This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
ANY TIME, ANYWHERE COMPUTING
Mobile Computing Concepts and Technology
The Kluwer International Series In Engineering and Computer Science
Texas. Texas. USA KLUWER ACADEMIC PUBLISHERS NEW YORK. USA Jeffery L. MOSCOW . BOSTON. USA Richard Brice Darrell Woelk Marek Rusinkiewicz MCC Austin. USA Bert Haskell MCC Austin. LONDON. Florida. Texas. DORDRECHT. Carter Motorola Austin.ANYTIME. ANYWHERE COMPUTING Mobile Computing Concepts and Technology Abdelsalam Helal University of Florida Gainesville.
or otherwise.com http://www.ebooks. mechanical.kluweronline. London. recording. Boston. without written consent from the Publisher Created in the United States of America Visit Kluwer Online at: and Kluwer's eBookstore at: http://www.kluweronline. Moscow All rights reserved No part of this eBook may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means. electronic.eBook ISBN: Print ISBN: 0-306-47301-1 0-792-38610-8 ©2002 Kluwer Academic Publishers New York.com . Dordrecht.
2 1.1.1 Multimedia Applications 13 15 15 16 2.2.2 2.2.1 Digital Cellular Systems 2.1 Time-Division Multiple Access (TDMA) 22.214.171.124 Campus/Metropolitan Area Packet Networks 2.3 2.3 Wireless and Mobile Computing Architecture Limitations of the Wireless and Mobile Environment 1 2 4 10 2 WIRELESS TELECOMMUNICATION NETWORKS 2.CONTENTS FOREWORD PREFACE 1 xi xiii INTRODUCTION TO MOBILE COMPUTING 1.4 18 18 19 19 20 20 21 21 22 25 27 3 PORTABLE INFORMATION APPLIANCES .2.3 In-building Radio Frequency 2.5 Wide-Area Packet/Circuit Switched Data Networks 2.1 Impressive Technology 1.2.6 Satellite Networks Mobility-Bandwidth Tradeoffs Systems Issues 126.96.36.199 In-room Infrared 2.2 Code-Division Multiple Access (CDMA) The Wireless Network Technology 2.2 In-room Radio Frequency 2.
2.2.9 Other Information Appliances 3.1 Historical Evolution 3.2 The Advent of the PDA 3.2.1 Sharp Power Zaurus 3.2.2 Clarion AutoPC 27 32 35 36 37 37 39 39 40 41 42 44 44 46 46 47 49 49 51 52 52 53 53 55 55 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 4 FUTURE INFORMATION APPLIANCES 4.12 Power Ring and the Magic Wand Concluding Remarks 4.1 HP CapShare 3.7 Notebooks 3.11 The Ear Phone 4.2 New Challenges Emerging Portable Information Appliances and Teleservices 4.7 Seiko Wristwatch PC 4.3 5 FUTURE WIRELESS COMMUNICATION NETWORKS 63 .2.2.10 Display Pad: The Next Generation TV 4.5.8 Laptops 3.1 The Palm Pilot 3.2 Motorola Marco 3.9. ANYWHERE COMPUTING 3.6 Sub-notebooks (Micro-notebooks) 188.8.131.52.1 4.6 BlueTooth 4.4 Hand-held Computers 3.2.2 VADEM Clio 3.1 Nokia 9000 3.4.3 IBM Wearable PC 4.3 Palmtop Computers 184.108.40.206 Wearable Computer Systems (CMU) 4.8 NTT PHS Wristwatch Phone 4.2.9 NTT Ring Keyboard 4.9.5 Toshiba Desk Area Network (DAN) 4.vi ANY TIME.5 Communicators 3.2.1 Wearable Computing (MIT) 4.3.4 BodyLAN: A Wearable RF Communications System 4.
3 ACTS Third Generation Wireless Networks 5.2.2 Loose Source Routing Protocol 7.1 6.3.Contents vii 220.127.116.11 64 64 65 66 67 67 69 71 72 5.2 UMTS 5.1 Time Division/Code Division Multiple Access 18.104.22.168 Early Approaches: Virtual IP Protocols 7.1 IMT-2000 5.2 Wireless Service Evolution 5.3.4 6.2 Wideband Code Division Multiple Access 5.1.1 Oracle Mobile Agents 6.1 Future Wireless Teleservices 5.4 Oracle Replication Manager 6.2.2 5.2.3 Oracle Software Manager 6.2.5 89 89 91 91 91 92 92 92 93 93 94 95 97 7 RESEARCH IN WIRELESS AND MOBILE COMPUTING 7.3.5 74 77 83 86 87 6 STATE OF INDUSTRY: MOBILITY SUPPORT SOFTWARE 6.2.1 Wireline Network Services 5.1 MobileWare Office Server 6.3 Market Evolution Emerging Wireless Network Standards 5.2 Shiva PPP Interoperability and Standardization Shortcomings and Limitations 6.1.5 Sybase SQL Remote Mobility Middleware 6.3 6.2.2 Oracle Lite 6.4 5.2.3 Space Division Multiple Access Fourth Generation Wireless Research Concluding Remarks 5.2 Competing Philosophies End-User Client Applications 22.214.171.124 The Mobile Internet Protocol (Mobile-IP) 99 100 100 101 102 .3.1 Mobile Networking 7.
6.5 WebExpress Mobile Data Management 7.4 Mobile Browser (MOWSER) 126.96.36.199 The Two-tier Transaction Model 7. A NYWHERE C OMPUTING 7.3.3 The Clustering Model 7.6.6 Security and Authentication Issues in Mobile Networks Quality of Service in Mobile Networks 7.2 Dynamic Documents 7.4 The Mobile Agent Model 7.6 Semantic-based Nomadic Transaction Processing Mobile Computing Models 188.8.131.52.4 7.3 Dynamic URLs 7.2 The Client/Proxy/Server Model 7.5 The Thin Client Model 106 107 108 109 110 112 114 119 119 119 120 120 121 123 123 125 126 126 127 128 129 129 130 131 131 132 133 133 134 APPENDIX-A: GLOSSARY OF COMMON ABBREVIATIONS APPENDIX-B: WIRELESS CELLULAR SYSTEMS 137 145 .1 Optimizing TCP/IP for Mobile Networks 7.3 184.108.40.206 The Wireless WWW (W4) 7.2 Mobile Data Access in Ad-hoc Networks Mobile Transactions 7.1 Reporting and Co-Transactions 7.6.5 220.127.116.11 Isolation-Only Transactions 7.5.3 QoS Driven.3 The Disconnected Operation Model 7.2 QoS Driven.1 Mobile Client/Server Data Access 7.2 7.6.viii A NY T IME .5. High-Level Communication Protocols 7.4. Full Protocol Stacks Mobile Access to the World Wide Web 18.104.22.168 7.3.4 Cellular Digital Packet Data (CDPD) 22.214.171.124.1 The Client/Server Model 7.1.2 The Kangaroo Transaction Model 7.5 The GSM General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) 7.
Contents ix APPENDIX-C: STANDARDS ORGANIZATIONS REFERENCES 151 157 INDEX 165 .
This page intentionally left blank. .
handheld personal computers (HPC). . We are at the cusp of vast popularization of “computers-on-the-go. Reading e-mail and connecting to various information feeds have already become a part of daily business activities. Accompanying the vibrant growth in mobile communications is the growth in multimedia communications. Japan alone has had more than ten million subscribers enter the mobile market. The book emphasizes three infrastructures: (1) wireless communication network infrastructure. The core technologies and applications needed to understand the industry are comprehensively addressed. and (3) software middleware and architectures that support wireless and mobile computing. and commercial software designed for mobile environments. In only a few short years. The growth in these dynamic industries shows that a change in our chosen method of communications is already well advanced.FOREWORD Mobile communications have permeated the globe in both business and social cultures. making mobile computing a key phrase in the coming advanced information communication era. wireless data communication services. We are trying to grasp the overall picture of mobile computing. Its shape and form are just starting to appear as personal digital assistants (PDA). Such explosive popularity is an indication of a strong commercial demand for communications in both the tethered and tetherless environments. (2) terminal devices (or ”computers-on-the-go”). Mobile and multimedia communications technologies are merging.” “Any time Anywhere Computing” provides the reader with an understandable explanation of the current developments and commercialization of mobile computing. including the Internet.
A NYWHERE C OMPUTING Moreover. the research activities presented in this book provide an insightful look into the future of mobile computing. Moriji Kuwabara. Ph. Japan April 1999 . Senior Advisor to NTT President Nippon Telephone and Telegraph Corp.D. I would like to express my sincere applause to the authors who have completed this enlightening work.xii A NY T IME .
in-room RF. Finally. Chapter 3 provides a historical perspective on the evolution of “Portable Information Appliances” (PIA). It includes substantial coverage of the technologies that are shaping mobile computing. By covering commercial solutions and middleware. In the near future. current and future wireless telecommunication networks technology is covered and reviewed. The chapter also provides an alternative taxonomy based on the mobility/bandwidth tradeoffs. Any Time. Current and future portables technology is covered and explained. Anywhere Computing: Mobile Computing Concepts and Technology is intended for technical and non-technical readers. It also describes the emergence and evo- . and satellite networks. in-building RF. systems issues in wireless networks are discussed with special focus on the effect of the various wireless networks on multimedia applications. Finally.PREFACE The proliferation of wireless networks and small portable computing devices have led to the emergence of the mobile computing paradigm. Chapter 1 provides a motivation and an introduction to Mobile Computing. A reference architecture is described along with a discussion of the limitations of the mobile and wireless environment. the book surveys a vast body of recent research in the area of mobile computing. campus area packet relay networks. this book will also help IT professionals who are looking for mobile solutions to their enterprise computing needs. Mobile and nomadic users carrying laptops or hand-held computers are able to connect to the Internet through publicly available wireline or wireless networks. wide area packet/switched data networks. Chapter 2 summarizes two digital cellular systems (TDMA and CDMA) and describes a taxonomy of different wireless network technologies including in-room infrared. this trend can only grow as new exciting services and infrastructure delivering wireless voice and multimedia data will be deployed. Similarly. The research coverage is likely to benefit researchers and students from academia as well as industry.
Appendix C includes a listing of standard organizations and consortia. The TD-CDMA and the W-CDMA proposals for future air interfaces are also described. and mobile computing models. The reader is encouraged to consult this appendix if an acronym is encountered without a definition. It is intended to be used as a quick reference. . which is divided into end-user client applications. Appendix B lists a brief summary of the various wireless cellular systems. Chapter 4 extends Chapter 3 by analyzing the suitability of existing PIAs. Chapter 7 surveys academic and industrial research in mobile computing. It includes research on mobile networking. Chapter 5 covers third and fourth generation wireless telecommunication networks and services. Emerging wireless network standards such as the IMT-2000. a brief description is provided in addition to a Universal Resource Locator (URL) to point the reader to where more information can be obtained. which is one of the hotest topics today. Appendix A provides a glossary of acronyms and abbreviations. not as a complete source of information about these systems. UMTS. The chapter attempts to clarify confusing concepts and sort out the facts from the uncertainties. For each organization. A classification of existing PIAs is presented and sample devices from each category are described. quality of service. Chapter 6 includes coverage of commercially available mobility software solutions. Wireless network and service evolution is carefully presented to provide a basis for predictions. Emerging PIAs and PIAs’ prototypes and concepts are included in this chapter. is delicately presented. A NYWHERE C OMPUTING lution of the Personal Digital Assistant (PDA). wireless Internet access. and mobility support middleware. which is a heavily debated issue. Future universal air interface standards. A complete and detailed survey of research in this area is outside the scope of this book. and ACTS are covered. mobile transactions.xiv A NY T IME. It describes the new challenges that the PIA industry must face before an “ideal” PIA can be invented. The survey is very condensed but is loaded with citations for further reading. The chapter addresses interoperability issues and discusses shortcomings and limitations of the current state of industry.
The field of mobile computing is relatively new and is constantly changing.Preface xv The reader should be cautioned that the book is based on current developments. any time and anywhere. Carter Richard Brice Darrell Woelk Marek Rusinkeiwicz 22nd of June 1999 . We hope you enjoy reading this book. the reader is advised to consult the latest revisions and information sheets. and trends. standards. Some standards or trends covered in this book are bound to change during the book lifetime. Abdelsalam Helal Bert Haskell Jeffery L. For most up to date information on standards and products.
.This page intentionally left blank.
Joe Bumblis and Ed Krall contributed to the information gathering on wireless network technology. Sherry Scheetz and James Andrae. Jerry West and Melinda Helal assisted in the editing and artwork for the book. A few people contributed to the book cover design. Ed White contributed to the writing on the history of the PDA. They are responsible for all typos that might be found John Wilkes helped in gathering and updating some of the information in the Information Appliances section. Lin Russinoff designed and produced the wonderful cover with some artwork provided by Sumi Helal.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors would like to acknowledge the contributions of a number of people. .
This page intentionally left blank. .
To my father Ali Abdelsalam Helal for all the love and brotherhood he gave me. but by utility. Helal To my wife and daughters. and families are eternal. —J. I would like to thank my Wife and Kids for their love and support of my research. experiences. Carter . —B. —A. Haskell Knowledge. who are not impressed by technology.
.This page intentionally left blank.
on the other hand. Buzzwords such as mobile. The infantile paradigm of mobile computing is opening up new markets never dreamed of before. A bus traveler with a laptop connected to a GSM phone or a CDPD modem is a mobile user engaged in mobile computing. The difference between nomadic and mobile computing is particularly important to point out. which obviously do not allow any mobility. which allow for limited mobility within a building facility. Both nomadic and mobile computing require small portable devices.1 depicts this taxonomy. Consumers want personalized wireless computing services while they are mobile. However. From our first breath. Mobile computing. untethered. and any time anywhere. Examples of such networks are DIAL-UP lines.1 INTRODUCTION TO MOBILE COMPUTING Mobile computing will be the buzz of the next century. therefore. and companies want to make money offering those services. requires the availability of wireless networks that support “outdoor” mobility and handoff from one network to the next. or does so in the confines of a building. pervasive. We are presently at the cusp of the mobile multimedia era. and Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN). Figure 1. at pedestrian or vehicular speeds. ubiquitous. nomadic. Nomadic computing refers to the interleaved pattern of user relocation and “in-door” connection. To be tethered is unnatural and soon to be unnecessary for computing environments. at pedestrian speed. Travelers carrying laptops with DIAL-UP modems are. the kind of network used in nomadic computing does not allow mobility. as soon as the umbilical cord is cut. nomadic users engaged in nomadic computing. are used by different people to refer to the new breed of computing that utilizes small portable devices and wireless communication networks. the individual is free and untethered. It also shows ubiquitous computing to be the aggregate ability to . Defining and relating some of these buzzwords is an important prerequisite to this introduction.
Mark Weiser. Whatever the right answer might be. the term mobile computing is used to refer to both nomadic and mobile computing. The reader is referred to his famous 1991 article in Scientific American . there is no easy answer. in this book. 1. standards. Satyanarayanan and Zahorjan have articulated such challenges in their famous articles that we highly recommend to the inquisitive reader [45.2 C HAPTER 1 compute in both the nomadic and the mobile modes. more important questions need to be answered: where are we now? and what are the challenges and impediments facing mobile computing? This book attempts to answer these two questions by organizing a morass of information about technologies. An individual with a Palm Pilot will probably answer in favor of the portable technology. 85]. and commercial products. We caution the reader that. whereas a UPS package delivery worker will be more thankful to the wireless technology. a pioneer and a visionary from Xerox PARC. research. to reduce the clutter.1 IMPRESSIVE TECHNOLOGY An important question to ask is which technology drove mobile computing to where it is today? Is it the wireless network technology or the miniaturization and portable computing technology? Unfortunately. . had different view and definition for ubiquitous computing.
(2) wireless and mobile access to private Intranets.Introduction to Mobile Computing 3 Figure 1. law enforcement. medical emergency care. Another chapter is also dedicated to future portable devices that are currently in the prototype development phase or are just pure concepts. It is now amazingly easy to deploy cellular networks (especially pico-cellular technology) in record times. intelligence and military.2 shows how pervasive the portables technology has become. education. Figure 1. disaster recovery and management. insurance industry. point of sale.3 shows an Ericsson GSM base station in downtown Stockholm. Antenna. package delivery. stock trading. the wireless communication technology is growing and expanding at a breath-taking pace. It is changing the way people live and interact. and miniaturization breakthroughs have led to the smallsize design of radio equipment and the elimination of large tower and monopole infrastructures. and at an ever decreasing cost. trucking industry. Subscribers are given the power of “ubiquitous” communication at affordable prices. Most of these applications can be classified into: (1) wireless and mobile access to the Internet. power technology. A large collection of portable devices are available in the market today. and (3) wire- . Similarly. These are too many that we dedicated a chapter in this book to classify and describe each of them. There are several applications for mobile computing including wireless remote access by travelers and commuters.
which are placed in the center of a cellular coverage areas. direction of motion in a particular highway. through a Wireless Service Provider (WSP). Queries such as “nearest Japanese restaurant”. 1. and are known as base (radio) stations (BS). Mobile computers can be in one of three states. where a traveler. Base stations. Some of the fixed hosts are special computers equipped with wireless interfaces. and perhaps her vehicular speed. The first state places . Fixed hosts are connected together via a fixed high-speed network (Mbps to Gbps).6 and consists of stationary and mobile components. “Pizza Hut nearest to destination” will soon not be uncanny for the high-tech travelers. act as access points between the mobile computers and the fixed network. They are also known as mobile support stations (MSS).5.2 WIRELESS AND MOBILE COMPUTING ARCHITECTURE The architectural model of a mobile computing environment is shown in Figure 1.4 C HAPTER 1 less and ad-hocly mobile access between mobile computers. This classification is depicted in Figure 1. is able to issue queries based on her location. An example of a wireless and mobile access to the Internet is shown in Figure 1. “nearest hospital”.4 and will be discussed further in Chapter 7.
Introduction to Mobile Computing 5 .
6 C HAPTER 1 .
The third state places a mobile computer in a cell. . During early stages of deployment. which is depicted in Figure 1. and connectivity to any number of public wired infrastructures. The second state places the mobile computer out of range of any service cell and not capable of communication. but just ready to cross a cell boundary. GSM was hailed as a superior wireless technology because the general architecture supported such features as roaming. was originally developed by the European Institute for Research and Strategic Studies in Telecommunications (EURESCOM) as an advanced mobile communications technology. These scenarios are depicted in Figure 1. GSM.6 is a generalized architectural overview of a typical wireless/nomadic system. minimum disruption when crossing cell boundaries. Figure 1. communicating.Introduction to Mobile Computing 7 a mobile computer within a cell and capable of communicating. One such European sys- tem is the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM). Today. Many such systems have been deployed both in the United States and Europe as well as in many other parts of the world.7.6. these features are common to most wireless infrastructures.
The exact . which one might consider a service provider issue. The use of base stations for communication with the mobile computers. they all share many similar system components.9 depicts how the Personal Communications System (PCS) may be incorporated with AIN in an overlay network architecture. AIN deployment has been slow. AIN was a joint effort between Bellcore (now Telcordia) and the RBOCs in the late 1980’s. Although all of the wireless architecture’s are unique in some respects. is the incorporation of Advanced Intelligent Networking (AIN) . the centralized exchange systems which switch communications between the wireless domain and the wired infrastructure.8 C HAPTER 1 GSM is gaining increased popularity in North America. Figure 1. but could play an important role in the realization of third generation wireless networks. with standards completion around 1991. Figure 1.8 quantifies GSM penetration in terms of number of states with GSM services in the US. are a few examples of the similarities of these systems. and the use of location registers (HLR and VLR) so the system “knows” where the mobile computer is currently located and from where it came. Another variable.
Introduction to Mobile Computing 9 functionality and nature of the system components is left up to the service providers. Telcordia has only defined the high level attributes of the functional components and the interconnect between functional planes (layers) to aid the service providers in product selection and deployment. .
There exists interconnection across planes and between overlay planes to establish service attributes.9 is comparable to the overlay internetworking system described by Katz and Brewer . the problem is worse in microcellular networks – long down time of the mobile computer due to limited battery lifetime – voluntary disconnection by the mobile user – disconnection due to hostile events such as theft and destruction – roaming-off outside the geographical coverage area of the wireless service Limited communication bandwidth impacting the following: – quality of service (QoS) and performance guarantees – throughput and response time and their variances – efficient use of battery due to long communication delays (wireless interface requires battery energy during the slow send and receive) Heterogeneous and fragmented wireless network infrastructure leading to the following problems: – rapid and large fluctuations in the network QoS . wired. One of the many issues to be addressed is how do wireless service providers and application developers create.10 C HAPTER 1 The PCS system with AIN services outlined in Figure 1. the existing research and development on mobile computing is driven by the particularities and limitations of the mobile environment. cellular.) with a centralized management scheme as defined by the Telcordia AIN standards.3 LIMITATIONS OF THE WIRELESS AND MOBILE ENVIRONMENT For the most part. POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service). PCS. 1. and control applications support services given the systems described above. The PCS/AIN system shown above is comprised of many different forms of communications (e. deploy. etc. Such limitations include: Frequent disconnection caused by one of the following events: – handoff blank out in cellular networks.g.
A unified and truly portable environment is most needed by application developers and inventors of future killer apps. Application portability across these operating systems is currently a major problem. Operating systems for portable devices (other than laptops) are yet to reach maturity. – poor end-to-end performance of different transport protocols across networks of different parameters and transmission characteristics. These operating systems are light weight with simplified. Windows-CE development can also be done using Microsoft Visual C++.Introduction to Mobile Computing 11 – mobility transparent applications perform poorly without some sort of mobility middleware or proxy. Development of mobile applications on these platforms is typically done through platform-specific SDKs supplied by the operating system vendors. EPOCH. Palm-OS. Other problems include: – security and anonymity – service relocation – support for location-sensitive applications There are other limitations related to platform and application development methodologies and languages. The use of Java is currently limited due to the inadequate performance of JVM on most of these platforms. single-address space memory management. . Windows-CE. A version of Linux for hand-held devices is also being developed. and GeOS are the most significant operating systems developed for mobile computing.
.This page intentionally left blank.
WIRELESS TELECOMMUNICATION NETWORKS
Today, person to person voice communications, enabled by the telephone, is still perhaps the most powerful technology available to the average person. The benefit to cost ratio of this technology for the individual is enormous. An
individual can use a telephone to conduct commerce, earn a paycheck in countless ways, call for medical assistance, consult experts worldwide on any topic, and essentially obtain almost any critical information imaginable. The most sophisticated part of this technology is not in the telephone handset itself but in the enormous worldwide communications network to which the handset is attached. The introduction of cellular telephones has certainly improved the individuals ability to access (or be accessed by) this voice network in any location. But the global network is now providing more than person to person voice communications. Data, images, and live video are now routinely transferred to the individual desktop computer. It is expected that these expanding capabilities will soon be available within some type of portable information appliance. There are several well-established cellular infrastructures available today in different parts of the world (see Appendix–B for a list of major cellular systems). The European community has standardized largely on GSM. North America has broad AMPS coverage with a number of other standards competing in the PCS frequencies. Japan deployed the PHS infrastructure everywhere. A brief comparison of these predominant standards is shown in Table 2.1.
C HAPTER 2
Wireless Telecommunication Networks
2.1 DIGITAL CELLULAR SYSTEMS
Analog cellular systems such as North America’s AMPS have the disadvantage that they are very expensive to expand and grow. Each mobile phone requires a dedicated channel to communicate in a cell site. The only way to expand in AMPS is to build additional cell sites which cost in the range of $500,000 to $1,000,000. In 1988, the Cellular Telecommunications Industry Association (CTIA) commissioned a subcommittee called Advanced Radio Technology to define alternative technologies that allows the cost effective cellular expansion in the US . Proposed technologies focused on Multiple Access network technologies. The first digital system accepted by CTIA is the TDMA system, which stands for Time Division Multiple Access and which allows users to share the radio channel through time division. The second digital system accepted by CTIA is CDMA, which stands for Code Division Multiple Access, and which allows users to share the entire radio spectrum through different, uniquely assigned codes for transmission and reception. In the next subsections, we briefly describe the TDMA and CDMA cellular systems.
2.1.1 Time-Division Multiple Access (TDMA)
TDMA is a digital transmission technology that allows a number of users to access a single radio frequency channel without interference, by allocating unique
time slots to each user within each channel. Currently, a single channel is divided into six time slots, with each signal using two slots. This provides a 3 to 1 gain in capacity of AMPS. In dispatch systems (e.g. Motorola iDEN), a dispatch signal uses one time slot, thus providing a 6 to 1 gain in capacity. D-AMPS, GSM, iDEN and several PCS systems currently use TDMA. The Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) provided an early standard for TDMA over AMPS, known as IS-54, which required digitizing the voice signal, compressing it and transmitting it in regular series of bursts, interspersed with other users’ conversations. Second generation standard for TDMA by TIA is the IS-136 which uses TDMA on the control channel. TDMA is expected to be called TIA / EIA-136 once it becomes an ANSI standard. One problem with TDMA is the wasted bandwidth of unused slots. Time
slots are allocated to specific users whether or not they are using the slots (talking or transmitting data). Hughes Systems Network has contributed an
enhancement of TDMA known as Enhanced TDMA (ETDMA) that attempts
the subscriber station is directed via messaging to discontinue use of the old channel and tune to the new one. the frequency division approach offers limited capacity. Frequency reuse is very essential to the design of cellular systems that are based on frequency division multiplex. Take AMPS as an example.1. only non-adjacent cells are assigned the same frequencies.1. In a seven-way reuse hexagon. not cause a loss of bandwidth. Without reusing the frequency assigned in the spectrum. and will increase the spectral efficiency of TDMA. Therefore. Over 8 million digital subscribers worldwide utilize the IS-54 and IS-136 today. Each AMPS operator in North America is allocated 416 channels (30KHz each). without using any but the seven frequency channels. providing a larger coverage area.1. In this example. A phone conversation with long pauses will. In reality. The hexagonal array can be replicated and connected. Ideally. Upon handoff. which is 1. cellular frequency reuse is achieved by imposing a hexagonal array of cells in a service area. And even if ideal hexagons are possible. to reuse the frequency without incurring significant interference.16 C HAPTER 2 to correct this problem. therefore. . Instead of waiting to determine whether a subscriber is transmitting.8MHz. In the US alone. the capacity of cellular systems can not grow beyond the bandwidth offered by 59 channels. one for each cell. 2. several hundred channels are available within the spectrum allocation of a carrier service. TDMA is becoming a very popular air interface. the total number of cells that can be deployed can not exceed the available number of channels. Seven frequency channels represented by different gray levels are used. three of the top four carriers are deploying TDMA IS-136. Today. each cell will be allocated 416/7 = 59 channels. cell coverage areas are highly irregular. NMT in Scandinavia. Systems that use frequency reuse includes AMPS in North America.2 Code-Division Multiple Access (CDMA) In frequency and time division multiplex systems. ETDMA assigns subscribers dynamically based on whether a user has voice/data to transmit. Frequency reuse utilizes the fact that the attenuation of electromagnetic fields tends to increase with distance. A seven cells hexagonal array is shown in Figure 2. and do not compare to the ideal hexagons shown in Figure 2. One channel of one base station is used for each conversation. and TACS in the United Kingdom.
Instead of partitioning either spectrum or time into disjoint “slots”. The spreading technique is also known as Direct Sequence scheme. The transmission signal is “spread” over the entire spectrum. Transmitted signal is difficult to decode by an intercepting party due to the spreading and the unknown spreading noise signal. who suggested that through noise-like carrier waves. the subscriber unit must communicate with the base station to agree on the direct sequence (the pseudo random digital code) or the sequence of frequencies to hop through.Wireless Telecommunication Networks 17 Code-Division Multiple Access (CDMA) offers a solution to the capacity limitation problem. using the noise signal. Originally. therefore. where the different segments of the subscriber conversation (or data) known as frames are transmitted on a sequence of randomly chosen frequencies within the spectrum. CDMA has been migrating into civilian applications and is now reaching maturity and impressive market penetration. Frequency Hopping is another spreading technique. It is known by the military to be a Low Probability of Intercept (LPI) and Low Probability of Detection (LPD) air interface scheme. CDMA was invented by Claude Shannon. It allows all mobile stations to concurrently use the entire spectrum (all channels) with much less interference. Since late 1980s. This is one reason CDMA is attractive since it is easier to predict the achieved bandwidth based on the acceptable Noise to Signal Ratio (NSR) and the gain of signal spreading. In either direct sequence or frequency hopping. Signal interference in CDMA (between neighboring cells) is much less sensitive to most of the system parameters and is confined within a predictable average. bandwidth can be increased. Versions of CDMA has been in use for quite sometime by the military for the different reason of security. known as a spread spectrum modulation scheme. CDMA is. Future wireless networks known as third and fourth gener- ation wireless networks (based on where you are in the globe) are mostly based on CDMA and are covered in Chapter 5. . each subscriber is assigned a unique instance of a pseudo-noise digital signal.
18 C HAPTER 2 2. A similar taxonomy is provided in . we briefly summarize the characteristics and differences of these networks. (3) in-building radio frequency. Figure 2. point to point infrared. Typically. and (6) regional-area Satellite Data Networks.2 THE WIRELESS NETWORK TECHNOLOGY Wireless technologies can be grouped into at least six major categories: (1) inroom. 2. an overlay of two or more network categories is used to provide continuous coverage in a mixed nomadic/mobile environment.1 In-room Infrared The in-room infrared class of networks generally has a network diameter of about 40–50m and supports bandwidths of about 1 Mbps. These six classes of networks have unique technologies which constrain the nature of the applications which can be supported by each of them. (5) wide-area packet/circuit switched data networks.2 shows an overlay of several network technologies.2. (2) in-room radio. Applications sup- . In the following subsections. (4) campus or metropolitan area packet networks.
Several standards are available today for this type of networks including the IEEE 802. Wireless LANs can be used in both Infrastructure and Ad-Hoc Modes. The proliferation of portable devices such as 3COM’s Palm Pilot. The challenge laying ahead is to identify a suitable API for applications that will run atop this specific technology. BlueTooth is a low-cost. Both ISA and PC Card interfaces are available with support for Windows and Linux. Such API will allow for the design of “”infrastructure literate” applications that can accommodate the user expected performance levels while maintaining consistency across the infrastructure.2. short range radio that connects mobile PCs with other BlueTooht devices within a radius of about 10m. In the former. which is also known as Wireless LAN. BlueTooth is further discussed in section 4. Access Points are used and are connected to the fixed network through a ded- . 2. Hospital intensive care units. Unlike infrared and BlueTooth. and desktop component interconnect may be example applications that could utilize in-room RF wireless tech- nologies. bank tellers.11 and the OpenAir interface. 2.3 In-building Radio Frequency This type of network. expands the range of the infrared and the BlueTooth technologies by increasing the network diameter to about 200m. Very low energy consumption and about 1Mbps transmission speed makes this type of network attractive and suitable for inter-office device communication. Windows-CE hand-held computers.2.Wireless Telecommunication Networks 19 ported by this type of infrastructure are limited to E-mail and collaborativework applications due to the limited range of the system.2. where mobile computers are allowed to roam within and across cells. Examples of Wireless LANs include Lucent/NCR WaveLAN and Proxim RangeLAN.6 of Chapter 4. Proxim also provides additional support to a variety of Windows-CE devices. in-building radio frequency is a cellular network. and highly portable and powerful laptops such as the IBM ThinkPads may incorporate BlueTooth transceivers to bridge the in-room wireless technology with fixed network infrastructures. The Infrared Data Association (IrDA) provides the most common standard used today for this network technology.2 In-room Radio Frequency The in-room radio frequency class of networks emerged in 1998 with the organized effort of the BlueTooth Special Interest Group .
Each device is capable of communicating with any other device directly. One such offering is the Cellular Digital Packet Data (CDPD) service which is a packetized wireless transport that utilizes the unused channels of a cellular infrastructure.2 to 5 miles with data rates of 20-128 kbps. Motorola’s ARDIS and iDEN systems.4 Campus/Metropolitan Area Packet Networks This network type encompasses the more traditional “cellular” networking paradigm. the IEEE 802. The iDEN network (Integrated . It is typified by a “poletop infrastructure” supporting network diameters of 0. 2. and the European GSM system are contained in this taxonomy.2. In this mode.5 Wide-Area Packet/Circuit Switched Data Networks This network is comprised of a more familiar set of technologies and Regional Bell Operating Company (RBOC) services. In the ad-hoc mode. Another challenge lies in the fact that wireless LANs are MAC-level networks that do not understand important features of IPv6 such as Multicast. the wireless LAN is used as a wireless extension of a fixed.20 C HAPTER 2 icated router port. Also. provides a competing proposal that is gaining popularity. even though highly mature at this point in time. For example. and about 20ms between relay nodes. typical latency between a mobile device and the first relay node is about 40ms (assuming an uncongested network). high-speed network infrastructure (hence the name). 2.11 standard does not seem to be universally accepted (at least not yet). RSVP.2. This technology. A private network is used to configure the network software (TCP/IP) among the ad-hoc group of devices. without the help of any networking infrastructure. for instance. Relay (or router) nodes are strategically placed to support the wider network diameter with a small price for increased latency. certain applications will be difficult to implement. Ericsson’s RAM (now called MobiTex). several portable devices with wireless LAN interfaces are placed in the transmission range of each others. Unless. Ad-hoc networks is becoming increasingly important technology. somehow. Wireless or nomadic devices with Wireless LAN interfaces access the network through the access point in the coverage area (cell). The OpenAir interface consortium. faces a few challenges. among other features. these features are implemented for wireless LANs. there is a lack of consensus on which air interface to use (direct sequence or the frequency hopping). First.
Satellite networks are an exception and do not follow this trend. This tends to present a unique set of problems in application development. Multi-cellular wireless infrastructures range from in-building cells. but they do . Other Low Earth Orbit (LEO) systems are in planning and deployment phases including the Internet in the Sky project. the larger the coverage area (the cell size). 2. Hughes Network Systems pioneered the DirecPC network which uses the Galaxy satellite and which delivers 400 kbps downlink rate. macro-cellular offers much lower bandwidth but allows for the highest degrees of mobility. the transformation of this research into commercially available “mobility middleware” is yet to occur. DirecPC also transmits continuous streams of multimedia information ranging from CNN broadcasts. the higher the degree of mobility.6 Satellite Networks Satellite technology is still emerging. and financial news feeds. to news. but very limited mobility. However. They offer the highest downlink bandwidth (no uplink possible with satellite networks). to macro-cells (suburban coverage). in these networks.3 MOBILITY-BANDWIDTH TRADEOFFS Another classification of the current wireless networking technology can be based on the “degree of mobility” offered by these networks. Outbound com- munication is initiated by the mobile computer through a modem DIAL-UP or other wireless technology. but they also tend to have lower bandwidths and higher latency effects than do the in-building networks. to micro-cells (urban coverage). It is a downlink technology where mobile computers can only receive direct broadcast from a satellite. Inbuilding cellular offers the highest bandwidth (bi-directional). to satellite (global coverage). sports. This research is described in Chapter 7. Not only is this technology capable of supporting larger diameter networks.2. As can be noticed. 2.Wireless Telecommunication Networks 21 Digital Enhanced Network) is a packet based voice/data network that uses the Mobile-IP networking protocol to route data packets. Significant body of research on network and system adaptation through infrastructure awareness components has been or is being conducted. Micro-cellular offers lower bandwidth but allows for limited-speed mobility.
3 shows a mapping of the mobility/bandwidth classification onto individual wireless networking technologies. and vehicular speed. In this mapping. Figure 2. wireless Local Area Networks (LANs). For example.4 depicts this expected evolution. they require a satellite dish to be stationed aiming at the satellite. mobility is further classified into indoor and outdoor. the . At least this is ITU’s and ETSI’s vision and expectation of the third and fourth generation networks. Instead. 2. with outdoor mobility ranging from stationary.4 SYSTEMS ISSUES The rapid expansion of wireless Wide Area Network (WAN) services. satellite services such as Hughes’ DirecPC and the planned Low Earth Orbit (LEO) systems have created a large and fragmented wireless infrastructure. macro-cell networks are expected to improve on the bandwidth they offer. The current mapping of wireless technology to the mobility/bandwidth classification is bound to change. walking (pedestrian pace). Also. wireless LANs (an in-building technology) is expected to evolve into a network that allows for limited-speed mobility. Given such a diverse set of technologies. Figure 2.22 C HAPTER 2 not offer any mobility.
An example would include leaving voice mail or sending a FAX. These classifications have some loose definitions. while the actual transaction is between machines. The ability to scale performance and latency while accommodating an increasing user density is of paramount importance when designing and/or selecting a wireless infrastructure for a particular application. although they may have to be “user” activated. Application updates may include human intervention. the term “distribution” is typically thought of as a machine sending to people or machines who listen passively. The term “messaging” generally refers to a person talking to a machine. Table 2. “interactive” usually means conversational.2 are considered machine-to-machine interactions. but could be automated. and general performance issues.211.2 summarizes application classes as stringently defined by ITU-T Recommendation I. service coverage. implying a person on either end of the application connection. Also. For example. The term ” retrieval” is generally thought of as a machine transferring information to a person. The choice of a wireless infrastructure must take into consideration the attributes of the application and the applications class of service requirements including bandwidth. The last five application classes listed in Table 2. The Client/Server architecture is a primary example of this application class.Wireless Telecommunication Networks 23 need to support mobile applications remains critical and even strategic to many industries. network latency. .
24 C HAPTER 2 .
there are limitations which prevent the effective exploitation of wireless networks by portable information appliances beyond the area of voice communications. be less than MPEG 1 in terms of resolution and/or frame rate. text messaging. the standards. which are limited in the level of service they can provide to the user of a portable information appliance. and requires 1. comparable to VCR quality video. and power consumption considerations make this impractical at this time (1999). While it is technically possible to transmit multimedia information such as a motion video clip from the internet into a portable wireless device. Today. which requires up to 80 Mbps of bandwidth (typical applications of this standard. To achieve wireless motion video data rates for portable devices. however.3. new wireless infrastructure standards will have to be deployed.4.14 Mbps data rate. This is well beyond any of the deployed wireless network standards. the MPEG 1 standard provides for 352 X 240 pixel resolution. While they are effective for voice and text messaging. One such standard is the Wideband CDMA approach proposed by Ericsson has the specifications shown in Table 2. however. In the case of video. consumer expectation is set by MPEG 2. may only require 6 to 8 Mbps). The motion video quality enabled by such a service would. This limitations can be attributed to existing standards. infrastructure bandwidth limitations. .1 Multimedia Applications As of today.Wireless Telecommunication Networks 25 2. service costs. This standard has been adopted by the European community for the next generation of cellular service and could be implemented globally by 2002. and limited data. which supports high resolution video of 1920 X 1080 pixels. data compression technology. these standards do not support graphics intensive internet browsing or real time video at a high enough speed to make them practical.
.This page intentionally left blank.
durability.1 HISTORICAL EVOLUTION The first portable information appliance was probably a piece of stone or clay with markings on it. human civilization to the papyrus scroll (Figure 3. This apportable and could convey very complex information. It may have actually provided the “function” of counting by allowing the user to create a mark corresponding to a piece of livestock. used to record numeric information. Durability would have been important since the user did not have the means to protect the device from temperature variations. This would have been necessitated by the need to count goats in a heads-up mode while incrementing through the marks with the thumb. and reliability were all essential. abrasion. this appliance would have to be stowed in an extremely portable fashion so that it did not interfere with other activities such as attempting to frighten away predators. this device may have played a very important role in establishing his credibility. accountability. throwing sharpened sticks at predators and most importantly. This would have been very useful to an individual whose society had not yet invented a system of numbers. Once utilized. As the technology progressed onward pliance was highly user interface took of mathematics and writing developed. portability. ease of use. and until relatively .3 PORTABLE INFORMATION APPLIANCES 3. To the user. Ease of use probably meant that the individual marks had to be deep enough in the appliance so as to be detectable by touching. running away from predators. moisture. The a while to learn (reading and writing). and shock. and responsibility with respect to the rest of his community. Given the lifestyle of such an individual.1) and ink pen. This information was probably very important to the user of this appliance and in some way directly affected his livelihood.
Two other portable information appliances.2 and 3.28 C HAPTER 3 recently.3) are relatively recent inventions which have trans- . Still pen and paper persisted for several thousand years and is still the preferred portable information technology for most of the worlds population. only a limited number of individuals were able to use the technology. the pocket watch and the printed book (Figures 3.
By late 1960s. have also evolved as the preferred method for accessing standardized information in a portable format. the printed book. Printed books. and the pocket watch have been the dominant portable information appliances since the dawn of the industrial revolution. The pocket watch enabled the level of logistical synchronization between individuals required for industrialization . About this time. Thus. By 1975. was upon us. companies such as Texas Instruments. . however. while not as interactive as paper and pencil. Rockwell and Intel had identified handheld calculators as a way to grow the market for Integrated Circuit technology. digital watches also began to replace mechanical watches which had been in place for hundreds of years. the full impact of which has yet to be realized. enabled by the integrated circuit. calculators had shrunk to pocket size and had fallen below the $20 price point. Development work on these products began in the mid 60s and these designs exploited state of the art discrete transistor technology. The invention of the semiconductor technology in the Early 1960s began a transformation in portable information appliances. In 1970 there were several bulky hand-held calculators on the market at price points of around $300 and above. paper and pencil.Portable Information Appliances 29 formed human society. The first widely adopted electronic portable information appliance appeared in the early 1970s in the form of electronic calculators. The age of portable electronic devices.
such as the Sharp Wizard. This rapid penetration was driven by the compelling application of acquiring and storing motion video images. Personal organizers. Early models. were also introduced in this time frame and were most successful in Japan. Cellular phones have seen remarkable penetration worldwide . This trend was further accelerated by the introduction of 8mm format models which were highly miniaturized. . By the early 1990s. In North America.30 C HAPTER 3 By the early 1980s portable video camcorders had sold over 1 million units worldwide and penetration of portable electronics to the consumer had begun in earnest. By the late 1980s over 10 million units had been sold worldwide and the cell phone became a necessity for many and a status symbol for many others. where the use of personal computers was somewhat lagging that of North America. over one million Notebook computers had been sold worldwide as these products demonstrated their usefulness by turning spreadsheets and word processing into portable capabilities. in the late 1980s. they were popular among technophiles but in general. these products tended to be a disappointment to individuals that had experienced desktop computing and found little compatibility between organizers and desktops.
rather than complement the desktop or notebook computer.000 +) due to two factors. Several manufacturers attempted to add wireless communications to their PDA products to make them more appealing. Furthermore. First of all. they were typically crippled with an over sold and poorly performing handwriting recognition capability.Portable Information Appliances 31 from companies like Toshiba and Compaq. These products tended to compromise the miniaturization of organizers and lacked the full functionality of notebooks. these early products tended to compete with. Prices remained relatively high ($2. These products attempted to span a gap between the personal organizer products and the notebook computer products. several manufacturers were experimenting with the Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) product concept. Still. competing with desktop products. in effect. the lack of integration with the . These systems were quite adequate for word processing and spreadsheets and were quickly adopted by traveling professionals. Most importantly. The second factor was the desire on the part of the user to have high performance which matched as nearly as possible that of a desktop system. By the early to mid 1990s. Transfer of data in and out of the notebook was achieved through magnetic disk. manufacturers want to maintain high margins so the focus of the Notebook industry was on saturation of the business market. featured Monochromatic reflective LCDs.
and even fewer wiry applications existed that were capable of operating in the computational. this time targeting the application specific vertical marketplace. The result was that few wiry developers. When the initial exuberance subsided. This in turn lead to unwieldy applications whose weaknesses were masked only by the raw computational and storage capacities of the hardware they ran on. Grazing on these fertile fields had fattened the software industry and had bred a generation of software developers with inefficient development skills and tools. In 1993. while obvious in hindsight. calendar. even though computational and storage capacity had been doubling every 12 months in recent years. Most if not all of these claims fell short of consumer expectations. the resulting carnage throughout the industry was both severe and widespread. Now.32 C HAPTER 3 desktop PC and the bandwidth limitations of the wireless telecommunications infrastructure caused these products to fail. immature applications.4 Kbs) for portable products. Coincidentally. the PC industry had introduced its most recent line of laptop computers which included computational and storage capacities that rivaled their most powerful desktop companions. The telecommunications infrastructure in the mid 1990s offered only wireline and cellular modem capabilities with fairly low bandwidth (about 14. this same industry is attempting another assault. PDAs emerged in 1993 amid claims of single-point data organization. and calculator were virtually nonexistent. with forces re-marshaled and armed with a new gener- ation of products. riding a sustained boom of 40% growth per year and giddy about recent cooperative initiatives. lay hidden at the time. the cellular . and new operating paradigms using glitzy graphical user interfaces (GUI) and handwriting recognition.2 THE ADVENT OF THE PDA PDAs burst onto the scene in 1993 and mounted a headlong assault into the commercial market-place only to be quickly repulsed. when the first PDAs appeared practically none were supported by third party software and embedded applications beyond the basic notepad. By 1993. ubiquitous and instantaneous communications. 3. They were: high customer expectations. The reasons. power and storage barren environment of the PDA. and incompatible and unrealized infrastructures. Early on it was clear the success of the PDA rested heavily upon a variety of component and service infrastructures with the most critical of these enablers being wireless communications.
In fact. by a barrage of hype filled announcements. The industry backlash. This effort. As if this was not enough. The vast majority were simply discarded amid the disappointment and frustration of the once excited user.000 units sold. To make matters worse. some like the AT&T EO had prices that went as high as $2000–well outside the reach of many of the target customers. “transportable applications”. Initially predicted to be PCMCIA sized. Every technology announcement from new processor architectures to handwriting recognition techniques added fuel to the flames. unsupported. “ubiquitous communications”.. Only a small percentage of the devices sold were ever really used. Consumers were demanding usefulness and the first round of PDAs with limited applications and practically no communications simply did not fit the bill. incompatible. With hundreds of millions of dollars invested. you will”. costs were high and sales were low. What went wrong was equally as clear.. and IBM Simon) dropped out completely. The breakdown came in the radio module that provides the link between the PDA and the wireless network. larger than some of the PDAs they were supposed to support. however. two of the major players (AT&T EO. in the first two years there were just 350. seemingly coordinated in its announcement. As such. as one product after another fell short and slammed into the reality wall. they never crested the cost-experience wave which along with competition has the unrelenting ability to drive prices asymptotically toward the cost of the raw materials. the ring of these claims still echoed in the ears of customers as they tried to use products that were expensive.Portable Information Appliances 33 service providers boasted claims of a complete domestic wireless data infrastructure (CDPD) by the end of 1994. Consequently. market expectations were set high. but they served only to add to the mass confusion. When they emerged. it was soon realized that the requisite data radios would be both larger and more power hungry that anyone predicted. “time saving user interfaces”. . using phrases like “Imagine if” and “Have you ever . seemingly unable to separate future dreams from first article hardware. The average price for a PDA in 1993 exceeded $750. and more were touted loud and long. There were other problems as well with this initial surge of PDAs. fragile. uncooperative and unstable. Claims like “desktop performance in your palm”. was both clear and severe. The volumes were so low in fact. the whole industry was elevated to a high state of excitement. was enthusiastically received by the PDA industry but within a year the initiative would stall and lose much of its support. both industries recoiled under the letdown. “laptop functionality”. Market analysts and prognosticators joined in the frenzy. and high they stayed. The others fell back and re-grouped trying to understand what went wrong. that unlike most consumer electronics. bulky.
Southwestern Bell and Airtouch have essentially stopped their CDPD deployment. however. leaving major holes like Los Angles. a new battalion of products is moving into the fray. 18 months after ubiquitous wireless data services were promised by the cellular carriers. software applications and substrate densities of this infrastructure has driven the PDA into one of 2 directions: either toward a fully functional product that is too large to be practical or toward a product that meets the ergonomics requirements of the paradigm. This time. Meanwhile. Unlike the excitement of the past. a detailed look at the current offering of PDAs reveals that they are an outgrowth of PC concepts. Regardless. displays. has made wide area communications even more critical to the PDA paradigm than ever. there is an attempt to reduce the type. along with even higher resolution displays. however. CDPD is in serious trouble. While PDAs have made progress in their operating systems. demands on and customer expectations of the PDA have continued to rise. One reason for this is that the laptop computer performance has continued to double every year. but that severely limits functionality and performance to fit. PDAs are now met with suspicion and skepticism. New Orleans and Atlanta in domestic coverage. Unfortunately. but today. Reliance on data stored in the myriad of html web sites. internet usage has erupted.34 CHAPTER 3 Today. The integration of digital and RF circuitry at the semiconductor level will solve this problem in the future. The silicon integration. choosing instead names like pocket organizer and personal information manager (PIM). and in some cases manufacturers are trying to distance themselves from the past by avoiding the name PDA altogether. . improved ergonomics increased multimedia functions and more powerful applications has helped set a new standard for PDAs to meet. the landscape has changed significantly. not to mention email services. This lack of clarity in the wireless infrastructure has caused confusion throughout the industry and continues to threaten the viability of the PDA. This. Not surprisingly. applications and third party support. utilizing the same worldwide components and manufacturing infrastructure that has been optimized to support desktop and laptop products. This problem is compounded by the fact that the PDA manufacturers seem to rely on third parties to supply wireless modules for their products. This architectural approach results in a variety of inefficiencies and is due to a lack of expertise in wireless implementation. Despite the reduction in hype. they still fall woefully short of customer expectations. component size. vendors that do not excel in both computing and communications design suffer a handicap.
wireless voice communications via cellular phone had be- come common place. the entrenched competitors like Symbol. The demands of the vertical market are many times more stringent than that of the consumer market and the procurement motivation is much less of an impulse. Consumers recorded hundreds of millions of hours of video data every year using hand-held camcorders. the Internet appeared and created heightened expectations about information access. these portable devices would not live up to their potential. many of these portable information appliances still seemed as static as the printed book. Furthermore. The best strategy for the de- . Silicon integration evolved from discrete transistor devices to single chips containing over 6 million transistors. Ubiquitous. however. Within the confines of a portable notebook. even though many industry projections say otherwise. it was through a low bandwidth wireless voice channel which was often unreliable for data transfer.Portable Information Appliances 35 The result is that while the average price of the new PDAs has dropped to $575. If they were connected to the outside world at all. Norand. Portable displays had evolved from simple numeric segment displays with less than 100 pixel elements into full color displays with over half a million pixels. Their capacity today is up to 200 watt-hours per litre. Prom the Early 1960s through the Mid 1990s. and Telxon understand the operating environment and applications of the vertical market better. Almost in recognition of this fact the strategists now say that the vertical market is the new focus of their attention but this is no panacea. and will prove tenacious in their desire to maintain market share. For all of these advances in hardware technology. 3. continuously increasing levels of computing power and display quality had been achieved. Electronic and mechanical packaging technology was capable of connecting thousands of components in a compact volume compared to only a few tens of parts at the start of this period. the advances in portable information appliances were impressive. Without mobile access to the growing global information network. These products drove the development of important technologies. not much else has changed. What is worse. Batteries in the early 60s could store no more than 100 watt-hours per litre. Still starved for applications this new generation will not likely outsell its predecessors in the consumer marketplace.00.3 PALMTOP COMPUTERS It is likely that wireless network connectivity will trail wired connectivity in terms of performance for the foreseeable future.
or which complement wired network platforms. 3. may . this device allows the desktop user to augment the networked desktop computing experience with a portable time management interface.36 C HAPTER 3 velopers of portable information appliance is to design products which either provide useful standalone functions such as an electronic still camera. this product concept has made important inroads into sensibly merging the interactions of portable and stationary information appliances. While the Pilot is unlikely to provide services like high quality real-time video in the near future. Many other contemporary product designers have failed to take this approach by attempting to combine and therefore replace other devices. One example would be a smart phone that combines the functions of a cellular phone and a notebook computer. With desktop synchronization. For instance.3. The emerging market of Palmtop Computers is a breakthrough in terms of the ability of the Palmtop to complement the desktop computer. Such product concepts often end-up compromising the features which make the individual products appealing.1 The Palm Pilot The Pilot is a highly portable appliance which is the first truly viable substitute for traditional pencil and paper technology.
1. The Palm Pilot V device is depicted in Figure 3. The result is a product that does not effectively replace either of the products that it is competing with. It is much more capable than a Palm Computer. The Palm Pilot V specifications are shown in Table 3. hand-held computers have been competing with the Palm Computer market. poor battery life. 3.Portable Information Appliances 37 smart phones have poor display quality. unusable keypads. 3.7. but can not be fitted in a pocket. larger in size and weight.1 Sharp Power Zaurus .4.4 HAND-HELD COMPUTERS The hand-held computer is another device that attempts to complement the desktop. and are much bulkier than most cellular phones. Since their first emergence. poor performance.
The Zaurus which is depicted in Figure 3.2.8 is best described in terms of its specifications listed in Table 3. .38 C HAPTER 3 The Sharp Power Zaurus is a popular hand-held computer that competes with the Palm Computer market.
The three modes are achieved by swinging and/or folding the display around the keyboard base.3. pen and tablet.4. The idea .5 COMMUNICATORS The Communicator is a PDA concept that combines the benefits. which is shown in Figure 3. and presentation modes.9 are listed in Table 3. The specifications of the Clio.Portable Information Appliances 39 3. 3. portability and functionality of digital cellular phones and palmtop computers.2 VADEM Clio Clio is a Windows CE based hand-held PC with a swing-top design that provides three modes of interaction: keyboard.
calendar with to-do list. in addition to the stand-alone form factor applications that can be found on palmtop computers. Telnet. in addition to the digital voice phone interface. A built-in browser. telnet. and world clock. The picture to the left shows an open communicator with a Web page on the backlit display.40 C HAPTER 3 is to stick a palmtop computer to a cell phone with data capabilities to provide remote access. and web browsing are all applications offered by communicators.1 Nokia 9000 The Nokia 9000 is the most popular communicator. not only because of its appearance in the hands of Agent 007 in one of his recent movies (1997). 3.4. The specifications of the Nokia 9000 are listed in Table 3. email. of course.10 depicts two pictures of the communicator.5. A multi-protocol email client. calculator. The organizer includes: an address book. Internet access. note editor. The Nokia 9000 combined a compact personal organizer with Internet access and a versatile voice and text messaging system. and a VT100 Terminal emulation are built-in applications that bring the Internet to the mobile user anywhere GSM coverage is available. Short Message System (SMS) and a Fax application are also bundled to provide a wide spectrum of communication alternative. . The picture to the right shows the communicator on a recharge base station and reveals the cell phone side of the device. but because of the unprecedented unique features and capabilities. Figure 3.
It featured a built-in two-way wireless packet data modem allowing users to send and receive messages.11. allowing information to be communicated through any telephone network. To augment its functionality.5. also included a fax and data modem. the Marco was equipped with two PCMCIA Type II slots to allow users to simultaneously operate thirdparty software applications and add memory to store more data. The Marco . The Marco Wireless Communicator.Portable Information Appliances 41 3. depicted in Figure 3.2 Motorola Marco The Marco wireless communicator was introduced to the market one year before the Nokia 9000 communicator (in 1995).
5. The device features a bright portrait screen that allows easy reading in many lighting conditions. and rugged portable computers. Table 3.4 inches deep. Unfortunately. .42 C HAPTER 3 weighs 1. Motorola had the vision of creating the first “wireless Newton”.3 was therefore used. Newton OS 1. 3. A similar product based on the Magic Cap operating system (from General Magic) was introduced in parallel. or sub-notebooks. At the time the Marco was introduced. long battery life. Motorola had only sold several thousand units before the device production was discontinued.8 pounds and is 7.6 SUB-NOTEBOOKS (MICRO-NOTEBOOKS) As mobile users continue to demand lightweight.5 shows the specifications of the Sony PCG-707C sub-notebook that is depicted in Figure 3.8 inches wide. advances have been made in a number of diverse product concepts including what is now known as higher performance “micronotebooks”. the Apple Newton did not make it and despite all the software and personal information management tools loaded in the Marco.5 inches high.13.12. and 1. That was the Envoy depicted in Figure 3.
Portable Information Appliances 43 .
up to 14GB disk storage. . We provide one example of notebooks which is the HP Soujourn. They can also be envisioned as nomadic desktops that can be easily moved from one place to another. The users of laptops require high performance. and occasional portability.0in Color TFT (1024x768). Its display is limited though to only 12. These capabilities come at the price of limited portability with these laptops weighing up to 8 Ibs.8 LAPTOPS Laptops are designed to replace the desktop. large high quality displays.1in SVGA.7 NOTEBOOKS The notebook computer has enjoyed great success as the portable extension of the desktop computing environment. Notebooks are now starting to replace desktops for many users.14. and 256MB memory.2 pounds and is less than 0. integrated AC adapter. The HP Soujourn is shown in Figure 3. Such laptops may have maximum capabilities (as of 1999) such as up to 15. 3. It weighs 3.44 C HAPTER 3 3. Today the notebook market provides a most wanted portability by an increasing majority of users.71in thick. It uses an Intel Tillamook 233-MHz processor and comes with a 2. two battery support.1 GB hard disk and a 64 MB of memory.
The specifications of the Fujitsu Lifebook 900 laptop is summarized in Table 3. The laptop is depicted in Figure 3.Portable Information Appliances 45 We provide only one example of a laptop since almost all mobile users are familiar with laptops and their capabilities.6. .15.
Typically. A standard letter-size page takes about 6 seconds to capture.46 C HAPTER 3 3.9 OTHER INFORMATION APPLIANCES 3. The (inches) device shown in Figure 3. .9. The device has 4MB of memory and can capture from business cards and small receipts up to legal-size documents or 25in. a mobile user capture documents from a newspaper or a magazine and then stores the document into his laptop or other portable device.16 weighs 12. Maximum capture area of 119 square inches. newspaper columns. More information about this device can be found at www.5 oz and uses two AA NiMH rechargeable batteries that last for 100 document capture followed by a download. Both PDF and TIFF formats are supported.hp.capshare.1 HP CapShare HP’s Capshare 910 is a hand-held portable device that allows mobile users to capture. communicate and print documents.com. store.
Portable Information Appliances 47 3.g. More information can be obtained from www.com.autopc. contacts information and calendar. GPS satellite tracking.2 Clarion AutoPC The Clarion AutoPC (depicted in Figure 3.9.17) is the first in-dash personal digital assistant. real-time information feeds (e. . Internet email. Hands-free interaction is possible through a speech recognition interface. It integrates cellular telephony. stock quotes and traffic information) in a single device. navigation software.
.This page intentionally left blank.
cellular phones. Today. The demand for additional services such as text messaging and integrated voice mail are growing rapidly and are a key marketing feature of the new PCS services. They can be summarized as follows: . It also presents several emerging PIAs and PIA prototypes and concepts. Individuals. became less of a status symbol and more of a annoying necessity. except when they are making an outbound call or are expecting an important call. 4. technologists have yet to deliver a portable information appliance that has the level of impact on individual lifestyles as did the wired telephone or the wristwatch. were no longer enamored with cellular phone technology and began to resent the intrusion that a cellular phone imposed on the personal time management and group interactions. This chapter addresses the requirements for future Portable Information Appliances (PIA) that will be able handle multimedia information.4 FUTURE INFORMATION APPLIANCES By 1995. people will continue to demand the benefits of any time. Ultimately. and those around them. anywhere communications and access to information. As we move into the future. They will also demand more sophisticated methods of managing the way in which the rest of the world has access to their personal time.1 NEW CHALLENGES There are several requirements for the development and usability of an ideal mobile computing device. at least in North America. many people leave their phones off.
In our information society. low-cost communication infrastructure permitting ubiquitous access. the user should be portable to the different platforms and devices. Regardless of the device chosen. Applications designed to work on a single platform will not live for long. One of the larger challenges will be coverage. storage. not a solution. The proliferation of small devices has already created an unmanageable environment for the confused users who spend significant time attempting to unify their information through synchronization and manual mediation. or a laptop. and communicators among other small devices (even a wristwatch). The user is not sure which mobile device he will use from one day to the next. content is king. users today may own several computers including desktops. Usability. memory and display will play an important factor in the usability and widespread use of this technology. Equivalently. This confirms Mark Weiser’s views on how we are evolving from one computer one man. Smaller portable devices that maintain functionality and userfriendliness of larger devices are highly desired. Miniaturization makes getting information in and out of mobile computing devices difficult. handhelds. Applications should be portable to different platforms. The two largest power-consuming components to a mobile device are communications and display.50 C HAPTER 4 Development of everywhere. particularly in Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) and Hand-held Personal Computers (HPCs). The mobile computer should interoperate with multiple heterogeneous networks. connectivity and the ability to hand-off between private and public wireless networks. the mobile computer should be able to adapt to different frequency bands. into many computers. laptops. the user environment should be portable. Therefore. Ubiquitous Computing. Creating a computing environment that is not interoperable is a problem. battery technology is not expected to improve significantly in the next five to ten years. Portability. Intelligent energy management. palm computers. a palm computer. Related to the issue of portability and interoperability. one man. An application should be usable and accessible on a communicator. not the other way around. Unfortunately. Ubiquitous computing will require that several computers collaborate to serve the same owner. energy-efficient design and operation of processors. Within the same communication system that uses different frequency bands. Making the interface intuitive and simple with as . The mobile environment needs to be interoperable. Interoperability across platforms.
the service provider saves money on equipment and bandwidth.2 EMERGING PORTABLE INFORMATION APPLIANCES AND TELESERVICES Future portable information appliances and services are still open to the imagination. they help in making money. products and standards of future portable devices and teleservices. The increase in end-terminal capabilities is a trend that happens with all networks. a surprising trend is observed. 4. but also the communications engineers are cramming more data bits down a circuit. we illustrate some of the ambitious research. . the intelligence of the network is constantly pushed to the outer edges. Since the consumer has excess processing capacity and is willing to give up the processing cycles. where portables and wireless networks are becoming increasingly tightly coupled to the mobile user.Future Information Appliances 51 few steps as possible to accomplishing a task is critical because input and output of information using these devices is painful enough. advertising. Even after the aforementioned challenges are overcome. In this section. Just like the evolution of network-based computing (from mainframe terminal networks to client server networks). Computers and networks exist from a business perspective to make money either by sales transactions. The mobile device will increase in capability not only because the hardware engineers are pushing the edge. we will witness the empowering of the mobile user and the mobile device. However. Wireless networks and mobile computing have traditionally been an expensive luxury and like their wired counterparts will not become pervasive until they become economical. The growth of network terminal intelligence will be driven by money. The service provider can push processing cycles off of its equipment and on to the consumer end terminal where the service is delivered. or increasing efficiency. economy of scale conditions must be met in order for mobile computing to be pervasive. and they fulfill specific consumer needs. A programming language that accommodates this paradigm is Java. developments.
2. Interaction with the mobile computing system is based on the context of the situation. wearable computers are tools that integrate the user’s mobile processing. or intellectual collectives. Wearable Computers is a CMU research project being funded by DARPA ETO. 4. Two CRTs are driven by one video camera who’s focal length is adjusted to avoid angular modification of the user’s expected visual field . Figure 4.1 shows a wearable. head-mounted display unit that includes both an output display and an input video camera as well. Its intended applications and services are in such areas like maintenance and plant operations and customization in manufacturing. remembrance agent.2. Intel. and work space providing automatic.2 Wearable Computer Systems (CMU) At Carnegie Mellon University (CMU).1 Wearable Computing (MIT) This project personalizes computing in a fashion that enables computers to be worn much like eyeglasses or clothing. with additional support from Daimler-Benz.52 C HAPTER 4 4. unobtrusive input devices. The systems include some of the following components: heads-up displays. personal wireless local area networks communication and context sensing tools. A video image of the camera’s input is continuously projected into each eye. Applications and services offered might fall into the following categories: intelligent assistant. and DEC. The main vision of wearable computer systems is that they are tools . augmented reality. portable access to information. information space.
portable access to information.2. Tokyo. The main unit weighs only 299g. BBN’s solution is the BodyLAN. including main unit. BBN recognized how the increase in human-worn electronics would lead to interconnection and wiring problems. (shown in Figure 4. The prototype was demonstrated at the IBM Fair. the information can be automatically accumulated by the system as the user interacts with or modifies the environment . all of which fit in the palm of a hand.2) is 449g. 4. The wearable PC is composed of three elements connected by cables: the main unit. Roughly the size of a portable stereo. a radio communications network over the area of a person’s body allowing free distribution of wearable components and a gateway for access to the Internet or an Intranet . and battery pack. The total weight of the wearable PC. remote computers running programs. and incorporates a 233Mhz processor. making it far lighter than any other high-performance personal computer to date. Furthermore. the miniature controller. Japan. TrackPoint and click button. With the use of wireless networks. with a stand-alone headset and a miniature one-handed controller. which is the size of a portable stereo unit. and the headset with micro-display and headphones.Future Information Appliances 53 in the user’s environment much like a pencil or a reference book instead of as stand alone. headset and connector cables. an IBM microdrive (a one-inch hard disk drive).2.4 Body LAN: A Wearable RF Communications System In 1996. the wearable computer can provide automatic.3 IBM Wearable PC IBM Japan has unveiled a wearable personal computer (PC) prototype developed by IBM Japan Yamato Laboratory. 1998. It uses Microsoft Windows 98 as its operating system and can be loaded with all regular application programs. controller. the wearable PC can be worn as a piece of light clothing and performs like a full-function notebook computer. with microphone. 4. .
54 C HAPTER 4 .
unconscious. or connect cables. BlueTooth can also be used to quickly setup ad-hoc networks by allowing automatic. It is a technology specification for low-cost. surpassing the need for a server.7 Seiko Wristwatch PC Seiko Instruments Inc.200 bps infrared port.6 BlueTooth BlueTooth is a recent development similar to Toshiba’s DAN. short range radio links between mobile PCs. DAN technology has been commercialized for wireless RF and infrared . By doing so. successfully commercialized the world’s first wristwatch PC in Japan on June. This type of network is a wireless desk area network. it automatically and dynamically rebuilds an ad hoc network environment to reconstruct groupings and maintain communication routes. which is called the Ruputer. 4. referred to as DAN. cursor pointer (only left and right movements). carry. without the need to buy. Hardware specifications include a 16-bit CPU.2. Its software includes several applications. connections between devices. The watch. and other portable devices.2. the paperless office. The implementation of wireless DANs brings nomadic computing. The goal is to enable users to connect a wide range of computing and telecommunications devices easily and simply. mobile phones. 512 KB of ROM.5 Toshiba Desk Area Network (DAN) Toshiba has developed a network software that manages either radio or infrared transmissions to link personal computers. It allows one group or multiple groups of users to quickly form shared data (text or graphics) without needing the magic of a networking guru. 128 KB of main memory.Future Information Appliances 55 4. 1998. 4. and groupware one step closer to the business office. 19. One expected benefit to BlueTooth is that it virtually eliminates the need to purchase additional or proprietary cabling to connect individual devices. it will be feasible and cost-effective to equip different portable devices with a wireless extension. Toshiba DAN discovers neighboring devices and autonomously creates a self-organized network of terminals or laptops without a server. some . 102x64 dots backlit display.200 bps serial port. and four buttons. More on the ongoing developments in BlueTooth can be found in . 19. The idea is to standardize a cheaper and shorter range version of existing RF technology. When machines enter or leave the area. 512 KB of flash memory. is the cheapest wearable PC on the market today with models pricing in the range of $300.2.
2. data entry editors. MemoBook. and viewers (text.58 ounces (45 grams) .4 show pictures of a ruputer and its docking station. images. or can be connected to a computer or a laptop through a serial line . and is based on a newly developed LSI (large scale integration) chip with special power-saving features. The watch can exchange data. 4. The watch can also be used to play games (of course!). AddressBook. FamilyBook. with other Ruputer watches. The wristwatch phone operates on the personal handy phone system . and sound).56 C HAPTER 4 of which run under Microsoft’s Windows-95 operating system such as Schedule. The wristwatch phone is powered by a high density lithium ion battery. Figures 4.8 NTT PHS Wristwatch Phone Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corp. (NTT) developed a prototype wristwatch telephone which weighs 1. via infrared signal. Both text and images can be downloaded to the watch from PCs.3 and 4.
Future Information Appliances 57 (PHS).2. One unique idea developed out of Nippon Telephone and Telegraph (NTT). Figure 4. 4. The wristwatch operates on public or home modes. Shock-sensor rings allow a person to type on any surface and translates the different finger . advances improving portability of these two components are herald events. and provides a sophisticated. NTT field-tested the wristwatch phone during the Winter Olympics in Nagano (Japan). user-dependent voice recognition.9 NTT Ring Keyboard Because the size of portable devices is most often limited by the keyboard and display. includes an 11/2 character display. which was developed in Japan. Japans telecommunications giant. is the Ring-Keyboard. PHS is similar to a regular cellular phone.5 shows the PHS wristwatch phone. NTT plans to make its PHS wristwatch phone commercially available by 2000. but has a shorter range and is usually less expensive.
Data is transmitted to the main computer through the watch. the most important are the large flat panel display and broadband data services to the home. Plasma displays with diagonal dimensions greater than 40 inches are being introduced into the industrial and consumer markets at an aggressive pace. This next revolution will not be driven by a single new product but rather by multiple new innovations which are being introduced simultaneously.2. The result will be a massive and accelerated acceptance of network centric services by the general public. 4. Retail price points for these devices may drop below $2000 before 2002. While the preferred interface to the network . Furthermore. Of these new innovations.10 Display Pad: The Next Generation TV The consumer electronics industry is on the verge of the biggest revolution since the introduction of the personal VCR. The impact that this revolution will have on the nature of portable devices should not be underestimated. the resolution afforded by these displays surpasses the critical cognitive threshold required to blend WEB style network content with traditional broadcast and pay per view TV services.58 C HAPTER 4 combinations into syllables. Our experience with these devices indicates that consumers will find these large high-resolution displays to be a very compelling enhancement to the traditional pastime of watching TV.
although it could suffice the needs of many users that today require a notebook. future devices will be judged on their ability to leverage the network. Many of these devices will be involved in interacting with the large flat panel itself. is not a general-purpose notebook PC. The surface hardness and friction characteristics of pen and paper cannot be matched by schemes. which is shown in Figure 4.7. Whereas today’s successful portable devices are viewed as being useful in and of themselves. Consumers will require these devices to be highly ergonomic and compatible with all systems that they are likely to encounter.Future Information Appliances 59 will be the large flat panel with a high bandwidth connection.2.11 The Ear Phone . The Display Pad is a future concept of an enhanced version of the executive portfolio (pad of paper). Display Pad has a built in browser for viewing information and entering information into network-based applications. The Display Pad. The Display Pad digitizes this familiar form of user interface. Pen and paper provide a proven platform for ergonomic data capture. there will be a tremendous demand for portable devices that support network interaction. others will provide an alternate interface to the network when the flat panel is not available. 4. Information on the network can be viewed privately or shared. which require the user to use a mock pen on the surface of a flat panel display.
For example. This will allow the user to have voice control over appropriate devices connected to the local server. This IP Address will be continually broadcast to local servers allowing them to download instructions from a particular network location.2. The most powerful attribute of this device will be an embedded IP address. The Ear Phone device is shown in Figure 4.12 Power Ring and the Magic Wand The Power Ring and the Magic Wand are concept devices that will be made possible by utilizing Micro-Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology. The information needed to interpret that users signals follows the user around the network. a person may use a combination of voice (Ear Phone) and gesture (Power Ring) control to interact with a large flat panel display.60 C HAPTER 4 The Ear Phone is a future concept of a low power wireless voice communication device that allows the user to access voice based services over the network. These devices sense a user’s hand motions and transmit telemetry data to a local server.9 depicts the Power Ring and the Magic Wand. TCP/IP protocols already provide the basic capability to make this a reality. Figure 4. 4. . The user interface device stays with the user. The Power Ring and Magic Wand are personal devices that can be used to provide a gesture interface to various network devices. These instructions will contain a user profile that will allow the local server to interpret the signals coming from the Ear Phone in a customized fashion. and access to information services that utilize voice recognition for input and voice synthesis for output. These services can include telephony.8. The server will be able to interpret these motions because it has downloaded a user profile for the device as with the Ear Phone.
As far as energy consumption. the emerging packaging technology known as “system-on-chip” will help eliminate the bottleneck between the memory and . As previously stated. The service provider that develops the successful financial model to providing ubiquitous access to their services will be the winner. developments in the pico-cell wireless technology must catch up with developments in the portable information appliance technology. To achieve the ultimate goal of wireless and mobile multimedia.3 CONCLUDING REMARKS Even if we discover the most powerful and ideal portable device. the more the signal rate changes. The management of interference will also need to be improved. the more bits you can send down that pipe.Future Information Appliances 61 4. Increasing the frequency of the radio transmission increases the rate of signal change. Further. Lack of access to the network equates to services not being delivered and loss of money. One method of managing interference is to decrease the distance between mobile and base stations. availability of bandwidth will remain a major factor in determining what the subscriber can do or access. Portable devices will not be very useful without wireless information service providers offering a variety of teleservices. computers and networks are driven by money. One of the greater challenges to ubiquitous access is financial. not technical. In short. Accessing such teleservices ubiquitously will rely on the constant availability of an access point to the Internet. higher frequencies and shorter transmission distances require the wide development of pico cell technology.
C HAPTER 4
the processor by building both memory circuits and logic circuits on the same
chip. System-on-chip also improves power management by decreasing the physical distance between the memory and processor components, and by dynamically turning off and on the logic of parts of system whose functions are not needed all the time. Finally, corporations that are selling devices in the portable computing market are each in search of the Holy Grail and it looks like this: a device that has the technical prowess for ubiquitous wireless access, intelligent power management, cross platform interoperability, portability, and an intuitive human interface; a device that makes money for business consumers and accommodates the needs of the home user. Mobile computing will bring services directly to the consumer, not to the consumers home or to the television set, but to the actual person. By arriving at the ideal portable device, mobile computing will be enabled to handle multimedia and will open up an untethered world of new services and markets beyond our imagination.
FUTURE WIRELESS COMMUNICATION NETWORKS
As we move into the 21st century, air is proving to be the ultimate medium desired for most of our voice and data communication needs. Consumer demands and expectations are driving wireless technology to be the fastest growing segment of the telecommunication industry. In response, researchers and standard organizations are stretching the physical capacity of radio to prepare and accommodate for future wideband services that the consumer will demand. This chapter provides a roadmap for future directions in wireless cellular networks. It focuses on future wireless teleservices that will be supported by third generation networks. It also describes some of the research activities associated
with fourth generation wireless networks.
Understanding future wireless teleservices permits us to get a glimpse into future network design and deployment. Telecommunications service evolution from wireline network services to expected wireless consumer services is discussed. Requirements for third-generation wireless networks and wireless teleservices, as defined by various standard organizations, are also covered. The role of ITU and ETSI in the development and deployment of third and forth generation networks is explained. Emerging technologies and associated research activities in the wireless communication industry are covered, including TD-CDMA (time division - code division multiple access), W-CDMA (wideband code division multiple access), SDMA (space division multiple access), and W-ATM (wireless asynchronous transfer mode). Each technology is briefly described and its impact on future cellular systems is examined.
C HAPTER 5
5.1 FUTURE WIRELESS TELESERVICES
Consumer-driven wireless teleservices will define future wireless network and
terminal requirements. However, consumer expectations for future teleservices
are primarily driven by the existing wireline network service capabilities. Standards bodies like the ITU (International Telecommunications Union) and ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute) have invested years of experience in defining and orchestrating the development of future networks, also based on existing wireline services.
Wireline Network Services
The three wireline networks in the US that consumers are most likely to relate
to are the PSTN (public switched telephone network), the cable TV network,
and the Internet. The wireline teleservices offered through these three networks will be the key driver and the benchmark for consumers when comparing or
asking for similar future wireless teleservices.
Future Wireless Communication Networks 65 However. the Japanese PHS system (Personal Handy Phone System) is based on ISDN . and then evolve to bandwidth on demand. Table 5. Desk and Body Area Networks). When these services become widely used. which require network bandwidth and other resources beyond the capabilities of existing wireless networks. . Wireless networks hope to offer services by exploiting the same intrinsic service characteristics built into wireline networks. some of the existing wireline services are broadband services. To give a deeper insight into the direction of future wireless services. health care. LAN. When basic data services become ubiquitous. therefore. marketing. For example. DAN. restaurant and retail. including sub-addressing. banking. transportation. Broadband services. 5. VDSL (Asymmetric. ISDN. BAN. they will build to higher rate data services. wireline protocols can be researched for their service capabilities. Both standards use common channel signaling and similar set of services. present a huge obstacle in the evolution of future teleservices. cordless phones evolved into PHS offering higher data bit rate and greater mobility. Voice services already evolved to build into basic data services such as CDPD (Cellular Digital Packet Data). SDSL. The GSM standard (Global System for Mobile Communication) also incorporates compatibility with ISDN . The first teleservices evolved from voice services delivered via wireline terminals (handsets). wireless teleservices are evolving from general purpose services into specific services satisfying personal needs.2 Wireless Service Evolution As wireless networks extend deeper into our lives.1. and will serve such industries as police/public security. Local. to cordless phones. and Very high rate Digital Subscriber Line) are wireline protocols that will be delivering essential services to home sub- scribers . ADSL.1 outlines the present uplink and downlink requirements for some wireline broadband services.1 characterizes wireless network evolution by charting different wireless systems by mobility and data rate. The teleservices of tomorrow will span WAN. Another example is cellular now evolving to IMTS- 2000. Wireless teleservices will evolve with network deployment. utility. to cellular phones. For example. Symmetric. Figure 5. wireline subscribers will become so accustomed to them and will start demanding the same services in an untethered and perhaps mobile fashion. (Wide.
there will be as many wireless subscribers as wireline subscribers. More developing countries are deploying wireless infrastructure such as GSM. new customer groups are emerging. leading to the emergence of the mobile Internet. But the largest impact on future wireless teleservices is anticipated to be due to the Internet.1. The ubiquitous. and even in well established markets. a convergence of the wireless and Internet industries has recently occurred. In fact. we are witnessing a rapid. untethered access to the Internet is setting expectations for consumers as wireless data communication networks and wireless Internet service providers are on the rise. world-wide expansion of the wireless network market. such as in Japan. electronic commerce. For example.66 C HAPTER 5 5.3 Market Evolution As wireless networks are becoming more common in our daily lives. . some observers in the Asian telecommunication industry go as far as predicting that by the year 2000. the Japanese PHS system is recently being catered towards children. and other future wireless teleservices. In fact. This convergence will have a profound impact on our methods of communication.
2 EMERGING WIRELESS NETWORK STANDARDS ITU (International Telecommunication Union) is a United Nation affiliated organization that oversees global telecommunication systems and standards.” IMT 2000 is expected to unify many different wireless systems. It is expected that the IMT 2000 project will enable the merging of wireless services and Internet services. headquartered in Geneva. is an international organization within which governments and the private sector coordinate global telecom networks and services . Until recently.2. leading to the creation of a mobile multimedia technology and new modes of communication.1 IMT-2000 The ITU (International Telecommunication Union). One goal common to both organizations is achieving seamless communication for the global consumer through cooperation on technical developments. leading to the global offering of a wide range of portable services. Switzerland. IMT 2000 has the following goals: Incorporation of a variety of systems Achieve a high degree of commonality of design world wide Compatibility of services within IMT 2000 and with the fixed network High quality and integrity. 5. comparable to the fixed network . IMT 2000 (International Mobile Telecommunications by the year 2000 project) is a project under the ITU that plans to facilitate cooperation in deciding global wireless access for the 21st century. IMT 2000 was known as FPLMTS or Future Public Land Mobile Telephony System. ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute) is Europe’s premier telecom standards organization well known for its development of the GSM standards.Future Wireless Communication Networks 67 5. Both organizations are currently leading efforts to promote cooperation in the definition and development of future wireless networks. IMT 2000’s vision is to “provide direction to the many related technological developments in the wireless industry to assist the convergence of these essentially competing wireless access technologies. Decisions made within these two organizations will have a dramatic effect on the future directions of wireless networks and services.
and the second (shown in Table 5. regardless of where the call was placed  Provision of these services over a wide range of user densities and coverage areas Efficient use of the radio spectrum consistent with providing service at acceptable cost Provision of a framework for the continuing expansion of mobile network services and access to services and facilities of the fixed network An open architecture which will permit easy introduction of advances in technology and of different applications A modular structure which will allow the system to start from as small and simple a configuration as possible and grow as needed. customer service or human-machine interface. source coding. Third generation IMT 2000 network requirements include: Operation in a multi-cell environment (satellite.68 C HAPTER 5 Accommodation of a variety of types of terminals including the pocket size terminal The ability to use a small pocket terminal world wide Connection of mobile users to other mobile users or fixed users Provision of services by more than one network in any coverage area Availability of a range of voice and data services to the mobile user Service portability–no difference between the services. micro and pico) Operation in a multi-operator environment Near-wireline quality voice service Near-universal geographical coverage . in size and complexity  IMT 2000’s vision of future wireless teleservices can be summarized as two sets of recommendations or requirements.2) is future wireless teleservices requirements. macro. third-generation network requirements. transport capabilities. The first (shown in the list below) is future.
which stands for Universal Mobile Telecommunications System. The main goals of the UMTS system can be summarized as follows: . Both of these access schemes are explained in greater details later in this chapter. 67]. 79. ETSI agreed in January 1998 on two different UTRA methods: W-CDMA in the paired portion of the radio spectrum. 5. It shows how the dream of global roaming might be achieved in the future.Future Wireless Communication Networks 69 Low equipment cost. user delay sensitivity. is currently a project under the SMG (Special Mobile Group). Initial assignments of the IMT-2000 spectrum for Europe. Eight classes of services are specified as listed in Table 5.2 UMTS UMTS. Decisions made in early 1998 by ETSI has given Europe a clear direction towards the realization of its third generation wireless communication system.2. IMT 2000’s vision of future wireless teleservices is specified in terms of information rate. US and Japan are shown in Figure 5. fast running trains km/h) 100 Flexibility for evolution from pre-third-generation and for post third generation systems [74. both subscriber stations and fixed plant Minimum number of fixed radio sites Seamless inter-frequency hand-off Mobile speed data rate of 144 kbps Portable speed data rate of 384 kbps In-building fixed wireless data rate of 2 Mbps BER (bit error rate) of Creation of direct satellite access Transmission scheme suited for high speeds (e. a committee in ETSI. and bit error rate requirements.2.g. and TD-CDMA in the unpaired portion.2. 83.
70 C HAPTER 5 .
3 ACTS Another organization that is greatly influencing the direction of wireless communications. are the projects funded out of ACTS (the Advanced Communications Technologies and Services). multimedia interfaces to support Internet applications at speeds of up to 2 Mbps. through a quantum leap in technology At least a 3-fold increase in spectral efficiency Support from an evolved GSM core network Compliance in meeting or exceeding ITU’s Family Concept IMT 2000 System  The UMTS project schedule and milestones are shown in Figure 5. ACTS is a group of European research projects with budget 50% funded by the European Economic Commission (EEC).3. ACTS broad objective is to develop advanced communications systems and services for economic . The first UMTS deployment is shown to be planned for the year 2002. The remaining 50% of the research funding is provided by those industry organizations involved in the research. particularly W-ATM. 5.2.Future Wireless Communication Networks 71 The accommodation of high speed.
ITU . CDMA. photonics. 5. current research. This vision was too revolutionary to second generation wireless network providers who have invested heavily in current technology. high speed networking. and global standardization efforts are focused on upgrading second generation systems including GSM.3 THIRD GENERATION WIRELESS NETWORKS IMT 2000’s original vision for third generation wireless networks was to create a single global communication system common to all countries and regions. Research projects by ACTS include: multimedia. To protect their investments. in turn. and TDMA. A major goal of this conversion is to upgrade these system evolutionary over time while maintaining the operation and profitability of the existing second generation network infrastructure. modified its vision into creating a “family of systems” that would converge and comply with a common set of requirements for third generation networks.72 C HAPTER 5 development and social cohesion in Europe . development. . Following IMT 2000’s vision. and mobile and portable communications. carriers requested ITU to consider a more evolutionary approach to third generation network standards.
Japan had chosen W-CDMA for their third generation wireless technology. and the USA. W-CDMA. . not the cordless or WAN packet data rates. It is also important to note that at the time of publication. Europe. we first describe the evolution of the wireless network technology in Japan. Europe (presented in ETSI) just selected a combination of W-CDMA and TD-CDMA. Figure 5. The data rates at the bottom of the chart apply only to the cellular technologies. and SDMA.Future Wireless Communication Networks 73 TD-CDMA (Time Division. The figure defines the technology and generation in which a particular wireless system operates (or once operated). SDMA (Space Division Multiple Access) is also receiving attention as a network scheme with similar evolutionary nature. Code Division Multiple Access) and W-CDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access) are the two major evolutionary network schemes currently under consideration by ITU.4 helps clarify the alphabet soup in which the wireless industry swims. Before summarizing the details of TD-CDMA. the third generation wireless technologies for the US had not been selected.
thus supporting multiple users per time slot. Each time slot of the TDMA channel would be individually coded using CDMA technology. This will allow GSM operators to compete for wideband multimedia services while protecting their current and future investments. eight possible users per time slot (eight CDMA codes per time slot) gives you an information rate of 128 kbps. it permits broadband (or bandwidth on demand) transmission capabilities. An important feature of TD-CDMA is its ability to adjust the ratio of spectrum allocated for the uplink and the downlink. Eight users per time slot appears to be selected because it offers a happy medium between the number of voice and data calls that the system can accommodate. Assuming a bandwidth of 1. For example. Because TD-CDMA has the ability to assign multiple codes to one user. If all eight time slots were allocated to a single subscriber in a pico cell environment or where mobility is restricted. One design goal of TD-CDMA is to allow the CDMA technology to be smoothly integrated into the existing. Changing to a different data . TD-CDMA uses the same frame structure as GSM 5. second generation GSM TDMA structure worldwide. or a larger combination of voice and data users to communicate without interference. As many as 8 simultaneous CDMA codes are allowed in one time slot in TDCDMA.1 Time Division/Code Division Multiple Access TD-CDMA is a proposed radio interface standard that uses CDMA signal spreading techniques to enhance the capacity offered by conventional TDMA system.74 C HAPTER 5 5. The TD-CDMA carrier bandwidth is eight times that of the 200 kHz GSM carrier equaling 1. The air interface can therefore be tuned to enhance the performance of certain applications such as Internet access and voice applications. The compatibility between the TD-CDMA and GSM time bursts and frame structure permits the evolutionary step to third-generation systems.5.616 msec as shown in Table 5.3.6 MHz wide channel using time-segmented TDMA technology. 1024 kbps can be achieved. This permits 8 users per time slot. a time slot with an information rate of 16 kbps using QPSK data modulation. Digitized voice and data would be transmitted on a 1. It has eight time slots with a burst duration of 577 micro seconds and a frame length of 4.6 MHz.6 MHz.3. TD-CDMA can accommodate 11 voice users and 5 data users and still maintains the appropriate BER  ( for voice and for data).
Future Wireless Communication Networks 75 .
200+ networks. Requirements for third-generation cellular systems are met by the TD-CDMA system . is a feature in the TD-CDMA system. however. The strategic importance of TD-CDMA can be summarized as follows: 1. Another advantage of TD-CDMA is the fact that intra-cell interference is orthogonal by time.5+ million D-AMPS subscribers. The benefits to taking a revolutionary step include the absence of a legacy system and a quantum leap in abilities. The hand-off is conducted through a separate TD-CDMA or GSM carrier simplifying dual mode. 40+ million AMPS subscribers. and 20+ million subscribers. The risk. an information rate of 2048 kbps is conceivable. and AMPS: deployed in 110 countries. and frequency reuse are all based upon the characteristics of the access scheme. The cost of changing the air interface in a cellular system is significant. TD-CDMA promises to be future proof: . This enables multiple subscriber signals to be received at differing power levels thereby eliminating the near-far effect and the need for a soft hand-off.76 C HAPTER 5 modulation scheme like 16QAM instead of QPSK. is shortening the return on investment on second generation infrastructure . Selecting a revolutionary different access scheme is therefore more than just changing the air interface. the BSC (base station controller). This is a divergence from GSM that conducts the voice and control channels on the same 200 kHz radio band. But regardless of the philosophical underpinnings. including: GSM: deployed in 74 countries. The sources studied on the TD-CDMA were not clear if mobile assisted hand-offs (MAHO). the cell location. keeping deployed infrastructure profitable is a concept well-embedded in the telecommunication industry. 2. where the subscriber unit returns radio signal strength information back to the base station. The networks that TD-CDMA is catered towards are significantly deployed infrastructures. System design and setup with regards to the MSC (mobile switching center). 3. 1. it is a costly operation. The TD-CDMA system is designed to be an evolutionary –not a revolutionary– step from GSM second generation infrastructure to third generation infrastructure. dual band handsets.
The traffic channels are assigned n channel code numbers based upon desired the data rate. 48] is a spread spectrum technology in which the entire bandwidth is shared by multiple subscribers for transmission. synchronization. a maximum of seven inclusive sequential codes for paging channels. hierarchical cell structures Efficient interworking with GSM Inherent TDD (time division duplex) support for cordless operation Data rate up to 2 Mbps indoor. 1 Mbit in all environments No soft hand-off and fast power control TD-CDMA has recently been agreed upon by ETSI as a third-generation solution for GSM service providers. A subscriber’s data is modulated with PN codes. In the 5 MHz W-CDMA forward link. The despreading process at the receiver shrinks the spread signal back down to the original signal and at the same time decreases the power spectral density of the interference . 5. and the remainder codes are not assigned and are used for forward traffic channels (see Table 5. The receiver is responsible for despreading the desired signal from the wideband transmission and contending with interference.2 Wideband Code Division Multiple Access W-CDMA [53.4). n = 0…127 for 32 kbps. the signal is then spread and transmitted across a wideband. there are four control channels: the pilot. planning. In W-CDMA. The reverse link channels are the access and the reverse traffic channels. This inherent ability to manage interference is at the heart of W-CDMA.Future Wireless Communication Networks 77 Spectral efficiency twice that of GSM Reuse of existing GSM network structure and principles: cell sites. two codes for two possible synchronization channels. there are two designated codes for possible assignment to two possible pilot channels. either a Walsh or Hadamard function (see  for further explanation). paging and access channels.3. The forward . n = 0 … 64 for 64 kbps. and n = 0… 255 for 16 kbps. The channels are identified in the transmission by using a specific PN code. Codes remain unassigned on the reverse channels so that channel assignment can be done dynamically and in response to paging channels and to interference. Support from most major telecommunications equipment providers in Europe has played a role in ETSI’s decision to adapt TD-CDMA.
The pilot channel also carries information used in estimating BTS signal strength therein indicating the best communication link for the subscriber terminal. Access channel (Reverse link) When a page is detected the terminal attempts to access the system through the access channel. After deciding on the best pilot signal. offset time. Synchronization channel (Forward link) The synchronization channel contains system parameters. W-CDMA’s channel responsibilities can be described as follows: Pilot channel (Forward link) The BTS (base transceiver station) transmits one or two pilot channels carrying a reference clock necessary for demodulation and the hand-off process. Subscriber terminals can monitor multiple paging channels. when another cell’s paging channel has a better signal. The paging channel has a data rate of 9600 bps or 4800 bps. Thus. The synchronization channel always operates at 1200 bps. extending battery life. a hand-off is requested. Pages are combined into groups permitting a sleep mode to be built into the subscriber terminal. the subscriber terminal demodulates the synchronization channel. Frequency separation depends on the countries frequency allocation scheme. channel lists and neighboring radio channel lists.78 C HAPTER 5 link and the reverse link are FDD (frequency division duplexed). access parameters. Paging channel (Forward link) System parameters and paging information to groups or a single subscriber are continually sent on the paging channel. access and voice channels. The channels in both the forward and reverse links are frequency division multiplexed. all necessary in synchronizing with the paging. The terminal increases signal strength sent .
uniquely identifying that information to a specific subscriber terminal. One way is the selection of only the strongest signal. The pulse shapes for the I and Q signals are smoothed. The number of bits per chip depends on the data rate supplied to the balanced modulator 5.300 kHz range of the signal . and O-QPSK for the reverse channel. Traffic channel (Both forward and reverse links) Within the traffic channel. W-CDMA solves the problem in a couple of different ways. Time diversity happens because of multipath fading channels. Inherent time diversity receiver provides robustness against fading. There are five steps to the modulation process: 1. A PN multiplier multiplies the user data by the Walsh or Hadamard function. Blank-and-burst in-band signaling where an entire 20 msec frame is replaced with control information. The balanced modulator multiplies the I and Q signals by two signals that are 90 degree phase-shifted. or maximum power levels have been exceeded. Dim-and-burst is also in-band signaling but the control information is distributed throughout a variable number of 20 msec frames. The forward and reverse channels are modulated differently. there are two types of in-band signaling used. The output of the balanced modulator is then fed to a RF (radio frequency) amplifier W-CDMA’s 5 MHz bandwidth provides robust frequency diversity. .Future Wireless Communication Networks 79 to the BTS until the system responds. Selective frequency fading usually affects only a 200 . a process similar to antenna diversity. Rake reception is another technique where weak signals are added together to build a strong signal.5) that is split into two signals: inphase (I) signal and quadrature (Q) signal 3. QPSK for the forward channel. The functions are time-shifted so that the set of functions are orthogonal 2. a random time limit has expired. The output of the multiplier is a code rate of 4. minimizing rapid signal transition that results in radio frequency emissions outside the allocated bandwidth 4.096 Mcps using 5 MHz bandwidth (see Table 5.
which improves the capacity in a W-CDMA environment. Voice is sampled and digitized at 64 kbps then supplied to the speech coder that characterizes and compresses the data at a rate of 16 . An open loop is a coarse adjustment of the signal strength. statistical multiplexing must be employed with speech detection. W-CDMA employs ADPCM (adaptive differential pulse code modulation) as a speech coding method at a coding rate of 32 kbps. thus you are achieving maximum utilization of the available bandwidth. This characteristic is used to decrease the interference by shifting the time alignment by 1. The acceptable BER and the speech encoding are variable.80 C HAPTER 5 Exact time alignment in W-CDMA is not necessary.32 kbps. Statistical multiplexing requires frequencies and time slots to be reassigned. Power control in a W-CDMA environment is an open and closed loops. Time offset or variable offset is why W-CDMA is considered to be quasi-orthogonal by time.25 msec. To achieve the same effect in a TDMA or FDMA environment. This means the sub- . there is no reservation of time slots or frequencies. depending on speech activity. Data is sent when speech is detected. thus complicating the system and raising the cost.
Japan’s jump into W-CDMA is encouraged by a lack of capacity in the presently deployed system. There are two fundamental types of W-CDMA systems–synchronous and asynchronous . The population density is such that a third-generation system is needed immediately. The subscriber terminal communicates with both BTSs while the MSC coordinates the simultaneous communication. Synchronization on a system level is coordinated through the use of the synchronization channel. and up to 2 Mbps transmission rate. A closed loop is fine adjustment of the signal strength. permits co-subscriber interference and allows more flexibility in system design. and TCP/IP for Internet connections. meaning in every 1. completing what is known as a soft hand-off. Asynchronous operation.Future Wireless Communication Networks 81 scriber terminal continually receives from the BTS Radio Frequency amplifier adjustments measuring signal strength loss and the terminal reacts accordingly. This decreases interference and increases channel capacity. The call is then handed off from one BTS to the other. but lowers channel capacity. The hand-off is referred to as soft because the terminal is always in communication with a BTS. The Japanese W-CDMA system will be connected to an advanced broadband digital wireline network. Hand-offs in a W-CDMA system are soft hand-offs. seven mobile stations. Synchronization on the subscriber level is coordinated via the pilot channel reference clock and is used in demodulating the received signal. all symbol/chip transmissions of all subscribers are orthogonal by time eliminating co-subscriber interference. They are initiated by the subscriber terminal finding a better paging channel from a different BTS.7. The following are the features in the NTT DoCoMo/Ericsson W-CDMA experimental system: . Other W-CDMA system parameters for the NTT DoCoMo/Ericsson testbed are outlined in Table 5. on the other hand. The end result is the signal received at the BTS is always at approximately the same power level. In synchronous operations. a condition that results in fewer dropped calls. PSTN and ISDN from MSC to the central office. The experimental prototype includes three cell sites. NTT predicts that wireless subscribers will equal wireline subscribers in the year 2000 at 60 million. but increases system complexity.25 msec time slot from the BTS there is a power control bit indicating to the subscriber unit to increase or decrease transmission power. The wireline connections are to be as follows: ATM adaptation layer 2 (AAL2) to be used between the BTS and the MSC via the BSC.
82 C HAPTER 5 .
e. For more details about W-CDMA channel information see Tables 5.Future Wireless Communication Networks 83 1. and extends the life and profitability of the deployed infrastructure. permitting hand-offs between different wireless systems. 3. assists in transmitting only the necessary data by transmitting less when speech activity is low. (i. Protocol structure that is similar to the GSM protocol structure 5. Inter-Frequency Hand-off (IFHO ) 6. Adaptive antennas use SDMA techniques. increases signal range.3 Space Division Multiple Access SDMA is a technology which enhances the quality and coverage of wireless communication systems.Voice activation silence suppression. VOX is also noted in the PHS ARIB standard as a low power consumption operation for the private system  8.5 and 5. as explained earlier. This bit rate achieves the NTT DoCoMo phase one testbed goal of 384 kbps per subscriber. Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS ). The name . The orthogonal speech codes prevent interference with other channels decreasing interference and increasing capacity 5.3. SDMA manages interference and thus increases the network capacity.6).3). 2. Subscriber unit can receive multiple channels resulting in multimedia bandwidth. As explained in section (5. Speech coding Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor codes (OVSF ). The speech detection tool. The NTT DoCoMo W-CDMA system can accommodate up to six 64 kbps channels simultaneously for a total bandwidth of 384 kbps per subscriber. The system allows for future expansion with the aid of adaptive antennas. improves link quality. a hand-off between PHS infrastructure to the WCDMA infrastructure) 7. reduces transmission power. VOX .6. Utilization of a speech detection tool and orthogonal speech codes provides maximum bandwidth utilization in the W-CDMA environment. does not send data when the audio level is below a threshold. New random access procedure with fast synchronization that provides flexibility in user data rates 4.3. enabling six different teleservices at the one time. It uses a technique wherein the subscriber’s access is via a narrow focused radio beam and the location of the subscriber is tracked adaptively by an intelligent antenna array system (see Figure 5. phase two has the goal of achieving 2 Mbps per subscriber.
Spatial processing is not a new concept. It also reduces the transmission power. Because . If the spatial component becomes insufficient between subscribers then an intra-sector hand-off is required to be initiated. Collectively. TDMA co-cell subscribers are orthogonal by time. Subscriber signals are distinguished by code filtering. CDMA subscribers use the same frequency and are quasi-orthogonal by time. SDMA is applied to the TDMA and CDMA systems differently because of the systems’ basic differences. Reducing interference increases the effective network capacity. all the benefits brought by SDMA are expected to extend the life and profitability of second-generation network infrastructure. some cell sites are sectored at 120 degree. most base station sites use two antennas for diversity reception regardless of whether they are sectored or not .84 C HAPTER 5 SDMA is derived from the physical spatial characteristics between the focused radio beams. link quality and signal range. not by time slots. The TDMA protocol needs to be expanded to permit these intrasector hand-offs. For example. it is used in presently deployed cellular infrastructures. The most distinguishing aspect of SDMA is its management of interference. Also. Increasing the capacity in a TDMA environment by employing SDMA techniques requires multiple users on different radio beams to be assigned to the same carrier frequency and time slot.
the antenna array has to distinguish between the interferer and the user whose signal structures are the same.Future Wireless Communication Networks 85 of these CDMA characteristics. There are no additional protocols or controls that need to be implemented. the consequence of which might be the cancellation of all but one subscriber accessing that antenna array . In a CDMA system. interference types 3 and 4 are spread across the same frequency and not necessarily orthogonal by time. In CDMA. In the TDMA environment. Also an interference signal from a co-subscriber within the same cell is orthogonal by time to the desired signal. The employment of SDMA in a CDMA environment provides an easy increase in capacity. Other user noise All systems deal with interference types 1 and 2. Background noise 2. The PN code is known by both the base station and the subscriber unit for spreading and despreading the desired signal in the bandwidth. Employment of SDMA in a TDMA en vironment. however. Interference types 3 and 4 are dealt with differently depending on the type of access method. the spreading code acts like a direction estimator. The access method distinguishes between the desired signal and interference types 1 through 4 (which includes co-subscriber interference) by using a Pseudo Noise (PN) code. Other cell interference. An interference signal from a neighboring cell base station is orthogonal by frequency to the desired signal. and 4. In a SD/CDMA environment. In a TDMA system. The spreading code has the responsibility of locating the signal within the interference so the antenna array just has to establish an antenna beam in the direction of the user. Four types of interference concern cellular systems : 1. only the deployment of an intelligent antenna array is required. no intra-sector hand-offs are needed. . External interference 3. all subscribers use the same frequency. The interferer signals have to be “nulled” before establishing a radio beam. keeping protocol overhead to a minimum . requires new frequency planning and alteration of protocols . interference types 3 and 4 are orthogonal either by frequency or time and do improve with frequency reuse planning.
while decreasing costs and network complexity. allows the received signals to be treated as independent rays. and throughput. The intent is to have one type of network for all types of data thereby increasing efficiency. and Interference types. ATM is an end-to-end communication system accommodating network services requirements for lossy or lossless data. Comments in this section will be focused on layer one issues and solutions. As previously explained in this chapter. including inter-cell subscriber. W-ATM is a communication system for a hybrid tethered/tetherless environments. services. Multiple received signals caused by multipath propagation. Many W-ATM layer one issues are mainly comprised of characteristics found in a mobile radio environment.4 FOURTH GENERATION WIRELESS RESEARCH Beyond third generation wireless infrastructure is W-ATM (Wireless Asynchronous Transfer Mode). and external or other noise. two. Statistically. W-ATM is being researched because of the possibilities of providing high speed data transmissions with a low BER and high QoS in densely populated areas. ATM is a protocol designed to accommodate multiple network services. then by using diversity combining. This includes: Fading Multi-path propagation Signal attenuation. background noise. like fading and multipath propagation. and the wireless infrastructure will align itself appropriately. It has challenges and obstacles at layers one. Some significant research toward resolving W-ATM layer one issues is in the area of diversity reception like antenna arrays and SDMA. Diversity reception techniques solve some of the issues that W-ATM is facing. bursty traffic with real-time requirements. one of the received signals at a given point will not have faded. and three of the OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) model.86 C HAPTER 5 5. received at antennas spaced at a distance of a fraction of the wavelength. or data with no time requirements. the strongest portion of the two independent signals are used to . wireless infrastructure is greatly influenced by the wireline infrastructure. intra-cell subscriber. Future directions in wireline infrastructure are towards ATM.
indoor wireless LANs or systems like Japan’s PHS infrastructure. Significant research in wireless networks conducted in laboratories around the world today is centered around the wireless air interfaces which are responsible for a significant fraction of the total wireless infrastructure cost. 5. coping with multipath fading channels. and requiring no frequency planning. W-ATM will be deployed first in the private and public pico-cell infrastructure or in highly populated areas. on the other hand. The PHS network is deployed on the island of Japan.e. Future directions in wireless infrastructure will be driven by consumer expectations. wireline network service capabilities. In the year 2002.5 CONCLUDING REMARKS Air is the ultimate communication medium. With a publicly-deployed pico-cell network. Japan will be fulfilling the mobile multimedia dream with 10 Mbps wireless ATM links. TD-CDMA is being developed for the safety net that it extends to the GSM network. W-CDMA also has both variable capacity and multimedia bandwidth capabilities. is being developed because of its many strengths including: decreasing the power spectral density of the interference.Future Wireless Communication Networks 87 create a third signal. Diversity combining also allows the mobile terminal to reduce the transmit power–something battery researchers like to hear. Higher frequencies and wide bands are capable of delivering the needed throughput rates expected of an ATM network. partially eliminating the effects of multipath propagation and fading. BER. and QoS requirements of an ATM network. Interference and other layer one issues at higher frequencies are minimized by decreasing the transmission distance between the mobile terminal and the base station. thereby improving BER and QoS. SDMA is being researched and developed to extend the profitability quality of second . WCDMA. the evolution to W-ATM will be swift and decisive. Japan has the advantages of already having a publicly-deployed pico cell network and the population density to make a pico cell network financially possible. i. and pre-defined requirements developed by standards-making bodies. Given the bandwidth. making the untethered domain an attractive and booming market for teleservices. where 125 million people are packed into an area slightly smaller than the size of California.
Japan’s fourth generation networks will therefore develop faster because of the extensive. It uses diversity reception techniques that increase cell capacity and significantly reduce interference. Japan’s NTT DoCoMo is building flexibility into the W-CDMA system permitting compatibility with W-ATM. this will lead to hierarchical cell structured networks that will require the capability of handing-off between different and sometimes competing systems. 10 Mbps in a pico cell network by the year 2002. and finally (3) the convergence of the Internet and the wireless world is inevitable. (2) standardization over multiple autonomous wireless systems is required. to truly realize a nomadic multimedia computing environment. In addition to air interface issues. already-deployed public picocell infrastructure. efficient wireless data services and nomadic computing models need to be developed. .88 C HAPTER 5 generation networks.e. i. there are a number of third generation issues that need to be given equitable importance: (1) a new generation of multimode. This equates to higher mobile terminal requirements. earlier than other markets. multiband terminals is needed.
such as spreadsheets. that are narrowly focused on email. we should point out that the marketplace for mobility-support software is currently undergoing rapid changes both in the products available. to a limited extent. two-way paging and other similar services are not covered here. Farcast. Web browsers. through middleware. and in the companies that provide them. In those applications. and Pact. personal organizers. that portion of middleware that appears as options to users as they choose the features to be included with their portable computer. down to products implemented in hardware that provides cellular or other radio transmission-based communications services.1 COMPETING PHILOSOPHIES The mobile client-application architectures which are emerging in commercial products can be roughly divided into three overlapping classes: Remote-Node. we further focus on the top layers of the mid- dleware communications software that provide support for mobile computing and data access. 6. and/or data synchronization. we focus on those end-user applications which involve remote access. client/server. Instead. . As a caveat. This chapter addresses primarily the top layers of this technology stack: enduser client applications and.6 STATE OF INDUSTRY: MOBILITY SUPPORT SOFTWARE The suite of products that provide some support for mobile computing spans the technology space from end-user client applications. Wyndmail. End user applications such as Pocket Quicken.
C HAPTER 6
Client Proxy, and Replication. The basis for this subdivision is the need to address the problems associated with wireless bandwidth and battery limitations and the alternatives, that are commercially available today, for managing those problems. This classification is, therefore, different from the “research” classification given in Chapter 7. A brief description of each class follows. Remote-Node. This approach attempts to create a facsimile of a fixed network client node by hiding all artifacts introduced by wireless communications. Under this model, all client software which run on a wired network platform would function without change on a mobile platform that includes a compatible OS and other library services. Accordingly, it places the most stringent demands on the middleware and other software (which supports the client application) to mediate the problems that arise as wireless artifacts. As a result, this approach is most susceptible to failures in the wireless infrastructure. Software packages which adopt this approach may recognize some of the wireless limitations and adapt their behavior accordingly. For example, when response time is of concern, the limited bandwidth of wireless communications encourages the system to deliver records one at a time as they are retrieved from a database server rather than sending all record hits for some query. However, the ultimate goal is to provide an opaque overlay for the underlying ensemble of networks that shields the user from any concern for their interoperability. Remote-node applications can be realized by porting full clients (as used in the wireline network) to a mobile computer with compatible communication middleware. Shiva PPP is a famous middleware that supports most TCP/IP clients. Client Proxy. This approach, characterized by products like Oracle Mobile Agents, attempts to minimize transmission costs and the impact of disconnects by buffering a client’s requests, and/or the servers responses, and by resorting to batch transmissions. In this way, a user may select a variety of record types from several different tables, and then save battery power by disconnecting while the server processes the request. At some later time, the client can reconnect and receive a batch of records that satisfies all of the requests. The underlying assumption is that the end-user recognizes that periods of disconnect will occur, and that these periods will not impact the user’s ability to perform useful work. Replication. Clients which will be disconnected for extended periods of time, but which require immediate access to important data can satisfy those requests from locally cached replicas of key subsets of the databases
State of Industry: Mobility Support Software
which are stored at some server site. Changes to the data that occur either at the client or the server must be reconciled through periodic client connects which may be initiated manually by the user, or automatically by the replication software. Some update conflicts may occur when multiple disconnected clients alter the same records. These collisions must be reconciled in some way.
END-USER CLIENT APPLICATIONS
A flurry of activity appeared in the trade press in late 1995 describing the rush by vendors, both large and small, to market mobile client software packages. Some of those products are discussed in this section. Recent literature search suggests that many of these products never materialized, were re-targeted to wired networks, or in some cases, are still struggling with weak sales. However, there are some big players with deep enough pockets to continue to pursue this marketplace. The discussions here are restricted to those products and services that still appear to have a current or promised market presence.
Oracle Mobile Agents
This product is a buffering and communications package for wireless platforms. A software agent that runs on the mobile client platform intercepts requests made by the client to the Oracle server and buffers them for a later transmission to the server. A companion Oracle agent runs on the Oracle server platform. That agent receives the buffered requests, submits them to the Oracle server, and buffers the responses for later transmission to the client. The server agent is capable of serving any number of mobile agents simultaneously. Conversely, a client agent can access any server agent that it knows about and for which it holds the appropriate DBA access privileges. Oracle agents can run on mobile platforms equipped with NT, Unix, or Windows and can communicate over TCP/IP using Shiva’s PPP communications middleware. This product does not automatically support transactions or queries that span multiple Oracle servers.
C HAPTER 6
This product is a cut-down version of the Oracle server that can run in a small portable system (or a desktop workstation). It can be used as a companion technology for the Oracle Agent Software to store local copies of subsets of corporate databases and can accumulate updates to the data that are generated locally at the mobile client. Oracle may provide the Oracle Lite server with “two way” replication which could automatically propagate updates either to the client from the central server site, or vice versa. Recently, Oracle and Palm Computing (a 3Com company) announced an alliance to integrate the Oracle Lite client database and the 3Com Palm III and PalmPilot organizers, allowing new and existing Palm Computing platform applications and data to be replicated, synchronized, and shared with an Oracle 8 database server.
Oracle Software Manager
This product is intended for a database administrator who needs to propagate software updates to remote copies of the Oracle server. It is capable of performing the distribution via hardwired networks or through wireless connections. It is not clear whether this package is versatile enough to accomplish a distributed software update to a collection of mobile devices as though the entire operation were a distributed transaction. For example, if the DBA needs to update the mobile Oracle-Lite server software for entire sales staff, the updates may have to be performed individually by the DBA.
6.2.4 Oracle Replication Manager
Oracle has announced a version of its Replication Manager which will eventually support bi-directional replication among a collection of distributed and centralized server databases. The Oracle approach is based on a peer-to-peer model, much like Lotus Notes, in which a collection of distributed processes manage replication collectively.
6.2.5 Sybase SQL Remote
Unlike the Oracle Replication Manager, the Sybase product called SQL Remote has adopted a centralized model for managing replication. This product is a member of the Sybase SQL Any Where suite of tools (formerly called Watcom SQL). Also, Sybase has optimized its replication server to accommodate users
the software does include a component that recognizes the frequent disconnects that typify mobile users.1 MobileWare Office Server This suite of products was introduced in 1995 as a solution to managing mobile access to corporate data. The initial customer target focused on large sales staffs that were primarily mobile and who needed access on demand to sales support information that was too bulky and/or volatile to carry on extended trips. So while this product has been developed with wired network users as a primary target. By choosing to adopt this defacto standard transport protocol. However. The intent of this software is to make the mobile platform appear to the user as though it were actually a node connected into the wired network. The basic strategy that underlies MobileWare is to minimize mobile platform connect time by executing data transfers in a burst mode. Variants of TCP have been proposed to circumvent the problems that plague TCP for some wireless applications. MobileWare Office Server. 6.3 MOBILITY MIDDLEWARE The majority of products targeted for the middleware market rely on TCP/IP and socket-like connections for the client server interface whether they are intended to be deployed in the wireline network arena or the wireless domain. it is already possible to surf the Internet using a Netscape interface on many wireless platforms and a simple cellular phone connection.3. Microsoft Exchange has been integrated with Shiva’s PPP software that allows communication of clients to servers through the cellular phone network. The current flagship product. As a result.State of Industry: Mobility Support Software 93 that are only occasionally connected. . MobileWare Office Server is an agent-based middleware for wireless or wireline access to application data. includes a native Lotus Notes mail and database replication support. 6. Two key players in the wired-network middleware market that provide support for distributed users are Novell’s Netware and Microsoft’s Remote Access. vendors are positioning their products for deployment in a large existing infrastructure. Neither of these products will be discussed further since neither has yet announced plans (that we have seen) for moving into the wireless middleware domain.
Each profile contains a set of tuned parameters that optimize the communication between the clients and the servers.3. The transport engine provides several features including: Connection Profiles. etc. Follow-Me Server. Web browsing. Security.). Queuing. Data compression. Application data is stored on both the client and the server in a client assigned outbox until a connection is made to transfer the data. Dial-up. Based on the current connection quality and capacity. Automatic reconnection in response to involuntary lost connections.2 Shiva PPP Shiva’s remote access client (known as PPP for Point-to-Point Protocol) enables mobile users to access servers embedded in either wireline or mobile servers . The user chooses from a collection of profiles based on current working environment (LAN. Forces re-authentication from the client upon receipt of any unregistered packet. e-mail. Uses DES encryption for per-connection authentication. and TCP/IP. and is now a private subsidiary of Itochu Japan.94 C HAPTER 6 Services supported by Mobile Ware Office Server includes Lotus Notes. 6.com) was founded in 1991. This ensures efficient recovery and fast reconnection after failures and involuntary disconnections. Data checkpointing. or wireless connections. MobileWare Corporation (http://www. and file transfer. Uses a notification and delivery mechanism for events such as arrival of data to the client’s outbox on the server. Dynamic Packet-Scaling. and alternative notification procedures (such as paging) are allowed.mobileware. The user’s mobile computer is notified if connected. data packets are dynamically re-sized to minimize connection time. Encryption and authentication. NetBios. A core component of the MobileWare Office Server is the Intelligent Transport Engine.
GPRS) across unused cellular channels. 6. a client application that uses transaction processing services from BEA’s Tuxedo can now access those services from a mobile platform using PPP. address the needs of the wide area wireless networking industry which currently deploys various packetized protocols (e. and Token-Bus which were defined in precise details by the IEEE 802 committees. Both the IEEE and the ANSI bodies add further credibility to their work by helping international organizations like ISO and ITU to easily migrate the specifications into international standards bodies for worldwide acceptance. IEEE 802. This software suite provides some limited security features such as limiting the number of login tries. the legacy local area network (LAN) consists of such technologies as Ethernet. Each network type is based on its own set of assumptions about the kinds of service the customers are willing to purchase.g. Similar efforts are underway in the ATM Forum to create a set of implementation agreements which should permit interoperability between different vendor implementations and products.State of Industry: Mobility Support Software 95 almost seamlessly. However. CDPD. For example. it does not provide the rich collection of services available from Mobile Ware’s Intelligent Transport Engine described above. Token-Ring. The wireless industry currently embraces a small number of standards. The closest effort is within the IEEE 802 working group which recently completed the IEEE 802. and Fibre Channel have been defined by the ANSI X3T working groups with a mature set of approved specifications. HIPPI. This is evident in the cellular telephone industry: a PHS telephone . Other mobile infrastructures are also lacking in internationally recognized standards.11 effort is to permit wireless LANs from different vendors to interoperate. For example. or disconnecting a session and calling the user back at a pre-established number. Service providers for each of these types of networks have different goals and strategies and do not seem likely to provide interoperability among the other classes of service.11 Wireless MAC (media access control) standard.11 does not. however. The primary objective of the IEEE 802.4 INTEROPERABILITY AND STANDARDIZATION The wired infrastructure has been designed and deployed around a rich set of international standards. Moreover. newer network technologies like FDDI.
Location Register con- tents. the quality of service that is provided by this approach may not be transparent. those client applications developed to exploit TCP/IP in wired networks can interoperate without change in the wireless domain if some variant of TCP/IP is offered as a service. but also a stringent quality of service requirements. The wireless application protocol (WAP ) standard currently being developed by the WAP forum group offers an OSI-like protocol stack for interoperability . infrared transmission. leading to rapid fluctuations in the quality of the provided services. Recent research efforts proposed extensions to formal open systems standards. The emerging UMTS system standard (discussed in Chapter 5).g. or even acceptable. will provide a golden opportunity for interoperability of data links interfaces. For example. and wireless data and services. In addition. and most mobile communication systems are either based on proprietary data interfaces. They also recognize that the number of such protocols may grow or shrink. Moreover. update policies. Many of the client-application products. the Oracle Mobile Agents product discussed previously supports both CDPD and Shiva PPP. are recognizing that several competing wireless transmission protocols exist with each network type. As an example. The same is true for any combination of the aforementioned technologies. As a result. or have implemented selected parts of existing and/or emerging deployment agreements. it remains the client’s responsibility to transfer among the various competing network services. interoperability among the various network classes can be provided by adopting popular communications standards. Such key attributes as Quality of Service. digital voice. However. At some level. Database formats. satellite channels. and data exchange rates are left to the equipment providers and service providers which may be based more on deployment schedules than on availability of standards and interoperability guarantees. these client-level packages are adapted to use the popular underlying protocols. This is because the inherent unreliability and bandwidth limitation largely varies from one network to the other. which is expected to be deployed by the year 2002. lETF’s Mobile IP. e. no client software we have seen claims to migrate seamlessly among the different wireless network classes. However.96 C HAPTER 6 will not function in a cell serviced by a GSM or PCS infrastructure. or the communications substrate that they rely on. This limited form of interoperability appears to meet the needs for developers of client software. The heterogeneity of the existing and emerging wireless network protocols poses not only a need for interoperability. cordless telephones.
The WAP stack also provides negotiation protocols between producers and consumers of data to optimize the necessary level of data presentation based on the nature of data. Another proposal in [36. Each client or middleware offering is tailored to a specific kind of network service and assumes the client will manage its transition from one network class to another as the mobile platform roams about. None of the product offerings or announced plans for products that we have seen have included the vision of a translucent client context for exploiting nomadic applications. and the capabilities of the destination device. Translucent Overlays. The WAP stack allows applications to register interest in quality of service events and thresholds (QoS).State of Industry: Mobility Support Software 97 of different wireless networks.5 SHORTCOMINGS AND LIMITATIONS Mobility-support software and products that are commercially available today leaves much to be desired in terms of functionality. This. and interoperability. 6. Multi-Database Access. but nonetheless will be able to maintain the required QoS. 47] extends the ISO Reference Model for Open Distributed Processing (RM-ODP) so that clients are able to adapt to the variation of the network service they encounter. This trend mirrors the path that these vendors have adopted for the fixed network environment. Content negotiation should play a major role in maintaining QoS across heterogeneous networks. The continuous decline in wireless communication cost and the recent convergence towards a truly global and standard communication system will help reduce the business risk associated with investments in this software market. portability. Products which have emerged for the wired environment which make it possible . in turn. applications will have to be mobility-aware. Several limitations and shortcomings of existing products are summarized below. the current wireless network between the source and the destination. DBMS vendors such as Oracle and Sybase which are announcing mobile client products are providing connection services only to their proprietary DBMS product. allows the application to be mobility-aware and adaptable to changes in the environment. This will be true for giant software vendors as well as small startup companies. Under this proposal. performance.
will not automatically extend service into the wireless domain. None of the server or client software packages targeted for the wireless domain claim to offer location dependent services.g.98 C HAPTER 6 for a client to interact with a variety of vendor DBMS. This failure occurs because current solutions that couple mobile clients with server DBMS include insertion of vendor-specific agents on both ends of the wireless connection to mediate wireless artifacts. and implicitly to any of the DBMS products those TP monitors serve. Thus. BEA Systems markets a variety of products that couple wired clients with a variety of TP monitors. e. they will be offered by companies such as BEA Systems and Transarc. where the locus of control of the transaction is maintained by the mobile user. remains as a research idea needy of commercialization. . Location Dependent Services. ODBC interfaces. Mobile Transactions. Workflows. This important class of services will be essential at both ends of the wireless client-server communications link. The concept of a mobile transaction. We have seen no workflow products targeted for the mobile domain in our literature searches. a Mobile Oracle client can only talk to those servers that are serviced by the Mobile Oracle server agents. If mobile transaction products will ever be made available. We have seen no product that addresses issues of transaction management in the mobile environment. Workflow products lag database access products in their migration to wireless and mobile environments.
ubiquitous.7 RESEARCH IN WIRELESS AND MOBILE COMPUTING An important requirement of the evolving information infrastructure is the seamless. 98 and 99). The ACM SIGMobile is also an important forum for research dissemination. 96. 97. . has led to a proliferation of research in this area. The following topics are covered in this chapter: Mobile networking Quality of service in mobile networks Mobile access to the World Wide Web Mobile transactions Mobile computing models A complete and thorough coverage of research in wireless and mobile computing is beyond the scope of this book. wireline or wireless connectivity that engenders continuous interactions between people and interconnected computers. This new requirement. For more details. and the proceedings of the IEEE Workshop on Mobile Computing Systems and Applications (WMCSA 94 and 99). the reader is referred to the Imielinski and Korth edited book. The reader is also encouraged to examine the proceedings of the ACM/IEEE International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (MobiCom 95. “Mobile Computing”  and the book by James Solomon on Mobile-IP. This chapter describes some of the achieved and ongoing research in wireless and mobile computing. “Mobile IP: The Internet Unplugged” . supported by amazing technological advances in small-size computers and wireless communication networks.
The mobility behavior of a node should be transparent to a peer node.1 MOBILE NETWORKING Internetworking mobile computers with the fixed-network raises the additional requirements of mobility transparency and mobility and location management. since the mobile nodes will be visiting foreign networks. Thus. mobile networking protocols should provide authentication and security features comparable to those found in fixed-network IP protocols such as IPv4 and IPv6. A peer node should be able to communicate with a mobile node using some fixed IP address irrespective of the current point of attachment. the mobility unaware routers should be able to route packets destined to a mobile host as normal IP data packets. This mapping is performed by the mobile host . at a minimum. The mobile networking protocol should also be transparent to the hosts and routers which do not understand or support mobility. In this section. a mobile network is a virtual network with a virtual address space.1 Early Approaches: Virtual IP Protocols In this approach. 7. Thus. and accessing data. Thus. Security is another important concern in internetworking.100 C HAPTER 7 7. A mapping is maintained between the physical or actual IP addresses and the Virtual IP addresses. requesting services. In mobile networking it is more so. leaving out the details which can be obtained by following cited work and web resources. Authentication of the mobile nodes and foreign networks is also important. various approaches and protocols for mobile internetworking are examined. including: Early approaches: virtual IP mechanisms Loose source routing protocol The Mobile Internet Protocol (Mobile-IP) Cellular Digital Packet Data (CDPD) The General Packet Radio Service protocol (GPRS) Emphasis is placed on protocol mechanisms. it is important that the security of the visiting network is not breached due to the presence of a foreign node in its network.1.
In this scheme.1. looks up its cache. The VIP (Virtual IP ) is implemented as an IP option. which is immutable and by which it is known to the outside world. A copy of this cache is maintained at each host/router. and a physical address. its current location is looked up in the database and the packet is transmitted to that location. A set of packet types is also defined for host communication. when required to communicate with a mobile host. Below. The transport layer interfaces with the network layer through the virtual layer interface and addresses its packets to the virtual address of a mobile host. the packet is addressed to the VIP address. the mobile host obtains an IP address and informs its home network of its current location. we describe two Virtual IP protocols. a mobile host has two IP addresses associated with it. A stationary host.2 The SONY Protocol This protocol  was proposed in 1992 by F.1 Sunshine And Postel The earliest solution for managing mobile hosts was proposed by Sunshine and Postel  in 1980. They proposed that the mobile hosts be assigned a virtual IP address which can be used to identify them. If the cache entry is not available.1. When a packet has to be routed to the mobile host. of Sony Laboratories. 7. A set of connection gateways are required for the co-existence of mobility aware and mobility unaware hosts on the network. Teraoka et al. A virtual address. If the mapping is available.1. The home network broadcasts this information so the AMT cache gets updated. Two sublayers are introduced in the network layer and are used to map the physical address to the virtual address.2 Loose Source Routing Protocol . A cache called the Address Mapping Table (AMT ) is used for fast address resolution. which is acquired from the local network.1. the packet is transmitted in the normal fashion by appending the VIP header. A mobile host in the foreign network is required to obtain a care-of-address.1. 7.Research in Wireless and Mobile Computing 101 which obtains a care of address from the local network being visited using either the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)  or the BOOTP  protocols or by any of the link layer protocols. and to update its location in a mapping database. 7. On entering a foreign network.
7. The option allows the source to specify the intermediate gateways in the IP packet. 80. and the corresponding source host is informed of the current location of the mobile host. the mobile node will either have to be assigned a new IP address every time it changes its point of attachment. It uses the Loose Source Route option available in the IPv4 for routing packet data. 7. 76] defines enhancements to the Internet Protocol to allow routing of IP packets to mobile nodes in the internet.3 The Mobile Internet Protocol (Mobile-IP) The Mobile Internet Protocol (Mobile IP) [88. the source can control the route the IP packet takes. The MN is known throughout the network by an IP address assigned to it in the home network. Thus.1. In a mobile environment. When a mobile host changes location. the point of attachment of the mobile node will be different from time to time. The mobile IP protocol describes a mechanism which allows nodes to change their point of attachment on the Internet. Both of these alternatives result in scalability and connection management problems. the gateway picks up the next IP address from the IP packet. . 59. For IPv4 to work correctly in the mobile environment. 19. The corresponding host can use this information to cache the location. it informs its home network of its new location. the packet is forwarded to the mobile host at the current location address. When an IP packet destined to the mobile host arrives at the home network. The major architecture components of the mobile IP protocol are: Mobile Node (MN): is a host or a router that changes its point of attachment to the network from one subnetwork to another. The home network maintains a database of all mobile hosts native to its network. At each destination. thus avoiding communication with the home network until the mobile host changes its location again. The IP version 4 assumes that the Internet Protocol of a node uniquely identifies the point of attachment of the node to the internetwork. Packets are routed based on the IP address. sets it as the destination. and the mobile nodes could be attached to different networks. and advances a pointer stored in the IP packet header.102 C HAPTER 7 This approach was proposed by David Johnson  of CMU in 1993. or the host specific routing information has to be supplied throughout the network. The mobile node can communicate from any location as long as the link layer connectivity to the internetwork is established. Source route set up is done by the corresponding host.
This can be done using the IETF Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP). The foreign agent then acts as a relay in this registration process. The FA may also act as a default router for mobile nodes registered with it. which then tunnels these datagrams to the mobile node’s care-of-address. The mobile IP protocol can be summarized as follows: 1. After attaching to the foreign network. the mobile node deregisters itself with the HA and operates without mobility services. 6. If it is connected to the home network.Research in Wireless and Mobile Computing 103 Home Agent (HA): is a mobile-IP capable router on the mobile node’s home network. When the mobile node is away from its home network. The mobile node. . Foreign Agent (FA): is a mobile-IP capable router that the mobile node has visited. If the mobile node is attached to a foreign network. after connecting to a network. In the latter case. it operates without mobility services. The FA detunnels and routes the packets destined to the mobile node. 2. Alternatively. The mobile node determines the network it is attached to. 3. 5. receives information about the mobility agents through the agent advertisement broadcasts. the mobile nodes can solicit the agent information if no broadcasts have been received. The mobility agents (HA and FA) in the network broadcast their availability through agent advertisement packets. The tunneled packets destined to the mobile node are detunneled either by the foreign agent or by the mobile node itself. The mobile node operating from a foreign network registers itself with its home agent. If it is returning back to the home network. The HA maintains the location information for the mobile node. datagrams destined to the mobile node are intercepted by the home agent. the mobile node obtains a temporary IP address on the foreign agent network to be used for forwarding. the mobile node is required to register itself with the FA. a care-of-address is obtained from the FA. It also acts as the tunneling agent for packets destined to the mobile node. 4. The HA manages the registration and authorization information of all the mobile modes belonging to its network.
The datagrams originating from the mobile node are routed in the normal fashion. Standards for both IPv4 and IPv6 have been proposed and are being reviewed for enhancements in scalability and performance. The foreign agent may act as a default router in this case. Packets addressed to the mobile node’s home address are transparently routed to its care-of address.1. (2) the home agent encapsulates the received datagram inside another datagram and sends it to the foreign agent (IP-in-IP tunneling ). the home agent. The optimized protocol enables IPv6 nodes to cache the binding of a mobile node’s home address with its care-of address. and to . is an evolving standard being developed by the IETF Working Group on IP Routing for Wireless/Mobile Hosts. the triangular routing between the mobile node. (3) the encapsulated IP packet is received by the foreign agent. decapsulated.104 C HAPTER 7 7. In particular. The routing path of a datagram sent from a fixed host to a mobile node is as follows: (1) the datagram is sent from the fixed host to the home agent using standard IP routing. and the foreign agent (that must be performed every time the mobile node switches over to another communication cell) is a bottleneck that is being removed in IPv6 . The Mobile IP protocol stack on the fixed network and on the mobile unit is depicted in Figure 7. and forwarded to the mobile node. known as Mobile-IP. The Mobile Host Protocol. (4) the mobile node replies by sending a datagram to the fixed host through the foreign agent.
1 Support for Ad-Hoc Mobility An ad-hoc mobile network is a collection of wireless mobile nodes forming a temporary network without the aid of any established infrastructure or centralized administration. 14. When a mo- bile node receives a route request packet. Neither algorithms is suitable for the ad-hoc environment because periodic broadcasts will drain battery power quickly. Otherwise. The MosquitoNet project at Stanford  aimed at relaxing the requirement of foreign agent availability.Research in Wireless and Mobile Computing 105 then send any packets destined for the mobile node directly to it at this care-of address. the address of the node servicing the request is added to the route request packet before the packet is . Research in ad-hoc routing is dedicated to finding algorithms that avoid the needless battery consumption and the inefficient use of the wireless bandwidth. it checks a list of recently processed requests. 7. If a request is found for the same source and request id. the target nodes. MosquitoNet follows the IETF specification of Mobile-IP to support host mobility. a source node sends out a route request packet indicating the source. and the use of route caches. The link state routing algorithm  broadcasts its view of the adjacent network links. More details on achieved and ongoing efforts in Mobile IP and its routing optimization can be found in [62. but does not require FA support in foreign networks visited by the mobile node. It allows for route discovery. Routing algorithms in the ad-hoc environment are therefore a necessary support for this mode of mobile connection. 80]. 88. No routing is needed between ad-hoc nodes which are within transmission range of each others. Traditional routing algorithms used in wireline networks use distance vector or link state routing algorithms. The distance vector algorithm  broadcasts its view of the distance from a router node to each host. 11. Otherwise. Examples of ad-hoc networks include wireless portable devices of a group of collaborator. additional nodes must be used to form a sequence of hops from the source to the destination.1.3. the request is dropped and no further action is taken. and a request identifier. which rely on periodically broadcasting routing advertisements by each router node. such as an emergency team in a disaster area. To discover an available route. route maintenance. Dynamic source routing is one such algorithms due to Johnson and Maltz . 60.
are responsible for registration of the M-ES with its home MD-IS and the proper routing of packets destined for the M-ES.4 Cellular Digital Packet Data (CDPD) CDPD is a connectionless multi-network protocol. the Location-Aided Routing (LAR ) algorithm . the mobile node is called a Mobile End-System (M-ES). Route maintenance is therefore necessary in this environment. Even though CDPD and Mobile-IP are similar. their terminologies are different. The idea behind CDPD is to share unused channels in existing Advanced Mobile Phone Systems (AMPS) to provide up to 19. the requested route is discovered. 7. the Mobile Node Registration Protocol (MNRP ) and the Mobile Node Location Protocol (MNLP ). A Mobile Database Station (MDBS) is also defined which deals with the air link communications and acts as a data link layer relay between the M-ES and the serving MD-IS . and the Distance Routing Effect Algorithm . cached routes may become incorrect. in a promiscuous mode). Other recent ad-hoc routing protocols that can be found in the literature include the on-demand distance vector routing . It is based on the early versions of Mobile-IP . Due to unpredictable node mobility.106 C HAPTER 7 re-broadcasted. Two protocols. CDPD follows the OSI model terminology. The main resemblance between CDPD and Mobile-IP is in the triangular routing approach between the mobile node and the home and foreign agents.1. proposed originally by the CDPD Forum (now called the WDF Forum). and a reply is sent to the source node. This is achieved by requiring nodes routing packets to acknowledge successful forwarding and to send error messages to the source node if a route ceases to exist. as well as passive monitoring (listening to nearby broadcast. The main differences can be summarized as follows : . can be used in route maintenance. For example. However. Active monitoring such as MAC -level acknowledgements. the home and foreign agents are called Mobile Home and Mobile Serving Functions (MHF and SF respectively) and reside in a mobile data intermediate system (MD-IS ). if the address of the node servicing the request is identical to the target node address.2 kbps data channel.
mobility management with . the future of CDPD deployment and/or acceptance can only be guessed. a new logical network node called the GPRS support node (GSN) was introduced in order to create an end-to-end packet transfer mode. Mobile IP operates completely above the data link layer.1.Research in Wireless and Mobile Computing 107 The user’s IP address must be assigned by the CDPD service provider. however. While the standardization process of Mobile IP has been progressing rather slowly. In addition to the Base Transceiver Station (BTS).2 shows the architecture of a GSM system that uses GPRS. and is receiving the support of major AMPS carriers. CDPD has been deployed for a few years now. or it can be a separate network element based on the architecture of data network routers. CDPD mobility. the GSN can be integrated with the mobile switching center (MSC). Mobile IP’s mobility tunnelling is based on the IP-in-IP protocol. Mobile-IP. Mobile IP makes no such assumptions. and CLNP) as well as specialized data packet protocols. and offers connection to standard protocols (such as TCP/IP. GPRS is not restricted to IP packet data protocols. is mostly above the data link layer. due to its lack of openness. X. 7.5 The GSM General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) GPRS is a GSM packet data service developed by the European Telecommunication Standards Institute (ETSI) as part of GSM phase developments. Since the infrastructure of the CDPD network is closed there are less security considerations for CDPD. Base Station Controller (BSC). influenced the design of Mobility management in GPRS. However. Figure 7. Unlike Mobile-IP. which is IP-based. and the Mobile Switching Center (MSC).25. CDPD’s mobility tunnelling is based on CLNP.6 kbps achieved through GSM’s circuit switching technology. The goal of GPRS was to support data transfer rates higher than the 9. GSN is a mobility router that provides connection and interoperability with various data networks. Physically. Combining the M-ES and the Serving MD-IS was not considered and is not practical in CDPD. on the other hand. Mobile IP allows the mobile node to also be a foreign agent.
an association between the GSM MSC and the GSN is created. The GPRS register acts as a database from which the SGSNs can ask whether a new MS in its area is allowed to join the GPRS network. It also decapsulates and forwards external data network packets to the appropriate data network and handles the billing of data traffic. 7. In CDPD . Usually during this process the user has to provide a non-ambiguous identity to his home domain and has to verify it. One GSN is designated the Gateway GSN (GGSN) and acts as a logical interface to external packet data networks. all the mobility management. and key distribution). This association is used to keep routing and location area information up-to-date in both entities. It updates the location directory of the mobile station (MS) using routing information supplied by the Serving GSN node (SGSN). this identity can be tapped on the air interface in a cellular environment or through the signaling protocols exchanged on the registered wired network. Each MD- . independently of their locations. a typical situation arises when a mobile user registers in one domain (home domain) and appears in a different foreign domain. a new issue is the privacy and anonymity of the user’s movement and identity. send/receive data packets to/from the GPRS MS. and delivery of data packets to MSs. In addition to the basic security concerns in wireline systems (authentication. The SGSN is responsible for the delivery of packets to the mobile stations within its service area. it is desirable to protect information about the movements and activities of mobile users from onlookers.108 C HAPTER 7 the GPRS registers. GGSN also routes the external data network protocol packet encapsulated over the GPRS backbone to the SGSN currently serving the MS. The latter is similar to the foreign agent in Mobile-IP. confidentiality.6 Security and Authentication Issues in Mobile Networks In a mobile computing environment. the user must be authenticated and his solvency must be confirmed. as well as security-related activity. handle the process of registering the new MSs along with the GPRS registers. In fact. are concentrated in the Massage-Data Intermediate System (MD-IS) . The main functions of the SGSN are to detect new GPRS MSs in its service area. For the coordination of circuit and packet switched services. and keep a record of the location of MSs inside of its service area. The GGSN is similar to the home agent in Mobile-IP .1. If no care is taken.
the mobile unit encrypts its real identity (Network Equipment Identifier) and transmits it to the local MD-IS. For example. 7. the key exchanging protocol itself is not secure. As a result. Unfortunately. Upon arrival to a new area. Subsequently. Existing session protocols are not of much use under frequent disconnections and reconnections of the . both parties obtain a shared secret key. the mobile unit engages in a Diffie-Hellamn key exchange protocol with the local MD-IS. Unfortunately. This allows the higher layers of the protocol stack to be used unchanged. will perform poorly under variable delays and limited bandwidth.Research in Wireless and Mobile Computing 109 IS controls an area covered by a number of base stations. This means that an active attacker masquerading as the local domain authority can engage in the key exchange protocol with the mobile unit and obtain a shared key.2 QUALITY OF SERVICE IN MOBILE NETWORKS Mobile network protocols such as Mobile-IP and GPRS provide mobility transparency at the network layer level. This approach allows the local MD-IS to discover the real identity of the mobile unit. This is especially true for applications that require continuous-media streams. there are ill consequences to this transparency that are mostly attributed to the constraints of the wireless and mobile environment. if used unchanged. transport layer protocols that rely heavily on timeout mechanisms for re-transmission.
Regardless of which particular upper layer in the protocol stack suffers the consequences of transparency. All layers are aware of either QoS or the limitations introduced by mobility and by the wireless networks. Unfortunately. 7. the BARWAN project and the Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) standard. Another source of re-transmission is the high error rate inherent in the wireless transmission characteristics. such protocols like TCP perform poorly when used unmodified in the mobile network. Two research efforts will be discussed including. a user with a limited display and limited battery PDA will not be able to browse the Web unless the presentation of the downloaded data is changed to suite her PDA’s capabilities. For example.000 milliseconds.2. TCP acknowledgment timeout is in the range of tens of milliseconds. it is difficult to build applications or services that provide performance guarantees or quality . in the wireless and mobile environment. thus competing on sharing the limited wireless link.1 Optimizing TCP/IP for Mobile Networks Since mobile users will need connection-oriented communication to obtain re- mote services. An unpredicted number of mobile users can move into the same cell. Under this scenario. A mobile unit crossing cell boundaries blanks out during a hand-off procedure that could last up to 1. Another problem that can lead to performance degradation under standard TCP is bandwidth allocation under unpredictable mobility. the effect on the end-user will always be felt as unacceptable fluctuations in the perceived QoS. full protocol stacks. they will have to use transport protocols developed for the fixed network. Session and/or applica- tion layer protocols directly addressing QoS parameters.110 C HAPTER 7 same mobile computation. QoS driven. Solutions are sensitive to applications. Transport or network layer solutions to get TCP/IP to work despite the fluctuations in the underlying network QoS. Similarly. This leads to sender timeouts and repeated re-transmissions. high-level communication protocols. Optimizing TCP/IP for Mobile Networks. existing presentation layer protocols are inappropriate to use unchanged. In this section. we describe the following three research efforts that address QoS concerns in the wireless and mobile environment. For example. QoS driven. but do not address network heterogeneity issues. Solutions are not application-sensitive and do not address an overlay of heterogeneous networks.
A second alternative is proposed in the same work which is similar to the MHP alternative except that MHP uses a specialized protocol instead of TCP over the wireless hop. MHP compensates for wireless link characteristics and for host migration.2. 7. The connection over the wireless link may either use regular TCP or a specialized transport protocol optimized for better performance. while traffic over the “long” connection over the wired network can be protected from the impact of erratic behavior over the wireless link. A new session layer protocol called Mobile Host Protocol (MHP) is introduced atop standard TCP.2. A few approaches have been proposed to optimize and extend the standard TCP protocol so that it can be used efficiently under a mobile network protocol such as Mobile IP. the recovery of all losses can be performed via a single round trip message. The specialized protocol differs from standard TCP in that the former uses selective acknowledgement by the receiver.1. which also splits the communication path between the mobile host and the fixed network host into two connections.1 Yavatkar et al Yavatkar et al  proposed an approach whereby the communication path between the mobile end and the fixed end is split into two separate connections: one over the wireless link and another over the wired links. Retransmission can therefore be performed . and the second between the base station and the fixed network host using standard TCP.2 Balakrishnan et al Balakrishnan et al  took a slightly different approach to improve the performance of TCP in the mobile network. They redesigned the network layer so that it caches packets at the base stations. the first between the mobile host and the base station.1. An advantage of this approach is that performance degradation in TCP is limited to a “short” connection over the wireless hop. 7. resulting in a better throughput performance. Another approach similar to Yavatkar’s is the I-TCP protocol (Indirect Transport Layer Protocol) . It is located at both the base station and the mobile host. over the wireless link. The splitting of a connection is transparent to an application and no changes are necessary to protocol software on the stationary hosts. in which a bitmask is used to indicate all missing segments of the connection stream. They focused on the re-transmission behavior of TCP due to hand-off. This way.Research in Wireless and Mobile Computing 111 of service. using the I-TCP protocol.
and maintain QoS from the application or user point of view. provided by the application.3 Caceres et al Similar research by Caceres and Iftode  addressed the problem of communication pauses due to hand-off.2. For example. which consequently causes retransmissions that get further timed out during the hand-off. guidelines are proposed to avoid discarding critical portions of the data. They proposed using the fast re-transmission option available in TCP-Tahoe immediately after hand-off is completed.1 The Loss Profile Approach Seal and Singh  considered the problem of unpredictable mobility and its effect on the degradation of the wireless communication performance. it is slow and inappropriate in the wireless and mobile environment. 7. 7. The . request. 7. In addition to transport optimizations. This section describes high-level. They addressed the case where the aggregate bandwidth required by all mobile units in an overloaded cell exceeds the cell’s available bandwidth.2. what was found needed are application-aware (or application-specific) mechanisms to monitor. most Web browsers use multiple TCP connections to access a multimedia page.2. While this parallelism achieves speedup in the fixed network.2 QoS Driven. Their mechanism is simple and relies on policies and measures for discarding parts of the data of the mobile users. Their experimental verification shows clear smoothening of TCP performance during hand-off. The gain is that the erratic transmission characteristics of the wireless link are dealt with in isolation of the rest of the fixed network.1. High-Level Communication Protocols Optimizing the behavior and performance of transport protocols is not sufficient to maintain the QoS required by applications. above-transport protocols that understands application QoS requirements and resource limitations. A Loss Profile is proposed and is defined to be a description. Experimental evaluation showed a throughput increase of up to 20 times over standard TCP. Their results are based on the Lucent/NCR Wavelan network. Instead of discarding data in an arbitrary manner.2.112 C HAPTER 7 locally between the base station and the mobile unit. of an “acceptable” manner in which data for its connection may be discarded. They observed that such pauses are interpreted by standard TCP (Tahoe in their experiment) as packet losses due to congestion.
Research in Wireless and Mobile Computing 113 loss profile is used in the event of bandwidth reduction at the wireless end of the connection. Binding parameters include specification of parameters such as the desired throughput. 47]. Explicit bindings allow application programmers to specify QoS constraints on bindings between objects. a new remote procedure call protocol has been developed for ANSAware. The work is being put to test using an adaptive collaborative mobile application designed to support field engineers in the U.2.2 QEX: The QoS Driven Remote Execution Protocol In [36. A call-back mechanism is also provided to inform client objects of QoS degradations reported by the underlying transport service. The work describes a design of a distributed system platform that supports the development of adaptable services. latency. and to detect violations of these constraints at run time. The loss profile is used by a specialized session layer which is transparent to the application. The design allows services to tolerate the heterogeneity of the environment by dynamically adapting to changes in the available communication QoS. to pass on relevant QoS information to interested applications. and jitter associated with the binding. Clients are returned a binding control interface as a result of an explicit bind operation.K. which is a QoS-aware RPC protocol for objects called QEX. the control interface includes a pair of operations setQoS() and getQoS(). The purpose of this effort is to propose extensions to emerging distributed systems standards in order to support mobile services. it is able. The basic ANSAware platform is extended to support operation in the mobile environment by introducing the notion of explicit bindings.’s ANSAware software suite. An elaborate example of a loss profile is given on viewer perception of a video clip under data loss. These operations take as arguments a set of QoS parameters which can then be passed by the stream binding to the underlying transport protocol. 7. The new RPC is able to maintain QoS information on the underlying communications infrastructure and to adapt to changes in the perceived QoS. .2. Moreover. The implementation of the distributed system is based on APM Ltd. via explicit bindings. To control the QoS of the flow once the binding has been established. which is based on the ANSA architecture that has had some influence on the ISO Reference Model for Open Distributed Processing (RM-ODP). the problem of fluctuations in the quality of service (QoS) in a federation of heterogeneous networks is addressed. To support explicit bindings. This allows the applications themselves to adapt to changes in the QoS. power distribution industry.
latency. Unless the application adapts to variations in the network overlay.1 BARWAN: The Wireless Overlay Network Architecture The BARWAN project  at the University of California at Berkeley developed an architecture that supports applications’ graceful adaptation to the available bandwidth and latency of the wireless network. The lowest layer is the wireless overlay subnets. In addition to the heterogeneity of networks. campus-area. an Internet connection. A testbed of wireless overlay network management that supports media-intensive applications has been used to demonstrate the adaptability features of BARWAN. The layered architecture of BARWAN is shown in Figure 7.2.3 QoS Driven. among other networks. The testbed integrates the participants’ networks and allows full coverage of the greater Bay Area. applications will remain proprietary to the specific mobile computer platforms they were originally designed for. and in-room wireless networks. and/or a satellite communication loop. The BARWAN architecture is gatewaycentric. This section also describes an ongoing standardization effort called WAP that aims at proposing a specification of a full ISO/OSI-like network stack that is wireless and mobile aware. a personal communication system (PCS). which are the car- . the heterogeneity of the mobile platforms imposes a great impediment to mobile application portability. a wireless LAN. The architecture assumes an overlay of various wireless networks ranging from regional-area. and transmission characteristics. wide-area.3. range. 7. metropolitan-area. Full Protocol Stacks Future mobile services will be built upon federations of heterogeneous networks maintained and administered by different providers. meaning it provides gateway connections from the mobile host to each participating wireless networks.114 C HAPTER 7 7. Medical imaging applications have been developed to drive the testbed. the application performance is bound to suffer.2. The testbed that has been developed in the San Francisco Bay Area includes the participation of over six local carriers including Nextel and Metricom. This section describes a research project that proposes a full stack solution as an overlay network stack atop a heterogeneous collection of wireless subnets. in-building. A network overlay can include a cellular network.3. The mobility of users will force an application to migrate along overlays of networks that vary in their bandwidth. It shows all layers designed for wireless overlay network integration and for providing application support. Unless applications adapt to the capabilities and limitations of the mobile computer with respect to the type and media of communicated data.
Research in Wireless and Mobile Computing 115 .
Only devices that will be WAP-compliant (implement the WAP stack and wireless application environment) are part of the WAP infrastructure.116 C HAPTER 7 rier networks including data link interface. The focus was to bring the internet content and advanced services to digital cellular phones and other hand-held devices such as smart communicators and PDAs. Figure 7. to palmtop computers.3. Ericsson. Finally. Nokia. which are carrier networks augmented with the WAP stack on top of the air link interfaces. The details of this layer depends on the specific subnets being integrated.3 also shows how the quality of services needs pass down the layers from applications towards the network management layers. while information about network capabilities propagates up the layers.4 and consists of: (1) hand-held devices ranging from digital cellular phones. Currently. 7. other QoS services. The objective was to create the specification of a wireless application environment and a wireless ISO/OSI-like protocol stack. The layer attempts to optimize transport connections related to the same application by session sharing whenever possible. the consortium created a nonprofit company named the WAP Forum with the mission of enabling: (1) interoperability across heterogeneous portable devices. In January 1998. wireless networks. Motorola. and Phone. to smart communicators such as the Nokia 9000.Com (previously Unwired Planet) formed a consortium for the standardization of an open middleware architecture for wireless application. (3) WAP-compliant internet information providers such as Web servers. Next is a layer called the Overlay Network Management Layer which includes network and transport functionalities including location tracking. On top of the session layer is the Application Support Services including support for various data types and continuous media such as audio and video. and internet contents.2 The Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) In June 1997. and connection-oriented transport mechanisms. into the internet and corporate intranets. The goal was to provide the needed interoperability to connect different portable devices. QoS-based hand-off management. that must conform to levels of presentations of information . via heterogeneous wireless networks. the WAP Forum is creating a set of specifications for the Wireless Application Environment and for each layer in the WAP protocol stack. The next higher up layer is the Session Management Layer which provides a “transactional” transport (called message-oriented interface). the mobile multimedia application is on top of the stack.2. and (2) portability of third party wireless software and applications across different portable devices that are WAP-compliant. The architectural infrastructure of WAP is depicted in Figure 7. and possibly carrier network routing. (2) Wap-compliant wireless networks.
among others. On top of the transport. Also. This allows the applica- . On top of the air link is the transport layer. also contains critical QoS features including: exception mechanisms to allow applications to register interest in QoSrelated network events and parameter thresholds. The stack is similar to the ISO/OSI stack and consists of a lowest layer containing air link interfaces such as GSM’s GPRS. This includes encryption. D-AMPS. This layer corresponds to both the network and the transport layers of the OSI stack combined. in which datagram and connection-oriented streams are supported.5. which is the most elaborate layer. In the heart of the WAP standard is the WAP protocol stack shown in Figure 7. On top of security is the session layer which is responsible for enabling multi-tasking on the hand-held device. and (4) WAP-compliant TeleVAS providers.Research in Wireless and Mobile Computing 117 suitable to the capabilities of the hand-held device requesting the information. authentication. transactional connections are supported to enable electronic commerce applications. WAP dedicates a layer for security. This lowest layer corresponds to both the physical and the data link layers combined in the OSI stack. CDPD. and capabilities. This is because multiple connections can be maintained as multiple sessions managed by the session layer. The session layer.
Another standardization effort similar to WAP is the Mobile Network Computer Reference Profile (MNCRF). on the wireless network gateways. This will enable the WAP stack itself to partner through its pieces (on the fixed network. The first capability provides applications with the environment awareness needed to initiate QoS adaptations. mechanisms for capability and content negotiation. by using QoS API to program how to adapt to changes in the environment. on the other hand.118 C HAPTER 7 tion to be mobility-aware. the WAP stack negotiates with the device the capability to receive and display the contents. When certain information content is being delivered. and on the hand-held device) to perceive and adapt to the mobility and the changes in network characteristics. but also of the device capabilities and the characteristics of the information content. The negotiation decides for the feasibility of the transfer and for the level of filtering that might be needed to deliver the the information while maintaining QoS. which is based on the NCRF standard developed . provides the system with automated awareness mechanisms not only of the environment. The second capability.
Several research efforts explored the problems associated with wireless access to the Web.3 MOBILE ACCESS TO THE WORLD WIDE WEB More and more users are becoming increasingly dependent on information they obtain from the World Wide Web. A PDA cache was used to improve the performance. any time.3.Research in Wireless and Mobile Computing 119 by the Open Group . The interpreter is designed to execute only commands that do not violate safety.1 The Wireless WWW (W4) In . Users are also demanding ubiquitous access. a prototype consisting of commercially available PDAs and a wireless LAN has been used to provide a “proof of concept” for the Wireless World Wide Web (W4). they are implemented as Tcl scripts as part of the browser client.2 Dynamic Documents The concept of dynamic documents was introduced in  as an approach to extending and customizing the WWW for mobile computing platforms. 7. Details of this initiative are available in a white paper and a reference specification document . and to support disconnected and asynchronous browsing operations. A modified version of the NCSA Mosaic browser was used to run the dynamic documents it retrieves through a modified Tcl interpreter. Web proxies are also used to prefetch and cache Web pages to the mobile client’s machine. Dynamic documents are programs executed on a mobile platform to generate a document. 7. By using dynamic documents. 7. A simplified version of Mosaic was ported to the PDA for the purpose of experimenting with response time performance and to sort out design choices. Most solutions used a Web proxy that enabled Web browsing applications to function over wireless links without imposing changes on browsers and servers. to the information they rely on. Both the browser and the displayed e-mail messages are dynamically customized to the mobile computing environment in .3. The first draft of the standard has been released addressing the unique requirements of mobile network computing. to compress and transform image pages for transmission over low-bandwidth links. anywhere. an adaptive e-mail browser that employs application-specific caching and prefetching is built.
MOWSER assumes that the user is aware of the mobile unit limitations.3. a design of a mobile-aware Web browser is discussed. This feature also supports location-sensitive information by keeping the mobile client aware of service relocation or of services offered by a mobile server. dynamic documents being placed at the client side are not wireless-media sensitive. MOWSER does not directly consider the limitations of the wireless media (although the maximum file size indirectly preserves the limited bandwidth). the client resolves any references to dynamic information it may contain and sends the result back to the server. excess data (that would be reduced by the dynamic document) is. Dynamic documents can solve the problem of limited resources in the mobile host. resolution. The Mosaic Web client and the URL syntax are modified so that when the user traverses a dynamic URL. communicated. This is helpful in defining location-sensitive resources. Color. sound capability. .3 Dynamic URLs The Mobisaic project  at the University of Washington extends standard client browsers to support dynamic URLs and active documents. however.3. 7. The design is based on a mediator server that filters retrieved information according to the limitations of the mobile unit. For example. 7. which in a way sacrifices transparency. the Tcl script could be a filter that reduces an incoming image so that it fits the screen size or resolution. Although caching and prefetching can alleviate some of the communication overhead. called MOWSER. the second is a proxy server that implements all the filtering indicated by the preference server.4 Mobile Browser (MOWSER) In . leading to inefficient utilization of the wireless bandwidth. Unfortunately. display mode. This is because filtering occurs after all transmitted information is received by the client. Active documents are Web pages that notify the client browser when dynamic information changes. The first is the preference server that maintains the user profile. and maximum file size are among the factors considered. Similar to the dynamic document approach.120 C HAPTER 7 which they run. connects to two servers in the fixed network. The browser.
Research in Wireless and Mobile Computing
WebExpress  uses the proxy approach to intercept and control communications over the wireless link for the purposes of reducing traffic volume and optimizing the communication protocol to reduce latency. Two components are inserted into the data path between the Web client and the Web server: (1) the Client Side Intercept (CSI) process that runs in the client mobile device and (2) the Server Side Intercept (SSI) process that runs within the wired and fixed network (see Figure 7.6).
The CSI intercepts HTTP requests and, together with the SSI, performs optimizations to reduce bandwidth consumption and transmission latency over the wireless link. From the viewpoint of the browser, the CSI appears as a local Web proxy that is co-resident with the Web browser. On the mobile host, the CSI communicates with the Web browser over a local TCP connection (using the TCP/IP “loopback” feature) via the HTTP protocol. Therefore, no external communication occurs over the TCP/IP connection between the browser and the CSI. No changes to the browser are required other than specifying the (local) IP address of the CSI as the browser’s proxy address. The CSI communicates with an SSI process over a TCP connection using a reduced version of the HTTP protocol. The SSI reconstitutes the HTML data stream and forwards it to the designated CSI Web server (or proxy server). Likewise, for responses returned by a Web server (or a proxy server), the CSI reconstitutes an HTML data stream received from the SSI and sends it to the Web browser over the local TCP connection as though it came directly from the Web server.
C HAPTER 7
The proxy approach implemented in WebExpress offers the transparency advantage to both Web browsers and Web servers (or proxy servers) and, therefore, can be employed with any Web browser. The CSI/SSI protocols facilitate
highly effective data reduction and protocol optimization without limiting any
of the Web browser functionality or interoperability. WebExpress optimization methods are summarized below:
Caching: Both the CSI and SSI cache graphics and HTML objects. If the URL specifies an object that has been stored in the CSI’s cache, it is returned immediately as the response. The caching functions guarantee cache integrity within a client-specified time interval. The SSI cache is populated by responses from the requested Web servers. If a requested URL received from a CSI is cached in the SSI, it is returned as the response to the request.
Differencing: CSI requests might result in responses that normally vary for multiple requests to the same URL (e.g., a stock quote server). The concept of differencing is to cache a common base object on both the CSI and SSI. When a response is received, the SSI computes the difference between the base object and the response and then sends the difference to the CSI. The CSI then merges the difference with its base form to create the browser response. This same technique is used to determine the difference between HTML documents.
Protocol reduction: Each CSI connects to its SSI with a single TCP/IP connection. All requests are routed over this connection to avoid the costly connection establishment overhead. Requests and responses are multiplexed over the connection.
Header reduction: The HTTP protocol is stateless, requiring that each request contain the browser’s capabilities. For a given browser, this information is the same for all requests. When the CSI establishes a connection with its SSI, it sends its capabilities only on the first request. This information is maintained by the SSI for the duration of the connection. The SSI includes the capabilities as part of the HTTP request that it forwards to the target server (in the wire line network).
Research in Wireless and Mobile Computing
7.4 MOBILE DATA MANAGEMENT
Mobile data access can be broadly classified into two categories: (1) data access in mobile client/server, and (2) data access in ad-hoc networks. Several research
projects from each category are presented in the following subsections.
7.4.1 Mobile Client/Server Data Access
In the first category, mobile data access enables the delivery of server data and
the maintenance of client-server data consistency in a mobile and wireless environment. Efficient and consistent data access in mobile environments is a challenging research area because of the weak connectivity and resource constraints. The data access strategies in a mobile information system can be characterized
by delivery modes, data organizations, and consistency requirements, among other factors. The mode for server data delivery can be server-push, client-pull, or a hybrid of both. The server-push delivery is initiated by server functions that push data from the server to the clients. The client-pull delivery is initiated by client functions which send requests to a server and “pull” data from the server in order to provide data to locally running applications. The hybrid delivery uses both server-push and client-pull delivery. The data organizations include mobility-specific data organizations like mobile database fragments in the server storage and data multiplexing and indexing in the server-push delivery mode. The consistency requirements range from weak consistency to strong consistency.
Broadcast Disks: A Server PUSH Approach
When a server continuously and repeatedly broadcasts data to a client community, the broadcast channel becomes a “disk” from which clients can retrieve
data as it goes by. The broadcasting data can be organized as multiple disks
of different sizes and speeds on the broadcast medium . The broadcast
is created by multiplexing chunks of data from different disks onto the same
broadcast channel. The chunks of each disk are evenly interspersed with each
other. The chunks of the fast disks are repeated more often than the chunks of the slow disks (see Figure 7.7). The relative speeds of these disks can be adjusted as a parameter to the configuration of the broadcast. This use of the channel effectively puts the fast disks closer to the client while at the same time
pushing the slower disks further away.
But this correspondence may be difficult to preserve as mobile resources become scarce. Satyanarayanan [86. It may also be stored in more specialized repositories such as video libraries. The data accessed by an application may be stored in one or more general-purpose repositories such as file servers. fidelity is used to describe the degree to which data presented at a client matches the reference copy at the server. type-specific operations. a data item available on a mobile client should be indistinguishable from that available to the accessing application if it were to be executed on the server storing that item. data has at least two additional dimensions: frame rate and image quality of individual frames. some form of degradation may be inevitable. One well-known. The application-aware adaptation is implemented with the support of system-coordinated. It supports concurrent execution of diverse mobile applications that execute on mobile clients. but read or update remote data on servers. . query-by-imagecontent databases. In Odyssey. 77]. Odyssey provides a framework within which diverse notions of fidelity can be incorporated.1. It addresses an application-aware adaptation approach to deal with application diversity and concurrency in mobile environments.124 C HAPTER 7 7. Ideally. Fidelity has many dimensions. For Video applications. or back–ends of geographical information systems.2 Odyssey: A Client PULL Approach Odyssey is a CMU research project led by M. or Web servers. universal dimension is consistency.4. SQL servers.
applications can automate the movement of data and/or computation from the client to the server and vice versa. Bayou servers are able to rollback the effects of previously executed writes and redo them according to a global serialization order. requests and responses are exchanged upon network reconnection. Furthermore. Bayou includes consistency management methods for conflict detection called dependency checks and per-write conflict resolution based on client-provided merge procedures. news bulletin boards. In particular. evolving design documents. or to allow disconnected operation. a user’s mobile computer may experience extended disconnection from other computing devices. bibliographic databases. Rover gives applications control over the location where the computation is performed.2 Mobile Data Access in Ad-hoc Networks The Bayou project  at Xerox PARC developed a system to support data sharing among mobile users. In the Bayou system.3 Rover: A Mobile Objects Approach The Rover project at MIT  provides mobility support to client server applications based on two ideas: relocatable dynamic object (RDO) and queued remote procedure calls (QRPC). and defines a protocol by which the resolution of update conflicts stabilizes. which is implemented as a client stub bound with the application. Queued remote procedure call is a communication system that permits applications to continue to make non-blocking remote procedure calls even when a mobile client is disconnected. each data collection is replicated in full at a number of servers. to reduce client-server communication requirements. Bayou allows mobile users to share their appointment calendars. or vice versa. The Bayou architecture supports shared databases that can be read and updated by users who may be disconnected from other users. and other types of data in spite of their intermittent network connectivity. either individually or as a group. ensures that replicas move towards eventual consistency. To guarantee eventual consistency.1. An RDO is an object (code and data) with a well-defined interface that can be dynamically loaded into a mobile client from a server computer. By moving RDOs across the network. .4. where no network infrastructure is assumed to be available. Bayou permits clients to observe the results of all writes received by a server.4. The system is intended to support ad-hoc mobility. Applications running as clients interact with the servers through the Bayou API. meeting notes. 7.Research in Wireless and Mobile Computing 125 7. including tentative writes whose conflicts have not been ultimately resolved. Bayou supports application-specific mechanisms that detect and resolve the update conflicts.
A component transaction can be further decomposed into other component transactions allowing arbitrary levels of nesting. The model defines a mobile transaction to be a set of relatively independent transactions which interleave with other mobile transactions. Walborn et al. Component transactions are allowed to commit or abort independently.6 of chapter 1. The model proposes to modify Reporting and Co-Transactions [32. 7. while Write operations can insert. In this section we describe some of the existing approaches to mobile transaction management. and delete a number of data items in a collection. Satyanarayanan et al. through a weak connection. . Pitoura et al. [43.5. If a transaction aborts.5 MOBILE TRANSACTIONS A mobile transaction is a long-live transaction whose locus of control moves along with the mobile user. as well as the underlying client-server RPC protocol. All the models described assume the mobile computing reference model presented in Figure 1. The transaction models considered here have been proposed by Chrysanthis . Mobile transactions may access remote data wirelessly. A computation in the mobile environment is considered to consist of a set of transactions. . all com- . The differences between mobile and distributed transaction management are significant because their goals are different. and maintaining computation state in a fixed node so that the communication cost is minimized while the mobile host relocates. 7. . In mobile transactions.1 Reporting and Co-Transactions This model  is based on the Open Nested transaction model. The model addresses sharing of partial results while in execution. In distributed transactions. Dunham et al. 33] to suit mobile environments. and Nielsen . some of which may execute on the mobile node and some of which may execute on the fixed host.126 C HAPTER 7 This API. 44]. maximizing reliability while achieving some sort of consistency is the main goal. the main goal is maximizing availability while achieving ACID properties. . modify. Gray et al. supports two basic operations: Read and Write. or may access local replicas of data in disconnected mode. Read operations permit queries over a data collection.
The parent has the responsibility to commit or abort the transaction later on. A reporting transaction reports its results to other transactions by delegating the results. where transaction relocation is achieved by splitting the transaction at the point of hand-off. the transaction stops execution and is resumed from the point it left off.2 The Kangaroo Transaction Model This model introduced in  is based on the global transactions and the split transaction models. A reporting transaction can have only one recipient at any given point of time. 7. Co-transactions: behave in a manner similar to the co-routine construct in programming languages. It could be a compensating or a non-compensating transaction. But upon delegation. The model classifies mobile transactions into the following four types: Atomic transactions: normal components and may be compensatable with atomic compensating dual steps. hence they cannot be executed concurrently. the reporting transaction aborts as well. If the receiving transaction aborts.Research in Wireless and Mobile Computing 127 ponents which have not yet committed may abort. the transaction delegates all operations to its parent. Co-transactions retain their current status across executions. When the mobile unit moves to a new cell. A mobile transaction (called Kangaroo transaction) is considered a global transaction in a multidatabase environment. the JT in the previous cell is split. reports its results in a way similar to reporting transactions. A Kangaroo transaction (KT) is a global transaction that consists of a set of Joey Transactions (JT). When ready to commit. Each JT may consist of a set of local and global transactions. . either both commit or both abort. The changes made by a reporting transaction is made permanent only when the receiving transaction commits. A co-transaction. Compensatable transactions: atomic transactions whose effects cannot be undone at all. Reporting transactions: can make its results available to the parent at any point of its execution. A JT is associated with the base station or the cell in which it executes.5. and one of the JTs is moved to the current cell of the mobile unit. on the other hand. For any pair of co-transactions. Some of the transactions may have compensating duals and may be compensated.
a mobile transaction is decomposed into a set of weak and strict transactions. data semantics. two copies can be maintained–one of them strict and the other weak. The decomposition is done based on the consistency requirement. The read and write operations are also classified as weak and strict.5. Clusters can be defined either statically or dynamically. they are once again committed across the clusters. A cluster is defined as a unit of consistency in that all data items inside a cluster are required to be fully consistent. while data items residing in different clusters may exhibit bounded inconsistency. Bounded inconsistencies are allowed to exist between clusters. In this model.3 The Clustering Model This model described in  assumes a fully distributed system. The model is based on the open nested transaction model. As mentioned above. and user definitions. A trans- action submitted from a mobile host is composed of a set of weak and strict transactions. whereas strict operations are allowed database-wide access. Weak operations are initially committed in their local clusters. A Joey Transaction should terminate in an abort. This could include the physical location of data. Consistency between clusters can be defined by an m-degree relation. A wide set of parameters can be used for defining clusters. For a KT to be successful. or in a relaxed mode where only component transactions are executed atomically. commit. The transactions are micromanaged by the individual database transaction managers. The database is divided into clusters. Transaction proxies are used to mirror the transactions on individual machines as they are relocated from one machine to another. a KT can be executed as a whole atomic transaction. whereas all other JTs should be split. The weak operations are allowed to access only data elements belonging to the same cluster. the last JT in the order of execution should end in a commit or abort. A cluster defines a set of mutually consistent data. a weak operation can access only the local copies of a data item.128 C HAPTER 7 The model is built upon the existing databases. and the clusters are said to be m-degree consistent. These inconsistencies are finally reconciled by merging the clusters. or a split. extended for mobile computing. When the clusters are finally merged. . Based on the ability to compensate the split transaction component. 7. For every data item. The m-degree relation can be used to define the amount of deviation allowed between clusters.
5. The semantic difference between two files is based on the time elapsed between the events of opening the files. it does not guarantee failure atomicity and only conditionally guarantees permanence. but instead interfaces with Coda (and other replicated systems) to do the hoarding. At the re-processing stage. Periodically. are merged with base transactions’ histories. 7. application semantics are used (such as finding commutative operations) to increase concurrency. Coda provides Isolation-only Transactions (IOT)  to automatically detect read/write conflicts that could occur during disconnection. A proxy logs all updates to the file system during disconnection and replays the log on reconnection. . To reduce re-processing costs that can be high in certain occasions. Hoarding is based on user-provided. It operates without user intervention by observing user activities and predicting future needs. tentative transactions are applied to (re-processed at) the master data copy in the fixed network.5. The merging process quickly identifies the set of tentative transactions that need to be backed out to resolve conflicts. On connection. the work in  uses a history-based approach. and on how many reference to other files occurs in between. tentative transactions. On reconnection. which are represented as histories.5 The Two-tier Transaction Model A two-tier replication scheme has been proposed in  whereby mobile disconnected applications are allowed to propose tentative update transactions. the proxy walks the cache to ensure that the highest priority files are present and consistent with the server. Automatic mechanisms for conflict resolution are provided for directories and files through the proxy and the file server. SEER does not actually hoard files. It defines and uses a measure called “semantic distance” between files to determine how best to cluster files together in preparation for hoarding. prioritized list of files.Research in Wireless and Mobile Computing 129 7. The SEER hoarding system  developed at UCLA is based on the Coda file system. SEER also detects hoard misses during disconnection. Unlike traditional transactions.4 Isolation-Only Transactions The Coda file system  at CMU provides an application-transparent file system for mobile clients by using file hoarding and optimistic concurrency control.
130 C HAPTER 7 7. Commutativity of operations is an important property which allows concurrent operations on an object. The I/O values of the operations can be used to redefine serial dependencies of the operations. The split is done using a selection criteria and a set of consistency conditions. These fragments are cached and/or operated upon by the mobile hosts and later merged back to form a whole object. then the objects are termed “reorderable” objects. On completion of the transaction. 84] can be used to specify allowable inconsistencies in the system. sets. If certain operations on an object is commutative. If the fragments can be recombined in any order. . Aggregate items. These fragments are put together again by the merge operation at the server. it may require complex recovery mechanisms than normal schemes. necessary for continuing the operation during the disconnected state. Operations may be commutative either for all states or part of the states of the objects. This approach reduces the demand on the limited wireless bandwidth and provides better utilization of the cache space available on the mobile host. The objects are fragmented by a split operation. It introduces the concepts of fragmentable and reorderable objects to maximize concurrency and cache efficiency exploiting semantics of object operations. The consistency conditions include the set of allowable operations on the object and the conditions of the possible object states.5. The semantic information is utilized to obtain better granularity in caching and concurrency. Recovery also becomes quite simplified. then the database server can schedule these operations in an arbitrary manner. the mobile hosts return the fragments to the server. Though this may improve concurrency. Application semantics can also be utilized to define the “degree of inconsistency. 32].” “degree of isolation. A stationary server sends out the fragments of an object when requested by mobile units. The model assumes the mobile transaction to be long-lived with unpredictable disconnections. and data structures like stacks and queues are examples of fragmentable objects. Traditional definitions of concurrency and serializability is too restrictive for most operations . This approach utilizes the object organization to split large and complex objects into smaller easily manageable pieces. Techniques like epsilon serializability and quasi copies [23. Organization of the object can be used for selective caching of the object fragments.6 Semantic-based Nomadic Transaction Processing The semantics-based mobile transaction processing scheme  views mobile transactions as a concurrency and cache coherence problem.” and the “degree of transaction autonomy” [41.
on the other hand. new models in the mobile environment are needed to support information access for mobile users. The disadvantages of this model are listed below: . is made transparent by handling the variable client/server location through location-based routing in the network layer. The difference also stems from the nature of the wireless links that are relatively unreliable and offer low communication bandwidth. the client (server) is ported to the mobile host. Mobile IP is an example of a network protocol that hides the C/S mobility. mobile hosts equipped with rechargeable batteries suffer from limited operation time constraints.1 The Client/Server Model In this model. neither the client nor the server are aware of the client (or server) mobility. The client or the server need not be changed in any way. The conventional client/server model is used without any modifications made in the application or the transport layer. The following models of computing in the mobile environment are currently being researched and investigated: Client/Server Client/Proxy/Server Disconnected Operation Mobile Agents The Thin Client Model In the following. Furthermore. This is partially due to the movement of the mobile hosts that require to remain connected from different access points while moving. The advantage of this model is its portability. 7.Research in Wireless and Mobile Computing 131 7. each model is described and its advantages and disadvantages are discussed. with a fixed address specified for the server (on the fixed network or on a mobile host). The wireless media is transparent since it is handled in the data link layer. Simply.6 MOBILE COMPUTING MODELS Computing in the mobile environment is different from the conventional fixednetwork computing. As a consequence. The mobility.6.
6. which is to split the communication path between the client and the server into two parts by using a store-and-forward interceptor. a mobile host that does not have audio capability will benefit from audio file removal filtering. The proxy filters the results according to the limitations of the wireless media and/or the client’s mobile unit. 7. a C/P/S network architecture for reliable communication is introduced in the Mowgli architecture . The programming of the proxy involves knowledge of the mobile host hardware specifications. The server caching strategy may not work properly in this model because the majority of the fixed network caching algorithms use call backs to invalidate the client cache. The proxy assumes that the client is mobile and the server is in the fixed network. Since the client could be disconnected or temporarily inaccessible (during hand-offs for example). In this architecture. audio file removal. Examples of data filtering include: color and resolution reduction. the mobile host is provided with a specialized transport service. Most invalidation algorithms rely on the continuous availability of the client. The basic idea behind this model was introduced in the Mowgli architecture . The proxy may also store the filtered results until the client is connected. In support of the C/P/S computing model. Two media- . For example. In addition to the mobile host. The main advantage of this model is that the proxy allows the client and the server to be designed without any built-in mobility assumptions. The result from the server is sent back to the proxy. the mobile user profile can be useful in providing the proxy with user preferences such as no-images and no-colors.132 C HAPTER 7 The mobile client may suffer from a slow and unpredictable response time. the client/proxy/server (C/P/S) model introduces a mobility-aware middle layer to mediate the interactions between the client and the server. the Mowgli Data Channel Service (MDCS). It provides prioritized data channels with flow control between the mobile host and the base station.2 The Client/Proxy/Server Model To overcome the shortcomings of the conventional client/server model. the cache invalidation process could fail. Existing TCP/IP protocols are used between the base station and a fixed host so that the protocol software in the fixed network remains unmodified. especially when large server replies such as query results are transmitted without any considerations to the limited wireless bandwidth. and file size reduction.
which reside at each end of the wireless link.Research in Wireless and Mobile Computing 133 tors. A mobile agent could either be relocated along with the user. It allows radio silence to be maintained. The mobile agent is an emerging new model that provides an alternative to the C/P/S model. Voluntary disconnection can be treated as planned failures which can be anticipated and prepared. are used to provide functionality similar to that of TCP and UDP. A static agent could be carrying out some activity like mail filter- ing.6. Disconnected operations is a variation of the C/S model where. either as a client or as a server.6. The mobility of agents raises a large number of issues like security. access mechanisms. authorization mechanisms. it is a viable fallback position when network characteristics degrade beyond usability. Static agents are those which execute just on a single site. or python scripts can be classified as mobile scripts. The operations that enable a client to continue accessing critical data during the disconnection (switch off) period are called disconnected operations. A mobile agent is an active entity that is knowledgeable of both the limitations of the mobile environment and the mobile user. The ability to operate when disconnected can be useful even when connectivity is available. a vital capability in military applications. mobile scripts. instead of working under the extreme case of weak-connectivity. Mobile scripts are those that are downloaded from a server and executed on a client. Java applets. and relocation mechanisms. For example. the mobile user sends a mobile agent on his behalf to the data source in the fixed network. the mobile client effectively switches to use a network of zero bandwidth and infinite latency. perl. To access remote data.3 The Disconnected Operation Model Mobile clients may face wide variations in network conditions and local resource availability when accessing remote data. And. This is true in the C/S and the C/P/S models. 7.4 The Mobile Agent Model Agents can be classified as static. The relocation of the agent involves saving the state before initiating relocation and later restarting the mobile agent at the new location. the Mowgli Agent and the Mowgli Proxy. 7. The mobile agent is an execution context . or mobile objects . or it could be relocated during the execution of the agent. disconnected operation can extend battery life by avoiding wireless transmission and reception. Mobile agents are mobile scripts with an associated execution state information.
Once the C/S interactions between the mobile agent and the server are completed.6.5 The Thin Client Model The thin client computing model attempts to offload most application logic and functionality from mobile clients to stationary servers.8. The mobile agent paradigm is depicted in Figure 7. In this model. 7. applications in stationary servers are usually mobile-aware and optimized for mobile client devices. Such targeting includes filtering and transcoding actions such as color depth and resolution reduction and compression. . Once the agent moves to the data source (server). it acts as a local client to the server.134 C HAPTER 7 initially loaded with the queries or data access requests. the agent “targets” the resulting data in preparation for transmitting the result to the mobile user. This model is especially suitable for dumb terminal or small PDA applications.
The work pointed out that bandwidth limitation is not as detrimental to the thin client performance as network latency. regardless of their platform. This is because the thin clients’ use of bandwidth is limited. They also collaborate to process mouse and keyboard events and to execute programs and view data stored at the server. to connect to a Windows NT terminal server to remotely access a powerful desktop and its applications . . All executions are remote and none take place at the client portable computer.Research in Wireless and Mobile Computing 135 The thin client architecture from CITRIX Corporation allows a variety of remote computers. The research work described in  examines extensions to CITRIX thin client architecture so that it is optimized in the wireless environment. The ICA client and the MetaFrame server collaborate to display the virtual desktop on the remote computer screen. A server called MetaFrame runs under Windows NT in the desktop machine and communicates with the thin clients executing at the remote computers using the Independent Computing Architecture protocol (ICA).
This page intentionally left blank .
Used to establish communications between computers and devices at start up time BS BSC BTS Base Station. IS-95”.APPENDIX–A: GLOSSARY OF COMMON ABBREVIATIONS AAAAAAA ACTS The American Association for the Abolishment of Abused Abbreviations and Asinine Acronyms :-) Advanced Communications Technologies and Services. a digital spread-spectrum system initially developed by QUALCOMM Inc. CDMA is also referred to as “Cellular. A research organization 50% funded by the European Economic Commission Air Link Interface ADSL AMPS ARDIS Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line Advanced Mobile Phone System Advanced Radio Data Information Service ATIS ATM See Appendix–C Asynchronous Transfer Mode BER BOOTP Bit Error Rate Bootstrap Protocol. Also known as Base Station Controller (in GSM) Base Station Controller (in GSM) Base Transceiver Station (in GSM) CDMA Code Division Multiple Access. and standardized by the Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA). An air link interface coding scheme wherein multiple subscribers are granted access to the same radio frequency source by assigning subscribers transmit and receive signals a spectrum spreading code. . Also known as Mobility Support Station or (MSS).
Similar to the Internet UDP datagram protocol. A proposed system to extend TDMA. a trade association of carriers equipment suppliers and application developers. It uses datagrams that include addressing information for routing network messages. It makes use of 30 KHz wide channels.138 CDPD Cellular Digital Packet Data is a connectionless network proposed by the CDPD Forum. CDPD transmits packet data over free (unused) channels in existing AMPS cellular radio CDPD Forum See Appendix–C CLNP Connectionless Network Protocol. DCT DECT Digital Cordless Telephone Digital European Cordless Telecommunications (Standard) DECT Forum See Appendix–C DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. CMRS CTIA DARPA Commercial Mobile Radio Services spectrum as defined by the FCC. and its international equivalents See Appendix–C Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency DCE Data Communication Equipment (in Motorola iDEN). but allows up to six time multiplexed users per channel with vocoder rate of 4 kbits/s ETSI FCC See Appendix–C See Appendix–C . or Mobile Unit Extended Time Division Multiple Access. An OSI protocol used for the delivery of data. It is based on early IETF Mobile-IP work. A device or attachment to a DTE (See below) that is responsible for communication. An IETF protocol DTE E-TDMA Data Terminal Equipment (in Motorola iDEN). Also known as Mobile Equipment (in GSM).
Ranges from 45 to 210 MHz International Mobile Telecommunications by the year 2000 project.Research in Wireless and Mobile Computing 139 GPRS General Packet Radio Service. Related to IR is IrDA which is protocol adopted for infrared communication between portables without wires over distances as long as one meter. and CLNP. GPRS mobility management uses mobility agents (home and foreign) similar to Mobile-IP GPS GSM Global Positioning System. operates at 4 Mbps speed See Appendix–C IrDA ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network . for example. Under the subgroup IMT (International Mobile Telecom munications) in the ITU that plans to facilitate cooperation in deciding global wireless access for the 21st century IR Infra-Red communication.25.1 spec.11 See W-LAN IETF IF IMT 2000 See Appendix–C Intermediate Frequency. Similar to TDMA except that it uses 200 KHz wide channels with eight users per channel and has a vocoder rate of 13 kbits/s. A GSM packet data service developed by ETSI as part of GSM phase 2+ developments. It is the first digital cellular system to be used commercially and has been adopted in Europe and many Pacific rim countries HLR Home Location Register HTTP ICMP HyperText Transfer Protocol Internet Control Message Protocol. A packet based network for voice and data IEC See Appendix–C IEEE 802. X. A US government satellite system that provides location and time information to users Global System for Mobile communications (Actually: “Groupe Speciale Mobile”). The IrDA 1. Used to ping Internet computers to test their reachability across the networks iDEN Motorola’s Integrated Digital Enhanced Network. It supports mobile connections to multiple networks including TCP/IP.
An analog cellular telephone system currently used in North America NAMPS NMT OSI Nordic Mobile Telephone Open Systems Interconnection. PCMCIA Today. This includes memory. Also known as PC card . PCMCIA refers to a credit-card sized. generally within several hundred Kilometers above the earth’s surface and usually inclined to the equatorial plane. Macro Cell A unit of communication coverage in cellular networks. ACTS is currently active in MBS research Mobile Equipment (in GSM). Also known as Mobile Unit (MU) ME MEMS Micro Cell Micro-Electro Mechanical System A unit of communication coverage in cellular networks. Any orbit around the earth below the geostationary satellite orbit. An ISO (see Appendix–C) standard of a Reference Model for how messages should be transmitted between any two points in a telecommunication network Personal Computer Memory Card International Association. I/O and hard disks. usually in the order of 500-1500 meters MSS Mobile Satellite Service. A service that links mobile earth stations with base stations and with one another via one or more satellite. usually in the order of 5-15 Kilometer in diameter MBS Mobile Broadband Systems. The same abbreviation is used to denote Mobile Support Stations which is also known as Base Stations (See BS) Narrowband Advanced Mobile Phone Service. removable module that has become the expansion vehicle for portable com- puters. Experimental high bandwidth wireless communication with provision for mobility.140 ITU JDC See Appendix–C Japan Digital Cellular JTACS LEO Japanese Total Access Communication System. A narrow band analog FM follow-on to the TACS system used in Japan Low Earth Orbit.
A smart card technology that stores the subscriber identity information. Also known as second generation cellular system. Frequency of the transmitted/received signal. in North America Personal Communication Systems Personal Digital Assistant. For some cellular telephones in the US this is in the range from 800 to 900 MHz Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line SDSL SIM Subscriber Identity Module. subscribers can change cell phones and other devices and yet obtain the same services. A standard language for querying and manipulating relational databases See Appendix–C . A class of PIAs. A serial line version of the TCP/IP protocol. usually on the order of 5-100 meters PPP PSTN Point to Point Protocol. Structured Query Language. SMS SQL T1P1 Short Messaging Service. Public Switched Telephone Network. One of the seven “baby Bells” caused by the 1984 divestiture of AT&T Radio Frequency. European equivalent of North America’s PCS (See PCS). By using SIMs. A measure of guarantees that can be made in meeting certain performance requirements Regional Bell Operating Company. PCS PDA PDC Personal Digital Cellular (Japan) PHS PIA Pico Cell Personal Handy Phone System (Japan) Personal Information Appliance A unit of communication coverage in cellular networks. QoS RBOC RF Quality of Service. An extension of paging services.Research in Wireless and Mobile Computing 141 PCN Personal Communications Network.
by the Europeans.142 TACS Total Access Communication System. of the IMT-2000 standard See Appendix–C UMTS Terrestial Radio Access Very high rate Digital Subscriber Line USTA UTRA VDSL VLR W-ATM W-CDMA W-LAN Visitor Location Register Wireless Asynchronous Transfer Mode network Wideband Code Division Multiple Access Wireless Local Area Network. Method wherein multiple subscribers are granted access to the same radio frequency source by limiting subscribers transmit and receive signals to time slots. Developed by the WAP Forum . An Analog FM communication system used in the United Kingdom and Japan. UMTS is the first implementation. A ISO/OSI protocol stack for use by digital phones and other wireless devices to access the Internet.11 is a recent (1998) standard that guarantees interoperability of W-LAN products from different vendors W-TDMA WAP Wideband Time Division Multiple Access Wireless Application Protocol. Such as wait calling. a committee in ETSI. TDMA is also referred to as the first digital cellular FM system standardized in North America. The IEEE 802. but three users are time-multiplexed on each channel. and conference calling See Appendix–C UMTS Universal Mobile Telecommunications System is a project under the SMG (Special Mobile Groupe). The vocoder rate is 8 Kbits/s TeleVAS TIA Telephony Value Added Services. It makes use of 30 kHz wide channels. Code Division Multiple Access Time Division Multiple Access. A wireless extension to wireline intranets. W-LANs do not require licenses and must meet regulatory requirements such as maximum transmission power. call forwarding. It uses 25 KHz wide channels and signaling is superaudio TD-CDMA TDMA Time Division.
WAP based Wireless Markup Language).Research in Wireless and Mobile Computing 143 WAP Forum See Appendix–C WDF Forum See Appendix–C WSP Wireless Service Provider. iDEN). CDPD. and information feed services. . GSM. An emerging Internet service that caters to subscribers with wireless interfaces (e.g.g. WSP will provide Internet access plus added value services such as Web content filtering and transcoding (e.
This page intentionally left blank .
Tx: 871-904 NTACS: Rx: 860-870. NMT-900: 12.5 kHz Modulation: FM Channel Bit Rate: n/a AMPS-Advanced Mobile Phone Service Mobile Frequency Range (MHz): Rx: 869-894.APPENDIX–B: WIRELESS CELLULAR SYSTEMS Analog Cellular Technology NMT-Nordic Mobile Telephone Mobile Frequency Range (MHz): NMT-450: Rx: 463-468. Tx: 915-925 Multiple Access Method: FDMA Duplex Method: FDD Number of Channels: ETACS: 1240. Tx: 824-849 Multiple Access Method: FDMA Duplex Method: FDD Number of Channels: 832 Channel Spacing: 30 kHz Modulation: FM Channel Bit Rate: n/a TACS-Total Access Communication System Mobile Frequency Range (MHz): ETACS: Rx: 916-949. Tx: 890-915 Multiple Access Method: FDMA Duplex Method: FDD Number of Channels: NMT-450: 200. Tx: 453-458 NMT-900: Rx: 935-960. NTACS: 400 . NMT-900: 1999 Channel Spacing: NMT-450: 25kHz.
Taiwan. Korea.). NTACS: 12.20. 20 or 25 Channel Spacing: 1.146 Channel Spacing: ETACS: 25 kHz. S.7.5 kHz Modulation: FM Channel Bit Rate: n/a CT1/CT1+ Cordless Telephone 1 Mobile Frequency Range (MHz): CTI: 914/960. 26/41 (France). Spain). CTI+: 80 Channel Spacing: 25 kHz Modulation: FM Channel Bit Rate: n/a .K.25 or 40 kHz Modulation: FM Channel Bit Rate: n/a JCT-Japanese Cordless Telephone Mobile Frequency Range (MHz): 254/380 Multiple Access Method: FDMA Duplex Method: FDD Number of Channels: 89 Channel Spacing: 12. 46/49 (China. 31/40 (Netherlands. 48/74. 45/48 (China) Multiple Access Method: FDMA Duplex Method: FDD Number of Channels: 10.5kHz Modulation: FM Channel Bit Rate: n/a Analog Cordless Technology CTO-Cordless Telephone O Mobile Frequency Range (MHz): 2/48 (U. CTI+: 80 Multiple Access Method: FDMA Duplex Method: FDD Number of Channels: CTI: 40. 30/39 (Australia). 12. 15. USA).
Tx: 824-849 Multiple Access Method: CDMA/FDM Duplex Method: FDD Number of Channels: 20 (798 users/channel) Channel Spacing: 1250 kHz Modulation: QPSK/OQPSK Channel Bit Rate: 1.Research in Wireless and Mobile Computing 147 Digital Cellular Technology DCS 1800 Mobile Frequency Range (MHz): Rx: 1805-1880. Tx: 824-849 Multiple Access Method: TDMA/FDM Duplex Method: FDD Number of Channels: 832 (3 users/channel) Channel Spacing: 30 kHz Modulation: 1/4 DQPSK Channel Bit Rate: 48.6 kb/s IS-95: North American Digital Cellular Mobile Frequency Range (MHz): Rx: 869-894.3 Gaussian Filter) Channel Bit Rate: 270.833 kb/s PDC-Personal Digital Cellular Mobile Frequency Range (MHz): Rx: 810-826. Tx: 940-956 Rx: 1429-1453.2288 kb/s . Tx: 1710-1785 Multiple Access Method: TDMA/FDM Duplex Method: FDD Number of Channels: 374 (8 users/channel) Channel Spacing: 200 kHz Modulation: GMSK (0. Tx: 1477-1501 Multiple Access Method: TDMA/FDM Duplex Method: FDD Number of Channels: 1600 (3 users/channel) Channel Spacing: 25 kHz Modulation: 1/4 DQPSK Channel Bit Rate: 42 kb/s IS-54/-136 North American Digital Cellular Mobile Frequency Range (MHz): Rx: 869-894.
CT2+: 944/948 Multiple Access Method: TDMA/FDM Duplex Method: TDD Number of Channels: 40 Channel Spacing: 100 kHz Modulation: GFSK (0.3 Gaussian Filter) Channel Bit Rate: 270.833 kb/s Law-tier PCS: Personal Communications Systems Mobile Frequency Range (MHz): Rx: 1930-1990. Tx: 880-915 Multiple Access Method: TDMA/FDM Duplex Method: FDD Number of Channels: 124 (8 users/channel) Channel Spacing: 200 kHz Modulation: GMSK (0. Tx: 1850-1910 Multiple Access Method: – PCS TDMA (based on IS-136 cellular) – PCS CDMA (based on IS-95 cellular) – PCS 1900 (based on GSN cellular) – Wideband CDMA Digital Cordless Technology CT2/CT2+ Cordless Telephone 2 Mobile Frequency Range (MHz): CT2: 864/868.148 GSM: Global System for Mobile Communications Mobile Frequency Range (MHz): Rx: 925-960.5 Gaussian Filter) Channel Bit Rate: 72 kb/s . Tx: 1850-1910 Multiple Access Method: – PACS (based on PHS cordless) – DCT-U (based on DECT cordless) – Composite CDMA/TDMA High-tier PCS: Personal Communications Systems Mobile Frequency Range (MHz): Rx: 1930-1990.
5 Gaussian Filter) Channel Bit Rate: 1.728 MHz Modulation: GFSK (0.152 Mb/s Wireless Data Technology CDPD: Cellular Digital Packet Data Mobile Frequency Range (MHz): Rx: 869-894. Tx: 824-849 Multiple Access Method: FDMA Duplex Method: FDD Number of Channels: 832 (4 users/channel) Channel Spacing: 30 kHz Modulation: GMSK (0.3 Gaussian Filter) Channel Bit Rate: 8 kb/s . Tx: 896-902 (Europe/Asia): 403-470 Multiple Access Method: TDMA/FDM Duplex Method: FDD Number of Channels: 480 Channel Spacing: 12.5 kHz Modulation: GMSK (0.Research in Wireless and Mobile Computing 149 PHS-Personal Handy Phone System Mobile Frequency Range (MHz): 1895-1918 Multiple Access Method: TDMA/FDM Duplex Method: TDD Number of Channels: 300 (4 users/channel) Channel Spacing: 300 kHz Modulation: 1/4 DQPSK Channel Bit Rate: 384 kb/s DECT-Digital European Cordless Telephone Mobile Frequency Range (MHz): 1880-1900 Multiple Access Method: TDMA/FDM Duplex Method: TDD Number of Channels: 10 (12 users/channel) Channel Spacing: 1.2 kb/s RAM-Mobitex Mobile Frequency Range (MHz): (North America): Rx: 935-941.5 Gaussian Filter) Channel Bit Rate: 19.
This page intentionally left blank .
cdpd. and mobile application developers.com Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions (formerly Exchange Carriers Standards Association).org Cellular Digital Packet Data Forum is a trade association of carriers. ATIS – http://www. low-cost. equipment suppliers.ansi. As of May 1998.APPENDIX–C: STANDARDS ORGANIZATIONS ANSI – http://www.com Bluetooth is a technology specification for small form factor. BlueTooth – http://www. The Bluetooth Special Interest Group is an industry group consisting of leaders in the telecommunications and computing industries that are driving development of the technology and bringing it to the market.org/ American National Standards Institute is the primary organization for fostering the development of technology standards in the United States. .bluetooth. Houses Tl standards committees on wireless and switching interfaces to telephone exchange systems. the CDPD Forum will be expanded into the Wireless Data Forum (See WDF). CDPD Forum – http://www. Many projects are done jointly with TIA. member of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). mobile phones and other portable devices.atis. ANSI works with industry groups and is the U. short range radio links between mobile PCs.S.
Writes and administers rules governing wire and radio/television communication in the USA. ETSI – http://www. DECT Forum – http://www.wow-com.etsi. IEEE – http://www. FCC – http://www. Global Engineering Documents – http://global.ieee.ihs. DECT.152 CTIA – http://www.x LAN standards. The North American versions use DQPSK modulation.com Formerly Indian Head Systems.fr European Telecommunication Standards Institute. while the European version uses digital GMSK FM. Publishes the standards which are successors to the former CCITT standards. also known as Digital European CT and DCT or PWT in the North American versions. and and other wireless/cellular standards. Publishes the 802. . Represents the Cellular and PCS system operators/license holders in the USA.com Cellular Telecommunications Industry Association. Administers GSM. Franchised distributor of TIA standards documents and other selected standards documents.dect.gov United States Federal Communications Commission.org Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.ch Digital Enhanced Cordless Telephone system.fcc.
IrDA – http://www. ISO is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies from some 100 countries.ch International Telecommunication Union.org Infrared Data Association.ch International Organization of Standards. The architecture is intended to be used to discover .ietf.iso.iec. An international organization within which governments and the private sector coordinate global telecommunication networks and services. vendors. one from each country. IETF – http://www.itu.Research in Wireless and Mobile Computing 153 IEC – http://www.org Internet Engineering Task Force. IrDA is an association of over 160 companies world wide focused on providing IR standards to ensure the quality and interoperability of the Infrared Technology. Publishes standards mainly devoted to electrical and optical fiber connectors and power systems and graphic standards for diagrams and labeling. An open international community of network designers. operators. Among the standards it fosters is Open Systems Interconnection (OSI). ITU – http://www. ISO – http://www. The Salutation Consortium – http://www.irda. a reference model for communication protocol. and researchers concerned with the evolution and improvement of the Internet.salutation.ch International Electrotechnical Commission.org Salutation is a non-profit organization defining an architecture for “find and bind” mobile environment.
WAP Forum – http://www. and internet content providers. A non-for-profit organization with members from terminal (phones and PDA) and infrastructure manufacturers. USTA – http://www. TelCordia (ex.wapforum. Telephone Association (formerly US Independent Telephone Association). carriers. PBX equipment. Affiliated with TIA.org U. operators. Issues many wireless standards jointly with TIA. TIA – http://www. Issues TR (technical reference) and TA (technical advisory) standards for the North American public telephone industry. The goal of the WAP Forum is to develop a wireless protocol specification that works across differing wireless network technology types. under different connectivity and mobility conditions.S. Bellcore) – http://www.itsa.org Telecommunications Industry Association. for adoption by appropriate industry standards bodies.org Planning committee of ATIS.tl.usta. wireless software developers. T1P1 – http://www. etc. Split off from Bell Laboratories in 1984.com Bell Communications Research.org The Wireless Application Protocol Forum.) and cellular/PCS systems. The architecture will lead to creating open servers for mobile client. Represents the telephone industry.154 services and capabilities among a diverse set of mobile information appliances. Issues standards on consumer end telecom equipment (telephone sets. Recently sold to Science Applications International Corp (SAIC).bellcore. .
cdpd. and the information technology industry.Research in Wireless and Mobile Computing 155 WDF Forum – http://www. the telecommunications industry.org Wireless Data Forum (previously the CDPD Forum) is a nonprofit organization formed to promote the benefits of wireless data products and services to end-user communities. the media. .
This page intentionally left blank .
charters/mobileip-charter. .bluetooth.ibm.hil.htm.org/html.  Phs wristwatch phone.html.com.cmu.  Mobile network computer white http://www. http://www.  Bluetooth.  IP in IP tunneling (RFC 1853).html.com/getsmart/sdp/tpo.html.ietf.html.com/networkstation/os/whitepaper.ietf. http://www. paper. http://www.charters/mobileip-charter. draft.org/html.html.  The citrix thin client architecture.ietf.mit. http://www.edu/ chien/Courses/E6950/comparison.  The IETF working group on IP routing for wireless/mobile hosts (MobilelP).charters/mobileip-charter. http://www.ietf.org/public/pubs/catalog/c720. project.ntt.opengroup.  Cmu wearable computer project.infowin.citrix.html.charters/mobileip-charter.org/html.ctr.de.html.media.jp/Speech/PHS/indexdraft.  Comparison of mobile ip and cdpd.  Bbn’s bodylan.cs.columbia. http://www.REFERENCES  Acts 1997 programme guide.org/ACTS/.edu/projects/wearables/.  Network Computer Reference Profile (MNCRF) Standard.  Mit wearable computing http://lcs.pc.  Mobility support in IPv6: Internet http://www.com.htm. http://www.org/html. http://www.html.edu/afs/cs/project/vuman/www/home. http://www.bbn.co. http://www.www.  Route optimization in Mobile IP: Internet http://www. E.
 H.htm. E. IEEE. R. In First ACM International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (MobiCom). Franklin. In Proceedings of the 1996 USENIX Conference.com/englilsh. ISO DP 10589. October 96. 1995. S. Improving TCP/IP performance over wireless networks. http://ruputer. A NYWHERE C OMPUTING  Seiko’s wristwatch pc. chapter 8.fr/.  R. December 97. Baker. Indirect Transport Layer protocols For Mobile Wireless Environment.  J. Supporting mobility in mosquitonet.  M. Bakre and B. Cova. January 1996. November 1995.  S.  Personal handy phone system. editors. Katz.toshiba.jp/tech/review/1998/high98/research/r2/index.  Mission statement and IMT 2000 specifications. X. ARIB (Association of Radio Industries and Businesses) Standard V2 RCR STD-28. . San Diego. Bartlett. CA. Amir.etsi. Zhao. S.  Intermediate system to intermediate system intra-domain routing exchange protocol for use in conjunction with the protocol for providing the connectionless-mode network service. Alonso. 1996. In Proceedings of the 9th Symposium on Reliable Distributed Systems. and J. February 90. In T. Badrinath. http://www. pages 229–252. December 95.  A. Seshan. Kluwer Academic Publishers. L. Balakrishnan. W4–the wireless world wide web. December 1994. October 1990. In Workshop on Mobile Computing and Applications. Using stashing to increase node autonomy in distributed file systems. Zdonik. CA. Alonso. Barbara. Korth. Imielinski and H. (ISO 8473).ch/. Broadcast disks: Data management for asymmetric communications environments.  Ip mobility support. http://www. In Proceedings of the ACM SIGMOD Conference on Management of Data. IETF RFC 2002.co. http://www. M. Stone. San Jose.itu. Mobile Computing. Cheshire. and R.  Mission statement and UMTS project specifications. D. and S. Acharya.158 A NY T IME . and L.  Toshiba’s desk area network (dan). December 97.
http://www. ACTA. Oct 1993. Fudge. Terry. Friday. The BAYOU architecture: Support for data sharing among mobile users. In Workshop on Mobile Computing and Applications. Spreitzer. Supporting adaptive services in a heterogeneous mobile environment. Theimer.  A.References 159  S. A. October 1998. rfc 1541 edition.  Fumio Teraoka Kim Claffy and Mario Tokoro. DIKU. 1996. In IEEE workshop on Advances in Parallel and distributed Systems. I. In Workshop on Mobile Computing and Applications. R. Drooms. and D. Chrysanthis. California. Dunham. pages 170– 177. A distance routing effect algorithm for mobility (dream). and B.com/bell-atlantic/index. D. Santa Cruz. A.  R. Chlamtac. R. and A. In Fourth Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (MobiCom). Cheverst. and S. K. University of Massachusetts. October 1997. Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. Design. Woodward.  K.  P.  P. Mobile Computing. M.  M. June 1992. Basagni. 1995. PhD thesis. A Framework for Modeling and Reasoning about Extended Transactions.  N. December 1994. Amherst. pages 207–228. M. volume Proceedings of 12th International Conference on Distributed Computing SYstems. Intelligent network (in) tutorial.  R. Iftode. Chrysanthis. Syrotiuk. D. December 1994.  Bellcore. IEEE Personal Communications. ACM-Baltzer Jounal on Mobile Networks and Applications (MONET). G. implementation and evaluation od virtual internet protocol. Buchanan. Welch. IMT-2000: Service provider’s perspective. Imielinski and H. Improving the Performance of Reliable Transport Protocols in Mobile Computing Environments. V. . In T. IEEE Computer Soceity. chapter 7. Davies. Transaction processing in mobile computing environment.webproforum. Helal. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Demers. Caceres and L. editors. 1991.html. and B. K. 2(2):149–162. A mobile transaction model that captures both the data and movement behaviour. Korth. August 97. PhD thesis. Balakrishnan. pages 77–82. Petersen. Transactions in Mobile Computing. Blair.  Nielsen J. 1999. McFarlane.
Intelligent agent strategy. Bharat. Technical report. P.  J. Gray. pages 173–182. Extensions to ANSAware for advanced mobile applications. al. In The Second European Personal Mobile Communications Conference. In Proceedings of the ACM SIGMOD international conference on Management of data. Gilmore. 1991. Evaggelia and B. editors. Zahorjan. Blair. Evaggelia and B. IEEE Press. pages 164–168. O’Neil. CRC Press.. Bonn. February 1999.  D. Panos.  A. Forman and J.  P.  V. Boot Strap Protocol. editor. Gibson. In First IEEE Workshop on Mobile Computing Systems and Applications. 1995.  W. Bharat. U. Laubach. K. IBM Corporation. Maintaining consistency of data in mobile distributed environments. In Proceedings of the 14th IEEE Symposium on Reliable Distributed Systems. Technical report. In Proceedings of the IEEE International Performance.K. 1995. AZ. Shasha. and D. G. 1996. In 15th International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems. 96.160 ANY TIME. Duran and A. Germany. Friday. 27(4):38–47. Research Triangle Park. . Dec 1994. April 1994. and N. Database Transaction Models For Advanced Applications.  Thomas Frey. June 1996.  A. Revising transaction concepts for mobile computing. Phoenix. Gilbert et. September 97. Wilkes. and Computing Conferenc (IPCCC’99).  J. 1996. Davies. Morgan Kaufman. rfc 1541 edition.. The dangers of replication and a solution.  G. Supporting semantics-based transaction processing in mobile database applications. Gary and C. Elmagarmid. Wireless and Personal Communication Systems. The Mobile Communications Handbook. Communication.  P. Prentice Hall PTR. Performance of adaptive antenna arrays for cellular cdma systems.  J. Helland. IEEE Computer. Department of Computing. Virtual personal computers and the portable network. Sept 1995. NC. P. Cheverst. ANYWHERE COMPUTING  J. Lancaster. Lancaster University. Garg and J. The challenges of mobile computing.
 A. Carnegie Mellon University. Korth. R. IEEE Communications Magazine. IEEE Transactions on Computers: Special issue on Mobile Computing. Kaashoek. Dynamic source routing in ad-hoc wireless networks.References 161  L. chap- ter 5. J. Kluwer Academic Publishers. In T. Hedrick. 3(1). APDG Publishing. Cellular and PCS/PCN Telephones and Systems. S. 43(3). 1997. Tauber. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Maguire. Maltz.  D. October 1995. Mobile Computing. Mobile computing with the rover toolkit. Tan. Joshi. 1996. 1996. 1991.  A. and Jr G. Shah.  David B. G. Cellular and PCS/PCN Telephones and Systems. Kruys.  D. The routing information protocol. Weerasinghe. Technical report. SIGCOMM. February 1996. Mc. Duchamp. Maltz. Honcharenko. 8(1). Housel and D.  W. Wireless Networks. IEEE Personal Communications. School Of Computer Science. Broadband wireless access. Weerawarana. Imielinski and H. Ioannidis. January 97. Webexpress: A system for optimizing web browsing in a wireless environment. 1996. D. APDG Publishing. Protocols for adaptive wireless and mobile networking. pages 235–245. Johnson and D. and N. Lee. Feb 1993. Joseph. 1996. Bulletin of the Technical Committee on Operating Systems and Applications. Prokup. June 88.Dermott. Bernhardt. 1996.  Lawrence Harte and Steve Prokup. Johnson. Mowser: Mobile platforms and web browsers.  C. Internet RFC 1058. Harte and S. In Second Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (MobiCom’96). ISBN 0-9650658-1-2. D.  T. November 1996.  J. Scalable support for transparent mobile host internetworking. Johnson. editors. Mobile host internetworking using ip loose source routing. pages 153–179. Mobile Computing. Lindquist.  B. and S. B. Imielinski and H. Korth. and M. J. . Ip-based protocols for mobile internetworking. Johnson and D. 1:311–321.  D. editors.
Isolation-only transactions for mobile computing. 1997. Kaashoek. The case for wireless overlay networks. Satyanarayanan. October 1998. . and M. chapter 23. Pinckney. Kuenning and G. In Workshop on Mobile Computing and Applications. Kojo. Wireless NOW. 1995. In Proceedings of the Second USENIX Symposium on Mobile and Location-Independent Computing. June 1995. In IEEE 4th International Symposium on Spread Spectrum Techniques and Applications. IEEE Journal of Selected Areas in Communications. Tauber. Satyanaranyanan. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Dynamic documents: Mobile wireless access to the www. ANYWHERE COMPUTING  M. Automated hoarding for mobile computers.  G. Johnson. K. Imielinski and H. H. Raatikainen. Katz and E. 1994. Brewer.  Q. and C. Brewer.  R. Vaidya. D. and J. A programming interface for application-aware adaptation in mobile computing. Benefits of combined TDMA/CDMA operation for third generation mobile radio systems. editors. Third generation wireless standards to shape internet’s future.  B. Mainz. 28(2). August 96. Disconnected operation in the coda file system. November 1994. and T. Noble.  Y. The bay area research wireless access network (BARWAN). Germany. Perkins.  K. Popek. Mobile Computing. December 1994. 1992. ACM Transactions on Computer Systems.commnow. http://www. Myles. 1996. In Fourth Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (MobiCom). Satyanarayanan.  A.  J.com/3rd_Generation. In T. Katz and E. November 97. T. 13(5):839–849. Price. In Proceedings of the 16th ACM Symposium on Operating Systems Principles (SOSP).html. Livingston. Kistler and M. Location-aided routing (lar) in mobile ad hoc networks. B. Mobile host protocol supporting route optimization and authentication. In Mobidata Workshop. Korth. M. Alanko. Connecting mobile workstations to the internet over a digital cellular telephone network. ACM Operating Systems Review.162 ANY TIME.  M.  R. Kammerlander. pages 621–648.  G. Ko and N. December 1994. Lu and M. In Workshop on Mobile Computing and Applications.
 M. Jajodia P. Austin. Hybrid tdma/cdma multiple access protocol for multi-media communications. Mar 1980. PCS Edge.  K. and H.  C.internettelephony. Perkins. Singh. Texas. Ammann. Bershad. Wireless Networks. Postel.  M. Fundamental challenges of mobile computing. In Second Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (MobiCom). February 1999.  C. Loss profiles: A quality of service measure in mobile computing.  R. Addressing Mobile Hosts in ARPA Environment. Perkins and E.  K. Mobility support in ipv6. 1996. Nijhof. Ramamritham and C. 1995. February 1996.  C. Cakil. Satyanarayanan.  C. Put on your 3G glasses. Incorporating transaction semantics to reduce reprocessing overhead in replicated mobile data applications. 1998. Johnson.References 163  S.  G. Mobile-IP Design principles and Practices.  Mark Weiser. 265(3):94–104. Liu. Royer. September 1991. In Second IEEE Workshop on Mobile Computing Systems and Applications. February 96. The computer for the twenty-first century. Parker. In Proceedings of the 19th IEEE International Conference on Distributed Com- puting Systems. In Workshop on Mobile Computing and Applications.com. December 1994. 2:45–61. Note IEN 135. Perkins and D. Satyanarayanan. Voelker and B. A formal characterization of epsilon serializability. J. 1994. In ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing. In IEEE International Conference on Personal Wireless Communication. IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering. 3(1). Sunshine and J.  T. November 1996.  James Solomon. . Seal and S. Mobile information access. Pu. Prentice Hall Professional Technical Reference. http://www. Ad-hoc on-demand distance vector routing. Internet Engg. Mobisaic: An information system for a mobile wireless computing environment. IEEE Personal Communications. 1998. ISBN 0-13-856246-6. August 97. Scientific American. May 1999. P. Prasad. Addison-Wesley Wireless Communications Series. Mobile IP: The Internet Unplugged.
Bhagawat. Yavatkar and N. In Workshop on Mobile Computing and Applicationsr. December 1994. Improving end-to-end performance of tcp over mobile internetworks. . ANYWHERE COMPUTING  R.164 ANY TIME.
37 Home Agent. 101 Degree of Mobility.11. 59 Enhanced TDMA (ETDMA). 111 IDEN. 67. 119 MOWSER. 112 Foreign Agent. 60 MNCRF. 20 GSM. 15 Ericsson. 20. 20 Cellular Systems. 133 Frequency Reuse. 21 Access Point. 40 Fast Retransmission TCP. 13 Client Proxy. 26 MPEG 2. 15 GeOS. 20 MEMS. 105 HLR. 120 EPOCH. 55 BodyLAN. 22 Diffie-Hellamn Protocol. 86 Frequency Hopping. 114 BOOTP Protocol. 102. 102 Fourth generation wireless networks. 38 Communicator. 55 DHCP Protocol. 102 . 21 Direct Sequence. 107 Mobile IP. 22 Marco. 16 Dynamic URL. 15 Infrared. 45 Loose Source Routing. 106 Cellular Networks. 105 IPv6. 15. 53 Broadband services. 15 DAN. 112 Lucent. 72 ARDIS. 120 MPEG 1. 11 Ad-Hoc Mode. 93 Microsoft. 69 IMT-2000 spectrum assignment. 105 IS-136. 21 Clio. 21 BARWAN. 16 CDPD. 95 IMT 2000. 127 LEO. 21 Mobile Agents. 109 DirecPC. 19. 11 Ear Phone. 102 I-TCP. 101 BIueTooth. 11 MobiTex. 9 Hand-held Computers. 90 IPv4. 16 Micro Cell.INDEX ACTS. 38 Continuous Queries. 16 GPRS. 101 Loss Profile. 26 Macro Cell. 20 IrDA. 21. 123 CDMA. 15 IS-54. 19 Infrastructure Mode. 64 IEEE 802. 71 Broadcast Disks. 129 Kangaroo Transactions. 19 Isolation-Only Transaction. 4 D-AMPS. 20 Ad-Hoc Routing. 22 Microsoft Exchange. 26 Laptops.
43 Novell. 20 Remote Access. 15 TIA/EIA-136. 96 QoS. 93 Odyssey. 38 PHS Wristwatch Phone. 38 Ring Keyboard. 91 Oracle Replication Manager. 90 Wireless LAN. 16 Sub-notebooks. 73 TIA. 92 Oracle Software Manager. 11 Proxim. 72 UMTS. 20 VLR. 61 TCP/IP. 21 RBOC. 124 OpenAir Interface. 43 NTT. 71 Ubiquitous Computing. 2 Notebooks. 40 Nomadic Computing. 20 Oracle Lite. 15 PDA. 50 PCS. 125 SDMA. 21 NCR. 4 Wireless World Wide Web (W4). 73 X. 93–94 Spread Spectrum. 84 . 56 Netscape. 86 W-CDMA. 2.25. 134 Third generation network requirements. 9 W-ATM. 93 Remote-Node. 89 Replication. 21 RangeLAN. 109 RAM Network. 119 Thin Client. 15 The Open Group. 20 Shiva PPP. 36 Palm-OS. 102 MobileWare Office Server. 15 UMTS schedule. 52 WebExpress. 56 Palm Pilot. 58 Rover. 77 WAP Protocol. 20 Wireless Service Provider (WSP). 92 Sybase SQL Remote. 93 Noise to Signal Ratio (NSR). 20 Wearable Computer. 121 Windows-CE. 107 TD-CDMA. 126 Mobile-IP. 20 Wireless Application Protocol (WAP). 116 WaveLAN. 119 Wireless network evolution. 11.166 INDEX Mobile Transactions. 26. 92 System on Chip (SOC). 93 Mobility Middleware. 91 Oracle Mobile Agents. 11 Quality of Service. 107 Zaurus. 17 Nokia 9000. 69 Time-Division Multiple Access (TDMA).
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.