherin theartsfield Doctor,nurse,teacher,therapist, theologian,humanrelations, trainer,education,nutritionist, psychologist Politician,lawyer,corporateor nonprofitmanager,executive, stockbroker,publicrelations, salesperson,insuranceagent, administrator,realtor,retailstore managerorowner

Investigative

Artistic

Social

Enjoyssolvingsocialproblemsand interactingwithothersinacooperative manner.Jobsinvolvingmachines, animals,orisolatedworkdonotappeal. Likestopersuadeothers,sellingthings andideas;enjoysleadingothersand beingincharge;valuesjobsemphasizing energy,ambition,competition,andsocial interaction,creatingnewbusinessesor opportunities.Solitaryjobsthatdonot influencedonotappeal. Likestoworkwithnumbersorrecordsin aneat,orderlyway.Valuesgood organizationandjobsemphasizing systematicapproachesandconcrete plans.Jobsthatrequireambiguousideas orunstructuredactivitiesdonotappeal.

Enterprising

Conventional (organizer)

Accountant,payrollclerk, copyeditor,actuary,CPA, proofreader,technicalwriter, investmentbanker,chieffinancial officer,bankclerk,administrative assistant

Toooften,youngpeopleselectprofessionssimplybecausetheyare easy,seemglamorous,orofferthepotentialforquickriches.They maketheirchoicewithoutknowingthepersonalityattributesrequired tohavelongtermsuccess.Wehaveatendencytofoolourselvesinto believingwhatwewanttobelieveorwhatothers,likeparents,wantus tobelieve.Forexample,astudentmaywantthebigmoneya stockbrokermakesbuthatesdealingwithpeopleandtryingtosell.The mismatchbetweenjobrequirementsandpersonalitymakessuccess unlikely.So,learningearlierwhatyoulikeandwhatyouhavean aptitudeforcanshortcircuitsomeunhappyandcostlychoices.

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EVALUATIONOFHOLLANDANDTHEPERSONALITY THEORYOFCAREERSATISFACTION
Thereisseldomaperfectcorrelationbetweenthejobandtheworkers Doyouknowwhatcareerwouldbe personality;alljobshavepositivesandnegativesforanyworker.Ajob satisfyingtoyou? Jupiterimages/Comstock/Thinkstock mayprovidethecreativeoutletforanartisticpersonalitybutnotoffer thefinancialrewardsneededtohaveapleasantlife.Overallthere seemstobearelativelylowcorrelationbetweenjobsatisfactionandHollandspersonalityattributes, eitherduetothemultiplepositiveandnegativeaspectsofjobsortheinaccuracyofthetheory.

REFLECTONIT:CAREERSATISFACTION WhichofHollandssixpersonalitytypesbestdescribeyou?(Youranswermayincludemorethan one) Dothematchingcareerslookappealingtoyou?Aretheycareersyouhavehadinthepast?

Unfortunately,manypeopledon'tthinkaboutmatchingtheirpersonalityneedstotheircareersuntilitis toolate.Theyjustdriftintoacareerorfocusonthepotentialearningsortheconvenienceofajob.Then theywonderwhytheydontfeelsatisfied. TheMyersBriggsTypeIndicatorinstrumentthatyouwereexposedtoinChapter1isastandardwayto evaluatethematchbetweenpersonalityandcareer.Thelinkthatfollowswilltakeyoutoanothertest thatissupposedtogiveyouresultssimilartotheMyersBriggs

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inventory:http://similarminds.com/career.html.Itwillalsoshowyousomepossiblecareersbasedon youranswers.Asbefore,thesetestsareincludedonlytogiveyouideas;donotmakeanycareerchoices basedsolelyontheseresults.Guidancefromprofessionalswillhelpyoumakethewisestchoices.

ECLECTIC,ORCOMPOSITE,THEORIES
Eclectictheoriesusemultipleperspectivestoexplainhumandevelopment.Theytakepiecesofoneand addtopiecesofothersinsearchofacompositethatwillexplainmorethananyoftheindividual componenttheories(Parke,2004).Thesetheoristsbelievethattheproponentsofmanyofthemajor theoriesthatwevelookedathavebeentoorigidinrejectingalternatepossibilitiestoaccountfor developmentalevents.Tocomefullcircle,eclectictheoriesusetheinformationabouttheelephants trunk,leg,ears,andsoforthtocreateacompositethatresemblesalargeanimal. Forexample,VygotskysideaofsocialinteractionincognitioncomplementsBandurastheoryofsocial learning.Asalludedtoearlier,BronfenbrennerandPiagetcanbeintegratedtoexplainhowchildrenat differentstagesofcognitivedevelopmentmayinterpretdivorceorsocialinfluencesdifferently.This interdisciplinaryapproachalsolooksatwhatcontributionsmaybemadebyrelatedfieldslike anthropologyandbiologytoo.Thehopeisthattheresultantsaladtheorycomposedofpiecesofmany theorieswilldoabetterjobofexplainingactualhumanbehavioranddevelopment.

REFLECTONIT:THEORIES Asyouhaveread,eachtheoristtouchesadifferentpartoftheelephantthatwecallourpersonality. Thereisnooneunifiedtheoryofpersonalitydevelopment;humanbeingsarefartoocomplexand different. Liketheeclectictheorists,youneedtobelikeavisitortotheelephant,takingsomeideasfromevery areathatseemsrelevanttoyou.Sometimestheapplicationsarenotimmediatelyclear,andthatiswhy weveaskedyoutoreflectonitthroughoutthechaptertohelpyouseetherelevance.Asyouprogress throughthistext,youwillseehowthetheorieshelpyouunderstandyourowndevelopment. Takesometimetoexploreeachofthequestionsbelow.Theinsightsthatyougainwillhelpyoubetter understandyourself,thosearoundyou,andthefuturethatwillmakeyouhappy. Whichtheorythatyouhavestudiedcouldyoubestrelateto?Describewhyandthink ofexamplesinyourlife.Doyoubelieveothersclosetoyouwouldagree?

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Givesomedetailedexamplesofdifferenttheoriesthathelpyoutobetterunderstand thethoughtsandbehaviorsofyourparents,siblings,orclosefriends. DescribeyourowndevelopmentintermsofEriksonsstages. InBronfenbrennersecologicaltheory,hesuggeststhatourdevelopmentisinfluenced byawiderangeofsources,fromfamilyandfriendstosocietyandculture.Reviewhis ideasandthendecidehowyourdevelopmenthasbeeninfluencedbytherings,or systems,ofinfluenceashesuggests.Whatinfluenceswerethestrongest?The weakest?Becarefulasyouthinkaboutthis;someinfluencescanbesopervasivethat wearesimplyunawareoftheirinfluence. Howcanyouusewhatyouvediscoveredaboutyourselftoimproveyourcurrent outlookandmovetowardyourgoals?Howwillyouovercomethechallengesthatyou arelikelytofaceinthecurrentstageofyourlife?

CONTROVERSIESANDISSUESINADULTDEVELOPMENT
Fromtheoutside,anyhouseofsciencelookspeaceful,thepictureofcalmcertaintyaboutthingslike biology,physics,orpsychology.Butopenthe doorofanyhouseandstepinside,andyouare greetedbyshouting,bangingdoors,fistfights, andevensomepiethrowing.Inpsychology especially,becausethereissomuchvariationin people,thereisoftenmuchdisagreement. Researchpaperssupportingoneideawillbe politelytakenapartbyotherpsychologistswho havedifferentideas.Theyknowthatastudy showingoneoutcomeisnotdefinitive.Often, evenadozenormorestudiesare(legitimately Psychologistsoftenhavedifferingopinionsonwhattheresearchis so)metwithskepticism.Therealwaysseemsto tellingus. Jupiterimages/BananaStock/Thinkstock beotherresearchshowingdifferingresultsor criticismofhowtheresearchwasconducted. Evenideasthatoncewereacceptedasprovencomeunderfireasnewresearchlooksatthesame problem,sometimesdecadeslater.Psychology,likeothersciences,hasmovedtowardgreater understandingthroughnotonlyresearchbutalsotheclashofconflictingideas.Theheatofconflict spursscientiststofindnewwaystothetruthandhighlightsissuesthatmayhavebeenoverlooked before.Infact,theconflictofideasisoneofthemostimportantwaysinwhichwemakenew discoveries.

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CONTINUOUSVERSUSDISCONTINUOUSDEVELOPMENT
Someofthetheoriesthatwevestudiedarecharacterizedbydefiniteperiods,orstages,of development,suchasthoseproposedbyErikson,Freud,Levinson,andPiaget.Therearemostlyclear linesofseparationlikethestagesofabutterfly/caterpillarorthewayaninfantlearnstostand,walk withothers,andthenwalkalone.Partofthecontroversyhastodowithspecificareasoftheoretical interest(i.e.,whatpartoftheelephanttheyweretouching),butthediscussionaboutwhether developmentoccursindefinitestagesorittransitionssmoothlyhascreateddissentionamong developmentalpsychologists. Mostpeoplethinkofthedevelopmental processascontinuous,muchlikethegrowth ofaplant.Skinner,Bandura,andthe informationprocessingapproachsee developmentsimplyasslowandsteady.In thoseviews,thinking,memory,orbehaviors donotabruptlychangeasPiagetmightargue. Instead,themindandbodygradually incorporatenewinformationtoaddtotheold store.Changesaresmallandcumulative.We certainlyseeevidenceforcontinuous developmentinactivitieslikerunning, manipulationofnumbers(math),and languagedevelopment.

Humandevelopmentiscontinuous,likethegrowthofaplant,butcanalso beclassifiedintostagesaswell.Thistreeisinthebloomingstage. Hemera/Thinkstock

Itisalsoclear,however,thatcertaintypesof developmentwillnottakeplaceuntilthetimeisright,suchaswalking,certainkindsofabstractthought, andthestartofpuberty.Thisstage,likedevelopment,isreferredtoasdiscontinuous.Psychologistssay thatdiscontinuousdevelopmentistiedtosensitiveperiodsthroughoutearlylifeduringwhichthe environmenthasastrongerimpactondevelopment.Duringtheseperiods,weareprimedandreadyto moveintothenextareaoflearning. Somescientiststhinkthattheenvironmentorourphysicalagetriggersstages.Forexample,Freudsees theanalstageasrelatedtopottytrainingofatoddler.Clearly,thesuccessfulconclusionofthisstage requiresbothphysicalandcognitivedevelopmenttophysicallydowhatisrequiredandtounderstand andrememberwhatshouldbedone. Piagetalsosupportedtheideaofdiscontinuousdevelopment.Hesaidthatcognitivelyimmature childrenwereinherentlyunabletomoveintothenextstageofdevelopment,muchlike6montholds arephysicallyunabletowalknomatterhowmuchyouteachthem.Piagetfoundevidenceforhis

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viewsinthewaythatyoungerchildrencannotunderstandconservation,butolderchildrenimmediately understandtheconceptwithoutanytraining. Psychologiststodaygenerallybelievethathumandevelopmentincludescontinuousanddiscontinuous changes.Sometimesthesametypeofdevelopmentmayincludeboth.Forexample,childrenstart talkingwhentheyareready,whentheirbrainandmotorskillshavedevelopedenoughtoformwords. Butoncethathappens,thereisaconstantupwardtrendinlanguageacquisitionandspeakingskills.One wayoflookingatitiscomparinghumangrowthtothatofatree.Atfirstglance,itlooksasifatreehas continuousgrowth.Onfurtherinspectionthough,itisapparentthatthereisagrowthphase,afruitor seedphase,andperhapsadormancyphase. REFLECTONIT:CONTINUOUSVERSUSDISCONTINUOUSDEVELOPMENT Perhapstherearesomepartsofyourlifethatfeltliketheytransitionedsmoothly,likethetransition fromfirsttosecondgrade.Thereareothertransitionsthatfeelliketheyoccurinstages,suchasgoing fromjuniorhightohighschoolorleavinghighschoolandgoingintotheworkforcefulltime. Whatpartsofyourdevelopmentfeltcontinuous? Whatpartsfeltdiscontinuous?

NATUREVERSUSNURTURE
Supportersofadiscontinuousviewofdevelopmentlookatbiologyandmaturationasanoverriding determinantingrowth.Thosewhoturntothecontinuousviewofdevelopmentpointtotheimportance ofenvironmentalinfluencesonthoughtsandbehavior.Thesetwoapproacheshighlightthefactors involvedinthecontroversyovernatureversusnurture. ThiscontroversyissooldthattheUnitedStateswasstillaBritishcolonywhenitfirstbegan!Thenativist philosophers(therewerenopsychologistsyet)believedsomebasicmentalabilitieswereinheritedfrom parents(thenatureinfluence).Theempiricistphilosopherssaidabilitiescamefromlearningand experience,asJohnLockeexpressedinhistabularasatheorydiscussedearlierinthischapter.Lockes ideasarethecornerstoneofthenurturetheorythatallweareisduetotheinfluencesofour environment. Theenvironment(thenurturepart)caninfluenceourdevelopmentinotherways.Onepersoneatsa healthydietandgrowsupfitandstrong,whileanothereatsjunkfoodanddevelopsdiabetes,highblood pressure,andhighcholesterol.Onesetofparentsdemandtheirchilddohomeworkeverynight,while

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anothersetputsnodemandsontheirchild. Thefirstonegoestoagoodcollegeandfindsa rewardingcareer,whilethesecondoneis morelikelytostruggle. Ourenvironmentplaysahugeroleinhowwe develop,whatpathwaysareopentous,and whichareclosed.Themultipleinfluencesof theenvironment(nurture)overmanyyears arelargelyresponsibleforshapingusintothe uniqueindividualsthatweare.Butitisnotthe onlyinfluence.Wearealsoshapedbyour genes,bynature.Thatiswhywewill sometimesseetheadvantagedchildstruggle inlife,whilethechildwithneglectfulparents (butgoodgenesforcognitivedevelopment)willbesuccessful.
Isitnatureornurturethatgavethesepeopletheabilitytobecome competitivesprinters?Thelatestresearchsaysthatitisprobablyboth. MoodboardRF/photolibrary

OneoftheclearestexamplesofhownatureandnurtureinteractcomesfromastudybyHood(2005)in whichtwostrainsofratswerebredtoshowhighorlowlevelsofaggressiveness.Inseparatecolonies, theybehavedliketheirgenesdictated.Butwhenraisedtogether,theyshowedsimilarlevelsof aggression.Weseeherehowtheenvironmentcaninfluencegeneticpredispositions. Thereisevidencethatsomecommonphysicalandpsychologicalproblemsmaybeinfluencedbyboth natureandnurture(Plomin,DeFries,&Craig,2002).Obesity,forinstance,isprobablyrelatedtoboth heredityandenvironment.Twinstudiesshowsomeheritabilityforobesity(Collaku,Rankinen,Rice,& Leon,2004;Plomin&Schalwyk,2007),butitisprobablynotnearlyashighassomeofuswouldliketo believe.Thefourfoldincreaseintheobesityrateofchildrensincethe1960sprovidesstrongevidence fortheinfluenceofenvironmentalfactors.Itisapparent,ofcourse,thatthetypesoffoodweeat, carrotsorcarrotcake,isunderourcontrolwhilegeneticsisnot.Wemustbecarefulnottousegenetics asanexcuseforunhealthybehaviors. Tounderstandtheideabehindthenaturepartofthiscontroversy,onemustunderstandthebasicsof howweinheritcharacteristics.Youmayrememberthattheentirecodeforcreatinganewhumanbeing iscarriedon46microscopicstrandsofchemicalscalledchromosomes,23eachfromthefatherandthe mother,whopassoncharacteristicstotheirchildren.Eachchromosomecontainsmanygenes.Inall46 chromosomes,youhavebetween20,000and25,000genes!

Genesaresmallpiecesofthechromosomesthatdeterminehow, when,andwherethebodymakeseachofthemanythousandsof differentproteinsrequiredtobuildandmaintaineverycell,bone, organ,andmuscle.Theyareresponsibleforeyecolor,hair texture,partofyourintelligence,andwhetherornotyouare likelytobeabletodunkabasketball. Whenthereisamistakeofsomesortincopyingthe chromosomesasnewcellsdevelopinsidethemotherswomb, seriousgeneticbaseddiseasesorabnormalitiescandevelop. Someareinherited,likesicklecelldiseaseandcysticfibrosis, whereasotherstypicallyarenot,suchasDownsyndrome.Other defects,suchascolorblindness,havelittleimpactonqualityof life.(Totakeaquickcolorblindnesstest,click here:http://colorvisiontesting.com/online%20test.htm.) Somegenesareresponsibleforcreatingbehaviors,too.When babiesareborn,theyhaveanautomaticdesiretosuckle(the suckingreflex)andtheabilitytodoit.Newbornbabiesarealso geneticallyprimedtomovetheirmouthtowardatouchontheir cheek(therootingreflex),aninheritedsurvivalmechanism helpinganewbornfindmothersnipple.
Genesaresmallpiecesofaperson's chromosomesandcontainthecodefor creatinganewhumanbeing. Comstock/Thinkstock

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Personalityisalsosignificantlyinfluencedbyheredity.Forexample,KaganandSnidman(1991)found thatabout15%ofchildrenfollowedinalongitudinalstudyseemedtohavebeenbornwitha predispositionforshyness,makingthemunusuallyanxiousaboutunfamiliarobjects,places,andpeople. Rothbart(2004)reportsthatshychildrenoftenhaveshyparents.Hereyouwouldbecorrecttoquestion ifnatureornurturewereatwork.Afterall,asBandurashowed,childrencouldcertainlylearnshy behaviorfromtheirparents.However,Rothbartalsofoundthatshynesspersistedinchildrenevenwhen nonshyparentshadadoptedthem.Evenwhenshynessismodifiedbyenvironmentalfactorslike learningspecificskills,thegeneticpredispositioncannotbeeliminated. Somementaldisordersarealsorelatedtogeneticsforexample,schizophrenia,amentalconditionin whichthepersonlosescontactwithreality(depictedinthefilmABeautifulMind).McGuffin,Owen,and Farmer(1995)reportedthatapersonschanceofdevelopingschizophreniais10timesgreaterthan normalifaparentwasschizophrenic.Thechanceofdevelopingschizophreniaifyouridenticaltwinhas itisabout50/50.

Atfirstglance,itappearsthenthat schizophreniaisabsolutelyagenetic disorderbecauseidenticaltwinsinherit thesamegenes.However,about50%of thetimetheothertwindoesnot becomeschizophrenic.Whatcould accountforthedifference?Itcouldbe theenvironmentinthemotherswomb, somethingthatoccursduringorafter thebirthprocess,orsomethingduring theyearsofdevelopmentthatleadup totheonsetofthedisorder.Wedonot know.Butanyvariableoutsideofthe geneticcode(which,remember,is responsibleforabout50%ofthe variation)thattriggerstheonsetof schizophreniamustbeenvironmental. Althoughwecannotpinpointthe triggers,wedoknowthestrengthof geneticinvolvementforschizophrenia, ascanbeseeninFigure2.2.

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Figure2.2Geneticinvolvementinschizophrenia:Asyoucansee,anidentical twinhasabouta50%chanceofdevelopingschizophreniaifhisorhertwinhas it.Thelikelihoodofdevelopingschizophreniadecreases,andthelevelof geneticrelationdecreases.ThisThisisproofofageneticcomponentinmental disorders,butthatcomponentmustalsobeinfluencedbytheenvironment,or identicaltwins,whohavetheexactsamegenes,wouldbothhaveit100%ofthe time!(DrawingbasedonI.I.Gottesman,Schizophreniagenesis:Theoriginsof madness.NewYork:Freeman,1991.)

Theinfluencesofnatureandnurtureonintelligencearemuchhardertodetermine.Psychologistshave triedtoassignpercentagestothisdebateformanyyears.Mostresearchersagreethattherange generallyfallsbetween40and60%,butwithgreatdebateonwhetherheredityortheenvironmentis themoredominantinfluence.Intryingtofindtheanswer,psychologistsoftenuseidenticaltwins(who havethesamegeneticmakeup)andadoptedchildren(whohaveacompletelydifferentgeneticmakeup thantheiradoptiveparents).Herearesomefindingsfrombothgroups. IdenticalTwins.TheUniversityofMinnesotahasanongoingtwinsprojectthatcontinuesto followover8,000pairsoftwins.Bouchard,Lykken,andMcGue(2009)reportthattherewasnot muchdifferencebetweentwinsraisedtogetherandtwinsraisedapartonpsychologicaland physiologicalevaluations.Someofthetwinsraisedaparthadevenenteredthesame professions,marriedsimilarspouses,hadsimilarfavoritefoods,andhadsimilarweights.These dataclearlysuggestthatgeneticshasanimpactonphysicalandmentaldevelopment. AdoptedChildren.AdoptedchildrensIQscoresareclosertotheirbiologicalparentsthanto theiradoptiveparents.ThisfindingsuggestsastronggeneticinfluenceonIQ.But,like

schizophrenia,whenwelookattheIQscoresofidenticaltwinsraisedapart,theyarefarfrom identical,showingthattheenvironmentinwhichchildrenareraisedplaysanimportantrole (Petrill,Saudino,&Cherny,1998). Psychologistsandbehavioralgeneticiststodaytend toagreethatlookingatgeneticsandenvironmentin somesortofadditiveway(40%+60%=100%)is toosimplistic.Thelatestidea,andonethatis intuitivelyappealing,isthatheredityandthe environmentcollaboratetoproduceapersons physical,cognitive,andpsychosocialcharacteristics. Forexample,ababyinheritsgenesfromhisparents, whicharethenexpressed,modified,oreventurned offbyexposuretoenvironmentalfactorslike differencesinnutrition,learning,andemotional support.Genesprovidetheblueprintfor development,buttheenvironmentcontinually modifiestheirexpression,bothbiologicallyand psychologically.

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Surprisingly(ornot),twinsseparatedatbirthandraisedin differentfamiliesfindthattheyhavemuchincommon.Thisisan indicationthatgeneticshasaverystronginfluenceon development. DennisMacdonald/photolibrary

MATURATION
Theideathatgenessetdownthefoundationthat theenvironmentpaintsissupportedbystudiesof maturation(thesetpatternofphysical developmentcontrolledbyourgenes),asbriefly notedinChapter1.ArnoldGesellfilmed hundredsofbabiesandtoddlers,watchingwhat theywereabletodoatcertainages.Fromthis massofobservations,Geselldevelopedprinciples andanaveragetimetablefordevelopmental skills,primarilyphysicalachievements.Gesell believedthatonlyasthebodydeveloped physicallywasitabletomasternewskillsand thatthesenewskillsappearedinafixedorder (e.g.,sittingthenwalking,babblingthentalking, drawingacirclebeforedrawingasquare).Gesell recommendedthatsincedifferentchildren

Evenbabiesthatarebornwithouttheabilitytohearcanbabble. (Babblingisastageinlanguageacquisitionwhenbabiesrepeat soundssuchasbabaandpapa.)Thisshowsthattheinclinationto learnspeechbeingsatthegeneticlevel. MarcDebnam/DigitalVision/Thinkstock

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developatdifferentrates,theyshouldnotbeforcedintobehaviorswhentheyarenotready,basedon someartificialtimetableorbelief.Parentsshouldsimplyletnaturetakesitcourseandencouragenew behaviorsastheynaturallyoccur(Gesell&Ilg,1943). Gesellbelievedthatcognitivedevelopmentwasalsoinfluencedbymaturation.Babblingininfantsis seenasapreparationforspeech,whichbeginsatabout3or4monthsofageinnearlyallchildren,no matterwhatlanguageorculturetheyareexposedto.Evendeafbabiesbabble,soapparentlybabblingis programmedintoourgeneticcodeasanecessaryphysicalandcognitivepreparationforspeech.There isevidencethatsocioemotionaldevelopmentisalsoinfluencedbymaturation.Forexample,the emergenceofempathyoccursfairlyconsistentlyaroundtheageof2yearsold(Hu,Chan,&McAlonan, 2010).

REFLECTONIT:GENESANDTHEENVIRONMENT Describethespecificwaysinwhichyourgenesandtheenvironmentimpactedyourlife. Giveanexampleofhowyourgeneticmakeupandyourenvironmenthaveinteractedto createaspecificskillofyours. Canyouthinkofabilitiesnecessaryforschoolthatarearesultofbothgeneticand environmentalinfluences?

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LIFEASSESSMENT:HOWDOTHEORIESANDISSUESAPPLYTOME?
Inthischapter,youhaveseenanumberofdifferentviewsofhumandevelopment.Itisimportantthat youunderstandallsidesofthebasictheoriesandissues.Controversybenefitsourdiscoveryofthetruth becausenotheoryisperfectwhenitisfirstpresented.Onlythroughquestions,additional experiments,anddiscussionsaretheproblemswiththeinitialtheoryresolvedandasharperversionof thetheorycreated.Ofcourse,sometheoriesremaincontroversial,suchasFreuds.Scientistsrecognize theimportanceofthisgiveandtakeandrecognizetheendresultwillbeaclearerunderstandingof theoperationofthehumanmind. Youcanusethisattitudeyourself.Donotbeafraidtoquestionideas,eveniftheyareprintedinabook orcomefrompeoplewithastringofdegreesbehindtheirnames.Historyisfullofstoriesabouttheories thatwerewidelyaccepted,onlytofounderwhensomeonewasbraveenoughtoquestionit.Physicist AlbertEinstein,whoworkedinthePatentOfficeinSwitzerlandwhenhedevelopedhistheoryof relativity,changedtheentireunderstandingofourphysicaluniverse,anunderstandingthatnearly everyoneagreedwasfact. Neverbeafraidtoquestionestablishedideas.Donotbeafraidtoaskquestionsaboutthingsyoudonot understandordonotagreewith.Itisthosewhoaskthehardquestionswhohavebeenresponsiblefor mostoftheadvancesofscience. A. Howcanyouusetheideasinthenatureversusnurturecontroversytohelpyou betterunderstandyourselfandothers?Canyouthinkofaparticularexamplein yourlifewhereoneofthetheoriesofdevelopmentinteractedwitheitheranature ornurtureinfluencetohaveaneffectonyourdevelopment?(Forexample,ashy teenagerinEriksonsStageFive:IdentityVersusIdentityConfusionbeginsto matureasgenesfordevelopmentturnon.Thisleadstoanincreasein selfconfidence,beingwelcomedintoseveralsocialgroups,anddevelopinga positiveselfimage,thecentralchallengeofthatstageofdevelopment.) B. Kohlbergdiscussesthedevelopmentofourmoralsandourethicalviewpoints, leadingtoourideasaboutrightandwrong(whichFreudsuggestedwastheroleof thesuperego).Whatareyourcorevalues,thebeliefsandcommitmentsthatyou willnotchange?Doesyourbehaviorreflectthesecorevalues?Ifnot,whynot? C. Severaltheoristsdescribetheinnerinfluencesonourthoughtsandbehavior,while othersemphasizetheouterinfluencescomingfromtheenvironmentweareinand thepeopleweassociatewith.Ourbehaviorisacombinationofthosetwotypesof influences,butonemaybestrongerthantheother.Doyoubelieveyouaremore

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innerdirectedorouterdirected?Why?Thinkofsomeexamples.Doyoubelievethis balanceisbestforyourgrowth,orwouldyoupreferanewbalancebetweenthe two?Howcanyoumakeithappen? D. Basedonwhatyoulearnedabouteclectictheorists,comeupwithyourowneclectic theory,listingthecomponentsofthemajortheoriesthatapplytoyou.What combinationofthesetheoriesbestdescribeyouasapersonnow?Whatissues (natureversusnurture,continuousversusdiscontinuousdevelopment)canyouuse toexplainyourtheories?

ASKANASHFORDSTUDENT:

HOWDOTHEORIESAPPLYTOME?
ThestorybelowwascompiledfromareflectiveessaywrittenbyanAshfordUniversitystudentenrolled inPSY202:AdultDevelopmentandLifeAssessment.NotetheapplicationofLevinsonstheorytoa pivotallifeexperience. ByFrancisE.LottIII Growingup,Ihadadeepadmirationformygrandfather,FrancisE.LottI.Hewasraisedinan orphanage,joinedthenavyattheageof17,transferredtothearmytobecomeaparatrooperwiththe 101stAirborneDivision.Asayoungchild,Iwasfascinatedbyhisstories,andknewIwantedtojointhe military. InAugust2001,mygrandfatherlosthisbattlewithcancer.Thiswasdevastatingtomeandourfamily. ThiswasatimeinmylifethatIstartedtoreallylookatmyselfandfigureoutwhatIwasdoingand whereIwasheaded.IcametotherealizationthatIwasgettingnowhere,treadingwaterandstruggling tostayafloat.September11,2001adaythatbrokeeveryAmericansheartpromptedmetojointhe U.S.AirForce.Afewweekslater,IwalkedoffacharterbusontoLacklandAFBandintoasnakepitof basictraininginstructorshissingatthetopoftheirlungs. LittledidIknowatthetimethatIwoulduseafastpacedadaptationofLevinsonslifestructureto survivebasictraining.AsIsteppedoffthebus,Iwasimmediatelyengorgedinthenovicephase.My novicephasewouldlastonlyacoupleofweeks,adaptingtothestressorsleviedbymytraining instructors.Byweek3,Ilearnedhowtotakecommands,becameaccustomedtothedailyroutine,and reachedthemideraphase.Weeks5and6ofbasictrainingshowedthatIhadbecomeamotivatedand disciplinedindividual.Iprogressedintotheculminationphaseofmy6weeklifestructurecrash

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course.Finally,IreachedbasictraininggraduationandrealizedthatIhadcometoaturningpointinmy life.And,betteryet,Irealizeditwasaturnforthebest. Sincethattime,almost9yearshavecomeandgone.Whileondeployment,Ivespentnumerousdays awayfrommywifeandhome.Iveadjustedtothemilitarylifeandamproudtowearmyuniform.In12 years,Iwillbeginanewlifestructurebyretiringfromthemilitaryandcompetingforajobintheprivate sector.MygoalistopreparemyselfforasecondcareerbyfinishingmyeducationatAshfordUniversity.

KEYIDEASTOREMEMBER
Thischapterintroducedyoutoawiderangeoftheoriesrelatedtothedevelopmentofourthinking, emotions,andsocialintegration.Mostofthemlookedatdifferentaspectsofdevelopment.Thereisno unifiedtheoryofpsychologicaldevelopmentandlikelyneverwillbe.Thereareninecategoriesof theories. PsychoanalyticTheory SigmundFreud,thefounderofpsychoanalytictheory,saidthatthehumanmindhasbotha consciousandanunconsciouspart.Wehideunpleasantordisturbingmemoriesinour unconscious,buttheystillinfluencebehavior. Freudbelievedthatourpersonalityiscomposedofthreeparts,theidwhichalwaysseeks pleasure(ItsallaboutME!);thesuperego(wecallitourconscience),whichgovernsour ethicalbehavior(Dotherightthing);andtheego,whichmediatesbetweenthetwoasit decideswhichactionstotake. Freudstatedthatweusedefensemechanismstoprotectourmindsfromseveredistress, isolatingorchanginghighlystressfuleventsorimagessothatourconsciousminddoesnothave tofacethem.Defensemechanismsincludebutarenotlimitedtotechniqueslikerationalization, denial,repression,anddisplacement.

PsychosocialDevelopment(Stage)Theory ErikEriksonandDanielLevinsondevelopedinfluentialtheoriessuggestingourlivesdevelopin patterns,oftenwithinroughlythesametimeframe. Eachstageofferschallengesandleadstothedevelopmentofphysicalorpsychologicalskillsthat areneededtoprogresstothenextstage,suchasapersonmustlearntotrustothersbefore achievinganemotionallyintimaterelationship.

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Erikson,adiscipleofFreud,thoughtthatwegothrougheightdevelopmentalstagesinlife,each onewithapsychologicalchallengethatmustbemetinordertodevelopimportantnewaspects ofourpersonality.Eriksonlateraddedaninthstage. Whenthechallengeofonestageisnotmet,itmaydelaythepersonsabilitytomeetthe challengeoflaterstagesalso. Themostimportantstagesforanintegratedpersonalitycomebeforethepersonreaches adulthood.

CognitiveDevelopmentTheories Cognitivedevelopmenttheoriesarefocusedonthinking,learning,andmemory,notonsocialor emotionalgrowth. JeanPiagetwasoneofthemostinfluentialtheoristswithhisideasaboutthefourstagesof cognitivedevelopmentofchildren. Piagetsaidthatcognitivegrowthoccursinpartthroughthemechanismsofassimilation: incorporatinginformationaboutnewobjectsorexperiencesthatfitwithinexistingmental structuresbasedonpastexperiencewithotherexamples. Piagetalsosaidthatcognitivegrowthoccursthroughthemechanismofaccommodation,in whichmentalstructuresweusetounderstandtheworldaremodifiedbasedonnew information. LevVygotskyssocioculturaltheorysaysthatchildrendevelopinstagesinpartbasedonour interactionwithpeers,skilledadults,andthemanipulationofsymbols. Vygotskysaidthatachildhasarangeofpotentialforacquiringnewskills,thezoneofproximal development.Adultscanbesthelpchildrendevelopthroughtheuseofscaffolding,orgiving help,butnotmorethanisneededforchildrentosucceedontheirown. Informationprocessingtheorylikensthemindtoacomputer. Memoryisbrokendownintorecallandrecognitiontasks. Memorytechniqueslikeencodinginformationwithmentalkeywords,repetition,imagery,and mnemonicscanimprovememory. Associationbetweenoldandnewinformationcanimprovebothunderstandingandmemory. Thecomputeranalogyisusefulbutcertainlymuchtoolimitedforacompleteunderstandingof thehumanmind.

MoralDevelopmentTheory TheLawrenceKohlbergtheoryofmoraldevelopmentlooksattheintersectionofpsychology andethicalbehavior. Kohlberghypothesizedthatmoraldevelopmenttookplaceinthreestages:preconventional, conventional,andpostconventional.Mostpeopleneverreachthefinalstage.

Behavioral(Behaviorism)Theories

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ThethreepioneeringtheoristsofthebehavioristmovementareIvanPavlov,JohnWatson,and B.F.Skinner.Behaviorismisamongthemostinfluentialtheoriesofdevelopment. Pavlovoriginatedthetheoryofclassicalconditioninginwhichanunrelatedstimulusis associatedwithaphysiologicalresponseuntilitspresencewillcausethatresponsetooccur. Watsonisthefatheroftheschoolofbehaviorism,whichbuildsontheideasofclassical conditioning. Thecoreideaofbehaviorismisthatastimuluscanbeassociatedtoaresponsethrough techniquessuchasthelawoffrequency,whichstatesthatthemoreoftenaresponsehappens afteraparticularstimulus,themorelikelyanassociationwillbebuiltbetweenandthusmore likelythatpairingwillhappenagain.Hislawofrecencystatesthatthemorerecentlyaresponse happenstoaparticularstimulus,themorelikelyanassociationwillbebuiltandthatpairingwill happenagain. B.F.Skinneristheleadingbehavioraltheorist.Skinnercalledhistheoryoperantconditioning.It statesthatbehaviorstendtoreoccurwhenrewardedandtendtodiminishwhennotrewarded orpunished.Thus,behaviorscanbemodifiedortrainedbyassociatingthebehaviorwitha rewardorpunishment.

SocialLearningTheory Sociallearningtheorieslinkourdevelopmenttotheinfluenceofothers. AlbertBanduraemphasizedtheimportanceofobservingothersandmodelingtheirbehavioras awaytolearn.Hisideasofmodelinghelpexplainmanyeverydaywaysoflearningnewskillsand behaviors. Bandurastheorieshavereceivedwidespreadacceptance.Theyformthepsychologicalbasisfor alltheHowTovideos. EcologicalTheory TheecologicaltheoryofUrieBronfenbrennersuggeststhatourdevelopmentisaffectedby severaltypesofinfluences,infourconcentricringsfrommosttoleastinfluential. Bronfenbrenneremphasizedthatthefirstring,themicrosystemisthemostinfluentialour everydaycontactswithparents,friends,institutionslikeschools,ourjob,church,andsoon. Largerinfluences,likeoursociety,culture,andsoonalsoplayamajorroleindevelopment,but itsinfluencesmaybemoreindirect. Ecologicaltheoryhasbeencriticizedfornotemphasizingtheroleofgenesenoughinits developmentaltheoryandforminimizingtheroleofcognitivefactors.

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PersonalityTheoryofCareerSatisfaction JohnHollandsaidthereisastronglinkbetweenourpersonalityandhowsatisfiedwearewitha particularcareer.Careersprovidingrewardsthatmeetthepersonalityneedsofanindividual tendtobeseenasrewarding,althoughtherearemanyotherfactorsplayingaroleinoveralljob satisfaction. Theselinksareidentifiedincareerpersonalitytests,suchastheMyersBriggstest,whichhelp peoplematchtheirpersonalitiestorewardingcareers. Hollandidentifiedsixpersonalitytypes:realistic,investigative,artistic,social,andenterprising. Researchsuggeststhelinkbetweenpersonalitytypeandbestcareerisweak,perhapsbecause theactualrelationshipismorecomplexthanthetheory. Eclectic(Composite)Theories Thesetheoriessimplyblendseveraloftheabovetheoriesintoone,therebyofferingawider rangeofexplanationsforbehavior. Proponentsbelievethatthestandardtheoriesaretoonarrowandrigidtoadequatelyexplain behaviorandpermitalternativeexplanations.

ControversiesandIssuesinAdultDevelopment Thereareseverallongstandingareasofdisagreementamongpsychologistsastheyrelateto cognitive,emotional,andsocialdevelopment. Mosttheoriesandcontroversiesfocusondifferentaspectsofdevelopmentandarenotin conflictwitheachother.Butoncertainbasiclevels,suchasstageversusnonstagetheoriesof development,psychologistsstilldonotfullyagreeonhowdevelopmenttakesplace.Itislikely thatananswerrestsinacombinationofboth. Continuousversusdiscontinuousdevelopment:Somebelievetherearenostagesof development,thatwesimplydevelopatalong,slowpace.Othersseestages.Itislikelythat therearestagesforpartsofourdevelopmentandnotforothers. Natureversusnurture o Thedebatebetweentheinfluenceofgeneticsandtheenvironmentondevelopment hasgoneonfornearly300years. o Ourhereditaryinfluencesfromourparentsarecarriedonthe46pairsofchromosomes holdingover20,000genescontrollingmanyaspectsofourphysicaldevelopment. o Thechoicesthatwemakeinlifeandtheenvironmentsthatweliveinhaveamajor impactonourdevelopment. o Itislikelythatbothheredityandenvironmentplayamajorinfluenceondevelopment, interactingwitheachothertoformanindividualsphysical,cognitive,andpsychosocial development. Maturation

o o o o

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Maturationisrelatedtothenatureversusnurturedebate.Maturationisthesetpattern ofphysicaldevelopmentcontrolledbyourgenes. Itstatesthatourdevelopmentisstronglyinfluencedbypreprogrammedgeneswhich turnonoroffatcertaintimestocreatedevelopmentalchanges. AleadingproponentoftheideaofagenetictimetablewasArnoldGesell,whosaidthat physicalandcognitiveskillsdevelopinafixedorderwhenthetimeisright. Thereisdebateoverhowmuchinfluencegeneticshasoverdevelopment,andthelikely answeristhesameasabove:Genesandtheenvironmentinteracttoguide development.

KEYTERMSTOREMEMBER
accommodation:Theprocessofadjustinganexistingmentalstructureorschemetoaccommodatenew informationorexperiences. analstage:Freudspsychosexualstagewherethechildhasafixationonfunctionsrelatedtotheanus andbladder. assimilation:Theprocessoffittingnewexperiencesintoanexistingmentalstructureorscheme;most easilyaccomplishedwhennewexperienceissimilartopriorexperiences. behaviormodification:Theprocessofchangingabehaviorthroughtheuseofoperantconditioning, usingrewardand/orpunishment;abehavioralgoalmaybetoincreaseordecreasethebehavior;often usedtobuildorbreakhabitssuchasdietingorsmoking. behaviorism:Aninfluentialschoolofpsychologyfocusedonlearning;emphasizesthatlearningoccurs throughrepeatedassociationsofastimulusandaresponse,resultinginameasurablebehavior(suchas onemeasuredbyatest). careersatisfactiontheory:Hollandstheorythatsatisfactioninacareerdependsonagoodmatch betweenoneofsixpersonalitytypesandthecareerchosen. classical(Pavlovian)conditioning:Pavlovstheorythatanunrelatedstimuluscanproduceanautomatic responsebyrepeatedlypairingitorassociatingitwiththestimulusthatnormallycausesthatresponse. cognitivedevelopmenttheory:Atheoryrelatedtothedevelopmentofmentalcapabilities,including memory,attention,learning,language,thinking,problemsolving,reasoning,andcreativity,among others. conservation:Piagetstermtodenotethatthequantityofthings(water,sand,etc.)donotchangewhen transferredtodifferentshapedcontainers.

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continuousdevelopmentalprocess:Acontroversialissuerelatedtotheprocessofdevelopment;states thatdevelopmentisacontinuousprocessofchangeanddoesnotoccurinstages. controlgroup:Agroupofpeopleinaresearchsettingwhoareverysimilartoatestgrouponasetof importantvariables(suchasage);usedtomeasuretheinfluenceofanexperimentaltreatmentonthe testgroupbycomparisontothecontrolgroupthatdidnotreceivethetreatment. conventionalmorality:SecondofKohlbergsthreelevelsofmoralthinkinginwhichmoralbehavioris valuableasawayofconformingtoandsupportingagrouporsocialorder. counterconditioning:Abehaviormodificationtechniquethatgraduallyeliminatesundesirable behaviors,suchassmoking. defensemechanism:Atechniqueusedbythemind,oftenwithoutconsciousawareness,toprotectitself fromundueharmcausedbyseverelystressfulsituationsandmemories. discontinuousdevelopmentalprocess:Acontroversialissuerelatedtotheprocessofdevelopment; statesthatdevelopmentdoesnotoccurinasmooth,continuousprocessbutinaseriesofstages,each ofwhichpresentschallengesthatmustbeovercometosuccessfullymoveontothenextstageof development. eclectictheory:Adevelopmentaltheoryincorporatingdifferentideasfromseveralothertheoriesto offerabroaderperspectivecapableofexplainingawiderrangeofthoughtsandbehaviors;alsocalleda compositetheory. ecologicaltheory:Bronfenbrennerstheorythatproposeshumandevelopmentcanbeexplainedin termsoftheinteractionbetweenindividualsandtheenvironmentsinwhichtheyliveorhavelived. ego:OneofFreudsthreeproposeddivisionsofpersonalitythatservesasamediatorbetweentheurges oftheidandsuperego;resideswhollyintheconsciousmindandguidesourthoughtsandbehaviors. epigeneticprincipal:AcoreconceptinEriksonsstagetheoryofhumandevelopmentstatingthatboth heredityandtheenvironmenthaveabidirectionalinfluenceondevelopment,bothinfluencingand beinginfluencedbyourdevelopment. fixation:AstrongandcontinuingfocusonapartofthebodyorbodyfunctionrelatedtooneofFreuds psychosexualstages;associatedwithpleasurablesensationsdrivenbytheid. generativity:Theabilitytobeusefultoothers,especiallythoseyoungerthanus,byparticipatinginsuch activitiesascoaching,mentoring,andparenting. id:OneofFreudsthreeproposeddivisionsofpersonalitythatisfixatedonpersonalgratificationtothe exclusionofallelse;resideswhollyintheunconsciousmind.

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informationprocessingtheory:Adevelopmentaltheorythatequatesthedevelopmentandfunctioning ofhumancognitionwiththeinformationprocessingprogramsofacomputer. lawofeffect:TheearlybehavioristEdwardThorndikestheorystatingthatactionsthatreceiverewards aremorelikelytooccurandthosethatreceivepunishmentarelesslikelytooccur. lawoffrequency:Abehavioriststermtodescribetheprinciplethatthemoreoftenaresponsehappens afteraparticularstimulus,themorelikelyanassociationwilldevelopbetweenthemandthemorelikely thatpairingwillhappenagain. lawofrecency:Abehavioriststermtodescribetheprinciplethatthemorerecentlythataresponse occurstoaparticularstimulus,themorelikelyanassociationwilldevelopanditwillhappenagain. lifestructure:Levinsonstermfortheunderlyingpatternofapersonsoveralldevelopment,including therolesandrelationshipsthatapersonhasthroughoutlife. modeling:Seeobservationallearning. moraldevelopment:Kohlbergsdevelopmentaltheoryfocusingontheinteractionofcognitiveand socioemotionaldevelopmentwithethicalprinciplesastheyinfluenceethicalbehaviors. nature:Thetermthatdenotestheinfluenceofgeneticsondevelopment;partofthe natureversusnurturedebateaboutinfluencesondevelopment. nurture:Thetermthatdenotestheinfluenceofapersonsenvironmentondevelopment;partofthe natureversusnurturedebateaboutinfluencesondevelopment. observationallearning(modeling):Bandurasdevelopmentaltheoryoflearningpositingthatpeople learnnewideasandbehaviorsbywatchingothers;hasconsequencesinbothcognitiveand socioemotionaldevelopment. operantconditioning:Skinnerstheorythatlearningcanbeinfluencedbyassociatingabehaviorwith eitherarewardandpunishmenttostrengthenoreliminatethatbehavior. operational:Amentalroutineusedbyyoungchildrentotransforminformationorexperiencesinaway theycanbeanalyzed,suchasclassifying,counting,andsubdividing. oralstage:Freudspsychosexualstagewhereachildhasafixationonthemouth. phallicstage:Freudspsychosexualstagewherethechildhasafixationonthegenitals. postconventionalmorality:Kohlbergsthirdandlastlevelofmoralthinkinginwhichmoralbehavioris seenasvaluableinandofitself,withoutreferencetoauthorityfigures,groups,orsocialorder.

preconventionallevel:FirstofKohlbergsthreelevelsofmoralthinking,usuallyoccupiedbychildren ages4to10yearsold;beliefthatrulesmustbeobeyedbecausetheyaregivenbythoseinauthority andviolationwillresultinpunishment.

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psychoanalytictheory:Atheoryproposingpersonalitydevelopmentisshapedbybothconsciousand unconsciousthoughtsandmotivations;accordingtoFreudspsychoanalytictheory,thethreeelements ofpersonalityaretheid,ego,andsuperego. psychologicaltheory:Alogicalandorganizedsetofideasdesignedtoexplainhumanthought,emotions, orbehavior. psychosexualstage:ApsychologicaldevelopmentalstageinchildrenproposedbyFreud;includesoral, anal,andphallicstages. psychosocialdevelopment:Thatpartofhumandevelopmenttakingplacewithinthesocialenvironment thatapersonlivesin,primarilyfocusingonrelationshipswithotherpeople. recallmemory:Memoryprocessinwhichmemoriesareaccessedwithoutthehelpofcues. recognitionmemory:Memoryprocessinwhichmemoriesareaccessedwiththehelpofcues,suchasin multiplechoicequestions. reinforcement:Aterminoperantconditioningreferringtoaprocessbywhichanassociationbetweena stimulusandaresponseisstrengthened;commonlythoughtofasareward. scaffolding:Vygotskystermtodescribegivinghelpbutnotmorethanisneededfortheotherpersonto accomplishataskontheirown. schizophrenia:Amentalconditioninwhichapersonlosescontactwithreality,oftencreatinga distortedperceptionsorhallucinationsaffectingbothspeechandthinking. shaping:Aterminoperantconditioningreferringtoaprocessofmodifyingbehaviorstowardadesired goalbytheuseofreinforcements. sociallearningtheory:AtheorypopularizedbyBandura,statingthatlearningisfacilitatedbyobserving andmodelingthebehaviorsorideasofothers. superego:OneofFreudsthreeproposeddivisionsofpersonalitythatisfixatedonmoralityandethical behavior;residespartlyinboththeunconsciousandconsciousminds. zoneofproximaldevelopment:Vygotskystermtodescribethedifferencebetweentheabilitytodoa taskwithouthelpandtheabilitytodothesametaskwithsomehelp.Helpprovidedbyscaffolding allowsthepersontothenaccomplishthetaskontheirownwithoutfurtherhelp.