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ANY TIME, ANYWHERE COMPUTING
Mobile Computing Concepts and Technology
The Kluwer International Series In Engineering and Computer Science
Texas. Texas. USA Richard Brice Darrell Woelk Marek Rusinkiewicz MCC Austin. BOSTON. ANYWHERE COMPUTING Mobile Computing Concepts and Technology Abdelsalam Helal University of Florida Gainesville. Carter Motorola Austin.ANYTIME. Florida. LONDON. USA KLUWER ACADEMIC PUBLISHERS NEW YORK. USA Jeffery L. Texas. MOSCOW . USA Bert Haskell MCC Austin. DORDRECHT.
eBook ISBN: Print ISBN: 0-306-47301-1 0-792-38610-8 ©2002 Kluwer Academic Publishers New York. London.ebooks.com http://www. Dordrecht.com . recording. mechanical. or otherwise. electronic.kluweronline. Boston.kluweronline. without written consent from the Publisher Created in the United States of America Visit Kluwer Online at: and Kluwer's eBookstore at: http://www. Moscow All rights reserved No part of this eBook may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means.
3 In-building Radio Frequency 220.127.116.11 In-room Radio Frequency 2.2.5 Wide-Area Packet/Circuit Switched Data Networks 2.2.3 Wireless and Mobile Computing Architecture Limitations of the Wireless and Mobile Environment 1 2 4 10 2 WIRELESS TELECOMMUNICATION NETWORKS 2.1 Impressive Technology 1.1 Time-Division Multiple Access (TDMA) 2.1 Digital Cellular Systems 2.2 1.4.2 Code-Division Multiple Access (CDMA) The Wireless Network Technology 2.CONTENTS FOREWORD PREFACE 1 xi xiii INTRODUCTION TO MOBILE COMPUTING 1.1 Multimedia Applications 13 15 15 16 18.104.22.168 2.4 Campus/Metropolitan Area Packet Networks 2.2 2.2.4 18 18 19 19 20 20 21 21 22 25 27 3 PORTABLE INFORMATION APPLIANCES .1 In-room Infrared 2.6 Satellite Networks Mobility-Bandwidth Tradeoffs Systems Issues 2.2.
2.3 Palmtop Computers 3.2 New Challenges Emerging Portable Information Appliances and Teleservices 4.5.5 Toshiba Desk Area Network (DAN) 4.2.8 NTT PHS Wristwatch Phone 4.2 The Advent of the PDA 3.1 The Palm Pilot 3.8 Laptops 3.1 HP CapShare 3.2 Motorola Marco 22.214.171.124 Nokia 9000 3.2.2 Wearable Computer Systems (CMU) 4.7 Seiko Wristwatch PC 4.2. ANYWHERE COMPUTING 3.12 Power Ring and the Magic Wand Concluding Remarks 126.96.36.199 Historical Evolution 3.6 Sub-notebooks (Micro-notebooks) 3.4.1 4.3 IBM Wearable PC 4.2.1 Sharp Power Zaurus 3.9 NTT Ring Keyboard 4.6 BlueTooth 188.8.131.52.2.7 Notebooks 3.1 Wearable Computing (MIT) 4.2 VADEM Clio 3.2 Clarion AutoPC 27 32 35 36 37 37 39 39 40 41 42 44 44 46 46 47 49 49 51 52 52 53 53 55 55 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 4 FUTURE INFORMATION APPLIANCES 4.9 Other Information Appliances 184.108.40.206 5 FUTURE WIRELESS COMMUNICATION NETWORKS 63 .11 The Ear Phone 4.4.4 Hand-held Computers 3.vi ANY TIME.5 Communicators 3.9.10 Display Pad: The Next Generation TV 4.4 BodyLAN: A Wearable RF Communications System 4.
1.1 IMT-2000 5.3.1 6.Contents vii 5.4 5.2 Wideband Code Division Multiple Access 5.2.2 Oracle Lite 6.1.1 Wireline Network Services 5.3.1 Mobile Networking 220.127.116.11 74 77 83 86 87 6 STATE OF INDUSTRY: MOBILITY SUPPORT SOFTWARE 18.104.22.168 Loose Source Routing Protocol 7.3 6.4 Oracle Replication Manager 6.2 Shiva PPP Interoperability and Standardization Shortcomings and Limitations 6.1 Oracle Mobile Agents 6.2.1 Future Wireless Teleservices 5.2.3 Oracle Software Manager 6.2.3 64 64 65 66 67 67 69 71 72 5.1.3 ACTS Third Generation Wireless Networks 5.5 Sybase SQL Remote Mobility Middleware 6.1 MobileWare Office Server 22.214.171.124 Early Approaches: Virtual IP Protocols 7.2 Competing Philosophies End-User Client Applications 6.3 Space Division Multiple Access Fourth Generation Wireless Research Concluding Remarks 5.3.1 Time Division/Code Division Multiple Access 5.2.5 89 89 91 91 91 92 92 92 93 93 94 95 97 7 RESEARCH IN WIRELESS AND MOBILE COMPUTING 7.2 UMTS 126.96.36.199 Market Evolution Emerging Wireless Network Standards 5.4 6.2 Wireless Service Evolution 5.2 5.3 The Mobile Internet Protocol (Mobile-IP) 99 100 100 101 102 .
1 The Wireless WWW (W4) 7.6 7.viii A NY T IME .3.5 The GSM General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) 7.3 Dynamic URLs 7.6.2 Mobile Data Access in Ad-hoc Networks Mobile Transactions 7.2 The Client/Proxy/Server Model 7.6 Semantic-based Nomadic Transaction Processing Mobile Computing Models 7.4 Isolation-Only Transactions 7.6.1 Mobile Client/Server Data Access 7.3 QoS Driven.2.1.6. A NYWHERE C OMPUTING 7.3.1 Reporting and Co-Transactions 7.1.5 The Thin Client Model 106 107 108 109 110 112 114 119 119 119 120 120 121 123 123 125 126 126 127 128 129 129 130 131 131 132 133 133 134 APPENDIX-A: GLOSSARY OF COMMON ABBREVIATIONS APPENDIX-B: WIRELESS CELLULAR SYSTEMS 137 145 .2 QoS Driven.5.4. Full Protocol Stacks Mobile Access to the World Wide Web 7.1.3 The Clustering Model 7.3.4 Mobile Browser (MOWSER) 7.6.2 7.4 The Mobile Agent Model 7.5 WebExpress Mobile Data Management 7.3 7.4 7.6.6 Security and Authentication Issues in Mobile Networks Quality of Service in Mobile Networks 7.5 7.4 Cellular Digital Packet Data (CDPD) 7.3. High-Level Communication Protocols 7.2.2 The Kangaroo Transaction Model 7.5 The Two-tier Transaction Model 7.5.2 Dynamic Documents 7.4.3 The Disconnected Operation Model 188.8.131.52 The Client/Server Model 184.108.40.206.2.1 Optimizing TCP/IP for Mobile Networks 7.
Contents ix APPENDIX-C: STANDARDS ORGANIZATIONS REFERENCES 151 157 INDEX 165 .
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Japan alone has had more than ten million subscribers enter the mobile market. and (3) software middleware and architectures that support wireless and mobile computing. In only a few short years. Reading e-mail and connecting to various information feeds have already become a part of daily business activities. The growth in these dynamic industries shows that a change in our chosen method of communications is already well advanced. The book emphasizes three infrastructures: (1) wireless communication network infrastructure. Accompanying the vibrant growth in mobile communications is the growth in multimedia communications. Its shape and form are just starting to appear as personal digital assistants (PDA). handheld personal computers (HPC). including the Internet. (2) terminal devices (or ”computers-on-the-go”).FOREWORD Mobile communications have permeated the globe in both business and social cultures. . Mobile and multimedia communications technologies are merging.” “Any time Anywhere Computing” provides the reader with an understandable explanation of the current developments and commercialization of mobile computing. We are at the cusp of vast popularization of “computers-on-the-go. making mobile computing a key phrase in the coming advanced information communication era. Such explosive popularity is an indication of a strong commercial demand for communications in both the tethered and tetherless environments. wireless data communication services. and commercial software designed for mobile environments. We are trying to grasp the overall picture of mobile computing. The core technologies and applications needed to understand the industry are comprehensively addressed.
Ph. I would like to express my sincere applause to the authors who have completed this enlightening work.xii A NY T IME . Japan April 1999 . A NYWHERE C OMPUTING Moreover.D. Moriji Kuwabara. Senior Advisor to NTT President Nippon Telephone and Telegraph Corp. the research activities presented in this book provide an insightful look into the future of mobile computing.
in-building RF. Current and future portables technology is covered and explained. Mobile and nomadic users carrying laptops or hand-held computers are able to connect to the Internet through publicly available wireline or wireless networks. and satellite networks. Chapter 2 summarizes two digital cellular systems (TDMA and CDMA) and describes a taxonomy of different wireless network technologies including in-room infrared. Finally. in-room RF. Chapter 3 provides a historical perspective on the evolution of “Portable Information Appliances” (PIA). Finally. A reference architecture is described along with a discussion of the limitations of the mobile and wireless environment. It also describes the emergence and evo- . this trend can only grow as new exciting services and infrastructure delivering wireless voice and multimedia data will be deployed. By covering commercial solutions and middleware. In the near future. It includes substantial coverage of the technologies that are shaping mobile computing. systems issues in wireless networks are discussed with special focus on the effect of the various wireless networks on multimedia applications. the book surveys a vast body of recent research in the area of mobile computing. Anywhere Computing: Mobile Computing Concepts and Technology is intended for technical and non-technical readers.PREFACE The proliferation of wireless networks and small portable computing devices have led to the emergence of the mobile computing paradigm. Similarly. campus area packet relay networks. Any Time. Chapter 1 provides a motivation and an introduction to Mobile Computing. current and future wireless telecommunication networks technology is covered and reviewed. this book will also help IT professionals who are looking for mobile solutions to their enterprise computing needs. The research coverage is likely to benefit researchers and students from academia as well as industry. wide area packet/switched data networks. The chapter also provides an alternative taxonomy based on the mobility/bandwidth tradeoffs.
It describes the new challenges that the PIA industry must face before an “ideal” PIA can be invented. Wireless network and service evolution is carefully presented to provide a basis for predictions. wireless Internet access. and mobile computing models. For each organization. UMTS. and ACTS are covered. which is one of the hotest topics today. mobile transactions. A classification of existing PIAs is presented and sample devices from each category are described. A complete and detailed survey of research in this area is outside the scope of this book. Future universal air interface standards. a brief description is provided in addition to a Universal Resource Locator (URL) to point the reader to where more information can be obtained. Chapter 4 extends Chapter 3 by analyzing the suitability of existing PIAs. is delicately presented. which is divided into end-user client applications. The chapter addresses interoperability issues and discusses shortcomings and limitations of the current state of industry. Chapter 6 includes coverage of commercially available mobility software solutions. Appendix C includes a listing of standard organizations and consortia. The reader is encouraged to consult this appendix if an acronym is encountered without a definition. The survey is very condensed but is loaded with citations for further reading. . Chapter 7 surveys academic and industrial research in mobile computing. Emerging PIAs and PIAs’ prototypes and concepts are included in this chapter. Chapter 5 covers third and fourth generation wireless telecommunication networks and services. It includes research on mobile networking. A NYWHERE C OMPUTING lution of the Personal Digital Assistant (PDA). not as a complete source of information about these systems. quality of service. Emerging wireless network standards such as the IMT-2000.xiv A NY T IME. Appendix A provides a glossary of acronyms and abbreviations. and mobility support middleware. which is a heavily debated issue. The chapter attempts to clarify confusing concepts and sort out the facts from the uncertainties. The TD-CDMA and the W-CDMA proposals for future air interfaces are also described. Appendix B lists a brief summary of the various wireless cellular systems. It is intended to be used as a quick reference.
Preface xv The reader should be cautioned that the book is based on current developments. any time and anywhere. the reader is advised to consult the latest revisions and information sheets. For most up to date information on standards and products. standards. We hope you enjoy reading this book. and trends. Some standards or trends covered in this book are bound to change during the book lifetime. The field of mobile computing is relatively new and is constantly changing. Abdelsalam Helal Bert Haskell Jeffery L. Carter Richard Brice Darrell Woelk Marek Rusinkeiwicz 22nd of June 1999 .
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A few people contributed to the book cover design. Lin Russinoff designed and produced the wonderful cover with some artwork provided by Sumi Helal. Sherry Scheetz and James Andrae. Jerry West and Melinda Helal assisted in the editing and artwork for the book. . They are responsible for all typos that might be found John Wilkes helped in gathering and updating some of the information in the Information Appliances section.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors would like to acknowledge the contributions of a number of people. Joe Bumblis and Ed Krall contributed to the information gathering on wireless network technology. Ed White contributed to the writing on the history of the PDA.
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Helal To my wife and daughters. and families are eternal.To my father Ali Abdelsalam Helal for all the love and brotherhood he gave me. —A. I would like to thank my Wife and Kids for their love and support of my research. who are not impressed by technology. experiences. Haskell Knowledge. —J. —B. Carter . but by utility.
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which allow for limited mobility within a building facility. nomadic users engaged in nomadic computing. We are presently at the cusp of the mobile multimedia era. the kind of network used in nomadic computing does not allow mobility. The difference between nomadic and mobile computing is particularly important to point out. and Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN). or does so in the confines of a building. on the other hand.1 INTRODUCTION TO MOBILE COMPUTING Mobile computing will be the buzz of the next century. at pedestrian speed. A bus traveler with a laptop connected to a GSM phone or a CDPD modem is a mobile user engaged in mobile computing. From our first breath. The infantile paradigm of mobile computing is opening up new markets never dreamed of before. which obviously do not allow any mobility. Both nomadic and mobile computing require small portable devices.1 depicts this taxonomy. untethered. Examples of such networks are DIAL-UP lines. ubiquitous. Figure 1. Defining and relating some of these buzzwords is an important prerequisite to this introduction. Buzzwords such as mobile. the individual is free and untethered. It also shows ubiquitous computing to be the aggregate ability to . pervasive. at pedestrian or vehicular speeds. requires the availability of wireless networks that support “outdoor” mobility and handoff from one network to the next. therefore. However. Consumers want personalized wireless computing services while they are mobile. are used by different people to refer to the new breed of computing that utilizes small portable devices and wireless communication networks. Travelers carrying laptops with DIAL-UP modems are. as soon as the umbilical cord is cut. nomadic. Nomadic computing refers to the interleaved pattern of user relocation and “in-door” connection. To be tethered is unnatural and soon to be unnecessary for computing environments. and companies want to make money offering those services. and any time anywhere. Mobile computing.
research. a pioneer and a visionary from Xerox PARC. more important questions need to be answered: where are we now? and what are the challenges and impediments facing mobile computing? This book attempts to answer these two questions by organizing a morass of information about technologies. . We caution the reader that. to reduce the clutter. An individual with a Palm Pilot will probably answer in favor of the portable technology.2 C HAPTER 1 compute in both the nomadic and the mobile modes.1 IMPRESSIVE TECHNOLOGY An important question to ask is which technology drove mobile computing to where it is today? Is it the wireless network technology or the miniaturization and portable computing technology? Unfortunately. in this book. had different view and definition for ubiquitous computing. standards. Whatever the right answer might be. Satyanarayanan and Zahorjan have articulated such challenges in their famous articles that we highly recommend to the inquisitive reader [45. there is no easy answer. whereas a UPS package delivery worker will be more thankful to the wireless technology. the term mobile computing is used to refer to both nomadic and mobile computing. and commercial products. The reader is referred to his famous 1991 article in Scientific American . Mark Weiser. 1. 85].
It is changing the way people live and interact. These are too many that we dedicated a chapter in this book to classify and describe each of them. medical emergency care.3 shows an Ericsson GSM base station in downtown Stockholm. and at an ever decreasing cost. and (3) wire- . There are several applications for mobile computing including wireless remote access by travelers and commuters. (2) wireless and mobile access to private Intranets. law enforcement. Another chapter is also dedicated to future portable devices that are currently in the prototype development phase or are just pure concepts. and miniaturization breakthroughs have led to the smallsize design of radio equipment and the elimination of large tower and monopole infrastructures. the wireless communication technology is growing and expanding at a breath-taking pace. It is now amazingly easy to deploy cellular networks (especially pico-cellular technology) in record times. Figure 1. intelligence and military. education. stock trading. Most of these applications can be classified into: (1) wireless and mobile access to the Internet. trucking industry. power technology.2 shows how pervasive the portables technology has become. Antenna. Subscribers are given the power of “ubiquitous” communication at affordable prices. disaster recovery and management. A large collection of portable devices are available in the market today. Similarly. package delivery. insurance industry.Introduction to Mobile Computing 3 Figure 1. point of sale.
Some of the fixed hosts are special computers equipped with wireless interfaces.5. “Pizza Hut nearest to destination” will soon not be uncanny for the high-tech travelers. through a Wireless Service Provider (WSP). “nearest hospital”. This classification is depicted in Figure 1. where a traveler. and perhaps her vehicular speed. An example of a wireless and mobile access to the Internet is shown in Figure 1. Mobile computers can be in one of three states.6 and consists of stationary and mobile components.2 WIRELESS AND MOBILE COMPUTING ARCHITECTURE The architectural model of a mobile computing environment is shown in Figure 1. direction of motion in a particular highway. The first state places . which are placed in the center of a cellular coverage areas. and are known as base (radio) stations (BS). Fixed hosts are connected together via a fixed high-speed network (Mbps to Gbps). Queries such as “nearest Japanese restaurant”. is able to issue queries based on her location. 1. They are also known as mobile support stations (MSS). Base stations.4 and will be discussed further in Chapter 7.4 C HAPTER 1 less and ad-hocly mobile access between mobile computers. act as access points between the mobile computers and the fixed network.
Introduction to Mobile Computing 5 .
6 C HAPTER 1 .
but just ready to cross a cell boundary. was originally developed by the European Institute for Research and Strategic Studies in Telecommunications (EURESCOM) as an advanced mobile communications technology.6. communicating. GSM was hailed as a superior wireless technology because the general architecture supported such features as roaming. . Figure 1. These scenarios are depicted in Figure 1. The third state places a mobile computer in a cell. these features are common to most wireless infrastructures.7.6 is a generalized architectural overview of a typical wireless/nomadic system.Introduction to Mobile Computing 7 a mobile computer within a cell and capable of communicating. minimum disruption when crossing cell boundaries. GSM. Many such systems have been deployed both in the United States and Europe as well as in many other parts of the world. and connectivity to any number of public wired infrastructures. One such European sys- tem is the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM). During early stages of deployment. The second state places the mobile computer out of range of any service cell and not capable of communication. Today. which is depicted in Figure 1.
the centralized exchange systems which switch communications between the wireless domain and the wired infrastructure. AIN was a joint effort between Bellcore (now Telcordia) and the RBOCs in the late 1980’s. but could play an important role in the realization of third generation wireless networks. are a few examples of the similarities of these systems. they all share many similar system components. The exact .8 quantifies GSM penetration in terms of number of states with GSM services in the US. Figure 1. Another variable. AIN deployment has been slow.9 depicts how the Personal Communications System (PCS) may be incorporated with AIN in an overlay network architecture. The use of base stations for communication with the mobile computers. and the use of location registers (HLR and VLR) so the system “knows” where the mobile computer is currently located and from where it came. is the incorporation of Advanced Intelligent Networking (AIN) . Figure 1. with standards completion around 1991. Although all of the wireless architecture’s are unique in some respects.8 C HAPTER 1 GSM is gaining increased popularity in North America. which one might consider a service provider issue.
. Telcordia has only defined the high level attributes of the functional components and the interconnect between functional planes (layers) to aid the service providers in product selection and deployment.Introduction to Mobile Computing 9 functionality and nature of the system components is left up to the service providers.
g. cellular. 1. and control applications support services given the systems described above. etc.9 is comparable to the overlay internetworking system described by Katz and Brewer . PCS. the existing research and development on mobile computing is driven by the particularities and limitations of the mobile environment. wired. One of the many issues to be addressed is how do wireless service providers and application developers create. Such limitations include: Frequent disconnection caused by one of the following events: – handoff blank out in cellular networks.) with a centralized management scheme as defined by the Telcordia AIN standards. POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service). the problem is worse in microcellular networks – long down time of the mobile computer due to limited battery lifetime – voluntary disconnection by the mobile user – disconnection due to hostile events such as theft and destruction – roaming-off outside the geographical coverage area of the wireless service Limited communication bandwidth impacting the following: – quality of service (QoS) and performance guarantees – throughput and response time and their variances – efficient use of battery due to long communication delays (wireless interface requires battery energy during the slow send and receive) Heterogeneous and fragmented wireless network infrastructure leading to the following problems: – rapid and large fluctuations in the network QoS . deploy.10 C HAPTER 1 The PCS system with AIN services outlined in Figure 1.3 LIMITATIONS OF THE WIRELESS AND MOBILE ENVIRONMENT For the most part. The PCS/AIN system shown above is comprised of many different forms of communications (e. There exists interconnection across planes and between overlay planes to establish service attributes.
A unified and truly portable environment is most needed by application developers and inventors of future killer apps. Windows-CE. A version of Linux for hand-held devices is also being developed. single-address space memory management. . These operating systems are light weight with simplified. Palm-OS. Application portability across these operating systems is currently a major problem. Windows-CE development can also be done using Microsoft Visual C++. – poor end-to-end performance of different transport protocols across networks of different parameters and transmission characteristics. EPOCH. and GeOS are the most significant operating systems developed for mobile computing.Introduction to Mobile Computing 11 – mobility transparent applications perform poorly without some sort of mobility middleware or proxy. Other problems include: – security and anonymity – service relocation – support for location-sensitive applications There are other limitations related to platform and application development methodologies and languages. The use of Java is currently limited due to the inadequate performance of JVM on most of these platforms. Operating systems for portable devices (other than laptops) are yet to reach maturity. Development of mobile applications on these platforms is typically done through platform-specific SDKs supplied by the operating system vendors.
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WIRELESS TELECOMMUNICATION NETWORKS
Today, person to person voice communications, enabled by the telephone, is still perhaps the most powerful technology available to the average person. The benefit to cost ratio of this technology for the individual is enormous. An
individual can use a telephone to conduct commerce, earn a paycheck in countless ways, call for medical assistance, consult experts worldwide on any topic, and essentially obtain almost any critical information imaginable. The most sophisticated part of this technology is not in the telephone handset itself but in the enormous worldwide communications network to which the handset is attached. The introduction of cellular telephones has certainly improved the individuals ability to access (or be accessed by) this voice network in any location. But the global network is now providing more than person to person voice communications. Data, images, and live video are now routinely transferred to the individual desktop computer. It is expected that these expanding capabilities will soon be available within some type of portable information appliance. There are several well-established cellular infrastructures available today in different parts of the world (see Appendix–B for a list of major cellular systems). The European community has standardized largely on GSM. North America has broad AMPS coverage with a number of other standards competing in the PCS frequencies. Japan deployed the PHS infrastructure everywhere. A brief comparison of these predominant standards is shown in Table 2.1.
C HAPTER 2
Wireless Telecommunication Networks
2.1 DIGITAL CELLULAR SYSTEMS
Analog cellular systems such as North America’s AMPS have the disadvantage that they are very expensive to expand and grow. Each mobile phone requires a dedicated channel to communicate in a cell site. The only way to expand in AMPS is to build additional cell sites which cost in the range of $500,000 to $1,000,000. In 1988, the Cellular Telecommunications Industry Association (CTIA) commissioned a subcommittee called Advanced Radio Technology to define alternative technologies that allows the cost effective cellular expansion in the US . Proposed technologies focused on Multiple Access network technologies. The first digital system accepted by CTIA is the TDMA system, which stands for Time Division Multiple Access and which allows users to share the radio channel through time division. The second digital system accepted by CTIA is CDMA, which stands for Code Division Multiple Access, and which allows users to share the entire radio spectrum through different, uniquely assigned codes for transmission and reception. In the next subsections, we briefly describe the TDMA and CDMA cellular systems.
2.1.1 Time-Division Multiple Access (TDMA)
TDMA is a digital transmission technology that allows a number of users to access a single radio frequency channel without interference, by allocating unique
time slots to each user within each channel. Currently, a single channel is divided into six time slots, with each signal using two slots. This provides a 3 to 1 gain in capacity of AMPS. In dispatch systems (e.g. Motorola iDEN), a dispatch signal uses one time slot, thus providing a 6 to 1 gain in capacity. D-AMPS, GSM, iDEN and several PCS systems currently use TDMA. The Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) provided an early standard for TDMA over AMPS, known as IS-54, which required digitizing the voice signal, compressing it and transmitting it in regular series of bursts, interspersed with other users’ conversations. Second generation standard for TDMA by TIA is the IS-136 which uses TDMA on the control channel. TDMA is expected to be called TIA / EIA-136 once it becomes an ANSI standard. One problem with TDMA is the wasted bandwidth of unused slots. Time
slots are allocated to specific users whether or not they are using the slots (talking or transmitting data). Hughes Systems Network has contributed an
enhancement of TDMA known as Enhanced TDMA (ETDMA) that attempts
The hexagonal array can be replicated and connected. not cause a loss of bandwidth. A seven cells hexagonal array is shown in Figure 2. without using any but the seven frequency channels.1. Today. A phone conversation with long pauses will. . and do not compare to the ideal hexagons shown in Figure 2. cellular frequency reuse is achieved by imposing a hexagonal array of cells in a service area. each cell will be allocated 416/7 = 59 channels. which is 1. In reality. Therefore. Over 8 million digital subscribers worldwide utilize the IS-54 and IS-136 today.2 Code-Division Multiple Access (CDMA) In frequency and time division multiplex systems. NMT in Scandinavia. And even if ideal hexagons are possible.8MHz. and will increase the spectral efficiency of TDMA. cell coverage areas are highly irregular.1. three of the top four carriers are deploying TDMA IS-136. Frequency reuse utilizes the fact that the attenuation of electromagnetic fields tends to increase with distance. ETDMA assigns subscribers dynamically based on whether a user has voice/data to transmit. In this example. the capacity of cellular systems can not grow beyond the bandwidth offered by 59 channels. Frequency reuse is very essential to the design of cellular systems that are based on frequency division multiplex. one for each cell. 2. TDMA is becoming a very popular air interface. the subscriber station is directed via messaging to discontinue use of the old channel and tune to the new one. Without reusing the frequency assigned in the spectrum. the total number of cells that can be deployed can not exceed the available number of channels. Seven frequency channels represented by different gray levels are used. Upon handoff. providing a larger coverage area. Take AMPS as an example. Each AMPS operator in North America is allocated 416 channels (30KHz each). and TACS in the United Kingdom. Instead of waiting to determine whether a subscriber is transmitting. to reuse the frequency without incurring significant interference.1. In the US alone. several hundred channels are available within the spectrum allocation of a carrier service. In a seven-way reuse hexagon. One channel of one base station is used for each conversation. Ideally.16 C HAPTER 2 to correct this problem. only non-adjacent cells are assigned the same frequencies. therefore. the frequency division approach offers limited capacity. Systems that use frequency reuse includes AMPS in North America.
The spreading technique is also known as Direct Sequence scheme. Future wireless networks known as third and fourth gener- ation wireless networks (based on where you are in the globe) are mostly based on CDMA and are covered in Chapter 5. CDMA is. This is one reason CDMA is attractive since it is easier to predict the achieved bandwidth based on the acceptable Noise to Signal Ratio (NSR) and the gain of signal spreading. Instead of partitioning either spectrum or time into disjoint “slots”. where the different segments of the subscriber conversation (or data) known as frames are transmitted on a sequence of randomly chosen frequencies within the spectrum. Frequency Hopping is another spreading technique. therefore. It allows all mobile stations to concurrently use the entire spectrum (all channels) with much less interference. It is known by the military to be a Low Probability of Intercept (LPI) and Low Probability of Detection (LPD) air interface scheme. who suggested that through noise-like carrier waves. using the noise signal. . CDMA was invented by Claude Shannon. CDMA has been migrating into civilian applications and is now reaching maturity and impressive market penetration. Originally. The transmission signal is “spread” over the entire spectrum. bandwidth can be increased. each subscriber is assigned a unique instance of a pseudo-noise digital signal. the subscriber unit must communicate with the base station to agree on the direct sequence (the pseudo random digital code) or the sequence of frequencies to hop through. Since late 1980s. Transmitted signal is difficult to decode by an intercepting party due to the spreading and the unknown spreading noise signal. known as a spread spectrum modulation scheme.Wireless Telecommunication Networks 17 Code-Division Multiple Access (CDMA) offers a solution to the capacity limitation problem. Versions of CDMA has been in use for quite sometime by the military for the different reason of security. In either direct sequence or frequency hopping. Signal interference in CDMA (between neighboring cells) is much less sensitive to most of the system parameters and is confined within a predictable average.
These six classes of networks have unique technologies which constrain the nature of the applications which can be supported by each of them. Applications sup- . (3) in-building radio frequency. and (6) regional-area Satellite Data Networks. 2.2 THE WIRELESS NETWORK TECHNOLOGY Wireless technologies can be grouped into at least six major categories: (1) inroom. Figure 2.18 C HAPTER 2 2. (4) campus or metropolitan area packet networks. (5) wide-area packet/circuit switched data networks.2.2 shows an overlay of several network technologies. In the following subsections. Typically. point to point infrared. an overlay of two or more network categories is used to provide continuous coverage in a mixed nomadic/mobile environment.1 In-room Infrared The in-room infrared class of networks generally has a network diameter of about 40–50m and supports bandwidths of about 1 Mbps. A similar taxonomy is provided in . we briefly summarize the characteristics and differences of these networks. (2) in-room radio.
2. and desktop component interconnect may be example applications that could utilize in-room RF wireless tech- nologies. In the former. BlueTooth is a low-cost.2 In-room Radio Frequency The in-room radio frequency class of networks emerged in 1998 with the organized effort of the BlueTooth Special Interest Group . 2. Wireless LANs can be used in both Infrastructure and Ad-Hoc Modes.6 of Chapter 4. Windows-CE hand-held computers.2. where mobile computers are allowed to roam within and across cells.2. Both ISA and PC Card interfaces are available with support for Windows and Linux. short range radio that connects mobile PCs with other BlueTooht devices within a radius of about 10m. Such API will allow for the design of “”infrastructure literate” applications that can accommodate the user expected performance levels while maintaining consistency across the infrastructure. bank tellers. 2. Hospital intensive care units. expands the range of the infrared and the BlueTooth technologies by increasing the network diameter to about 200m. The proliferation of portable devices such as 3COM’s Palm Pilot.Wireless Telecommunication Networks 19 ported by this type of infrastructure are limited to E-mail and collaborativework applications due to the limited range of the system. which is also known as Wireless LAN. Unlike infrared and BlueTooth.11 and the OpenAir interface. Very low energy consumption and about 1Mbps transmission speed makes this type of network attractive and suitable for inter-office device communication. The Infrared Data Association (IrDA) provides the most common standard used today for this network technology. Access Points are used and are connected to the fixed network through a ded- . Several standards are available today for this type of networks including the IEEE 802. BlueTooth is further discussed in section 4. The challenge laying ahead is to identify a suitable API for applications that will run atop this specific technology. Proxim also provides additional support to a variety of Windows-CE devices. in-building radio frequency is a cellular network. Examples of Wireless LANs include Lucent/NCR WaveLAN and Proxim RangeLAN.3 In-building Radio Frequency This type of network. and highly portable and powerful laptops such as the IBM ThinkPads may incorporate BlueTooth transceivers to bridge the in-room wireless technology with fixed network infrastructures.
certain applications will be difficult to implement. there is a lack of consensus on which air interface to use (direct sequence or the frequency hopping). without the help of any networking infrastructure. and about 20ms between relay nodes. somehow. typical latency between a mobile device and the first relay node is about 40ms (assuming an uncongested network). Wireless or nomadic devices with Wireless LAN interfaces access the network through the access point in the coverage area (cell).2.5 Wide-Area Packet/Circuit Switched Data Networks This network is comprised of a more familiar set of technologies and Regional Bell Operating Company (RBOC) services. In the ad-hoc mode. these features are implemented for wireless LANs. In this mode. First. the wireless LAN is used as a wireless extension of a fixed.2 to 5 miles with data rates of 20-128 kbps. A private network is used to configure the network software (TCP/IP) among the ad-hoc group of devices. provides a competing proposal that is gaining popularity. It is typified by a “poletop infrastructure” supporting network diameters of 0. The iDEN network (Integrated .11 standard does not seem to be universally accepted (at least not yet). the IEEE 802. Ericsson’s RAM (now called MobiTex). for instance. among other features. 2. Ad-hoc networks is becoming increasingly important technology.2.4 Campus/Metropolitan Area Packet Networks This network type encompasses the more traditional “cellular” networking paradigm. For example. faces a few challenges. 2. The OpenAir interface consortium.20 C HAPTER 2 icated router port. This technology. and the European GSM system are contained in this taxonomy. Unless. several portable devices with wireless LAN interfaces are placed in the transmission range of each others. Each device is capable of communicating with any other device directly. Another challenge lies in the fact that wireless LANs are MAC-level networks that do not understand important features of IPv6 such as Multicast. Motorola’s ARDIS and iDEN systems. high-speed network infrastructure (hence the name). even though highly mature at this point in time. RSVP. One such offering is the Cellular Digital Packet Data (CDPD) service which is a packetized wireless transport that utilizes the unused channels of a cellular infrastructure. Also. Relay (or router) nodes are strategically placed to support the wider network diameter with a small price for increased latency.
but they also tend to have lower bandwidths and higher latency effects than do the in-building networks. Not only is this technology capable of supporting larger diameter networks. in these networks. Satellite networks are an exception and do not follow this trend.6 Satellite Networks Satellite technology is still emerging. 2.3 MOBILITY-BANDWIDTH TRADEOFFS Another classification of the current wireless networking technology can be based on the “degree of mobility” offered by these networks.Wireless Telecommunication Networks 21 Digital Enhanced Network) is a packet based voice/data network that uses the Mobile-IP networking protocol to route data packets. Inbuilding cellular offers the highest bandwidth (bi-directional). the transformation of this research into commercially available “mobility middleware” is yet to occur. and financial news feeds. However. It is a downlink technology where mobile computers can only receive direct broadcast from a satellite. but they do . As can be noticed. DirecPC also transmits continuous streams of multimedia information ranging from CNN broadcasts. Micro-cellular offers lower bandwidth but allows for limited-speed mobility. to satellite (global coverage). This research is described in Chapter 7. sports. to news. to macro-cells (suburban coverage). Multi-cellular wireless infrastructures range from in-building cells. macro-cellular offers much lower bandwidth but allows for the highest degrees of mobility. to micro-cells (urban coverage). Other Low Earth Orbit (LEO) systems are in planning and deployment phases including the Internet in the Sky project.2. This tends to present a unique set of problems in application development. Outbound com- munication is initiated by the mobile computer through a modem DIAL-UP or other wireless technology. Significant body of research on network and system adaptation through infrastructure awareness components has been or is being conducted. 2. the higher the degree of mobility. Hughes Network Systems pioneered the DirecPC network which uses the Galaxy satellite and which delivers 400 kbps downlink rate. They offer the highest downlink bandwidth (no uplink possible with satellite networks). but very limited mobility. the larger the coverage area (the cell size).
Instead. they require a satellite dish to be stationed aiming at the satellite. wireless LANs (an in-building technology) is expected to evolve into a network that allows for limited-speed mobility.4 depicts this expected evolution. the .4 SYSTEMS ISSUES The rapid expansion of wireless Wide Area Network (WAN) services. Figure 2. In this mapping. Also. At least this is ITU’s and ETSI’s vision and expectation of the third and fourth generation networks. and vehicular speed. macro-cell networks are expected to improve on the bandwidth they offer. wireless Local Area Networks (LANs). satellite services such as Hughes’ DirecPC and the planned Low Earth Orbit (LEO) systems have created a large and fragmented wireless infrastructure.22 C HAPTER 2 not offer any mobility. The current mapping of wireless technology to the mobility/bandwidth classification is bound to change.3 shows a mapping of the mobility/bandwidth classification onto individual wireless networking technologies. walking (pedestrian pace). 2. Figure 2. For example. Given such a diverse set of technologies. mobility is further classified into indoor and outdoor. with outdoor mobility ranging from stationary.
service coverage.211. The term ” retrieval” is generally thought of as a machine transferring information to a person. . Also. but could be automated. while the actual transaction is between machines. The Client/Server architecture is a primary example of this application class. Table 2. network latency. although they may have to be “user” activated. The term “messaging” generally refers to a person talking to a machine.2 are considered machine-to-machine interactions. Application updates may include human intervention. The last five application classes listed in Table 2.Wireless Telecommunication Networks 23 need to support mobile applications remains critical and even strategic to many industries. “interactive” usually means conversational. These classifications have some loose definitions. implying a person on either end of the application connection. For example. The choice of a wireless infrastructure must take into consideration the attributes of the application and the applications class of service requirements including bandwidth. the term “distribution” is typically thought of as a machine sending to people or machines who listen passively. and general performance issues. An example would include leaving voice mail or sending a FAX.2 summarizes application classes as stringently defined by ITU-T Recommendation I. The ability to scale performance and latency while accommodating an increasing user density is of paramount importance when designing and/or selecting a wireless infrastructure for a particular application.
24 C HAPTER 2 .
data compression technology. To achieve wireless motion video data rates for portable devices. This standard has been adopted by the European community for the next generation of cellular service and could be implemented globally by 2002. the MPEG 1 standard provides for 352 X 240 pixel resolution. Today. which requires up to 80 Mbps of bandwidth (typical applications of this standard. however. The motion video quality enabled by such a service would. and limited data. may only require 6 to 8 Mbps). these standards do not support graphics intensive internet browsing or real time video at a high enough speed to make them practical.3. service costs. One such standard is the Wideband CDMA approach proposed by Ericsson has the specifications shown in Table 2. This is well beyond any of the deployed wireless network standards. While they are effective for voice and text messaging.4.14 Mbps data rate. This limitations can be attributed to existing standards. new wireless infrastructure standards will have to be deployed. In the case of video.Wireless Telecommunication Networks 25 2. .1 Multimedia Applications As of today. and requires 1. the standards. While it is technically possible to transmit multimedia information such as a motion video clip from the internet into a portable wireless device. there are limitations which prevent the effective exploitation of wireless networks by portable information appliances beyond the area of voice communications. which supports high resolution video of 1920 X 1080 pixels. comparable to VCR quality video. however. be less than MPEG 1 in terms of resolution and/or frame rate. and power consumption considerations make this impractical at this time (1999). infrastructure bandwidth limitations. text messaging. which are limited in the level of service they can provide to the user of a portable information appliance. consumer expectation is set by MPEG 2.
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throwing sharpened sticks at predators and most importantly. Once utilized. This would have been necessitated by the need to count goats in a heads-up mode while incrementing through the marks with the thumb. and responsibility with respect to the rest of his community.1) and ink pen. This information was probably very important to the user of this appliance and in some way directly affected his livelihood. ease of use. portability. abrasion. This apportable and could convey very complex information. running away from predators.3 PORTABLE INFORMATION APPLIANCES 3. Durability would have been important since the user did not have the means to protect the device from temperature variations. human civilization to the papyrus scroll (Figure 3. As the technology progressed onward pliance was highly user interface took of mathematics and writing developed. and shock. this device may have played a very important role in establishing his credibility. accountability. moisture.1 HISTORICAL EVOLUTION The first portable information appliance was probably a piece of stone or clay with markings on it. and until relatively . It may have actually provided the “function” of counting by allowing the user to create a mark corresponding to a piece of livestock. The a while to learn (reading and writing). durability. this appliance would have to be stowed in an extremely portable fashion so that it did not interfere with other activities such as attempting to frighten away predators. Given the lifestyle of such an individual. used to record numeric information. and reliability were all essential. To the user. Ease of use probably meant that the individual marks had to be deep enough in the appliance so as to be detectable by touching. This would have been very useful to an individual whose society had not yet invented a system of numbers.
the pocket watch and the printed book (Figures 3.2 and 3.3) are relatively recent inventions which have trans- . Still pen and paper persisted for several thousand years and is still the preferred portable information technology for most of the worlds population. only a limited number of individuals were able to use the technology.28 C HAPTER 3 recently. Two other portable information appliances.
The first widely adopted electronic portable information appliance appeared in the early 1970s in the form of electronic calculators. Printed books. was upon us. calculators had shrunk to pocket size and had fallen below the $20 price point. About this time. companies such as Texas Instruments. Development work on these products began in the mid 60s and these designs exploited state of the art discrete transistor technology. Rockwell and Intel had identified handheld calculators as a way to grow the market for Integrated Circuit technology. The age of portable electronic devices. In 1970 there were several bulky hand-held calculators on the market at price points of around $300 and above. digital watches also began to replace mechanical watches which had been in place for hundreds of years. however. have also evolved as the preferred method for accessing standardized information in a portable format. The invention of the semiconductor technology in the Early 1960s began a transformation in portable information appliances. Thus. while not as interactive as paper and pencil. By late 1960s. and the pocket watch have been the dominant portable information appliances since the dawn of the industrial revolution. paper and pencil. By 1975. the printed book. enabled by the integrated circuit. the full impact of which has yet to be realized.Portable Information Appliances 29 formed human society. . The pocket watch enabled the level of logistical synchronization between individuals required for industrialization .
over one million Notebook computers had been sold worldwide as these products demonstrated their usefulness by turning spreadsheets and word processing into portable capabilities. This trend was further accelerated by the introduction of 8mm format models which were highly miniaturized. By the early 1990s. these products tended to be a disappointment to individuals that had experienced desktop computing and found little compatibility between organizers and desktops. where the use of personal computers was somewhat lagging that of North America. By the late 1980s over 10 million units had been sold worldwide and the cell phone became a necessity for many and a status symbol for many others. . Early models. such as the Sharp Wizard. This rapid penetration was driven by the compelling application of acquiring and storing motion video images. Personal organizers. Cellular phones have seen remarkable penetration worldwide . they were popular among technophiles but in general. were also introduced in this time frame and were most successful in Japan. In North America.30 C HAPTER 3 By the early 1980s portable video camcorders had sold over 1 million units worldwide and penetration of portable electronics to the consumer had begun in earnest. in the late 1980s.
in effect. several manufacturers were experimenting with the Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) product concept. These systems were quite adequate for word processing and spreadsheets and were quickly adopted by traveling professionals. These products attempted to span a gap between the personal organizer products and the notebook computer products. Prices remained relatively high ($2. By the early to mid 1990s. manufacturers want to maintain high margins so the focus of the Notebook industry was on saturation of the business market. The second factor was the desire on the part of the user to have high performance which matched as nearly as possible that of a desktop system.Portable Information Appliances 31 from companies like Toshiba and Compaq. First of all. competing with desktop products. Several manufacturers attempted to add wireless communications to their PDA products to make them more appealing. Still. Transfer of data in and out of the notebook was achieved through magnetic disk.000 +) due to two factors. they were typically crippled with an over sold and poorly performing handwriting recognition capability. These products tended to compromise the miniaturization of organizers and lacked the full functionality of notebooks. Furthermore. featured Monochromatic reflective LCDs. the lack of integration with the . Most importantly. these early products tended to compete with. rather than complement the desktop or notebook computer.
and calculator were virtually nonexistent. 3. The result was that few wiry developers. and even fewer wiry applications existed that were capable of operating in the computational. By 1993. the resulting carnage throughout the industry was both severe and widespread. and new operating paradigms using glitzy graphical user interfaces (GUI) and handwriting recognition. The telecommunications infrastructure in the mid 1990s offered only wireline and cellular modem capabilities with fairly low bandwidth (about 14. Early on it was clear the success of the PDA rested heavily upon a variety of component and service infrastructures with the most critical of these enablers being wireless communications.2 THE ADVENT OF THE PDA PDAs burst onto the scene in 1993 and mounted a headlong assault into the commercial market-place only to be quickly repulsed. the PC industry had introduced its most recent line of laptop computers which included computational and storage capacities that rivaled their most powerful desktop companions.4 Kbs) for portable products. ubiquitous and instantaneous communications. with forces re-marshaled and armed with a new gener- ation of products. immature applications. Now. even though computational and storage capacity had been doubling every 12 months in recent years. riding a sustained boom of 40% growth per year and giddy about recent cooperative initiatives. and incompatible and unrealized infrastructures. this time targeting the application specific vertical marketplace. PDAs emerged in 1993 amid claims of single-point data organization. this same industry is attempting another assault. when the first PDAs appeared practically none were supported by third party software and embedded applications beyond the basic notepad. the cellular . calendar. Grazing on these fertile fields had fattened the software industry and had bred a generation of software developers with inefficient development skills and tools. When the initial exuberance subsided. They were: high customer expectations. Coincidentally. The reasons. This in turn lead to unwieldy applications whose weaknesses were masked only by the raw computational and storage capacities of the hardware they ran on. Most if not all of these claims fell short of consumer expectations.32 C HAPTER 3 desktop PC and the bandwidth limitations of the wireless telecommunications infrastructure caused these products to fail. In 1993. while obvious in hindsight. power and storage barren environment of the PDA. lay hidden at the time.
it was soon realized that the requisite data radios would be both larger and more power hungry that anyone predicted. fragile. The breakdown came in the radio module that provides the link between the PDA and the wireless network. and more were touted loud and long. some like the AT&T EO had prices that went as high as $2000–well outside the reach of many of the target customers. “transportable applications”. As such. The vast majority were simply discarded amid the disappointment and frustration of the once excited user. There were other problems as well with this initial surge of PDAs. but they served only to add to the mass confusion. Every technology announcement from new processor architectures to handwriting recognition techniques added fuel to the flames. was enthusiastically received by the PDA industry but within a year the initiative would stall and lose much of its support. seemingly unable to separate future dreams from first article hardware. by a barrage of hype filled announcements. in the first two years there were just 350. was both clear and severe. The industry backlash. The volumes were so low in fact. “laptop functionality”. the ring of these claims still echoed in the ears of customers as they tried to use products that were expensive. market expectations were set high. Consumers were demanding usefulness and the first round of PDAs with limited applications and practically no communications simply did not fit the bill. costs were high and sales were low. incompatible. the whole industry was elevated to a high state of excitement. you will”.. however. This effort. bulky. In fact. that unlike most consumer electronics. With hundreds of millions of dollars invested. As if this was not enough.. Consequently. Initially predicted to be PCMCIA sized. and high they stayed. they never crested the cost-experience wave which along with competition has the unrelenting ability to drive prices asymptotically toward the cost of the raw materials. uncooperative and unstable. What went wrong was equally as clear. both industries recoiled under the letdown.000 units sold. Only a small percentage of the devices sold were ever really used. using phrases like “Imagine if” and “Have you ever . The others fell back and re-grouped trying to understand what went wrong. Market analysts and prognosticators joined in the frenzy. as one product after another fell short and slammed into the reality wall. and IBM Simon) dropped out completely. The average price for a PDA in 1993 exceeded $750. “time saving user interfaces”. Claims like “desktop performance in your palm”. To make matters worse.Portable Information Appliances 33 service providers boasted claims of a complete domestic wireless data infrastructure (CDPD) by the end of 1994. . When they emerged. unsupported. two of the major players (AT&T EO. seemingly coordinated in its announcement. “ubiquitous communications”. larger than some of the PDAs they were supposed to support.
the landscape has changed significantly. Meanwhile. . but today. demands on and customer expectations of the PDA have continued to rise. New Orleans and Atlanta in domestic coverage. has made wide area communications even more critical to the PDA paradigm than ever. Unfortunately. 18 months after ubiquitous wireless data services were promised by the cellular carriers. a new battalion of products is moving into the fray. they still fall woefully short of customer expectations. The integration of digital and RF circuitry at the semiconductor level will solve this problem in the future. This architectural approach results in a variety of inefficiencies and is due to a lack of expertise in wireless implementation. component size. This lack of clarity in the wireless infrastructure has caused confusion throughout the industry and continues to threaten the viability of the PDA. and in some cases manufacturers are trying to distance themselves from the past by avoiding the name PDA altogether. however. PDAs are now met with suspicion and skepticism.34 CHAPTER 3 Today. Southwestern Bell and Airtouch have essentially stopped their CDPD deployment. there is an attempt to reduce the type. software applications and substrate densities of this infrastructure has driven the PDA into one of 2 directions: either toward a fully functional product that is too large to be practical or toward a product that meets the ergonomics requirements of the paradigm. One reason for this is that the laptop computer performance has continued to double every year. Regardless. not to mention email services. improved ergonomics increased multimedia functions and more powerful applications has helped set a new standard for PDAs to meet. This time. The silicon integration. Not surprisingly. utilizing the same worldwide components and manufacturing infrastructure that has been optimized to support desktop and laptop products. choosing instead names like pocket organizer and personal information manager (PIM). While PDAs have made progress in their operating systems. internet usage has erupted. applications and third party support. along with even higher resolution displays. leaving major holes like Los Angles. displays. but that severely limits functionality and performance to fit. Despite the reduction in hype. however. CDPD is in serious trouble. Reliance on data stored in the myriad of html web sites. This problem is compounded by the fact that the PDA manufacturers seem to rely on third parties to supply wireless modules for their products. This. a detailed look at the current offering of PDAs reveals that they are an outgrowth of PC concepts. vendors that do not excel in both computing and communications design suffer a handicap. Unlike the excitement of the past.
The demands of the vertical market are many times more stringent than that of the consumer market and the procurement motivation is much less of an impulse. continuously increasing levels of computing power and display quality had been achieved. and will prove tenacious in their desire to maintain market share.Portable Information Appliances 35 The result is that while the average price of the new PDAs has dropped to $575. not much else has changed. Almost in recognition of this fact the strategists now say that the vertical market is the new focus of their attention but this is no panacea.3 PALMTOP COMPUTERS It is likely that wireless network connectivity will trail wired connectivity in terms of performance for the foreseeable future. Portable displays had evolved from simple numeric segment displays with less than 100 pixel elements into full color displays with over half a million pixels. Still starved for applications this new generation will not likely outsell its predecessors in the consumer marketplace. it was through a low bandwidth wireless voice channel which was often unreliable for data transfer. Consumers recorded hundreds of millions of hours of video data every year using hand-held camcorders. Within the confines of a portable notebook. Batteries in the early 60s could store no more than 100 watt-hours per litre.00. The best strategy for the de- . Without mobile access to the growing global information network. these portable devices would not live up to their potential. Norand. Their capacity today is up to 200 watt-hours per litre. For all of these advances in hardware technology. Prom the Early 1960s through the Mid 1990s. What is worse. wireless voice communications via cellular phone had be- come common place. the advances in portable information appliances were impressive. Silicon integration evolved from discrete transistor devices to single chips containing over 6 million transistors. Furthermore. however. If they were connected to the outside world at all. These products drove the development of important technologies. 3. and Telxon understand the operating environment and applications of the vertical market better. Ubiquitous. many of these portable information appliances still seemed as static as the printed book. the Internet appeared and created heightened expectations about information access. the entrenched competitors like Symbol. even though many industry projections say otherwise. Electronic and mechanical packaging technology was capable of connecting thousands of components in a compact volume compared to only a few tens of parts at the start of this period.
The emerging market of Palmtop Computers is a breakthrough in terms of the ability of the Palmtop to complement the desktop computer. this device allows the desktop user to augment the networked desktop computing experience with a portable time management interface.36 C HAPTER 3 velopers of portable information appliance is to design products which either provide useful standalone functions such as an electronic still camera.1 The Palm Pilot The Pilot is a highly portable appliance which is the first truly viable substitute for traditional pencil and paper technology. this product concept has made important inroads into sensibly merging the interactions of portable and stationary information appliances. or which complement wired network platforms.3. Many other contemporary product designers have failed to take this approach by attempting to combine and therefore replace other devices. may . One example would be a smart phone that combines the functions of a cellular phone and a notebook computer. 3. Such product concepts often end-up compromising the features which make the individual products appealing. With desktop synchronization. While the Pilot is unlikely to provide services like high quality real-time video in the near future. For instance.
Since their first emergence. unusable keypads. 3. The result is a product that does not effectively replace either of the products that it is competing with. but can not be fitted in a pocket. hand-held computers have been competing with the Palm Computer market. poor battery life. The Palm Pilot V specifications are shown in Table 3.1 Sharp Power Zaurus . The Palm Pilot V device is depicted in Figure 3.1.Portable Information Appliances 37 smart phones have poor display quality.4 HAND-HELD COMPUTERS The hand-held computer is another device that attempts to complement the desktop. 3. It is much more capable than a Palm Computer.7. larger in size and weight. poor performance. and are much bulkier than most cellular phones.4.
8 is best described in terms of its specifications listed in Table 3.2. The Zaurus which is depicted in Figure 3. .38 C HAPTER 3 The Sharp Power Zaurus is a popular hand-held computer that competes with the Palm Computer market.
9 are listed in Table 3.Portable Information Appliances 39 3.4. which is shown in Figure 3. 3. The three modes are achieved by swinging and/or folding the display around the keyboard base.3. pen and tablet.2 VADEM Clio Clio is a Windows CE based hand-held PC with a swing-top design that provides three modes of interaction: keyboard. portability and functionality of digital cellular phones and palmtop computers. and presentation modes. The idea . The specifications of the Clio.5 COMMUNICATORS The Communicator is a PDA concept that combines the benefits.
not only because of its appearance in the hands of Agent 007 in one of his recent movies (1997). The picture to the right shows the communicator on a recharge base station and reveals the cell phone side of the device. Figure 3. email. Internet access. Short Message System (SMS) and a Fax application are also bundled to provide a wide spectrum of communication alternative. and a VT100 Terminal emulation are built-in applications that bring the Internet to the mobile user anywhere GSM coverage is available. telnet. A built-in browser.10 depicts two pictures of the communicator. A multi-protocol email client. of course.40 C HAPTER 3 is to stick a palmtop computer to a cell phone with data capabilities to provide remote access. The organizer includes: an address book. 3. The Nokia 9000 combined a compact personal organizer with Internet access and a versatile voice and text messaging system. The specifications of the Nokia 9000 are listed in Table 3. .5. Telnet. note editor. calculator. and web browsing are all applications offered by communicators. in addition to the stand-alone form factor applications that can be found on palmtop computers. calendar with to-do list. but because of the unprecedented unique features and capabilities. and world clock.4.1 Nokia 9000 The Nokia 9000 is the most popular communicator. in addition to the digital voice phone interface. The picture to the left shows an open communicator with a Web page on the backlit display.
depicted in Figure 3. The Marco . the Marco was equipped with two PCMCIA Type II slots to allow users to simultaneously operate thirdparty software applications and add memory to store more data.2 Motorola Marco The Marco wireless communicator was introduced to the market one year before the Nokia 9000 communicator (in 1995). The Marco Wireless Communicator. It featured a built-in two-way wireless packet data modem allowing users to send and receive messages.Portable Information Appliances 41 3.5. allowing information to be communicated through any telephone network.11. also included a fax and data modem. To augment its functionality.
At the time the Marco was introduced.6 SUB-NOTEBOOKS (MICRO-NOTEBOOKS) As mobile users continue to demand lightweight. The device features a bright portrait screen that allows easy reading in many lighting conditions.3 was therefore used. 3.8 pounds and is 7. . That was the Envoy depicted in Figure 3. 5.12.4 inches deep. long battery life. A similar product based on the Magic Cap operating system (from General Magic) was introduced in parallel.5 shows the specifications of the Sony PCG-707C sub-notebook that is depicted in Figure 3. Table 3. Newton OS 1. or sub-notebooks. and rugged portable computers. advances have been made in a number of diverse product concepts including what is now known as higher performance “micronotebooks”. Motorola had only sold several thousand units before the device production was discontinued.13.42 C HAPTER 3 weighs 1. Motorola had the vision of creating the first “wireless Newton”.5 inches high. Unfortunately. the Apple Newton did not make it and despite all the software and personal information management tools loaded in the Marco. and 1.8 inches wide.
Portable Information Appliances 43 .
7 NOTEBOOKS The notebook computer has enjoyed great success as the portable extension of the desktop computing environment.14. Notebooks are now starting to replace desktops for many users. Such laptops may have maximum capabilities (as of 1999) such as up to 15.2 pounds and is less than 0. Its display is limited though to only 12. It weighs 3.8 LAPTOPS Laptops are designed to replace the desktop. 3. and 256MB memory. The HP Soujourn is shown in Figure 3. . The users of laptops require high performance.0in Color TFT (1024x768). They can also be envisioned as nomadic desktops that can be easily moved from one place to another. These capabilities come at the price of limited portability with these laptops weighing up to 8 Ibs.1 GB hard disk and a 64 MB of memory. two battery support. large high quality displays. Today the notebook market provides a most wanted portability by an increasing majority of users. up to 14GB disk storage.1in SVGA.71in thick. integrated AC adapter.44 C HAPTER 3 3. We provide one example of notebooks which is the HP Soujourn. and occasional portability. It uses an Intel Tillamook 233-MHz processor and comes with a 2.
.15. The laptop is depicted in Figure 3.Portable Information Appliances 45 We provide only one example of a laptop since almost all mobile users are familiar with laptops and their capabilities. The specifications of the Fujitsu Lifebook 900 laptop is summarized in Table 3.6.
9.1 HP CapShare HP’s Capshare 910 is a hand-held portable device that allows mobile users to capture.46 C HAPTER 3 3. A standard letter-size page takes about 6 seconds to capture.5 oz and uses two AA NiMH rechargeable batteries that last for 100 document capture followed by a download. The device has 4MB of memory and can capture from business cards and small receipts up to legal-size documents or 25in. communicate and print documents.9 OTHER INFORMATION APPLIANCES 3.16 weighs 12.com. a mobile user capture documents from a newspaper or a magazine and then stores the document into his laptop or other portable device.hp. The (inches) device shown in Figure 3. . newspaper columns. Typically. More information about this device can be found at www.capshare. Both PDF and TIFF formats are supported. Maximum capture area of 119 square inches. store.
Internet email. stock quotes and traffic information) in a single device. . It integrates cellular telephony. navigation software.com.17) is the first in-dash personal digital assistant.Portable Information Appliances 47 3.g.autopc. contacts information and calendar.2 Clarion AutoPC The Clarion AutoPC (depicted in Figure 3. real-time information feeds (e. GPS satellite tracking. More information can be obtained from www.9. Hands-free interaction is possible through a speech recognition interface.
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The demand for additional services such as text messaging and integrated voice mail are growing rapidly and are a key marketing feature of the new PCS services. were no longer enamored with cellular phone technology and began to resent the intrusion that a cellular phone imposed on the personal time management and group interactions. cellular phones. technologists have yet to deliver a portable information appliance that has the level of impact on individual lifestyles as did the wired telephone or the wristwatch.4 FUTURE INFORMATION APPLIANCES By 1995. became less of a status symbol and more of a annoying necessity. 4. many people leave their phones off. As we move into the future. anywhere communications and access to information. Ultimately. They can be summarized as follows: . It also presents several emerging PIAs and PIA prototypes and concepts. Today. at least in North America. This chapter addresses the requirements for future Portable Information Appliances (PIA) that will be able handle multimedia information. and those around them. Individuals. except when they are making an outbound call or are expecting an important call. They will also demand more sophisticated methods of managing the way in which the rest of the world has access to their personal time. people will continue to demand the benefits of any time.1 NEW CHALLENGES There are several requirements for the development and usability of an ideal mobile computing device.
The proliferation of small devices has already created an unmanageable environment for the confused users who spend significant time attempting to unify their information through synchronization and manual mediation. Regardless of the device chosen. Related to the issue of portability and interoperability. battery technology is not expected to improve significantly in the next five to ten years. One of the larger challenges will be coverage. Applications designed to work on a single platform will not live for long. memory and display will play an important factor in the usability and widespread use of this technology. particularly in Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) and Hand-held Personal Computers (HPCs). handhelds. energy-efficient design and operation of processors. The mobile environment needs to be interoperable. content is king. Applications should be portable to different platforms. the user environment should be portable. In our information society. and communicators among other small devices (even a wristwatch). connectivity and the ability to hand-off between private and public wireless networks. Ubiquitous computing will require that several computers collaborate to serve the same owner. into many computers. Creating a computing environment that is not interoperable is a problem. Portability. laptops. Within the same communication system that uses different frequency bands. the mobile computer should be able to adapt to different frequency bands. one man. The two largest power-consuming components to a mobile device are communications and display. Miniaturization makes getting information in and out of mobile computing devices difficult. Unfortunately. the user should be portable to the different platforms and devices. or a laptop. users today may own several computers including desktops. The user is not sure which mobile device he will use from one day to the next. not a solution. storage. Interoperability across platforms. Intelligent energy management. palm computers.50 C HAPTER 4 Development of everywhere. An application should be usable and accessible on a communicator. The mobile computer should interoperate with multiple heterogeneous networks. Smaller portable devices that maintain functionality and userfriendliness of larger devices are highly desired. Therefore. Equivalently. a palm computer. This confirms Mark Weiser’s views on how we are evolving from one computer one man. not the other way around. Usability. Ubiquitous Computing. Making the interface intuitive and simple with as . low-cost communication infrastructure permitting ubiquitous access.
Since the consumer has excess processing capacity and is willing to give up the processing cycles.Future Information Appliances 51 few steps as possible to accomplishing a task is critical because input and output of information using these devices is painful enough. Just like the evolution of network-based computing (from mainframe terminal networks to client server networks). the intelligence of the network is constantly pushed to the outer edges. Even after the aforementioned challenges are overcome. In this section. A programming language that accommodates this paradigm is Java. products and standards of future portable devices and teleservices. economy of scale conditions must be met in order for mobile computing to be pervasive. where portables and wireless networks are becoming increasingly tightly coupled to the mobile user. developments. or increasing efficiency. Computers and networks exist from a business perspective to make money either by sales transactions. advertising. The growth of network terminal intelligence will be driven by money. the service provider saves money on equipment and bandwidth. Wireless networks and mobile computing have traditionally been an expensive luxury and like their wired counterparts will not become pervasive until they become economical. they help in making money.2 EMERGING PORTABLE INFORMATION APPLIANCES AND TELESERVICES Future portable information appliances and services are still open to the imagination. 4. The service provider can push processing cycles off of its equipment and on to the consumer end terminal where the service is delivered. we will witness the empowering of the mobile user and the mobile device. but also the communications engineers are cramming more data bits down a circuit. However. . and they fulfill specific consumer needs. The increase in end-terminal capabilities is a trend that happens with all networks. we illustrate some of the ambitious research. The mobile device will increase in capability not only because the hardware engineers are pushing the edge. a surprising trend is observed.
Applications and services offered might fall into the following categories: intelligent assistant. and work space providing automatic. Intel.2 Wearable Computer Systems (CMU) At Carnegie Mellon University (CMU).1 shows a wearable. wearable computers are tools that integrate the user’s mobile processing. Interaction with the mobile computing system is based on the context of the situation.2. augmented reality. The main vision of wearable computer systems is that they are tools .1 Wearable Computing (MIT) This project personalizes computing in a fashion that enables computers to be worn much like eyeglasses or clothing. or intellectual collectives. portable access to information.2. Its intended applications and services are in such areas like maintenance and plant operations and customization in manufacturing. 4. remembrance agent. A video image of the camera’s input is continuously projected into each eye. and DEC. information space. The systems include some of the following components: heads-up displays. personal wireless local area networks communication and context sensing tools. unobtrusive input devices. Wearable Computers is a CMU research project being funded by DARPA ETO. Two CRTs are driven by one video camera who’s focal length is adjusted to avoid angular modification of the user’s expected visual field . Figure 4. head-mounted display unit that includes both an output display and an input video camera as well.52 C HAPTER 4 4. with additional support from Daimler-Benz.
all of which fit in the palm of a hand. including main unit. .3 IBM Wearable PC IBM Japan has unveiled a wearable personal computer (PC) prototype developed by IBM Japan Yamato Laboratory. Roughly the size of a portable stereo.2. It uses Microsoft Windows 98 as its operating system and can be loaded with all regular application programs. portable access to information. the information can be automatically accumulated by the system as the user interacts with or modifies the environment . With the use of wireless networks. and battery pack.2. with a stand-alone headset and a miniature one-handed controller. the miniature controller. 4. 4. which is the size of a portable stereo unit. The prototype was demonstrated at the IBM Fair. Tokyo. the wearable PC can be worn as a piece of light clothing and performs like a full-function notebook computer. controller. TrackPoint and click button. BBN recognized how the increase in human-worn electronics would lead to interconnection and wiring problems.2) is 449g. (shown in Figure 4.4 Body LAN: A Wearable RF Communications System In 1996. an IBM microdrive (a one-inch hard disk drive). a radio communications network over the area of a person’s body allowing free distribution of wearable components and a gateway for access to the Internet or an Intranet .Future Information Appliances 53 in the user’s environment much like a pencil or a reference book instead of as stand alone. remote computers running programs. BBN’s solution is the BodyLAN. and the headset with micro-display and headphones. The wearable PC is composed of three elements connected by cables: the main unit. with microphone. headset and connector cables. making it far lighter than any other high-performance personal computer to date. The total weight of the wearable PC. Japan. and incorporates a 233Mhz processor. Furthermore. 1998. The main unit weighs only 299g. the wearable computer can provide automatic.
54 C HAPTER 4 .
surpassing the need for a server.2. carry. some . The idea is to standardize a cheaper and shorter range version of existing RF technology. unconscious. and other portable devices. BlueTooth can also be used to quickly setup ad-hoc networks by allowing automatic. 19. Its software includes several applications. referred to as DAN. is the cheapest wearable PC on the market today with models pricing in the range of $300. It allows one group or multiple groups of users to quickly form shared data (text or graphics) without needing the magic of a networking guru. successfully commercialized the world’s first wristwatch PC in Japan on June. This type of network is a wireless desk area network. connections between devices. 512 KB of ROM. The goal is to enable users to connect a wide range of computing and telecommunications devices easily and simply.5 Toshiba Desk Area Network (DAN) Toshiba has developed a network software that manages either radio or infrared transmissions to link personal computers. 4. or connect cables. Hardware specifications include a 16-bit CPU.2. short range radio links between mobile PCs. and groupware one step closer to the business office. 512 KB of flash memory. which is called the Ruputer. 4.200 bps serial port. cursor pointer (only left and right movements). it will be feasible and cost-effective to equip different portable devices with a wireless extension. 128 KB of main memory. One expected benefit to BlueTooth is that it virtually eliminates the need to purchase additional or proprietary cabling to connect individual devices. it automatically and dynamically rebuilds an ad hoc network environment to reconstruct groupings and maintain communication routes.200 bps infrared port. It is a technology specification for low-cost. More on the ongoing developments in BlueTooth can be found in . DAN technology has been commercialized for wireless RF and infrared . mobile phones. When machines enter or leave the area.Future Information Appliances 55 4. By doing so. Toshiba DAN discovers neighboring devices and autonomously creates a self-organized network of terminals or laptops without a server. The watch. 19. The implementation of wireless DANs brings nomadic computing. and four buttons. 1998. 102x64 dots backlit display.7 Seiko Wristwatch PC Seiko Instruments Inc.6 BlueTooth BlueTooth is a recent development similar to Toshiba’s DAN. the paperless office.2. without the need to buy.
FamilyBook. and viewers (text.58 ounces (45 grams) . Both text and images can be downloaded to the watch from PCs. The watch can also be used to play games (of course!). and is based on a newly developed LSI (large scale integration) chip with special power-saving features.8 NTT PHS Wristwatch Phone Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corp.4 show pictures of a ruputer and its docking station. data entry editors. or can be connected to a computer or a laptop through a serial line .2. and sound). The watch can exchange data. via infrared signal. MemoBook. Figures 4.3 and 4. (NTT) developed a prototype wristwatch telephone which weighs 1.56 C HAPTER 4 of which run under Microsoft’s Windows-95 operating system such as Schedule. The wristwatch phone is powered by a high density lithium ion battery. The wristwatch phone operates on the personal handy phone system . images. AddressBook. 4. with other Ruputer watches.
4. but has a shorter range and is usually less expensive. and provides a sophisticated. which was developed in Japan.5 shows the PHS wristwatch phone. is the Ring-Keyboard. NTT plans to make its PHS wristwatch phone commercially available by 2000. The wristwatch operates on public or home modes.Future Information Appliances 57 (PHS). One unique idea developed out of Nippon Telephone and Telegraph (NTT). advances improving portability of these two components are herald events. user-dependent voice recognition. Japans telecommunications giant.2. NTT field-tested the wristwatch phone during the Winter Olympics in Nagano (Japan). Shock-sensor rings allow a person to type on any surface and translates the different finger .9 NTT Ring Keyboard Because the size of portable devices is most often limited by the keyboard and display. includes an 11/2 character display. PHS is similar to a regular cellular phone. Figure 4.
While the preferred interface to the network . the most important are the large flat panel display and broadband data services to the home.58 C HAPTER 4 combinations into syllables. Furthermore. Data is transmitted to the main computer through the watch. Our experience with these devices indicates that consumers will find these large high-resolution displays to be a very compelling enhancement to the traditional pastime of watching TV. The result will be a massive and accelerated acceptance of network centric services by the general public. This next revolution will not be driven by a single new product but rather by multiple new innovations which are being introduced simultaneously. Plasma displays with diagonal dimensions greater than 40 inches are being introduced into the industrial and consumer markets at an aggressive pace.10 Display Pad: The Next Generation TV The consumer electronics industry is on the verge of the biggest revolution since the introduction of the personal VCR. the resolution afforded by these displays surpasses the critical cognitive threshold required to blend WEB style network content with traditional broadcast and pay per view TV services. Of these new innovations. 4.2. Retail price points for these devices may drop below $2000 before 2002. The impact that this revolution will have on the nature of portable devices should not be underestimated.
Many of these devices will be involved in interacting with the large flat panel itself. The surface hardness and friction characteristics of pen and paper cannot be matched by schemes. future devices will be judged on their ability to leverage the network. Pen and paper provide a proven platform for ergonomic data capture. which is shown in Figure 4.2. is not a general-purpose notebook PC.11 The Ear Phone .7. Display Pad has a built in browser for viewing information and entering information into network-based applications. The Display Pad digitizes this familiar form of user interface. The Display Pad. Whereas today’s successful portable devices are viewed as being useful in and of themselves. others will provide an alternate interface to the network when the flat panel is not available. The Display Pad is a future concept of an enhanced version of the executive portfolio (pad of paper). Information on the network can be viewed privately or shared. there will be a tremendous demand for portable devices that support network interaction. which require the user to use a mock pen on the surface of a flat panel display. 4.Future Information Appliances 59 will be the large flat panel with a high bandwidth connection. Consumers will require these devices to be highly ergonomic and compatible with all systems that they are likely to encounter. although it could suffice the needs of many users that today require a notebook.
The most powerful attribute of this device will be an embedded IP address.9 depicts the Power Ring and the Magic Wand. For example. This IP Address will be continually broadcast to local servers allowing them to download instructions from a particular network location. Figure 4. . a person may use a combination of voice (Ear Phone) and gesture (Power Ring) control to interact with a large flat panel display. TCP/IP protocols already provide the basic capability to make this a reality. The server will be able to interpret these motions because it has downloaded a user profile for the device as with the Ear Phone. The information needed to interpret that users signals follows the user around the network. These services can include telephony. The user interface device stays with the user. and access to information services that utilize voice recognition for input and voice synthesis for output. 4.60 C HAPTER 4 The Ear Phone is a future concept of a low power wireless voice communication device that allows the user to access voice based services over the network. These instructions will contain a user profile that will allow the local server to interpret the signals coming from the Ear Phone in a customized fashion.2. The Ear Phone device is shown in Figure 4.12 Power Ring and the Magic Wand The Power Ring and the Magic Wand are concept devices that will be made possible by utilizing Micro-Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology. These devices sense a user’s hand motions and transmit telemetry data to a local server. The Power Ring and Magic Wand are personal devices that can be used to provide a gesture interface to various network devices. This will allow the user to have voice control over appropriate devices connected to the local server.8.
Lack of access to the network equates to services not being delivered and loss of money.3 CONCLUDING REMARKS Even if we discover the most powerful and ideal portable device. not technical. the emerging packaging technology known as “system-on-chip” will help eliminate the bottleneck between the memory and . computers and networks are driven by money. the more the signal rate changes. the more bits you can send down that pipe.Future Information Appliances 61 4. higher frequencies and shorter transmission distances require the wide development of pico cell technology. Portable devices will not be very useful without wireless information service providers offering a variety of teleservices. One method of managing interference is to decrease the distance between mobile and base stations. In short. Increasing the frequency of the radio transmission increases the rate of signal change. As far as energy consumption. The service provider that develops the successful financial model to providing ubiquitous access to their services will be the winner. As previously stated. One of the greater challenges to ubiquitous access is financial. Accessing such teleservices ubiquitously will rely on the constant availability of an access point to the Internet. Further. developments in the pico-cell wireless technology must catch up with developments in the portable information appliance technology. The management of interference will also need to be improved. availability of bandwidth will remain a major factor in determining what the subscriber can do or access. To achieve the ultimate goal of wireless and mobile multimedia.
C HAPTER 4
the processor by building both memory circuits and logic circuits on the same
chip. System-on-chip also improves power management by decreasing the physical distance between the memory and processor components, and by dynamically turning off and on the logic of parts of system whose functions are not needed all the time. Finally, corporations that are selling devices in the portable computing market are each in search of the Holy Grail and it looks like this: a device that has the technical prowess for ubiquitous wireless access, intelligent power management, cross platform interoperability, portability, and an intuitive human interface; a device that makes money for business consumers and accommodates the needs of the home user. Mobile computing will bring services directly to the consumer, not to the consumers home or to the television set, but to the actual person. By arriving at the ideal portable device, mobile computing will be enabled to handle multimedia and will open up an untethered world of new services and markets beyond our imagination.
FUTURE WIRELESS COMMUNICATION NETWORKS
As we move into the 21st century, air is proving to be the ultimate medium desired for most of our voice and data communication needs. Consumer demands and expectations are driving wireless technology to be the fastest growing segment of the telecommunication industry. In response, researchers and standard organizations are stretching the physical capacity of radio to prepare and accommodate for future wideband services that the consumer will demand. This chapter provides a roadmap for future directions in wireless cellular networks. It focuses on future wireless teleservices that will be supported by third generation networks. It also describes some of the research activities associated
with fourth generation wireless networks.
Understanding future wireless teleservices permits us to get a glimpse into future network design and deployment. Telecommunications service evolution from wireline network services to expected wireless consumer services is discussed. Requirements for third-generation wireless networks and wireless teleservices, as defined by various standard organizations, are also covered. The role of ITU and ETSI in the development and deployment of third and forth generation networks is explained. Emerging technologies and associated research activities in the wireless communication industry are covered, including TD-CDMA (time division - code division multiple access), W-CDMA (wideband code division multiple access), SDMA (space division multiple access), and W-ATM (wireless asynchronous transfer mode). Each technology is briefly described and its impact on future cellular systems is examined.
C HAPTER 5
5.1 FUTURE WIRELESS TELESERVICES
Consumer-driven wireless teleservices will define future wireless network and
terminal requirements. However, consumer expectations for future teleservices
are primarily driven by the existing wireline network service capabilities. Standards bodies like the ITU (International Telecommunications Union) and ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute) have invested years of experience in defining and orchestrating the development of future networks, also based on existing wireline services.
Wireline Network Services
The three wireline networks in the US that consumers are most likely to relate
to are the PSTN (public switched telephone network), the cable TV network,
and the Internet. The wireline teleservices offered through these three networks will be the key driver and the benchmark for consumers when comparing or
asking for similar future wireless teleservices.
ADSL. DAN. Desk and Body Area Networks). Figure 5. transportation. Voice services already evolved to build into basic data services such as CDPD (Cellular Digital Packet Data). Wireless teleservices will evolve with network deployment. the Japanese PHS system (Personal Handy Phone System) is based on ISDN .1. and then evolve to bandwidth on demand. health care. ISDN. wireline subscribers will become so accustomed to them and will start demanding the same services in an untethered and perhaps mobile fashion.1 characterizes wireless network evolution by charting different wireless systems by mobility and data rate. SDSL. and will serve such industries as police/public security. (Wide. For example.Future Wireless Communication Networks 65 However. banking. LAN. The GSM standard (Global System for Mobile Communication) also incorporates compatibility with ISDN . to cordless phones. Another example is cellular now evolving to IMTS- 2000. therefore. including sub-addressing. some of the existing wireline services are broadband services. Table 5. When basic data services become ubiquitous.1 outlines the present uplink and downlink requirements for some wireline broadband services. and Very high rate Digital Subscriber Line) are wireline protocols that will be delivering essential services to home sub- scribers . restaurant and retail. Broadband services. Wireless networks hope to offer services by exploiting the same intrinsic service characteristics built into wireline networks. Symmetric. .2 Wireless Service Evolution As wireless networks extend deeper into our lives. The teleservices of tomorrow will span WAN. When these services become widely used. The first teleservices evolved from voice services delivered via wireline terminals (handsets). Both standards use common channel signaling and similar set of services. utility. wireless teleservices are evolving from general purpose services into specific services satisfying personal needs. BAN. wireline protocols can be researched for their service capabilities. 5. Local. to cellular phones. To give a deeper insight into the direction of future wireless services. VDSL (Asymmetric. present a huge obstacle in the evolution of future teleservices. cordless phones evolved into PHS offering higher data bit rate and greater mobility. they will build to higher rate data services. marketing. which require network bandwidth and other resources beyond the capabilities of existing wireless networks. For example.
This convergence will have a profound impact on our methods of communication.1.66 C HAPTER 5 5. new customer groups are emerging. a convergence of the wireless and Internet industries has recently occurred. More developing countries are deploying wireless infrastructure such as GSM. and other future wireless teleservices. such as in Japan. the Japanese PHS system is recently being catered towards children. leading to the emergence of the mobile Internet. For example. and even in well established markets. . untethered access to the Internet is setting expectations for consumers as wireless data communication networks and wireless Internet service providers are on the rise. The ubiquitous. world-wide expansion of the wireless network market. there will be as many wireless subscribers as wireline subscribers. In fact. we are witnessing a rapid. In fact. electronic commerce. some observers in the Asian telecommunication industry go as far as predicting that by the year 2000.3 Market Evolution As wireless networks are becoming more common in our daily lives. But the largest impact on future wireless teleservices is anticipated to be due to the Internet.
One goal common to both organizations is achieving seamless communication for the global consumer through cooperation on technical developments.2 EMERGING WIRELESS NETWORK STANDARDS ITU (International Telecommunication Union) is a United Nation affiliated organization that oversees global telecommunication systems and standards. ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute) is Europe’s premier telecom standards organization well known for its development of the GSM standards. IMT 2000’s vision is to “provide direction to the many related technological developments in the wireless industry to assist the convergence of these essentially competing wireless access technologies.2. headquartered in Geneva. IMT 2000 (International Mobile Telecommunications by the year 2000 project) is a project under the ITU that plans to facilitate cooperation in deciding global wireless access for the 21st century. Until recently. Decisions made within these two organizations will have a dramatic effect on the future directions of wireless networks and services.” IMT 2000 is expected to unify many different wireless systems. IMT 2000 has the following goals: Incorporation of a variety of systems Achieve a high degree of commonality of design world wide Compatibility of services within IMT 2000 and with the fixed network High quality and integrity. leading to the global offering of a wide range of portable services.1 IMT-2000 The ITU (International Telecommunication Union). is an international organization within which governments and the private sector coordinate global telecom networks and services . comparable to the fixed network . 5.Future Wireless Communication Networks 67 5. Both organizations are currently leading efforts to promote cooperation in the definition and development of future wireless networks. leading to the creation of a mobile multimedia technology and new modes of communication. Switzerland. It is expected that the IMT 2000 project will enable the merging of wireless services and Internet services. IMT 2000 was known as FPLMTS or Future Public Land Mobile Telephony System.
2) is future wireless teleservices requirements. third-generation network requirements. in size and complexity  IMT 2000’s vision of future wireless teleservices can be summarized as two sets of recommendations or requirements. source coding. Third generation IMT 2000 network requirements include: Operation in a multi-cell environment (satellite. customer service or human-machine interface. The first (shown in the list below) is future. transport capabilities.68 C HAPTER 5 Accommodation of a variety of types of terminals including the pocket size terminal The ability to use a small pocket terminal world wide Connection of mobile users to other mobile users or fixed users Provision of services by more than one network in any coverage area Availability of a range of voice and data services to the mobile user Service portability–no difference between the services. macro. micro and pico) Operation in a multi-operator environment Near-wireline quality voice service Near-universal geographical coverage . regardless of where the call was placed  Provision of these services over a wide range of user densities and coverage areas Efficient use of the radio spectrum consistent with providing service at acceptable cost Provision of a framework for the continuing expansion of mobile network services and access to services and facilities of the fixed network An open architecture which will permit easy introduction of advances in technology and of different applications A modular structure which will allow the system to start from as small and simple a configuration as possible and grow as needed. and the second (shown in Table 5.
a committee in ETSI. Both of these access schemes are explained in greater details later in this chapter. is currently a project under the SMG (Special Mobile Group). 5. 67].2. and bit error rate requirements.Future Wireless Communication Networks 69 Low equipment cost.g. both subscriber stations and fixed plant Minimum number of fixed radio sites Seamless inter-frequency hand-off Mobile speed data rate of 144 kbps Portable speed data rate of 384 kbps In-building fixed wireless data rate of 2 Mbps BER (bit error rate) of Creation of direct satellite access Transmission scheme suited for high speeds (e. user delay sensitivity. Eight classes of services are specified as listed in Table 5.2. IMT 2000’s vision of future wireless teleservices is specified in terms of information rate.2. It shows how the dream of global roaming might be achieved in the future. which stands for Universal Mobile Telecommunications System. Decisions made in early 1998 by ETSI has given Europe a clear direction towards the realization of its third generation wireless communication system. and TD-CDMA in the unpaired portion. US and Japan are shown in Figure 5. Initial assignments of the IMT-2000 spectrum for Europe. fast running trains km/h) 100 Flexibility for evolution from pre-third-generation and for post third generation systems [74. 83. ETSI agreed in January 1998 on two different UTRA methods: W-CDMA in the paired portion of the radio spectrum.2 UMTS UMTS. 79. The main goals of the UMTS system can be summarized as follows: .
70 C HAPTER 5 .
ACTS broad objective is to develop advanced communications systems and services for economic . 5. ACTS is a group of European research projects with budget 50% funded by the European Economic Commission (EEC).2. particularly W-ATM.3.3 ACTS Another organization that is greatly influencing the direction of wireless communications. multimedia interfaces to support Internet applications at speeds of up to 2 Mbps. The first UMTS deployment is shown to be planned for the year 2002. through a quantum leap in technology At least a 3-fold increase in spectral efficiency Support from an evolved GSM core network Compliance in meeting or exceeding ITU’s Family Concept IMT 2000 System  The UMTS project schedule and milestones are shown in Figure 5. The remaining 50% of the research funding is provided by those industry organizations involved in the research. are the projects funded out of ACTS (the Advanced Communications Technologies and Services).Future Wireless Communication Networks 71 The accommodation of high speed.
To protect their investments.3 THIRD GENERATION WIRELESS NETWORKS IMT 2000’s original vision for third generation wireless networks was to create a single global communication system common to all countries and regions. and TDMA. photonics. Following IMT 2000’s vision. This vision was too revolutionary to second generation wireless network providers who have invested heavily in current technology. in turn.72 C HAPTER 5 development and social cohesion in Europe . ITU . . CDMA. 5. Research projects by ACTS include: multimedia. and global standardization efforts are focused on upgrading second generation systems including GSM. carriers requested ITU to consider a more evolutionary approach to third generation network standards. development. high speed networking. modified its vision into creating a “family of systems” that would converge and comply with a common set of requirements for third generation networks. and mobile and portable communications. current research. A major goal of this conversion is to upgrade these system evolutionary over time while maintaining the operation and profitability of the existing second generation network infrastructure.
Figure 5. The figure defines the technology and generation in which a particular wireless system operates (or once operated). It is also important to note that at the time of publication. Europe. and SDMA. . SDMA (Space Division Multiple Access) is also receiving attention as a network scheme with similar evolutionary nature. Europe (presented in ETSI) just selected a combination of W-CDMA and TD-CDMA. Before summarizing the details of TD-CDMA. W-CDMA. and the USA.Future Wireless Communication Networks 73 TD-CDMA (Time Division. Japan had chosen W-CDMA for their third generation wireless technology. the third generation wireless technologies for the US had not been selected. not the cordless or WAN packet data rates. Code Division Multiple Access) and W-CDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access) are the two major evolutionary network schemes currently under consideration by ITU.4 helps clarify the alphabet soup in which the wireless industry swims. The data rates at the bottom of the chart apply only to the cellular technologies. we first describe the evolution of the wireless network technology in Japan.
The compatibility between the TD-CDMA and GSM time bursts and frame structure permits the evolutionary step to third-generation systems. Because TD-CDMA has the ability to assign multiple codes to one user. Each time slot of the TDMA channel would be individually coded using CDMA technology. The TD-CDMA carrier bandwidth is eight times that of the 200 kHz GSM carrier equaling 1.6 MHz.6 MHz. 1024 kbps can be achieved.6 MHz wide channel using time-segmented TDMA technology. Digitized voice and data would be transmitted on a 1. Changing to a different data . or a larger combination of voice and data users to communicate without interference.1 Time Division/Code Division Multiple Access TD-CDMA is a proposed radio interface standard that uses CDMA signal spreading techniques to enhance the capacity offered by conventional TDMA system. If all eight time slots were allocated to a single subscriber in a pico cell environment or where mobility is restricted. thus supporting multiple users per time slot. it permits broadband (or bandwidth on demand) transmission capabilities. This permits 8 users per time slot.74 C HAPTER 5 5.3. a time slot with an information rate of 16 kbps using QPSK data modulation. It has eight time slots with a burst duration of 577 micro seconds and a frame length of 4. One design goal of TD-CDMA is to allow the CDMA technology to be smoothly integrated into the existing.3. For example. The air interface can therefore be tuned to enhance the performance of certain applications such as Internet access and voice applications. TD-CDMA can accommodate 11 voice users and 5 data users and still maintains the appropriate BER  ( for voice and for data). This will allow GSM operators to compete for wideband multimedia services while protecting their current and future investments. Assuming a bandwidth of 1.5.616 msec as shown in Table 5. An important feature of TD-CDMA is its ability to adjust the ratio of spectrum allocated for the uplink and the downlink. Eight users per time slot appears to be selected because it offers a happy medium between the number of voice and data calls that the system can accommodate. As many as 8 simultaneous CDMA codes are allowed in one time slot in TDCDMA. TD-CDMA uses the same frame structure as GSM 5. second generation GSM TDMA structure worldwide. eight possible users per time slot (eight CDMA codes per time slot) gives you an information rate of 128 kbps.
Future Wireless Communication Networks 75 .
1. including: GSM: deployed in 74 countries. and AMPS: deployed in 110 countries. The TD-CDMA system is designed to be an evolutionary –not a revolutionary– step from GSM second generation infrastructure to third generation infrastructure. 2. The hand-off is conducted through a separate TD-CDMA or GSM carrier simplifying dual mode. is shortening the return on investment on second generation infrastructure . an information rate of 2048 kbps is conceivable. 40+ million AMPS subscribers. where the subscriber unit returns radio signal strength information back to the base station. dual band handsets. System design and setup with regards to the MSC (mobile switching center). and 20+ million subscribers. Selecting a revolutionary different access scheme is therefore more than just changing the air interface. however. and frequency reuse are all based upon the characteristics of the access scheme. the BSC (base station controller). The risk. The sources studied on the TD-CDMA were not clear if mobile assisted hand-offs (MAHO). This is a divergence from GSM that conducts the voice and control channels on the same 200 kHz radio band. keeping deployed infrastructure profitable is a concept well-embedded in the telecommunication industry. is a feature in the TD-CDMA system.5+ million D-AMPS subscribers. the cell location. The cost of changing the air interface in a cellular system is significant. The strategic importance of TD-CDMA can be summarized as follows: 1.76 C HAPTER 5 modulation scheme like 16QAM instead of QPSK. But regardless of the philosophical underpinnings. Requirements for third-generation cellular systems are met by the TD-CDMA system . The networks that TD-CDMA is catered towards are significantly deployed infrastructures. The benefits to taking a revolutionary step include the absence of a legacy system and a quantum leap in abilities. This enables multiple subscriber signals to be received at differing power levels thereby eliminating the near-far effect and the need for a soft hand-off. it is a costly operation. 200+ networks. Another advantage of TD-CDMA is the fact that intra-cell interference is orthogonal by time. 3. TD-CDMA promises to be future proof: .
The receiver is responsible for despreading the desired signal from the wideband transmission and contending with interference. there are four control channels: the pilot. and n = 0… 255 for 16 kbps.3. paging and access channels.4). 5. The reverse link channels are the access and the reverse traffic channels. This inherent ability to manage interference is at the heart of W-CDMA.Future Wireless Communication Networks 77 Spectral efficiency twice that of GSM Reuse of existing GSM network structure and principles: cell sites. planning. In the 5 MHz W-CDMA forward link. The channels are identified in the transmission by using a specific PN code. two codes for two possible synchronization channels. either a Walsh or Hadamard function (see  for further explanation). Support from most major telecommunications equipment providers in Europe has played a role in ETSI’s decision to adapt TD-CDMA.2 Wideband Code Division Multiple Access W-CDMA [53. n = 0…127 for 32 kbps. n = 0 … 64 for 64 kbps. synchronization. there are two designated codes for possible assignment to two possible pilot channels. In W-CDMA. The despreading process at the receiver shrinks the spread signal back down to the original signal and at the same time decreases the power spectral density of the interference . The traffic channels are assigned n channel code numbers based upon desired the data rate. 48] is a spread spectrum technology in which the entire bandwidth is shared by multiple subscribers for transmission. 1 Mbit in all environments No soft hand-off and fast power control TD-CDMA has recently been agreed upon by ETSI as a third-generation solution for GSM service providers. hierarchical cell structures Efficient interworking with GSM Inherent TDD (time division duplex) support for cordless operation Data rate up to 2 Mbps indoor. the signal is then spread and transmitted across a wideband. Codes remain unassigned on the reverse channels so that channel assignment can be done dynamically and in response to paging channels and to interference. a maximum of seven inclusive sequential codes for paging channels. A subscriber’s data is modulated with PN codes. and the remainder codes are not assigned and are used for forward traffic channels (see Table 5. The forward .
access parameters. The terminal increases signal strength sent . Frequency separation depends on the countries frequency allocation scheme. access and voice channels. channel lists and neighboring radio channel lists. Access channel (Reverse link) When a page is detected the terminal attempts to access the system through the access channel. After deciding on the best pilot signal. all necessary in synchronizing with the paging. offset time. a hand-off is requested. The pilot channel also carries information used in estimating BTS signal strength therein indicating the best communication link for the subscriber terminal. Pages are combined into groups permitting a sleep mode to be built into the subscriber terminal. The synchronization channel always operates at 1200 bps. when another cell’s paging channel has a better signal. extending battery life.78 C HAPTER 5 link and the reverse link are FDD (frequency division duplexed). The channels in both the forward and reverse links are frequency division multiplexed. Paging channel (Forward link) System parameters and paging information to groups or a single subscriber are continually sent on the paging channel. Synchronization channel (Forward link) The synchronization channel contains system parameters. the subscriber terminal demodulates the synchronization channel. Thus. The paging channel has a data rate of 9600 bps or 4800 bps. Subscriber terminals can monitor multiple paging channels. W-CDMA’s channel responsibilities can be described as follows: Pilot channel (Forward link) The BTS (base transceiver station) transmits one or two pilot channels carrying a reference clock necessary for demodulation and the hand-off process.
The output of the balanced modulator is then fed to a RF (radio frequency) amplifier W-CDMA’s 5 MHz bandwidth provides robust frequency diversity. and O-QPSK for the reverse channel. there are two types of in-band signaling used. Blank-and-burst in-band signaling where an entire 20 msec frame is replaced with control information. The functions are time-shifted so that the set of functions are orthogonal 2. Inherent time diversity receiver provides robustness against fading. W-CDMA solves the problem in a couple of different ways. Selective frequency fading usually affects only a 200 . Traffic channel (Both forward and reverse links) Within the traffic channel. uniquely identifying that information to a specific subscriber terminal.5) that is split into two signals: inphase (I) signal and quadrature (Q) signal 3. A PN multiplier multiplies the user data by the Walsh or Hadamard function. minimizing rapid signal transition that results in radio frequency emissions outside the allocated bandwidth 4. The forward and reverse channels are modulated differently. The output of the multiplier is a code rate of 4. There are five steps to the modulation process: 1. Rake reception is another technique where weak signals are added together to build a strong signal. QPSK for the forward channel. The pulse shapes for the I and Q signals are smoothed. .300 kHz range of the signal . a random time limit has expired.096 Mcps using 5 MHz bandwidth (see Table 5. The number of bits per chip depends on the data rate supplied to the balanced modulator 5. a process similar to antenna diversity.Future Wireless Communication Networks 79 to the BTS until the system responds. The balanced modulator multiplies the I and Q signals by two signals that are 90 degree phase-shifted. One way is the selection of only the strongest signal. Time diversity happens because of multipath fading channels. or maximum power levels have been exceeded. Dim-and-burst is also in-band signaling but the control information is distributed throughout a variable number of 20 msec frames.
To achieve the same effect in a TDMA or FDMA environment. An open loop is a coarse adjustment of the signal strength. statistical multiplexing must be employed with speech detection.25 msec. which improves the capacity in a W-CDMA environment. Power control in a W-CDMA environment is an open and closed loops. The acceptable BER and the speech encoding are variable. depending on speech activity.80 C HAPTER 5 Exact time alignment in W-CDMA is not necessary. This means the sub- . Time offset or variable offset is why W-CDMA is considered to be quasi-orthogonal by time. thus complicating the system and raising the cost. there is no reservation of time slots or frequencies. thus you are achieving maximum utilization of the available bandwidth. Statistical multiplexing requires frequencies and time slots to be reassigned. W-CDMA employs ADPCM (adaptive differential pulse code modulation) as a speech coding method at a coding rate of 32 kbps. Voice is sampled and digitized at 64 kbps then supplied to the speech coder that characterizes and compresses the data at a rate of 16 . Data is sent when speech is detected. This characteristic is used to decrease the interference by shifting the time alignment by 1.32 kbps.
The Japanese W-CDMA system will be connected to an advanced broadband digital wireline network. but lowers channel capacity. and TCP/IP for Internet connections. Synchronization on the subscriber level is coordinated via the pilot channel reference clock and is used in demodulating the received signal. Synchronization on a system level is coordinated through the use of the synchronization channel. permits co-subscriber interference and allows more flexibility in system design. A closed loop is fine adjustment of the signal strength. The wireline connections are to be as follows: ATM adaptation layer 2 (AAL2) to be used between the BTS and the MSC via the BSC. Other W-CDMA system parameters for the NTT DoCoMo/Ericsson testbed are outlined in Table 5. PSTN and ISDN from MSC to the central office. a condition that results in fewer dropped calls. but increases system complexity. The hand-off is referred to as soft because the terminal is always in communication with a BTS. seven mobile stations. NTT predicts that wireless subscribers will equal wireline subscribers in the year 2000 at 60 million. The call is then handed off from one BTS to the other. Japan’s jump into W-CDMA is encouraged by a lack of capacity in the presently deployed system. all symbol/chip transmissions of all subscribers are orthogonal by time eliminating co-subscriber interference.25 msec time slot from the BTS there is a power control bit indicating to the subscriber unit to increase or decrease transmission power. The end result is the signal received at the BTS is always at approximately the same power level. Asynchronous operation.Future Wireless Communication Networks 81 scriber terminal continually receives from the BTS Radio Frequency amplifier adjustments measuring signal strength loss and the terminal reacts accordingly. The subscriber terminal communicates with both BTSs while the MSC coordinates the simultaneous communication. The population density is such that a third-generation system is needed immediately. The experimental prototype includes three cell sites. This decreases interference and increases channel capacity. and up to 2 Mbps transmission rate. In synchronous operations. Hand-offs in a W-CDMA system are soft hand-offs. The following are the features in the NTT DoCoMo/Ericsson W-CDMA experimental system: .7. on the other hand. meaning in every 1. There are two fundamental types of W-CDMA systems–synchronous and asynchronous . They are initiated by the subscriber terminal finding a better paging channel from a different BTS. completing what is known as a soft hand-off.
82 C HAPTER 5 .
Speech coding Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor codes (OVSF ). The speech detection tool. 3. The NTT DoCoMo W-CDMA system can accommodate up to six 64 kbps channels simultaneously for a total bandwidth of 384 kbps per subscriber. This bit rate achieves the NTT DoCoMo phase one testbed goal of 384 kbps per subscriber.Voice activation silence suppression. Utilization of a speech detection tool and orthogonal speech codes provides maximum bandwidth utilization in the W-CDMA environment. VOX .3). It uses a technique wherein the subscriber’s access is via a narrow focused radio beam and the location of the subscriber is tracked adaptively by an intelligent antenna array system (see Figure 5. The name . and extends the life and profitability of the deployed infrastructure. VOX is also noted in the PHS ARIB standard as a low power consumption operation for the private system  8. as explained earlier. phase two has the goal of achieving 2 Mbps per subscriber. SDMA manages interference and thus increases the network capacity.Future Wireless Communication Networks 83 1.3. increases signal range. assists in transmitting only the necessary data by transmitting less when speech activity is low. permitting hand-offs between different wireless systems. 2.e. Protocol structure that is similar to the GSM protocol structure 5. improves link quality. does not send data when the audio level is below a threshold. (i. The system allows for future expansion with the aid of adaptive antennas. Subscriber unit can receive multiple channels resulting in multimedia bandwidth. As explained in section (5.6.6). New random access procedure with fast synchronization that provides flexibility in user data rates 4. enabling six different teleservices at the one time.3 Space Division Multiple Access SDMA is a technology which enhances the quality and coverage of wireless communication systems. Inter-Frequency Hand-off (IFHO ) 6. The orthogonal speech codes prevent interference with other channels decreasing interference and increasing capacity 5.3. For more details about W-CDMA channel information see Tables 5. Adaptive antennas use SDMA techniques. reduces transmission power. Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS ). a hand-off between PHS infrastructure to the WCDMA infrastructure) 7.5 and 5.
Subscriber signals are distinguished by code filtering. Increasing the capacity in a TDMA environment by employing SDMA techniques requires multiple users on different radio beams to be assigned to the same carrier frequency and time slot. not by time slots. it is used in presently deployed cellular infrastructures. CDMA subscribers use the same frequency and are quasi-orthogonal by time. Reducing interference increases the effective network capacity. Collectively. Spatial processing is not a new concept. all the benefits brought by SDMA are expected to extend the life and profitability of second-generation network infrastructure. It also reduces the transmission power. most base station sites use two antennas for diversity reception regardless of whether they are sectored or not . Because . SDMA is applied to the TDMA and CDMA systems differently because of the systems’ basic differences. TDMA co-cell subscribers are orthogonal by time. Also. The TDMA protocol needs to be expanded to permit these intrasector hand-offs. some cell sites are sectored at 120 degree. The most distinguishing aspect of SDMA is its management of interference. link quality and signal range. For example.84 C HAPTER 5 SDMA is derived from the physical spatial characteristics between the focused radio beams. If the spatial component becomes insufficient between subscribers then an intra-sector hand-off is required to be initiated.
In the TDMA environment. In a CDMA system. keeping protocol overhead to a minimum . The access method distinguishes between the desired signal and interference types 1 through 4 (which includes co-subscriber interference) by using a Pseudo Noise (PN) code. The interferer signals have to be “nulled” before establishing a radio beam. .Future Wireless Communication Networks 85 of these CDMA characteristics. Also an interference signal from a co-subscriber within the same cell is orthogonal by time to the desired signal. all subscribers use the same frequency. An interference signal from a neighboring cell base station is orthogonal by frequency to the desired signal. In a TDMA system. The PN code is known by both the base station and the subscriber unit for spreading and despreading the desired signal in the bandwidth. requires new frequency planning and alteration of protocols . The employment of SDMA in a CDMA environment provides an easy increase in capacity. the spreading code acts like a direction estimator. External interference 3. Other cell interference. interference types 3 and 4 are orthogonal either by frequency or time and do improve with frequency reuse planning. The spreading code has the responsibility of locating the signal within the interference so the antenna array just has to establish an antenna beam in the direction of the user. however. There are no additional protocols or controls that need to be implemented. the consequence of which might be the cancellation of all but one subscriber accessing that antenna array . and 4. interference types 3 and 4 are spread across the same frequency and not necessarily orthogonal by time. no intra-sector hand-offs are needed. In a SD/CDMA environment. Other user noise All systems deal with interference types 1 and 2. the antenna array has to distinguish between the interferer and the user whose signal structures are the same. Background noise 2. Interference types 3 and 4 are dealt with differently depending on the type of access method. In CDMA. Four types of interference concern cellular systems : 1. only the deployment of an intelligent antenna array is required. Employment of SDMA in a TDMA en vironment.
ATM is a protocol designed to accommodate multiple network services. and three of the OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) model. like fading and multipath propagation. two.4 FOURTH GENERATION WIRELESS RESEARCH Beyond third generation wireless infrastructure is W-ATM (Wireless Asynchronous Transfer Mode). Multiple received signals caused by multipath propagation. while decreasing costs and network complexity. Diversity reception techniques solve some of the issues that W-ATM is facing. intra-cell subscriber. and Interference types.86 C HAPTER 5 5. or data with no time requirements. allows the received signals to be treated as independent rays. and the wireless infrastructure will align itself appropriately. including inter-cell subscriber. The intent is to have one type of network for all types of data thereby increasing efficiency. Future directions in wireline infrastructure are towards ATM. As previously explained in this chapter. Statistically. then by using diversity combining. W-ATM is being researched because of the possibilities of providing high speed data transmissions with a low BER and high QoS in densely populated areas. Comments in this section will be focused on layer one issues and solutions. the strongest portion of the two independent signals are used to . Some significant research toward resolving W-ATM layer one issues is in the area of diversity reception like antenna arrays and SDMA. services. This includes: Fading Multi-path propagation Signal attenuation. received at antennas spaced at a distance of a fraction of the wavelength. and throughput. bursty traffic with real-time requirements. It has challenges and obstacles at layers one. ATM is an end-to-end communication system accommodating network services requirements for lossy or lossless data. and external or other noise. Many W-ATM layer one issues are mainly comprised of characteristics found in a mobile radio environment. W-ATM is a communication system for a hybrid tethered/tetherless environments. wireless infrastructure is greatly influenced by the wireline infrastructure. background noise. one of the received signals at a given point will not have faded.
Future Wireless Communication Networks 87 create a third signal. 5. Future directions in wireless infrastructure will be driven by consumer expectations. the evolution to W-ATM will be swift and decisive. thereby improving BER and QoS. and requiring no frequency planning. and QoS requirements of an ATM network. where 125 million people are packed into an area slightly smaller than the size of California. i.5 CONCLUDING REMARKS Air is the ultimate communication medium. W-ATM will be deployed first in the private and public pico-cell infrastructure or in highly populated areas. Japan will be fulfilling the mobile multimedia dream with 10 Mbps wireless ATM links. Diversity combining also allows the mobile terminal to reduce the transmit power–something battery researchers like to hear. Significant research in wireless networks conducted in laboratories around the world today is centered around the wireless air interfaces which are responsible for a significant fraction of the total wireless infrastructure cost. partially eliminating the effects of multipath propagation and fading. In the year 2002. Japan has the advantages of already having a publicly-deployed pico cell network and the population density to make a pico cell network financially possible. With a publicly-deployed pico-cell network. is being developed because of its many strengths including: decreasing the power spectral density of the interference. on the other hand. Higher frequencies and wide bands are capable of delivering the needed throughput rates expected of an ATM network. W-CDMA also has both variable capacity and multimedia bandwidth capabilities. SDMA is being researched and developed to extend the profitability quality of second .e. coping with multipath fading channels. making the untethered domain an attractive and booming market for teleservices. WCDMA. BER. wireline network service capabilities. Interference and other layer one issues at higher frequencies are minimized by decreasing the transmission distance between the mobile terminal and the base station. TD-CDMA is being developed for the safety net that it extends to the GSM network. The PHS network is deployed on the island of Japan. indoor wireless LANs or systems like Japan’s PHS infrastructure. and pre-defined requirements developed by standards-making bodies. Given the bandwidth.
and finally (3) the convergence of the Internet and the wireless world is inevitable.e. earlier than other markets. It uses diversity reception techniques that increase cell capacity and significantly reduce interference. already-deployed public picocell infrastructure. this will lead to hierarchical cell structured networks that will require the capability of handing-off between different and sometimes competing systems. Japan’s NTT DoCoMo is building flexibility into the W-CDMA system permitting compatibility with W-ATM. there are a number of third generation issues that need to be given equitable importance: (1) a new generation of multimode. Japan’s fourth generation networks will therefore develop faster because of the extensive. (2) standardization over multiple autonomous wireless systems is required. to truly realize a nomadic multimedia computing environment. . 10 Mbps in a pico cell network by the year 2002. i. In addition to air interface issues. efficient wireless data services and nomadic computing models need to be developed.88 C HAPTER 5 generation networks. This equates to higher mobile terminal requirements. multiband terminals is needed.
personal organizers. and Pact. Farcast. two-way paging and other similar services are not covered here. down to products implemented in hardware that provides cellular or other radio transmission-based communications services.1 COMPETING PHILOSOPHIES The mobile client-application architectures which are emerging in commercial products can be roughly divided into three overlapping classes: Remote-Node. client/server. Web browsers. Wyndmail. through middleware. such as spreadsheets.6 STATE OF INDUSTRY: MOBILITY SUPPORT SOFTWARE The suite of products that provide some support for mobile computing spans the technology space from end-user client applications. and/or data synchronization. that are narrowly focused on email. we focus on those end-user applications which involve remote access. In those applications. we further focus on the top layers of the mid- dleware communications software that provide support for mobile computing and data access. 6. End user applications such as Pocket Quicken. . Instead. we should point out that the marketplace for mobility-support software is currently undergoing rapid changes both in the products available. As a caveat. and in the companies that provide them. This chapter addresses primarily the top layers of this technology stack: enduser client applications and. to a limited extent. that portion of middleware that appears as options to users as they choose the features to be included with their portable computer.
C HAPTER 6
Client Proxy, and Replication. The basis for this subdivision is the need to address the problems associated with wireless bandwidth and battery limitations and the alternatives, that are commercially available today, for managing those problems. This classification is, therefore, different from the “research” classification given in Chapter 7. A brief description of each class follows. Remote-Node. This approach attempts to create a facsimile of a fixed network client node by hiding all artifacts introduced by wireless communications. Under this model, all client software which run on a wired network platform would function without change on a mobile platform that includes a compatible OS and other library services. Accordingly, it places the most stringent demands on the middleware and other software (which supports the client application) to mediate the problems that arise as wireless artifacts. As a result, this approach is most susceptible to failures in the wireless infrastructure. Software packages which adopt this approach may recognize some of the wireless limitations and adapt their behavior accordingly. For example, when response time is of concern, the limited bandwidth of wireless communications encourages the system to deliver records one at a time as they are retrieved from a database server rather than sending all record hits for some query. However, the ultimate goal is to provide an opaque overlay for the underlying ensemble of networks that shields the user from any concern for their interoperability. Remote-node applications can be realized by porting full clients (as used in the wireline network) to a mobile computer with compatible communication middleware. Shiva PPP is a famous middleware that supports most TCP/IP clients. Client Proxy. This approach, characterized by products like Oracle Mobile Agents, attempts to minimize transmission costs and the impact of disconnects by buffering a client’s requests, and/or the servers responses, and by resorting to batch transmissions. In this way, a user may select a variety of record types from several different tables, and then save battery power by disconnecting while the server processes the request. At some later time, the client can reconnect and receive a batch of records that satisfies all of the requests. The underlying assumption is that the end-user recognizes that periods of disconnect will occur, and that these periods will not impact the user’s ability to perform useful work. Replication. Clients which will be disconnected for extended periods of time, but which require immediate access to important data can satisfy those requests from locally cached replicas of key subsets of the databases
State of Industry: Mobility Support Software
which are stored at some server site. Changes to the data that occur either at the client or the server must be reconciled through periodic client connects which may be initiated manually by the user, or automatically by the replication software. Some update conflicts may occur when multiple disconnected clients alter the same records. These collisions must be reconciled in some way.
END-USER CLIENT APPLICATIONS
A flurry of activity appeared in the trade press in late 1995 describing the rush by vendors, both large and small, to market mobile client software packages. Some of those products are discussed in this section. Recent literature search suggests that many of these products never materialized, were re-targeted to wired networks, or in some cases, are still struggling with weak sales. However, there are some big players with deep enough pockets to continue to pursue this marketplace. The discussions here are restricted to those products and services that still appear to have a current or promised market presence.
Oracle Mobile Agents
This product is a buffering and communications package for wireless platforms. A software agent that runs on the mobile client platform intercepts requests made by the client to the Oracle server and buffers them for a later transmission to the server. A companion Oracle agent runs on the Oracle server platform. That agent receives the buffered requests, submits them to the Oracle server, and buffers the responses for later transmission to the client. The server agent is capable of serving any number of mobile agents simultaneously. Conversely, a client agent can access any server agent that it knows about and for which it holds the appropriate DBA access privileges. Oracle agents can run on mobile platforms equipped with NT, Unix, or Windows and can communicate over TCP/IP using Shiva’s PPP communications middleware. This product does not automatically support transactions or queries that span multiple Oracle servers.
C HAPTER 6
This product is a cut-down version of the Oracle server that can run in a small portable system (or a desktop workstation). It can be used as a companion technology for the Oracle Agent Software to store local copies of subsets of corporate databases and can accumulate updates to the data that are generated locally at the mobile client. Oracle may provide the Oracle Lite server with “two way” replication which could automatically propagate updates either to the client from the central server site, or vice versa. Recently, Oracle and Palm Computing (a 3Com company) announced an alliance to integrate the Oracle Lite client database and the 3Com Palm III and PalmPilot organizers, allowing new and existing Palm Computing platform applications and data to be replicated, synchronized, and shared with an Oracle 8 database server.
Oracle Software Manager
This product is intended for a database administrator who needs to propagate software updates to remote copies of the Oracle server. It is capable of performing the distribution via hardwired networks or through wireless connections. It is not clear whether this package is versatile enough to accomplish a distributed software update to a collection of mobile devices as though the entire operation were a distributed transaction. For example, if the DBA needs to update the mobile Oracle-Lite server software for entire sales staff, the updates may have to be performed individually by the DBA.
6.2.4 Oracle Replication Manager
Oracle has announced a version of its Replication Manager which will eventually support bi-directional replication among a collection of distributed and centralized server databases. The Oracle approach is based on a peer-to-peer model, much like Lotus Notes, in which a collection of distributed processes manage replication collectively.
6.2.5 Sybase SQL Remote
Unlike the Oracle Replication Manager, the Sybase product called SQL Remote has adopted a centralized model for managing replication. This product is a member of the Sybase SQL Any Where suite of tools (formerly called Watcom SQL). Also, Sybase has optimized its replication server to accommodate users
So while this product has been developed with wired network users as a primary target. Neither of these products will be discussed further since neither has yet announced plans (that we have seen) for moving into the wireless middleware domain. As a result. MobileWare Office Server. By choosing to adopt this defacto standard transport protocol. the software does include a component that recognizes the frequent disconnects that typify mobile users.3. The current flagship product. Variants of TCP have been proposed to circumvent the problems that plague TCP for some wireless applications. includes a native Lotus Notes mail and database replication support. vendors are positioning their products for deployment in a large existing infrastructure. The initial customer target focused on large sales staffs that were primarily mobile and who needed access on demand to sales support information that was too bulky and/or volatile to carry on extended trips. it is already possible to surf the Internet using a Netscape interface on many wireless platforms and a simple cellular phone connection. The intent of this software is to make the mobile platform appear to the user as though it were actually a node connected into the wired network. . MobileWare Office Server is an agent-based middleware for wireless or wireline access to application data.3 MOBILITY MIDDLEWARE The majority of products targeted for the middleware market rely on TCP/IP and socket-like connections for the client server interface whether they are intended to be deployed in the wireline network arena or the wireless domain.State of Industry: Mobility Support Software 93 that are only occasionally connected. Microsoft Exchange has been integrated with Shiva’s PPP software that allows communication of clients to servers through the cellular phone network.1 MobileWare Office Server This suite of products was introduced in 1995 as a solution to managing mobile access to corporate data. However. 6. The basic strategy that underlies MobileWare is to minimize mobile platform connect time by executing data transfers in a burst mode. Two key players in the wired-network middleware market that provide support for distributed users are Novell’s Netware and Microsoft’s Remote Access. 6.
Each profile contains a set of tuned parameters that optimize the communication between the clients and the servers. MobileWare Corporation (http://www. e-mail. and alternative notification procedures (such as paging) are allowed. and file transfer. Dynamic Packet-Scaling.2 Shiva PPP Shiva’s remote access client (known as PPP for Point-to-Point Protocol) enables mobile users to access servers embedded in either wireline or mobile servers . data packets are dynamically re-sized to minimize connection time. Security. This ensures efficient recovery and fast reconnection after failures and involuntary disconnections. Data compression. Forces re-authentication from the client upon receipt of any unregistered packet. and is now a private subsidiary of Itochu Japan. Encryption and authentication. and TCP/IP. Automatic reconnection in response to involuntary lost connections. etc. 6. Dial-up. Follow-Me Server. NetBios. The user’s mobile computer is notified if connected. or wireless connections.mobileware. Application data is stored on both the client and the server in a client assigned outbox until a connection is made to transfer the data.94 C HAPTER 6 Services supported by Mobile Ware Office Server includes Lotus Notes. A core component of the MobileWare Office Server is the Intelligent Transport Engine.3. Uses a notification and delivery mechanism for events such as arrival of data to the client’s outbox on the server. The transport engine provides several features including: Connection Profiles. Web browsing.). Queuing.com) was founded in 1991. The user chooses from a collection of profiles based on current working environment (LAN. Data checkpointing. Based on the current connection quality and capacity. Uses DES encryption for per-connection authentication.
and Token-Bus which were defined in precise details by the IEEE 802 committees.State of Industry: Mobility Support Software 95 almost seamlessly. For example. GPRS) across unused cellular channels.g.11 effort is to permit wireless LANs from different vendors to interoperate. Each network type is based on its own set of assumptions about the kinds of service the customers are willing to purchase. newer network technologies like FDDI. The closest effort is within the IEEE 802 working group which recently completed the IEEE 802. it does not provide the rich collection of services available from Mobile Ware’s Intelligent Transport Engine described above.4 INTEROPERABILITY AND STANDARDIZATION The wired infrastructure has been designed and deployed around a rich set of international standards. The wireless industry currently embraces a small number of standards. The primary objective of the IEEE 802.11 does not. Both the IEEE and the ANSI bodies add further credibility to their work by helping international organizations like ISO and ITU to easily migrate the specifications into international standards bodies for worldwide acceptance. This software suite provides some limited security features such as limiting the number of login tries. a client application that uses transaction processing services from BEA’s Tuxedo can now access those services from a mobile platform using PPP. however. the legacy local area network (LAN) consists of such technologies as Ethernet. CDPD. Similar efforts are underway in the ATM Forum to create a set of implementation agreements which should permit interoperability between different vendor implementations and products. However. Service providers for each of these types of networks have different goals and strategies and do not seem likely to provide interoperability among the other classes of service. and Fibre Channel have been defined by the ANSI X3T working groups with a mature set of approved specifications. Other mobile infrastructures are also lacking in internationally recognized standards. IEEE 802. or disconnecting a session and calling the user back at a pre-established number. 6. For example. address the needs of the wide area wireless networking industry which currently deploys various packetized protocols (e. HIPPI. Moreover.11 Wireless MAC (media access control) standard. Token-Ring. This is evident in the cellular telephone industry: a PHS telephone .
For example. or have implemented selected parts of existing and/or emerging deployment agreements.96 C HAPTER 6 will not function in a cell serviced by a GSM or PCS infrastructure. satellite channels. The wireless application protocol (WAP ) standard currently being developed by the WAP forum group offers an OSI-like protocol stack for interoperability . it remains the client’s responsibility to transfer among the various competing network services.g. are recognizing that several competing wireless transmission protocols exist with each network type. infrared transmission. The same is true for any combination of the aforementioned technologies. update policies. They also recognize that the number of such protocols may grow or shrink. Database formats. This limited form of interoperability appears to meet the needs for developers of client software. Recent research efforts proposed extensions to formal open systems standards. However. At some level. Moreover. and most mobile communication systems are either based on proprietary data interfaces. or the communications substrate that they rely on. In addition. lETF’s Mobile IP. As an example. However. the Oracle Mobile Agents product discussed previously supports both CDPD and Shiva PPP. Such key attributes as Quality of Service. but also a stringent quality of service requirements. Many of the client-application products. and wireless data and services. digital voice. interoperability among the various network classes can be provided by adopting popular communications standards. those client applications developed to exploit TCP/IP in wired networks can interoperate without change in the wireless domain if some variant of TCP/IP is offered as a service. no client software we have seen claims to migrate seamlessly among the different wireless network classes. e. the quality of service that is provided by this approach may not be transparent. As a result. and data exchange rates are left to the equipment providers and service providers which may be based more on deployment schedules than on availability of standards and interoperability guarantees. cordless telephones. Location Register con- tents. The emerging UMTS system standard (discussed in Chapter 5). This is because the inherent unreliability and bandwidth limitation largely varies from one network to the other. these client-level packages are adapted to use the popular underlying protocols. leading to rapid fluctuations in the quality of the provided services. which is expected to be deployed by the year 2002. The heterogeneity of the existing and emerging wireless network protocols poses not only a need for interoperability. will provide a golden opportunity for interoperability of data links interfaces. or even acceptable.
Each client or middleware offering is tailored to a specific kind of network service and assumes the client will manage its transition from one network class to another as the mobile platform roams about. allows the application to be mobility-aware and adaptable to changes in the environment. 6. DBMS vendors such as Oracle and Sybase which are announcing mobile client products are providing connection services only to their proprietary DBMS product. Content negotiation should play a major role in maintaining QoS across heterogeneous networks. This.State of Industry: Mobility Support Software 97 of different wireless networks. The continuous decline in wireless communication cost and the recent convergence towards a truly global and standard communication system will help reduce the business risk associated with investments in this software market. The WAP stack allows applications to register interest in quality of service events and thresholds (QoS). This will be true for giant software vendors as well as small startup companies. Translucent Overlays. applications will have to be mobility-aware. the current wireless network between the source and the destination. Another proposal in [36. performance. portability. None of the product offerings or announced plans for products that we have seen have included the vision of a translucent client context for exploiting nomadic applications. and interoperability. Products which have emerged for the wired environment which make it possible . in turn.5 SHORTCOMINGS AND LIMITATIONS Mobility-support software and products that are commercially available today leaves much to be desired in terms of functionality. Under this proposal. Multi-Database Access. Several limitations and shortcomings of existing products are summarized below. and the capabilities of the destination device. 47] extends the ISO Reference Model for Open Distributed Processing (RM-ODP) so that clients are able to adapt to the variation of the network service they encounter. but nonetheless will be able to maintain the required QoS. The WAP stack also provides negotiation protocols between producers and consumers of data to optimize the necessary level of data presentation based on the nature of data. This trend mirrors the path that these vendors have adopted for the fixed network environment.
None of the server or client software packages targeted for the wireless domain claim to offer location dependent services. We have seen no workflow products targeted for the mobile domain in our literature searches. a Mobile Oracle client can only talk to those servers that are serviced by the Mobile Oracle server agents. The concept of a mobile transaction. remains as a research idea needy of commercialization. BEA Systems markets a variety of products that couple wired clients with a variety of TP monitors. We have seen no product that addresses issues of transaction management in the mobile environment.g. where the locus of control of the transaction is maintained by the mobile user. This important class of services will be essential at both ends of the wireless client-server communications link. e. Mobile Transactions. Location Dependent Services. will not automatically extend service into the wireless domain. . Workflow products lag database access products in their migration to wireless and mobile environments. they will be offered by companies such as BEA Systems and Transarc. and implicitly to any of the DBMS products those TP monitors serve. Workflows. ODBC interfaces. Thus.98 C HAPTER 6 for a client to interact with a variety of vendor DBMS. This failure occurs because current solutions that couple mobile clients with server DBMS include insertion of vendor-specific agents on both ends of the wireless connection to mediate wireless artifacts. If mobile transaction products will ever be made available.
ubiquitous. . For more details. This new requirement. The ACM SIGMobile is also an important forum for research dissemination. The following topics are covered in this chapter: Mobile networking Quality of service in mobile networks Mobile access to the World Wide Web Mobile transactions Mobile computing models A complete and thorough coverage of research in wireless and mobile computing is beyond the scope of this book. The reader is also encouraged to examine the proceedings of the ACM/IEEE International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (MobiCom 95. supported by amazing technological advances in small-size computers and wireless communication networks.7 RESEARCH IN WIRELESS AND MOBILE COMPUTING An important requirement of the evolving information infrastructure is the seamless. This chapter describes some of the achieved and ongoing research in wireless and mobile computing. 98 and 99). 96. the reader is referred to the Imielinski and Korth edited book. “Mobile IP: The Internet Unplugged” . wireline or wireless connectivity that engenders continuous interactions between people and interconnected computers. “Mobile Computing”  and the book by James Solomon on Mobile-IP. has led to a proliferation of research in this area. and the proceedings of the IEEE Workshop on Mobile Computing Systems and Applications (WMCSA 94 and 99). 97.
1 MOBILE NETWORKING Internetworking mobile computers with the fixed-network raises the additional requirements of mobility transparency and mobility and location management. the mobility unaware routers should be able to route packets destined to a mobile host as normal IP data packets. various approaches and protocols for mobile internetworking are examined. it is important that the security of the visiting network is not breached due to the presence of a foreign node in its network. requesting services. Thus. The mobile networking protocol should also be transparent to the hosts and routers which do not understand or support mobility. leaving out the details which can be obtained by following cited work and web resources. 7. and accessing data. A peer node should be able to communicate with a mobile node using some fixed IP address irrespective of the current point of attachment.1. In this section.100 C HAPTER 7 7. The mobility behavior of a node should be transparent to a peer node. mobile networking protocols should provide authentication and security features comparable to those found in fixed-network IP protocols such as IPv4 and IPv6. Thus. a mobile network is a virtual network with a virtual address space. In mobile networking it is more so. Authentication of the mobile nodes and foreign networks is also important. since the mobile nodes will be visiting foreign networks. Security is another important concern in internetworking. A mapping is maintained between the physical or actual IP addresses and the Virtual IP addresses. at a minimum. including: Early approaches: virtual IP mechanisms Loose source routing protocol The Mobile Internet Protocol (Mobile-IP) Cellular Digital Packet Data (CDPD) The General Packet Radio Service protocol (GPRS) Emphasis is placed on protocol mechanisms. This mapping is performed by the mobile host . Thus.1 Early Approaches: Virtual IP Protocols In this approach.
The transport layer interfaces with the network layer through the virtual layer interface and addresses its packets to the virtual address of a mobile host. A set of connection gateways are required for the co-existence of mobility aware and mobility unaware hosts on the network.1. and to update its location in a mapping database. If the cache entry is not available. of Sony Laboratories. and a physical address.1. looks up its cache. 7. A mobile host in the foreign network is required to obtain a care-of-address. On entering a foreign network. A stationary host. A copy of this cache is maintained at each host/router. A set of packet types is also defined for host communication. They proposed that the mobile hosts be assigned a virtual IP address which can be used to identify them. The VIP (Virtual IP ) is implemented as an IP option. when required to communicate with a mobile host. Two sublayers are introduced in the network layer and are used to map the physical address to the virtual address. In this scheme. If the mapping is available. we describe two Virtual IP protocols.Research in Wireless and Mobile Computing 101 which obtains a care of address from the local network being visited using either the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)  or the BOOTP  protocols or by any of the link layer protocols. Below. The home network broadcasts this information so the AMT cache gets updated. When a packet has to be routed to the mobile host. the packet is transmitted in the normal fashion by appending the VIP header. A virtual address.1.1. which is acquired from the local network. 7. the packet is addressed to the VIP address.2 The SONY Protocol This protocol  was proposed in 1992 by F. a mobile host has two IP addresses associated with it. which is immutable and by which it is known to the outside world.2 Loose Source Routing Protocol . its current location is looked up in the database and the packet is transmitted to that location. 7. the mobile host obtains an IP address and informs its home network of its current location. Teraoka et al.1. A cache called the Address Mapping Table (AMT ) is used for fast address resolution.1 Sunshine And Postel The earliest solution for managing mobile hosts was proposed by Sunshine and Postel  in 1980.
or the host specific routing information has to be supplied throughout the network. Thus. the mobile node will either have to be assigned a new IP address every time it changes its point of attachment. The MN is known throughout the network by an IP address assigned to it in the home network. The corresponding host can use this information to cache the location. . Both of these alternatives result in scalability and connection management problems. and the corresponding source host is informed of the current location of the mobile host. it informs its home network of its new location. the packet is forwarded to the mobile host at the current location address. For IPv4 to work correctly in the mobile environment. Packets are routed based on the IP address. sets it as the destination. Source route set up is done by the corresponding host. When an IP packet destined to the mobile host arrives at the home network. The home network maintains a database of all mobile hosts native to its network. the point of attachment of the mobile node will be different from time to time. At each destination. The IP version 4 assumes that the Internet Protocol of a node uniquely identifies the point of attachment of the node to the internetwork. 7. It uses the Loose Source Route option available in the IPv4 for routing packet data. 80. and the mobile nodes could be attached to different networks. When a mobile host changes location. The mobile node can communicate from any location as long as the link layer connectivity to the internetwork is established. The major architecture components of the mobile IP protocol are: Mobile Node (MN): is a host or a router that changes its point of attachment to the network from one subnetwork to another. thus avoiding communication with the home network until the mobile host changes its location again. 19. and advances a pointer stored in the IP packet header. The option allows the source to specify the intermediate gateways in the IP packet. The mobile IP protocol describes a mechanism which allows nodes to change their point of attachment on the Internet. 59. In a mobile environment. the gateway picks up the next IP address from the IP packet.1. the source can control the route the IP packet takes. 7. 76] defines enhancements to the Internet Protocol to allow routing of IP packets to mobile nodes in the internet.3 The Mobile Internet Protocol (Mobile-IP) The Mobile Internet Protocol (Mobile IP) [88.102 C HAPTER 7 This approach was proposed by David Johnson  of CMU in 1993.
If it is returning back to the home network. If the mobile node is attached to a foreign network. 6. the mobile node deregisters itself with the HA and operates without mobility services. a care-of-address is obtained from the FA. When the mobile node is away from its home network. . After attaching to the foreign network. It also acts as the tunneling agent for packets destined to the mobile node. Foreign Agent (FA): is a mobile-IP capable router that the mobile node has visited. The mobile node operating from a foreign network registers itself with its home agent. The foreign agent then acts as a relay in this registration process. The mobile IP protocol can be summarized as follows: 1. The HA manages the registration and authorization information of all the mobile modes belonging to its network. datagrams destined to the mobile node are intercepted by the home agent. Alternatively. receives information about the mobility agents through the agent advertisement broadcasts. it operates without mobility services. The FA may also act as a default router for mobile nodes registered with it. 5. The mobile node. In the latter case. 2. the mobile node is required to register itself with the FA.Research in Wireless and Mobile Computing 103 Home Agent (HA): is a mobile-IP capable router on the mobile node’s home network. the mobile nodes can solicit the agent information if no broadcasts have been received. 3. The mobile node determines the network it is attached to. This can be done using the IETF Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP). The HA maintains the location information for the mobile node. which then tunnels these datagrams to the mobile node’s care-of-address. 4. after connecting to a network. the mobile node obtains a temporary IP address on the foreign agent network to be used for forwarding. The FA detunnels and routes the packets destined to the mobile node. The tunneled packets destined to the mobile node are detunneled either by the foreign agent or by the mobile node itself. If it is connected to the home network. The mobility agents (HA and FA) in the network broadcast their availability through agent advertisement packets.
(3) the encapsulated IP packet is received by the foreign agent. The Mobile IP protocol stack on the fixed network and on the mobile unit is depicted in Figure 7. (4) the mobile node replies by sending a datagram to the fixed host through the foreign agent. (2) the home agent encapsulates the received datagram inside another datagram and sends it to the foreign agent (IP-in-IP tunneling ).104 C HAPTER 7 7. is an evolving standard being developed by the IETF Working Group on IP Routing for Wireless/Mobile Hosts. and forwarded to the mobile node. The routing path of a datagram sent from a fixed host to a mobile node is as follows: (1) the datagram is sent from the fixed host to the home agent using standard IP routing. Packets addressed to the mobile node’s home address are transparently routed to its care-of address. The datagrams originating from the mobile node are routed in the normal fashion. the home agent. the triangular routing between the mobile node. The optimized protocol enables IPv6 nodes to cache the binding of a mobile node’s home address with its care-of address. and to . and the foreign agent (that must be performed every time the mobile node switches over to another communication cell) is a bottleneck that is being removed in IPv6 . In particular. The Mobile Host Protocol. The foreign agent may act as a default router in this case. known as Mobile-IP. decapsulated.1. Standards for both IPv4 and IPv6 have been proposed and are being reviewed for enhancements in scalability and performance.
MosquitoNet follows the IETF specification of Mobile-IP to support host mobility. Research in ad-hoc routing is dedicated to finding algorithms that avoid the needless battery consumption and the inefficient use of the wireless bandwidth. 11. additional nodes must be used to form a sequence of hops from the source to the destination. When a mo- bile node receives a route request packet. The distance vector algorithm  broadcasts its view of the distance from a router node to each host. No routing is needed between ad-hoc nodes which are within transmission range of each others. 14. 80]. route maintenance. The MosquitoNet project at Stanford  aimed at relaxing the requirement of foreign agent availability. Examples of ad-hoc networks include wireless portable devices of a group of collaborator. The link state routing algorithm  broadcasts its view of the adjacent network links. and the use of route caches. It allows for route discovery. 7.1 Support for Ad-Hoc Mobility An ad-hoc mobile network is a collection of wireless mobile nodes forming a temporary network without the aid of any established infrastructure or centralized administration. which rely on periodically broadcasting routing advertisements by each router node. Neither algorithms is suitable for the ad-hoc environment because periodic broadcasts will drain battery power quickly. a source node sends out a route request packet indicating the source. To discover an available route.1. but does not require FA support in foreign networks visited by the mobile node. and a request identifier. 60. More details on achieved and ongoing efforts in Mobile IP and its routing optimization can be found in [62. If a request is found for the same source and request id. it checks a list of recently processed requests. such as an emergency team in a disaster area. Otherwise. the target nodes. the address of the node servicing the request is added to the route request packet before the packet is .3. the request is dropped and no further action is taken. Dynamic source routing is one such algorithms due to Johnson and Maltz . Otherwise. Routing algorithms in the ad-hoc environment are therefore a necessary support for this mode of mobile connection. Traditional routing algorithms used in wireline networks use distance vector or link state routing algorithms. 88.Research in Wireless and Mobile Computing 105 then send any packets destined for the mobile node directly to it at this care-of address.
cached routes may become incorrect. and the Distance Routing Effect Algorithm . the Mobile Node Registration Protocol (MNRP ) and the Mobile Node Location Protocol (MNLP ). The idea behind CDPD is to share unused channels in existing Advanced Mobile Phone Systems (AMPS) to provide up to 19. Active monitoring such as MAC -level acknowledgements. the Location-Aided Routing (LAR ) algorithm . the home and foreign agents are called Mobile Home and Mobile Serving Functions (MHF and SF respectively) and reside in a mobile data intermediate system (MD-IS ). A Mobile Database Station (MDBS) is also defined which deals with the air link communications and acts as a data link layer relay between the M-ES and the serving MD-IS . However. Two protocols.2 kbps data channel. if the address of the node servicing the request is identical to the target node address.106 C HAPTER 7 re-broadcasted. For example.4 Cellular Digital Packet Data (CDPD) CDPD is a connectionless multi-network protocol. Due to unpredictable node mobility.1. Other recent ad-hoc routing protocols that can be found in the literature include the on-demand distance vector routing . the mobile node is called a Mobile End-System (M-ES). The main resemblance between CDPD and Mobile-IP is in the triangular routing approach between the mobile node and the home and foreign agents. 7. are responsible for registration of the M-ES with its home MD-IS and the proper routing of packets destined for the M-ES. their terminologies are different. The main differences can be summarized as follows : . can be used in route maintenance. Route maintenance is therefore necessary in this environment. in a promiscuous mode). proposed originally by the CDPD Forum (now called the WDF Forum). and a reply is sent to the source node. the requested route is discovered. This is achieved by requiring nodes routing packets to acknowledge successful forwarding and to send error messages to the source node if a route ceases to exist. as well as passive monitoring (listening to nearby broadcast. It is based on the early versions of Mobile-IP . CDPD follows the OSI model terminology. Even though CDPD and Mobile-IP are similar.
In addition to the Base Transceiver Station (BTS). 7. and the Mobile Switching Center (MSC). however.1. mobility management with . due to its lack of openness.Research in Wireless and Mobile Computing 107 The user’s IP address must be assigned by the CDPD service provider. Mobile IP allows the mobile node to also be a foreign agent. a new logical network node called the GPRS support node (GSN) was introduced in order to create an end-to-end packet transfer mode. Base Station Controller (BSC). Combining the M-ES and the Serving MD-IS was not considered and is not practical in CDPD. GPRS is not restricted to IP packet data protocols. X. Unlike Mobile-IP. or it can be a separate network element based on the architecture of data network routers. on the other hand. Mobile IP operates completely above the data link layer.6 kbps achieved through GSM’s circuit switching technology. Mobile IP’s mobility tunnelling is based on the IP-in-IP protocol. and is receiving the support of major AMPS carriers. the future of CDPD deployment and/or acceptance can only be guessed.2 shows the architecture of a GSM system that uses GPRS. Physically.25. The goal of GPRS was to support data transfer rates higher than the 9. Figure 7. However. CDPD mobility. CDPD’s mobility tunnelling is based on CLNP.5 The GSM General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) GPRS is a GSM packet data service developed by the European Telecommunication Standards Institute (ETSI) as part of GSM phase developments. and CLNP) as well as specialized data packet protocols. influenced the design of Mobility management in GPRS. Since the infrastructure of the CDPD network is closed there are less security considerations for CDPD. is mostly above the data link layer. and offers connection to standard protocols (such as TCP/IP. Mobile IP makes no such assumptions. the GSN can be integrated with the mobile switching center (MSC). which is IP-based. Mobile-IP. While the standardization process of Mobile IP has been progressing rather slowly. CDPD has been deployed for a few years now. GSN is a mobility router that provides connection and interoperability with various data networks.
The GPRS register acts as a database from which the SGSNs can ask whether a new MS in its area is allowed to join the GPRS network. It also decapsulates and forwards external data network packets to the appropriate data network and handles the billing of data traffic. GGSN also routes the external data network protocol packet encapsulated over the GPRS backbone to the SGSN currently serving the MS. handle the process of registering the new MSs along with the GPRS registers. Each MD- . This association is used to keep routing and location area information up-to-date in both entities. and keep a record of the location of MSs inside of its service area. independently of their locations. send/receive data packets to/from the GPRS MS. an association between the GSM MSC and the GSN is created. 7. One GSN is designated the Gateway GSN (GGSN) and acts as a logical interface to external packet data networks. Usually during this process the user has to provide a non-ambiguous identity to his home domain and has to verify it. If no care is taken. as well as security-related activity. a new issue is the privacy and anonymity of the user’s movement and identity.108 C HAPTER 7 the GPRS registers. It updates the location directory of the mobile station (MS) using routing information supplied by the Serving GSN node (SGSN). this identity can be tapped on the air interface in a cellular environment or through the signaling protocols exchanged on the registered wired network. all the mobility management. For the coordination of circuit and packet switched services.1. The SGSN is responsible for the delivery of packets to the mobile stations within its service area.6 Security and Authentication Issues in Mobile Networks In a mobile computing environment. The GGSN is similar to the home agent in Mobile-IP . and key distribution). The latter is similar to the foreign agent in Mobile-IP. In fact. a typical situation arises when a mobile user registers in one domain (home domain) and appears in a different foreign domain. In addition to the basic security concerns in wireline systems (authentication. the user must be authenticated and his solvency must be confirmed. In CDPD . confidentiality. The main functions of the SGSN are to detect new GPRS MSs in its service area. it is desirable to protect information about the movements and activities of mobile users from onlookers. and delivery of data packets to MSs. are concentrated in the Massage-Data Intermediate System (MD-IS) .
there are ill consequences to this transparency that are mostly attributed to the constraints of the wireless and mobile environment. Unfortunately. the mobile unit encrypts its real identity (Network Equipment Identifier) and transmits it to the local MD-IS. Subsequently. both parties obtain a shared secret key. the key exchanging protocol itself is not secure.Research in Wireless and Mobile Computing 109 IS controls an area covered by a number of base stations. transport layer protocols that rely heavily on timeout mechanisms for re-transmission. This is especially true for applications that require continuous-media streams. For example. This approach allows the local MD-IS to discover the real identity of the mobile unit. will perform poorly under variable delays and limited bandwidth. As a result. Upon arrival to a new area. 7. Unfortunately.2 QUALITY OF SERVICE IN MOBILE NETWORKS Mobile network protocols such as Mobile-IP and GPRS provide mobility transparency at the network layer level. This allows the higher layers of the protocol stack to be used unchanged. the mobile unit engages in a Diffie-Hellamn key exchange protocol with the local MD-IS. if used unchanged. Existing session protocols are not of much use under frequent disconnections and reconnections of the . This means that an active attacker masquerading as the local domain authority can engage in the key exchange protocol with the mobile unit and obtain a shared key.
QoS driven. thus competing on sharing the limited wireless link.1 Optimizing TCP/IP for Mobile Networks Since mobile users will need connection-oriented communication to obtain re- mote services. In this section. 7. All layers are aware of either QoS or the limitations introduced by mobility and by the wireless networks. they will have to use transport protocols developed for the fixed network. A mobile unit crossing cell boundaries blanks out during a hand-off procedure that could last up to 1.2. we describe the following three research efforts that address QoS concerns in the wireless and mobile environment. high-level communication protocols.110 C HAPTER 7 same mobile computation. QoS driven.000 milliseconds. Another source of re-transmission is the high error rate inherent in the wireless transmission characteristics. but do not address network heterogeneity issues. TCP acknowledgment timeout is in the range of tens of milliseconds. Similarly. the effect on the end-user will always be felt as unacceptable fluctuations in the perceived QoS. Another problem that can lead to performance degradation under standard TCP is bandwidth allocation under unpredictable mobility. full protocol stacks. Unfortunately. in the wireless and mobile environment. Solutions are not application-sensitive and do not address an overlay of heterogeneous networks. Regardless of which particular upper layer in the protocol stack suffers the consequences of transparency. Two research efforts will be discussed including. An unpredicted number of mobile users can move into the same cell. This leads to sender timeouts and repeated re-transmissions. For example. it is difficult to build applications or services that provide performance guarantees or quality . the BARWAN project and the Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) standard. such protocols like TCP perform poorly when used unmodified in the mobile network. Under this scenario. existing presentation layer protocols are inappropriate to use unchanged. For example. Session and/or applica- tion layer protocols directly addressing QoS parameters. Optimizing TCP/IP for Mobile Networks. Transport or network layer solutions to get TCP/IP to work despite the fluctuations in the underlying network QoS. a user with a limited display and limited battery PDA will not be able to browse the Web unless the presentation of the downloaded data is changed to suite her PDA’s capabilities. Solutions are sensitive to applications.
Retransmission can therefore be performed . while traffic over the “long” connection over the wired network can be protected from the impact of erratic behavior over the wireless link. resulting in a better throughput performance. the first between the mobile host and the base station.1 Yavatkar et al Yavatkar et al  proposed an approach whereby the communication path between the mobile end and the fixed end is split into two separate connections: one over the wireless link and another over the wired links. An advantage of this approach is that performance degradation in TCP is limited to a “short” connection over the wireless hop. which also splits the communication path between the mobile host and the fixed network host into two connections. Another approach similar to Yavatkar’s is the I-TCP protocol (Indirect Transport Layer Protocol) .1. in which a bitmask is used to indicate all missing segments of the connection stream. 7.2. A few approaches have been proposed to optimize and extend the standard TCP protocol so that it can be used efficiently under a mobile network protocol such as Mobile IP. It is located at both the base station and the mobile host. They focused on the re-transmission behavior of TCP due to hand-off.1. The splitting of a connection is transparent to an application and no changes are necessary to protocol software on the stationary hosts. A new session layer protocol called Mobile Host Protocol (MHP) is introduced atop standard TCP. A second alternative is proposed in the same work which is similar to the MHP alternative except that MHP uses a specialized protocol instead of TCP over the wireless hop. They redesigned the network layer so that it caches packets at the base stations. This way.2 Balakrishnan et al Balakrishnan et al  took a slightly different approach to improve the performance of TCP in the mobile network. MHP compensates for wireless link characteristics and for host migration. over the wireless link. using the I-TCP protocol. The connection over the wireless link may either use regular TCP or a specialized transport protocol optimized for better performance. 7. The specialized protocol differs from standard TCP in that the former uses selective acknowledgement by the receiver. and the second between the base station and the fixed network host using standard TCP.Research in Wireless and Mobile Computing 111 of service.2. the recovery of all losses can be performed via a single round trip message.
High-Level Communication Protocols Optimizing the behavior and performance of transport protocols is not sufficient to maintain the QoS required by applications. what was found needed are application-aware (or application-specific) mechanisms to monitor.112 C HAPTER 7 locally between the base station and the mobile unit.2. Instead of discarding data in an arbitrary manner. and maintain QoS from the application or user point of view. A Loss Profile is proposed and is defined to be a description. 7. Experimental evaluation showed a throughput increase of up to 20 times over standard TCP. 7. Their results are based on the Lucent/NCR Wavelan network.1 The Loss Profile Approach Seal and Singh  considered the problem of unpredictable mobility and its effect on the degradation of the wireless communication performance.3 Caceres et al Similar research by Caceres and Iftode  addressed the problem of communication pauses due to hand-off. it is slow and inappropriate in the wireless and mobile environment. For example. most Web browsers use multiple TCP connections to access a multimedia page. They proposed using the fast re-transmission option available in TCP-Tahoe immediately after hand-off is completed. They addressed the case where the aggregate bandwidth required by all mobile units in an overloaded cell exceeds the cell’s available bandwidth. Their experimental verification shows clear smoothening of TCP performance during hand-off. In addition to transport optimizations. request. 7. guidelines are proposed to avoid discarding critical portions of the data. This section describes high-level.2 QoS Driven. The gain is that the erratic transmission characteristics of the wireless link are dealt with in isolation of the rest of the fixed network.1. They observed that such pauses are interpreted by standard TCP (Tahoe in their experiment) as packet losses due to congestion. of an “acceptable” manner in which data for its connection may be discarded. The . provided by the application.2. While this parallelism achieves speedup in the fixed network. above-transport protocols that understands application QoS requirements and resource limitations.2.2. which consequently causes retransmissions that get further timed out during the hand-off. Their mechanism is simple and relies on policies and measures for discarding parts of the data of the mobile users.
2 QEX: The QoS Driven Remote Execution Protocol In [36.2. The basic ANSAware platform is extended to support operation in the mobile environment by introducing the notion of explicit bindings. which is based on the ANSA architecture that has had some influence on the ISO Reference Model for Open Distributed Processing (RM-ODP). it is able. a new remote procedure call protocol has been developed for ANSAware. Binding parameters include specification of parameters such as the desired throughput. via explicit bindings. An elaborate example of a loss profile is given on viewer perception of a video clip under data loss. and to detect violations of these constraints at run time. The implementation of the distributed system is based on APM Ltd. To control the QoS of the flow once the binding has been established.2.K. latency. to pass on relevant QoS information to interested applications. which is a QoS-aware RPC protocol for objects called QEX. 47].Research in Wireless and Mobile Computing 113 loss profile is used in the event of bandwidth reduction at the wireless end of the connection. The new RPC is able to maintain QoS information on the underlying communications infrastructure and to adapt to changes in the perceived QoS. and jitter associated with the binding. To support explicit bindings. power distribution industry. . Clients are returned a binding control interface as a result of an explicit bind operation. 7. This allows the applications themselves to adapt to changes in the QoS. The work is being put to test using an adaptive collaborative mobile application designed to support field engineers in the U. A call-back mechanism is also provided to inform client objects of QoS degradations reported by the underlying transport service. the problem of fluctuations in the quality of service (QoS) in a federation of heterogeneous networks is addressed. Moreover. These operations take as arguments a set of QoS parameters which can then be passed by the stream binding to the underlying transport protocol. the control interface includes a pair of operations setQoS() and getQoS(). The purpose of this effort is to propose extensions to emerging distributed systems standards in order to support mobile services. The design allows services to tolerate the heterogeneity of the environment by dynamically adapting to changes in the available communication QoS. The loss profile is used by a specialized session layer which is transparent to the application.’s ANSAware software suite. Explicit bindings allow application programmers to specify QoS constraints on bindings between objects. The work describes a design of a distributed system platform that supports the development of adaptable services.
the heterogeneity of the mobile platforms imposes a great impediment to mobile application portability. 7.2. Full Protocol Stacks Future mobile services will be built upon federations of heterogeneous networks maintained and administered by different providers. It shows all layers designed for wireless overlay network integration and for providing application support.114 C HAPTER 7 7. The testbed that has been developed in the San Francisco Bay Area includes the participation of over six local carriers including Nextel and Metricom. Unless the application adapts to variations in the network overlay. Medical imaging applications have been developed to drive the testbed. The lowest layer is the wireless overlay subnets. the application performance is bound to suffer. which are the car- . among other networks. latency. Unless applications adapt to the capabilities and limitations of the mobile computer with respect to the type and media of communicated data. The architecture assumes an overlay of various wireless networks ranging from regional-area. and transmission characteristics. and in-room wireless networks. meaning it provides gateway connections from the mobile host to each participating wireless networks. in-building. wide-area. This section describes a research project that proposes a full stack solution as an overlay network stack atop a heterogeneous collection of wireless subnets. metropolitan-area. In addition to the heterogeneity of networks. The BARWAN architecture is gatewaycentric. The layered architecture of BARWAN is shown in Figure 7. The testbed integrates the participants’ networks and allows full coverage of the greater Bay Area. a wireless LAN. campus-area. This section also describes an ongoing standardization effort called WAP that aims at proposing a specification of a full ISO/OSI-like network stack that is wireless and mobile aware. and/or a satellite communication loop.2. a personal communication system (PCS).1 BARWAN: The Wireless Overlay Network Architecture The BARWAN project  at the University of California at Berkeley developed an architecture that supports applications’ graceful adaptation to the available bandwidth and latency of the wireless network. The mobility of users will force an application to migrate along overlays of networks that vary in their bandwidth.3 QoS Driven. A testbed of wireless overlay network management that supports media-intensive applications has been used to demonstrate the adaptability features of BARWAN.3. applications will remain proprietary to the specific mobile computer platforms they were originally designed for.3. an Internet connection. A network overlay can include a cellular network. range.
Research in Wireless and Mobile Computing 115 .
other QoS services. to smart communicators such as the Nokia 9000. The focus was to bring the internet content and advanced services to digital cellular phones and other hand-held devices such as smart communicators and PDAs. and (2) portability of third party wireless software and applications across different portable devices that are WAP-compliant.4 and consists of: (1) hand-held devices ranging from digital cellular phones. The details of this layer depends on the specific subnets being integrated. which are carrier networks augmented with the WAP stack on top of the air link interfaces. the consortium created a nonprofit company named the WAP Forum with the mission of enabling: (1) interoperability across heterogeneous portable devices. Motorola. 7.3. the mobile multimedia application is on top of the stack. (2) Wap-compliant wireless networks.116 C HAPTER 7 rier networks including data link interface. into the internet and corporate intranets. The layer attempts to optimize transport connections related to the same application by session sharing whenever possible. and connection-oriented transport mechanisms. Next is a layer called the Overlay Network Management Layer which includes network and transport functionalities including location tracking. and possibly carrier network routing. QoS-based hand-off management. The next higher up layer is the Session Management Layer which provides a “transactional” transport (called message-oriented interface). (3) WAP-compliant internet information providers such as Web servers. via heterogeneous wireless networks. Ericsson. while information about network capabilities propagates up the layers. The goal was to provide the needed interoperability to connect different portable devices.Com (previously Unwired Planet) formed a consortium for the standardization of an open middleware architecture for wireless application. and internet contents. The architectural infrastructure of WAP is depicted in Figure 7.2 The Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) In June 1997. and Phone.2. In January 1998. to palmtop computers.3 also shows how the quality of services needs pass down the layers from applications towards the network management layers. wireless networks. On top of the session layer is the Application Support Services including support for various data types and continuous media such as audio and video. Currently. Nokia. Only devices that will be WAP-compliant (implement the WAP stack and wireless application environment) are part of the WAP infrastructure. Finally. that must conform to levels of presentations of information . Figure 7. The objective was to create the specification of a wireless application environment and a wireless ISO/OSI-like protocol stack. the WAP Forum is creating a set of specifications for the Wireless Application Environment and for each layer in the WAP protocol stack.
On top of the air link is the transport layer. and capabilities. also contains critical QoS features including: exception mechanisms to allow applications to register interest in QoSrelated network events and parameter thresholds. On top of security is the session layer which is responsible for enabling multi-tasking on the hand-held device.Research in Wireless and Mobile Computing 117 suitable to the capabilities of the hand-held device requesting the information. authentication. CDPD. among others. D-AMPS. The stack is similar to the ISO/OSI stack and consists of a lowest layer containing air link interfaces such as GSM’s GPRS. Also. in which datagram and connection-oriented streams are supported. The session layer. This lowest layer corresponds to both the physical and the data link layers combined in the OSI stack. This includes encryption. This layer corresponds to both the network and the transport layers of the OSI stack combined. which is the most elaborate layer. transactional connections are supported to enable electronic commerce applications. WAP dedicates a layer for security.5. This is because multiple connections can be maintained as multiple sessions managed by the session layer. On top of the transport. and (4) WAP-compliant TeleVAS providers. In the heart of the WAP standard is the WAP protocol stack shown in Figure 7. This allows the applica- .
provides the system with automated awareness mechanisms not only of the environment. which is based on the NCRF standard developed . but also of the device capabilities and the characteristics of the information content. Another standardization effort similar to WAP is the Mobile Network Computer Reference Profile (MNCRF). This will enable the WAP stack itself to partner through its pieces (on the fixed network. When certain information content is being delivered. mechanisms for capability and content negotiation. by using QoS API to program how to adapt to changes in the environment. the WAP stack negotiates with the device the capability to receive and display the contents. on the wireless network gateways. The second capability.118 C HAPTER 7 tion to be mobility-aware. and on the hand-held device) to perceive and adapt to the mobility and the changes in network characteristics. The negotiation decides for the feasibility of the transfer and for the level of filtering that might be needed to deliver the the information while maintaining QoS. on the other hand. The first capability provides applications with the environment awareness needed to initiate QoS adaptations.
1 The Wireless WWW (W4) In .2 Dynamic Documents The concept of dynamic documents was introduced in  as an approach to extending and customizing the WWW for mobile computing platforms. a prototype consisting of commercially available PDAs and a wireless LAN has been used to provide a “proof of concept” for the Wireless World Wide Web (W4). 7. Web proxies are also used to prefetch and cache Web pages to the mobile client’s machine. they are implemented as Tcl scripts as part of the browser client. Details of this initiative are available in a white paper and a reference specification document . The first draft of the standard has been released addressing the unique requirements of mobile network computing. Both the browser and the displayed e-mail messages are dynamically customized to the mobile computing environment in . to compress and transform image pages for transmission over low-bandwidth links. anywhere.3 MOBILE ACCESS TO THE WORLD WIDE WEB More and more users are becoming increasingly dependent on information they obtain from the World Wide Web. any time. 7. Users are also demanding ubiquitous access. Most solutions used a Web proxy that enabled Web browsing applications to function over wireless links without imposing changes on browsers and servers. an adaptive e-mail browser that employs application-specific caching and prefetching is built. and to support disconnected and asynchronous browsing operations. The interpreter is designed to execute only commands that do not violate safety.Research in Wireless and Mobile Computing 119 by the Open Group . Dynamic documents are programs executed on a mobile platform to generate a document. A modified version of the NCSA Mosaic browser was used to run the dynamic documents it retrieves through a modified Tcl interpreter.3. to the information they rely on. A PDA cache was used to improve the performance. A simplified version of Mosaic was ported to the PDA for the purpose of experimenting with response time performance and to sort out design choices. By using dynamic documents. Several research efforts explored the problems associated with wireless access to the Web. 7.3.
resolution. the second is a proxy server that implements all the filtering indicated by the preference server. communicated. The first is the preference server that maintains the user profile. the client resolves any references to dynamic information it may contain and sends the result back to the server. This feature also supports location-sensitive information by keeping the mobile client aware of service relocation or of services offered by a mobile server.3 Dynamic URLs The Mobisaic project  at the University of Washington extends standard client browsers to support dynamic URLs and active documents. Unfortunately. This is helpful in defining location-sensitive resources. For example. Similar to the dynamic document approach. the Tcl script could be a filter that reduces an incoming image so that it fits the screen size or resolution. leading to inefficient utilization of the wireless bandwidth. Color. dynamic documents being placed at the client side are not wireless-media sensitive. The browser. called MOWSER. .3. Dynamic documents can solve the problem of limited resources in the mobile host. This is because filtering occurs after all transmitted information is received by the client. The design is based on a mediator server that filters retrieved information according to the limitations of the mobile unit. connects to two servers in the fixed network. and maximum file size are among the factors considered. 7. which in a way sacrifices transparency. MOWSER does not directly consider the limitations of the wireless media (although the maximum file size indirectly preserves the limited bandwidth). sound capability. Although caching and prefetching can alleviate some of the communication overhead. a design of a mobile-aware Web browser is discussed.3.120 C HAPTER 7 which they run. Active documents are Web pages that notify the client browser when dynamic information changes. display mode. The Mosaic Web client and the URL syntax are modified so that when the user traverses a dynamic URL. excess data (that would be reduced by the dynamic document) is. 7.4 Mobile Browser (MOWSER) In . however. MOWSER assumes that the user is aware of the mobile unit limitations.
Research in Wireless and Mobile Computing
WebExpress  uses the proxy approach to intercept and control communications over the wireless link for the purposes of reducing traffic volume and optimizing the communication protocol to reduce latency. Two components are inserted into the data path between the Web client and the Web server: (1) the Client Side Intercept (CSI) process that runs in the client mobile device and (2) the Server Side Intercept (SSI) process that runs within the wired and fixed network (see Figure 7.6).
The CSI intercepts HTTP requests and, together with the SSI, performs optimizations to reduce bandwidth consumption and transmission latency over the wireless link. From the viewpoint of the browser, the CSI appears as a local Web proxy that is co-resident with the Web browser. On the mobile host, the CSI communicates with the Web browser over a local TCP connection (using the TCP/IP “loopback” feature) via the HTTP protocol. Therefore, no external communication occurs over the TCP/IP connection between the browser and the CSI. No changes to the browser are required other than specifying the (local) IP address of the CSI as the browser’s proxy address. The CSI communicates with an SSI process over a TCP connection using a reduced version of the HTTP protocol. The SSI reconstitutes the HTML data stream and forwards it to the designated CSI Web server (or proxy server). Likewise, for responses returned by a Web server (or a proxy server), the CSI reconstitutes an HTML data stream received from the SSI and sends it to the Web browser over the local TCP connection as though it came directly from the Web server.
C HAPTER 7
The proxy approach implemented in WebExpress offers the transparency advantage to both Web browsers and Web servers (or proxy servers) and, therefore, can be employed with any Web browser. The CSI/SSI protocols facilitate
highly effective data reduction and protocol optimization without limiting any
of the Web browser functionality or interoperability. WebExpress optimization methods are summarized below:
Caching: Both the CSI and SSI cache graphics and HTML objects. If the URL specifies an object that has been stored in the CSI’s cache, it is returned immediately as the response. The caching functions guarantee cache integrity within a client-specified time interval. The SSI cache is populated by responses from the requested Web servers. If a requested URL received from a CSI is cached in the SSI, it is returned as the response to the request.
Differencing: CSI requests might result in responses that normally vary for multiple requests to the same URL (e.g., a stock quote server). The concept of differencing is to cache a common base object on both the CSI and SSI. When a response is received, the SSI computes the difference between the base object and the response and then sends the difference to the CSI. The CSI then merges the difference with its base form to create the browser response. This same technique is used to determine the difference between HTML documents.
Protocol reduction: Each CSI connects to its SSI with a single TCP/IP connection. All requests are routed over this connection to avoid the costly connection establishment overhead. Requests and responses are multiplexed over the connection.
Header reduction: The HTTP protocol is stateless, requiring that each request contain the browser’s capabilities. For a given browser, this information is the same for all requests. When the CSI establishes a connection with its SSI, it sends its capabilities only on the first request. This information is maintained by the SSI for the duration of the connection. The SSI includes the capabilities as part of the HTTP request that it forwards to the target server (in the wire line network).
Research in Wireless and Mobile Computing
7.4 MOBILE DATA MANAGEMENT
Mobile data access can be broadly classified into two categories: (1) data access in mobile client/server, and (2) data access in ad-hoc networks. Several research
projects from each category are presented in the following subsections.
7.4.1 Mobile Client/Server Data Access
In the first category, mobile data access enables the delivery of server data and
the maintenance of client-server data consistency in a mobile and wireless environment. Efficient and consistent data access in mobile environments is a challenging research area because of the weak connectivity and resource constraints. The data access strategies in a mobile information system can be characterized
by delivery modes, data organizations, and consistency requirements, among other factors. The mode for server data delivery can be server-push, client-pull, or a hybrid of both. The server-push delivery is initiated by server functions that push data from the server to the clients. The client-pull delivery is initiated by client functions which send requests to a server and “pull” data from the server in order to provide data to locally running applications. The hybrid delivery uses both server-push and client-pull delivery. The data organizations include mobility-specific data organizations like mobile database fragments in the server storage and data multiplexing and indexing in the server-push delivery mode. The consistency requirements range from weak consistency to strong consistency.
Broadcast Disks: A Server PUSH Approach
When a server continuously and repeatedly broadcasts data to a client community, the broadcast channel becomes a “disk” from which clients can retrieve
data as it goes by. The broadcasting data can be organized as multiple disks
of different sizes and speeds on the broadcast medium . The broadcast
is created by multiplexing chunks of data from different disks onto the same
broadcast channel. The chunks of each disk are evenly interspersed with each
other. The chunks of the fast disks are repeated more often than the chunks of the slow disks (see Figure 7.7). The relative speeds of these disks can be adjusted as a parameter to the configuration of the broadcast. This use of the channel effectively puts the fast disks closer to the client while at the same time
pushing the slower disks further away.
It may also be stored in more specialized repositories such as video libraries.124 C HAPTER 7 7. or back–ends of geographical information systems. query-by-imagecontent databases. type-specific operations. But this correspondence may be difficult to preserve as mobile resources become scarce. It addresses an application-aware adaptation approach to deal with application diversity and concurrency in mobile environments. One well-known. In Odyssey. Ideally. . Odyssey provides a framework within which diverse notions of fidelity can be incorporated. universal dimension is consistency. For Video applications. Satyanarayanan [86. or Web servers. data has at least two additional dimensions: frame rate and image quality of individual frames. It supports concurrent execution of diverse mobile applications that execute on mobile clients. but read or update remote data on servers. 77]. The application-aware adaptation is implemented with the support of system-coordinated. fidelity is used to describe the degree to which data presented at a client matches the reference copy at the server. a data item available on a mobile client should be indistinguishable from that available to the accessing application if it were to be executed on the server storing that item. some form of degradation may be inevitable. Fidelity has many dimensions. The data accessed by an application may be stored in one or more general-purpose repositories such as file servers.4.1. SQL servers.2 Odyssey: A Client PULL Approach Odyssey is a CMU research project led by M.
3 Rover: A Mobile Objects Approach The Rover project at MIT  provides mobility support to client server applications based on two ideas: relocatable dynamic object (RDO) and queued remote procedure calls (QRPC). . where no network infrastructure is assumed to be available.4. The Bayou architecture supports shared databases that can be read and updated by users who may be disconnected from other users. To guarantee eventual consistency.2 Mobile Data Access in Ad-hoc Networks The Bayou project  at Xerox PARC developed a system to support data sharing among mobile users. which is implemented as a client stub bound with the application. news bulletin boards. ensures that replicas move towards eventual consistency. Bayou allows mobile users to share their appointment calendars.Research in Wireless and Mobile Computing 125 7. applications can automate the movement of data and/or computation from the client to the server and vice versa. evolving design documents. By moving RDOs across the network. The system is intended to support ad-hoc mobility. Queued remote procedure call is a communication system that permits applications to continue to make non-blocking remote procedure calls even when a mobile client is disconnected. In particular. a user’s mobile computer may experience extended disconnection from other computing devices. Applications running as clients interact with the servers through the Bayou API.4. 7. In the Bayou system. Bayou servers are able to rollback the effects of previously executed writes and redo them according to a global serialization order. An RDO is an object (code and data) with a well-defined interface that can be dynamically loaded into a mobile client from a server computer. or to allow disconnected operation. or vice versa. to reduce client-server communication requirements. Bayou includes consistency management methods for conflict detection called dependency checks and per-write conflict resolution based on client-provided merge procedures. each data collection is replicated in full at a number of servers. meeting notes. Rover gives applications control over the location where the computation is performed. Bayou supports application-specific mechanisms that detect and resolve the update conflicts. and other types of data in spite of their intermittent network connectivity.1. Bayou permits clients to observe the results of all writes received by a server. and defines a protocol by which the resolution of update conflicts stabilizes. bibliographic databases. Furthermore. requests and responses are exchanged upon network reconnection. either individually or as a group. including tentative writes whose conflicts have not been ultimately resolved.
some of which may execute on the mobile node and some of which may execute on the fixed host.126 C HAPTER 7 This API. Mobile transactions may access remote data wirelessly.1 Reporting and Co-Transactions This model  is based on the Open Nested transaction model. In mobile transactions. Pitoura et al. If a transaction aborts.5 MOBILE TRANSACTIONS A mobile transaction is a long-live transaction whose locus of control moves along with the mobile user. Dunham et al. . . 44]. Component transactions are allowed to commit or abort independently. 33] to suit mobile environments. All the models described assume the mobile computing reference model presented in Figure 1. and delete a number of data items in a collection. The model proposes to modify Reporting and Co-Transactions [32. or may access local replicas of data in disconnected mode. The model defines a mobile transaction to be a set of relatively independent transactions which interleave with other mobile transactions. In distributed transactions. supports two basic operations: Read and Write. The differences between mobile and distributed transaction management are significant because their goals are different. 7. A computation in the mobile environment is considered to consist of a set of transactions. all com- . as well as the underlying client-server RPC protocol. and Nielsen . [43. and maintaining computation state in a fixed node so that the communication cost is minimized while the mobile host relocates. modify. maximizing reliability while achieving some sort of consistency is the main goal. A component transaction can be further decomposed into other component transactions allowing arbitrary levels of nesting. . Gray et al.5. 7. while Write operations can insert. Satyanarayanan et al. The transaction models considered here have been proposed by Chrysanthis .6 of chapter 1. Read operations permit queries over a data collection. The model addresses sharing of partial results while in execution. . through a weak connection. In this section we describe some of the existing approaches to mobile transaction management. Walborn et al. the main goal is maximizing availability while achieving ACID properties.
the transaction delegates all operations to its parent. Some of the transactions may have compensating duals and may be compensated. Compensatable transactions: atomic transactions whose effects cannot be undone at all. and one of the JTs is moved to the current cell of the mobile unit. either both commit or both abort. The changes made by a reporting transaction is made permanent only when the receiving transaction commits. When ready to commit. on the other hand. the transaction stops execution and is resumed from the point it left off.2 The Kangaroo Transaction Model This model introduced in  is based on the global transactions and the split transaction models. The model classifies mobile transactions into the following four types: Atomic transactions: normal components and may be compensatable with atomic compensating dual steps. It could be a compensating or a non-compensating transaction.Research in Wireless and Mobile Computing 127 ponents which have not yet committed may abort. When the mobile unit moves to a new cell. A reporting transaction can have only one recipient at any given point of time. A mobile transaction (called Kangaroo transaction) is considered a global transaction in a multidatabase environment. A co-transaction. 7.5. A reporting transaction reports its results to other transactions by delegating the results. Co-transactions: behave in a manner similar to the co-routine construct in programming languages. The parent has the responsibility to commit or abort the transaction later on. A JT is associated with the base station or the cell in which it executes. Reporting transactions: can make its results available to the parent at any point of its execution. . But upon delegation. Co-transactions retain their current status across executions. where transaction relocation is achieved by splitting the transaction at the point of hand-off. If the receiving transaction aborts. the reporting transaction aborts as well. A Kangaroo transaction (KT) is a global transaction that consists of a set of Joey Transactions (JT). For any pair of co-transactions. hence they cannot be executed concurrently. reports its results in a way similar to reporting transactions. the JT in the previous cell is split. Each JT may consist of a set of local and global transactions.
A trans- action submitted from a mobile host is composed of a set of weak and strict transactions. two copies can be maintained–one of them strict and the other weak. This could include the physical location of data. commit. Weak operations are initially committed in their local clusters. A cluster is defined as a unit of consistency in that all data items inside a cluster are required to be fully consistent. extended for mobile computing. The model is based on the open nested transaction model. and the clusters are said to be m-degree consistent. data semantics. These inconsistencies are finally reconciled by merging the clusters. a weak operation can access only the local copies of a data item. As mentioned above. For a KT to be successful. In this model. A cluster defines a set of mutually consistent data. the last JT in the order of execution should end in a commit or abort. and user definitions.128 C HAPTER 7 The model is built upon the existing databases. The transactions are micromanaged by the individual database transaction managers. The weak operations are allowed to access only data elements belonging to the same cluster. When the clusters are finally merged.3 The Clustering Model This model described in  assumes a fully distributed system. A wide set of parameters can be used for defining clusters. Transaction proxies are used to mirror the transactions on individual machines as they are relocated from one machine to another. The database is divided into clusters. A Joey Transaction should terminate in an abort. a KT can be executed as a whole atomic transaction. The read and write operations are also classified as weak and strict.5. Bounded inconsistencies are allowed to exist between clusters. Based on the ability to compensate the split transaction component. For every data item. Consistency between clusters can be defined by an m-degree relation. or in a relaxed mode where only component transactions are executed atomically. they are once again committed across the clusters. . whereas strict operations are allowed database-wide access. 7. Clusters can be defined either statically or dynamically. a mobile transaction is decomposed into a set of weak and strict transactions. or a split. The m-degree relation can be used to define the amount of deviation allowed between clusters. whereas all other JTs should be split. while data items residing in different clusters may exhibit bounded inconsistency. The decomposition is done based on the consistency requirement.
which are represented as histories. the work in  uses a history-based approach. The SEER hoarding system  developed at UCLA is based on the Coda file system. Coda provides Isolation-only Transactions (IOT)  to automatically detect read/write conflicts that could occur during disconnection. Hoarding is based on user-provided. application semantics are used (such as finding commutative operations) to increase concurrency. SEER also detects hoard misses during disconnection. tentative transactions are applied to (re-processed at) the master data copy in the fixed network. Periodically. it does not guarantee failure atomicity and only conditionally guarantees permanence. SEER does not actually hoard files.5 The Two-tier Transaction Model A two-tier replication scheme has been proposed in  whereby mobile disconnected applications are allowed to propose tentative update transactions. It operates without user intervention by observing user activities and predicting future needs. are merged with base transactions’ histories. and on how many reference to other files occurs in between. but instead interfaces with Coda (and other replicated systems) to do the hoarding. The merging process quickly identifies the set of tentative transactions that need to be backed out to resolve conflicts. the proxy walks the cache to ensure that the highest priority files are present and consistent with the server. prioritized list of files.Research in Wireless and Mobile Computing 129 7. At the re-processing stage. To reduce re-processing costs that can be high in certain occasions. . Automatic mechanisms for conflict resolution are provided for directories and files through the proxy and the file server. On reconnection.4 Isolation-Only Transactions The Coda file system  at CMU provides an application-transparent file system for mobile clients by using file hoarding and optimistic concurrency control. A proxy logs all updates to the file system during disconnection and replays the log on reconnection. Unlike traditional transactions. 7. The semantic difference between two files is based on the time elapsed between the events of opening the files. It defines and uses a measure called “semantic distance” between files to determine how best to cluster files together in preparation for hoarding. tentative transactions.5.5. On connection.
necessary for continuing the operation during the disconnected state.6 Semantic-based Nomadic Transaction Processing The semantics-based mobile transaction processing scheme  views mobile transactions as a concurrency and cache coherence problem. If the fragments can be recombined in any order. It introduces the concepts of fragmentable and reorderable objects to maximize concurrency and cache efficiency exploiting semantics of object operations. A stationary server sends out the fragments of an object when requested by mobile units. The consistency conditions include the set of allowable operations on the object and the conditions of the possible object states. it may require complex recovery mechanisms than normal schemes.” and the “degree of transaction autonomy” [41. Techniques like epsilon serializability and quasi copies [23. The split is done using a selection criteria and a set of consistency conditions. These fragments are put together again by the merge operation at the server. Aggregate items. Though this may improve concurrency. Organization of the object can be used for selective caching of the object fragments. sets. This approach utilizes the object organization to split large and complex objects into smaller easily manageable pieces.130 C HAPTER 7 7. and data structures like stacks and queues are examples of fragmentable objects.5. 32]. Recovery also becomes quite simplified. 84] can be used to specify allowable inconsistencies in the system. then the database server can schedule these operations in an arbitrary manner. The objects are fragmented by a split operation. Operations may be commutative either for all states or part of the states of the objects. This approach reduces the demand on the limited wireless bandwidth and provides better utilization of the cache space available on the mobile host. then the objects are termed “reorderable” objects. These fragments are cached and/or operated upon by the mobile hosts and later merged back to form a whole object. the mobile hosts return the fragments to the server.” “degree of isolation. Commutativity of operations is an important property which allows concurrent operations on an object. Application semantics can also be utilized to define the “degree of inconsistency. The model assumes the mobile transaction to be long-lived with unpredictable disconnections. The semantic information is utilized to obtain better granularity in caching and concurrency. If certain operations on an object is commutative. The I/O values of the operations can be used to redefine serial dependencies of the operations. On completion of the transaction. . Traditional definitions of concurrency and serializability is too restrictive for most operations .
is made transparent by handling the variable client/server location through location-based routing in the network layer. neither the client nor the server are aware of the client (or server) mobility.6 MOBILE COMPUTING MODELS Computing in the mobile environment is different from the conventional fixednetwork computing. Simply. 7.1 The Client/Server Model In this model. The disadvantages of this model are listed below: . each model is described and its advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Mobile IP is an example of a network protocol that hides the C/S mobility.Research in Wireless and Mobile Computing 131 7. new models in the mobile environment are needed to support information access for mobile users. This is partially due to the movement of the mobile hosts that require to remain connected from different access points while moving. Furthermore. The advantage of this model is its portability. mobile hosts equipped with rechargeable batteries suffer from limited operation time constraints. with a fixed address specified for the server (on the fixed network or on a mobile host). The mobility. The conventional client/server model is used without any modifications made in the application or the transport layer. As a consequence. The difference also stems from the nature of the wireless links that are relatively unreliable and offer low communication bandwidth. the client (server) is ported to the mobile host.6. The client or the server need not be changed in any way. The following models of computing in the mobile environment are currently being researched and investigated: Client/Server Client/Proxy/Server Disconnected Operation Mobile Agents The Thin Client Model In the following. on the other hand. The wireless media is transparent since it is handled in the data link layer.
6.132 C HAPTER 7 The mobile client may suffer from a slow and unpredictable response time. the mobile user profile can be useful in providing the proxy with user preferences such as no-images and no-colors. which is to split the communication path between the client and the server into two parts by using a store-and-forward interceptor. The proxy may also store the filtered results until the client is connected. Two media- . 7. Existing TCP/IP protocols are used between the base station and a fixed host so that the protocol software in the fixed network remains unmodified.2 The Client/Proxy/Server Model To overcome the shortcomings of the conventional client/server model. It provides prioritized data channels with flow control between the mobile host and the base station. The proxy assumes that the client is mobile and the server is in the fixed network. the cache invalidation process could fail. In addition to the mobile host. Most invalidation algorithms rely on the continuous availability of the client. audio file removal. Examples of data filtering include: color and resolution reduction. and file size reduction. especially when large server replies such as query results are transmitted without any considerations to the limited wireless bandwidth. The basic idea behind this model was introduced in the Mowgli architecture . The server caching strategy may not work properly in this model because the majority of the fixed network caching algorithms use call backs to invalidate the client cache. the client/proxy/server (C/P/S) model introduces a mobility-aware middle layer to mediate the interactions between the client and the server. In support of the C/P/S computing model. The proxy filters the results according to the limitations of the wireless media and/or the client’s mobile unit. the mobile host is provided with a specialized transport service. a mobile host that does not have audio capability will benefit from audio file removal filtering. a C/P/S network architecture for reliable communication is introduced in the Mowgli architecture . the Mowgli Data Channel Service (MDCS). The result from the server is sent back to the proxy. Since the client could be disconnected or temporarily inaccessible (during hand-offs for example). The main advantage of this model is that the proxy allows the client and the server to be designed without any built-in mobility assumptions. In this architecture. The programming of the proxy involves knowledge of the mobile host hardware specifications. For example.
and relocation mechanisms. Voluntary disconnection can be treated as planned failures which can be anticipated and prepared. 7. mobile scripts. disconnected operation can extend battery life by avoiding wireless transmission and reception. either as a client or as a server. 7. a vital capability in military applications. Static agents are those which execute just on a single site. instead of working under the extreme case of weak-connectivity. A static agent could be carrying out some activity like mail filter- ing. Mobile agents are mobile scripts with an associated execution state information. The operations that enable a client to continue accessing critical data during the disconnection (switch off) period are called disconnected operations. A mobile agent is an active entity that is knowledgeable of both the limitations of the mobile environment and the mobile user.6. or python scripts can be classified as mobile scripts. or it could be relocated during the execution of the agent. the mobile client effectively switches to use a network of zero bandwidth and infinite latency.Research in Wireless and Mobile Computing 133 tors. Java applets. And. The relocation of the agent involves saving the state before initiating relocation and later restarting the mobile agent at the new location. authorization mechanisms. the Mowgli Agent and the Mowgli Proxy. are used to provide functionality similar to that of TCP and UDP. Disconnected operations is a variation of the C/S model where. Mobile scripts are those that are downloaded from a server and executed on a client. The mobile agent is an execution context . It allows radio silence to be maintained. A mobile agent could either be relocated along with the user. it is a viable fallback position when network characteristics degrade beyond usability. This is true in the C/S and the C/P/S models.6. access mechanisms.4 The Mobile Agent Model Agents can be classified as static. The ability to operate when disconnected can be useful even when connectivity is available. For example. To access remote data. The mobility of agents raises a large number of issues like security. The mobile agent is an emerging new model that provides an alternative to the C/P/S model. the mobile user sends a mobile agent on his behalf to the data source in the fixed network. which reside at each end of the wireless link. or mobile objects . perl.3 The Disconnected Operation Model Mobile clients may face wide variations in network conditions and local resource availability when accessing remote data.
the agent “targets” the resulting data in preparation for transmitting the result to the mobile user. 7. This model is especially suitable for dumb terminal or small PDA applications. The mobile agent paradigm is depicted in Figure 7. Once the C/S interactions between the mobile agent and the server are completed.8. applications in stationary servers are usually mobile-aware and optimized for mobile client devices. In this model. Such targeting includes filtering and transcoding actions such as color depth and resolution reduction and compression. .6. Once the agent moves to the data source (server).134 C HAPTER 7 initially loaded with the queries or data access requests. it acts as a local client to the server.5 The Thin Client Model The thin client computing model attempts to offload most application logic and functionality from mobile clients to stationary servers.
The work pointed out that bandwidth limitation is not as detrimental to the thin client performance as network latency. The ICA client and the MetaFrame server collaborate to display the virtual desktop on the remote computer screen. . This is because the thin clients’ use of bandwidth is limited. regardless of their platform. A server called MetaFrame runs under Windows NT in the desktop machine and communicates with the thin clients executing at the remote computers using the Independent Computing Architecture protocol (ICA). The research work described in  examines extensions to CITRIX thin client architecture so that it is optimized in the wireless environment. All executions are remote and none take place at the client portable computer.Research in Wireless and Mobile Computing 135 The thin client architecture from CITRIX Corporation allows a variety of remote computers. They also collaborate to process mouse and keyboard events and to execute programs and view data stored at the server. to connect to a Windows NT terminal server to remotely access a powerful desktop and its applications .
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A research organization 50% funded by the European Economic Commission Air Link Interface ADSL AMPS ARDIS Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line Advanced Mobile Phone System Advanced Radio Data Information Service ATIS ATM See Appendix–C Asynchronous Transfer Mode BER BOOTP Bit Error Rate Bootstrap Protocol. CDMA is also referred to as “Cellular.APPENDIX–A: GLOSSARY OF COMMON ABBREVIATIONS AAAAAAA ACTS The American Association for the Abolishment of Abused Abbreviations and Asinine Acronyms :-) Advanced Communications Technologies and Services. . An air link interface coding scheme wherein multiple subscribers are granted access to the same radio frequency source by assigning subscribers transmit and receive signals a spectrum spreading code. and standardized by the Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA). Used to establish communications between computers and devices at start up time BS BSC BTS Base Station. a digital spread-spectrum system initially developed by QUALCOMM Inc. IS-95”. Also known as Mobility Support Station or (MSS). Also known as Base Station Controller (in GSM) Base Station Controller (in GSM) Base Transceiver Station (in GSM) CDMA Code Division Multiple Access.
CDPD transmits packet data over free (unused) channels in existing AMPS cellular radio CDPD Forum See Appendix–C CLNP Connectionless Network Protocol. Also known as Mobile Equipment (in GSM). It makes use of 30 KHz wide channels.138 CDPD Cellular Digital Packet Data is a connectionless network proposed by the CDPD Forum. but allows up to six time multiplexed users per channel with vocoder rate of 4 kbits/s ETSI FCC See Appendix–C See Appendix–C . DCT DECT Digital Cordless Telephone Digital European Cordless Telecommunications (Standard) DECT Forum See Appendix–C DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. or Mobile Unit Extended Time Division Multiple Access. CMRS CTIA DARPA Commercial Mobile Radio Services spectrum as defined by the FCC. A device or attachment to a DTE (See below) that is responsible for communication. A proposed system to extend TDMA. An IETF protocol DTE E-TDMA Data Terminal Equipment (in Motorola iDEN). It is based on early IETF Mobile-IP work. a trade association of carriers equipment suppliers and application developers. It uses datagrams that include addressing information for routing network messages. An OSI protocol used for the delivery of data. Similar to the Internet UDP datagram protocol. and its international equivalents See Appendix–C Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency DCE Data Communication Equipment (in Motorola iDEN).
Ranges from 45 to 210 MHz International Mobile Telecommunications by the year 2000 project. It supports mobile connections to multiple networks including TCP/IP. and CLNP.1 spec. A packet based network for voice and data IEC See Appendix–C IEEE 802. X. A US government satellite system that provides location and time information to users Global System for Mobile communications (Actually: “Groupe Speciale Mobile”). Similar to TDMA except that it uses 200 KHz wide channels with eight users per channel and has a vocoder rate of 13 kbits/s. It is the first digital cellular system to be used commercially and has been adopted in Europe and many Pacific rim countries HLR Home Location Register HTTP ICMP HyperText Transfer Protocol Internet Control Message Protocol.11 See W-LAN IETF IF IMT 2000 See Appendix–C Intermediate Frequency. GPRS mobility management uses mobility agents (home and foreign) similar to Mobile-IP GPS GSM Global Positioning System. A GSM packet data service developed by ETSI as part of GSM phase 2+ developments. Under the subgroup IMT (International Mobile Telecom munications) in the ITU that plans to facilitate cooperation in deciding global wireless access for the 21st century IR Infra-Red communication. Related to IR is IrDA which is protocol adopted for infrared communication between portables without wires over distances as long as one meter. for example. The IrDA 1.25. operates at 4 Mbps speed See Appendix–C IrDA ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network .Research in Wireless and Mobile Computing 139 GPRS General Packet Radio Service. Used to ping Internet computers to test their reachability across the networks iDEN Motorola’s Integrated Digital Enhanced Network.
Also known as Mobile Unit (MU) ME MEMS Micro Cell Micro-Electro Mechanical System A unit of communication coverage in cellular networks. removable module that has become the expansion vehicle for portable com- puters. ACTS is currently active in MBS research Mobile Equipment (in GSM). Experimental high bandwidth wireless communication with provision for mobility.140 ITU JDC See Appendix–C Japan Digital Cellular JTACS LEO Japanese Total Access Communication System. Macro Cell A unit of communication coverage in cellular networks. An analog cellular telephone system currently used in North America NAMPS NMT OSI Nordic Mobile Telephone Open Systems Interconnection. usually in the order of 5-15 Kilometer in diameter MBS Mobile Broadband Systems. PCMCIA Today. Also known as PC card . PCMCIA refers to a credit-card sized. A service that links mobile earth stations with base stations and with one another via one or more satellite. A narrow band analog FM follow-on to the TACS system used in Japan Low Earth Orbit. An ISO (see Appendix–C) standard of a Reference Model for how messages should be transmitted between any two points in a telecommunication network Personal Computer Memory Card International Association. This includes memory. generally within several hundred Kilometers above the earth’s surface and usually inclined to the equatorial plane. Any orbit around the earth below the geostationary satellite orbit. usually in the order of 500-1500 meters MSS Mobile Satellite Service. The same abbreviation is used to denote Mobile Support Stations which is also known as Base Stations (See BS) Narrowband Advanced Mobile Phone Service. I/O and hard disks.
usually on the order of 5-100 meters PPP PSTN Point to Point Protocol. QoS RBOC RF Quality of Service. in North America Personal Communication Systems Personal Digital Assistant. Public Switched Telephone Network. A class of PIAs. subscribers can change cell phones and other devices and yet obtain the same services. A smart card technology that stores the subscriber identity information. For some cellular telephones in the US this is in the range from 800 to 900 MHz Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line SDSL SIM Subscriber Identity Module. Frequency of the transmitted/received signal. A measure of guarantees that can be made in meeting certain performance requirements Regional Bell Operating Company. An extension of paging services. One of the seven “baby Bells” caused by the 1984 divestiture of AT&T Radio Frequency. Structured Query Language. Also known as second generation cellular system. PCS PDA PDC Personal Digital Cellular (Japan) PHS PIA Pico Cell Personal Handy Phone System (Japan) Personal Information Appliance A unit of communication coverage in cellular networks. SMS SQL T1P1 Short Messaging Service.Research in Wireless and Mobile Computing 141 PCN Personal Communications Network. By using SIMs. A standard language for querying and manipulating relational databases See Appendix–C . A serial line version of the TCP/IP protocol. European equivalent of North America’s PCS (See PCS).
A wireless extension to wireline intranets. It makes use of 30 kHz wide channels. Developed by the WAP Forum . and conference calling See Appendix–C UMTS Universal Mobile Telecommunications System is a project under the SMG (Special Mobile Groupe). A ISO/OSI protocol stack for use by digital phones and other wireless devices to access the Internet. TDMA is also referred to as the first digital cellular FM system standardized in North America. Such as wait calling. The vocoder rate is 8 Kbits/s TeleVAS TIA Telephony Value Added Services. UMTS is the first implementation. call forwarding. of the IMT-2000 standard See Appendix–C UMTS Terrestial Radio Access Very high rate Digital Subscriber Line USTA UTRA VDSL VLR W-ATM W-CDMA W-LAN Visitor Location Register Wireless Asynchronous Transfer Mode network Wideband Code Division Multiple Access Wireless Local Area Network. but three users are time-multiplexed on each channel. Method wherein multiple subscribers are granted access to the same radio frequency source by limiting subscribers transmit and receive signals to time slots. The IEEE 802. It uses 25 KHz wide channels and signaling is superaudio TD-CDMA TDMA Time Division.142 TACS Total Access Communication System. Code Division Multiple Access Time Division Multiple Access. W-LANs do not require licenses and must meet regulatory requirements such as maximum transmission power. by the Europeans. a committee in ETSI. An Analog FM communication system used in the United Kingdom and Japan.11 is a recent (1998) standard that guarantees interoperability of W-LAN products from different vendors W-TDMA WAP Wideband Time Division Multiple Access Wireless Application Protocol.
CDPD. WSP will provide Internet access plus added value services such as Web content filtering and transcoding (e. An emerging Internet service that caters to subscribers with wireless interfaces (e.g. WAP based Wireless Markup Language). GSM.Research in Wireless and Mobile Computing 143 WAP Forum See Appendix–C WDF Forum See Appendix–C WSP Wireless Service Provider. and information feed services. iDEN).g. .
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Tx: 915-925 Multiple Access Method: FDMA Duplex Method: FDD Number of Channels: ETACS: 1240. Tx: 890-915 Multiple Access Method: FDMA Duplex Method: FDD Number of Channels: NMT-450: 200.APPENDIX–B: WIRELESS CELLULAR SYSTEMS Analog Cellular Technology NMT-Nordic Mobile Telephone Mobile Frequency Range (MHz): NMT-450: Rx: 463-468. Tx: 453-458 NMT-900: Rx: 935-960. NMT-900: 12. NTACS: 400 . Tx: 871-904 NTACS: Rx: 860-870.5 kHz Modulation: FM Channel Bit Rate: n/a AMPS-Advanced Mobile Phone Service Mobile Frequency Range (MHz): Rx: 869-894. NMT-900: 1999 Channel Spacing: NMT-450: 25kHz. Tx: 824-849 Multiple Access Method: FDMA Duplex Method: FDD Number of Channels: 832 Channel Spacing: 30 kHz Modulation: FM Channel Bit Rate: n/a TACS-Total Access Communication System Mobile Frequency Range (MHz): ETACS: Rx: 916-949.
31/40 (Netherlands. Taiwan.20. 12.25 or 40 kHz Modulation: FM Channel Bit Rate: n/a JCT-Japanese Cordless Telephone Mobile Frequency Range (MHz): 254/380 Multiple Access Method: FDMA Duplex Method: FDD Number of Channels: 89 Channel Spacing: 12.7. Korea.). 48/74.K. 15. CTI+: 80 Channel Spacing: 25 kHz Modulation: FM Channel Bit Rate: n/a . 45/48 (China) Multiple Access Method: FDMA Duplex Method: FDD Number of Channels: 10.5 kHz Modulation: FM Channel Bit Rate: n/a CT1/CT1+ Cordless Telephone 1 Mobile Frequency Range (MHz): CTI: 914/960. 26/41 (France). S. NTACS: 12.5kHz Modulation: FM Channel Bit Rate: n/a Analog Cordless Technology CTO-Cordless Telephone O Mobile Frequency Range (MHz): 2/48 (U. USA). CTI+: 80 Multiple Access Method: FDMA Duplex Method: FDD Number of Channels: CTI: 40. 46/49 (China. Spain).146 Channel Spacing: ETACS: 25 kHz. 30/39 (Australia). 20 or 25 Channel Spacing: 1.
Tx: 824-849 Multiple Access Method: TDMA/FDM Duplex Method: FDD Number of Channels: 832 (3 users/channel) Channel Spacing: 30 kHz Modulation: 1/4 DQPSK Channel Bit Rate: 48.833 kb/s PDC-Personal Digital Cellular Mobile Frequency Range (MHz): Rx: 810-826. Tx: 940-956 Rx: 1429-1453. Tx: 824-849 Multiple Access Method: CDMA/FDM Duplex Method: FDD Number of Channels: 20 (798 users/channel) Channel Spacing: 1250 kHz Modulation: QPSK/OQPSK Channel Bit Rate: 1.3 Gaussian Filter) Channel Bit Rate: 270. Tx: 1710-1785 Multiple Access Method: TDMA/FDM Duplex Method: FDD Number of Channels: 374 (8 users/channel) Channel Spacing: 200 kHz Modulation: GMSK (0.2288 kb/s .6 kb/s IS-95: North American Digital Cellular Mobile Frequency Range (MHz): Rx: 869-894.Research in Wireless and Mobile Computing 147 Digital Cellular Technology DCS 1800 Mobile Frequency Range (MHz): Rx: 1805-1880. Tx: 1477-1501 Multiple Access Method: TDMA/FDM Duplex Method: FDD Number of Channels: 1600 (3 users/channel) Channel Spacing: 25 kHz Modulation: 1/4 DQPSK Channel Bit Rate: 42 kb/s IS-54/-136 North American Digital Cellular Mobile Frequency Range (MHz): Rx: 869-894.
Tx: 1850-1910 Multiple Access Method: – PACS (based on PHS cordless) – DCT-U (based on DECT cordless) – Composite CDMA/TDMA High-tier PCS: Personal Communications Systems Mobile Frequency Range (MHz): Rx: 1930-1990. CT2+: 944/948 Multiple Access Method: TDMA/FDM Duplex Method: TDD Number of Channels: 40 Channel Spacing: 100 kHz Modulation: GFSK (0. Tx: 1850-1910 Multiple Access Method: – PCS TDMA (based on IS-136 cellular) – PCS CDMA (based on IS-95 cellular) – PCS 1900 (based on GSN cellular) – Wideband CDMA Digital Cordless Technology CT2/CT2+ Cordless Telephone 2 Mobile Frequency Range (MHz): CT2: 864/868.3 Gaussian Filter) Channel Bit Rate: 270.833 kb/s Law-tier PCS: Personal Communications Systems Mobile Frequency Range (MHz): Rx: 1930-1990. Tx: 880-915 Multiple Access Method: TDMA/FDM Duplex Method: FDD Number of Channels: 124 (8 users/channel) Channel Spacing: 200 kHz Modulation: GMSK (0.148 GSM: Global System for Mobile Communications Mobile Frequency Range (MHz): Rx: 925-960.5 Gaussian Filter) Channel Bit Rate: 72 kb/s .
728 MHz Modulation: GFSK (0. Tx: 824-849 Multiple Access Method: FDMA Duplex Method: FDD Number of Channels: 832 (4 users/channel) Channel Spacing: 30 kHz Modulation: GMSK (0.152 Mb/s Wireless Data Technology CDPD: Cellular Digital Packet Data Mobile Frequency Range (MHz): Rx: 869-894. Tx: 896-902 (Europe/Asia): 403-470 Multiple Access Method: TDMA/FDM Duplex Method: FDD Number of Channels: 480 Channel Spacing: 12.3 Gaussian Filter) Channel Bit Rate: 8 kb/s .5 kHz Modulation: GMSK (0.Research in Wireless and Mobile Computing 149 PHS-Personal Handy Phone System Mobile Frequency Range (MHz): 1895-1918 Multiple Access Method: TDMA/FDM Duplex Method: TDD Number of Channels: 300 (4 users/channel) Channel Spacing: 300 kHz Modulation: 1/4 DQPSK Channel Bit Rate: 384 kb/s DECT-Digital European Cordless Telephone Mobile Frequency Range (MHz): 1880-1900 Multiple Access Method: TDMA/FDM Duplex Method: TDD Number of Channels: 10 (12 users/channel) Channel Spacing: 1.5 Gaussian Filter) Channel Bit Rate: 19.5 Gaussian Filter) Channel Bit Rate: 1.2 kb/s RAM-Mobitex Mobile Frequency Range (MHz): (North America): Rx: 935-941.
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short range radio links between mobile PCs. equipment suppliers. CDPD Forum – http://www.com Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions (formerly Exchange Carriers Standards Association).APPENDIX–C: STANDARDS ORGANIZATIONS ANSI – http://www. low-cost.cdpd. Many projects are done jointly with TIA.S.org/ American National Standards Institute is the primary organization for fostering the development of technology standards in the United States.atis.com Bluetooth is a technology specification for small form factor. mobile phones and other portable devices.org Cellular Digital Packet Data Forum is a trade association of carriers. The Bluetooth Special Interest Group is an industry group consisting of leaders in the telecommunications and computing industries that are driving development of the technology and bringing it to the market. member of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC).ansi.bluetooth. and mobile application developers. As of May 1998. BlueTooth – http://www. ATIS – http://www. the CDPD Forum will be expanded into the Wireless Data Forum (See WDF). Houses Tl standards committees on wireless and switching interfaces to telephone exchange systems. ANSI works with industry groups and is the U. .
ETSI – http://www. Writes and administers rules governing wire and radio/television communication in the USA. Publishes the standards which are successors to the former CCITT standards.ch Digital Enhanced Cordless Telephone system. also known as Digital European CT and DCT or PWT in the North American versions. Publishes the 802. DECT. . while the European version uses digital GMSK FM.org Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. Global Engineering Documents – http://global. FCC – http://www.ieee.com Cellular Telecommunications Industry Association. Franchised distributor of TIA standards documents and other selected standards documents. Represents the Cellular and PCS system operators/license holders in the USA.dect.ihs.com Formerly Indian Head Systems. and and other wireless/cellular standards. Administers GSM. DECT Forum – http://www.fcc.x LAN standards. IEEE – http://www.fr European Telecommunication Standards Institute.wow-com.152 CTIA – http://www.etsi.gov United States Federal Communications Commission. The North American versions use DQPSK modulation.
An open international community of network designers.iso. The Salutation Consortium – http://www.iec. An international organization within which governments and the private sector coordinate global telecommunication networks and services. Publishes standards mainly devoted to electrical and optical fiber connectors and power systems and graphic standards for diagrams and labeling. IrDA – http://www.ch International Organization of Standards.itu. ITU – http://www. vendors.ch International Telecommunication Union.org Internet Engineering Task Force.org Infrared Data Association.ch International Electrotechnical Commission. ISO is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies from some 100 countries.irda. and researchers concerned with the evolution and improvement of the Internet.ietf. ISO – http://www.salutation. IrDA is an association of over 160 companies world wide focused on providing IR standards to ensure the quality and interoperability of the Infrared Technology. The architecture is intended to be used to discover . IETF – http://www. Among the standards it fosters is Open Systems Interconnection (OSI). a reference model for communication protocol. operators.Research in Wireless and Mobile Computing 153 IEC – http://www.org Salutation is a non-profit organization defining an architecture for “find and bind” mobile environment. one from each country.
for adoption by appropriate industry standards bodies.bellcore.S. . operators.org Planning committee of ATIS. etc. TelCordia (ex. carriers. wireless software developers.itsa. Bellcore) – http://www.org The Wireless Application Protocol Forum. under different connectivity and mobility conditions. Issues standards on consumer end telecom equipment (telephone sets. Issues TR (technical reference) and TA (technical advisory) standards for the North American public telephone industry. WAP Forum – http://www. T1P1 – http://www.) and cellular/PCS systems. The goal of the WAP Forum is to develop a wireless protocol specification that works across differing wireless network technology types. The architecture will lead to creating open servers for mobile client. Telephone Association (formerly US Independent Telephone Association). Affiliated with TIA. Represents the telephone industry. Recently sold to Science Applications International Corp (SAIC). USTA – http://www. and internet content providers.com Bell Communications Research.tl.154 services and capabilities among a diverse set of mobile information appliances.usta. A non-for-profit organization with members from terminal (phones and PDA) and infrastructure manufacturers. TIA – http://www. PBX equipment.wapforum. Issues many wireless standards jointly with TIA. Split off from Bell Laboratories in 1984.org Telecommunications Industry Association.org U.
. the telecommunications industry.org Wireless Data Forum (previously the CDPD Forum) is a nonprofit organization formed to promote the benefits of wireless data products and services to end-user communities. the media.cdpd. and the information technology industry.Research in Wireless and Mobile Computing 155 WDF Forum – http://www.
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90 IPv4. 72 ARDIS. 19 Infrastructure Mode. 20 GSM. 20 MEMS. 16 Dynamic URL. 114 BOOTP Protocol. 111 IDEN. 93 Microsoft. 40 Fast Retransmission TCP. 101 Degree of Mobility. 102. 71 Broadcast Disks. 15 IS-54. 101 Loss Profile. 15 Ericsson. 120 EPOCH. 45 Loose Source Routing. 13 Client Proxy. 15 GeOS. 26 Laptops. 26 Macro Cell. 22 Marco. 16 CDPD. 102 . 120 MPEG 1. 55 DHCP Protocol. 11 MobiTex.INDEX ACTS. 38 Continuous Queries. 119 MOWSER. 20 Cellular Systems. 67. 21 BARWAN. 101 BIueTooth. 15 Infrared. 86 Frequency Hopping. 26 MPEG 2. 64 IEEE 802. 105 IPv6. 21 Mobile Agents. 69 IMT-2000 spectrum assignment. 55 BodyLAN. 102 Fourth generation wireless networks. 60 MNCRF. 53 Broadband services. 19. 133 Frequency Reuse. 59 Enhanced TDMA (ETDMA). 105 HLR. 15. 102 I-TCP. 20 IrDA. 16 GPRS. 11 Ad-Hoc Mode. 107 Mobile IP. 37 Home Agent. 16 Micro Cell. 20 Ad-Hoc Routing. 106 Cellular Networks. 21 Direct Sequence. 112 Lucent. 38 Communicator. 22 Microsoft Exchange. 22 Diffie-Hellamn Protocol. 9 Hand-held Computers. 21 Clio. 112 Foreign Agent. 109 DirecPC.11. 19 Isolation-Only Transaction. 123 CDMA. 11 Ear Phone. 15 DAN. 4 D-AMPS. 129 Kangaroo Transactions. 21. 95 IMT 2000. 20. 21 Access Point. 105 IS-136. 127 LEO.
134 Third generation network requirements. 16 Sub-notebooks. 15 PDA. 21 RBOC. 121 Windows-CE. 2 Notebooks.25. 21 NCR. 86 W-CDMA. 92 Sybase SQL Remote. 93 Mobility Middleware. 38 PHS Wristwatch Phone. 56 Palm Pilot. 73 X. 52 WebExpress. 69 Time-Division Multiple Access (TDMA). 50 PCS. 93 Noise to Signal Ratio (NSR). 20 Wearable Computer. 89 Replication. 84 . 20 Wireless Service Provider (WSP). 43 NTT. 119 Thin Client. 15 TIA/EIA-136. 107 Zaurus. 109 RAM Network. 20 Remote Access. 2. 91 Oracle Mobile Agents. 93–94 Spread Spectrum. 90 Wireless LAN. 56 Netscape. 72 UMTS. 20 Shiva PPP. 11. 116 WaveLAN. 92 System on Chip (SOC). 26. 4 Wireless World Wide Web (W4). 119 Wireless network evolution. 36 Palm-OS. 11 Proxim. 61 TCP/IP. 71 Ubiquitous Computing. 17 Nokia 9000. 58 Rover. 9 W-ATM. 11 Quality of Service. 91 Oracle Replication Manager. 124 OpenAir Interface. 73 TIA. 43 Novell. 20 VLR. 96 QoS. 20 Wireless Application Protocol (WAP). 93 Odyssey. 38 Ring Keyboard. 102 MobileWare Office Server. 126 Mobile-IP. 77 WAP Protocol. 15 The Open Group. 107 TD-CDMA.166 INDEX Mobile Transactions. 20 Oracle Lite. 93 Remote-Node. 21 RangeLAN. 92 Oracle Software Manager. 125 SDMA. 15 UMTS schedule. 40 Nomadic Computing.