UP Open University Information Systems - 272 Strategic Information Systems Case Study #2 – On the State of Philippine ICT Gayatri

Sevilla Fernando ID#: 2010-81453

1. The Approach
A holistic approach had been taken through the qualitative content analysis of material covered through desk research and investigation. It is holistic in the sense that this case study: • covers both internal as well as external environmental assessments

• •

builds upon lessons from a UNDP study conducted by Roger Posadas, et. al i on technological independence, including a comparison of issues between the Philippines and Korea in relation to how it has/can achieve a level of technological independence is not just critical but also constructive; provides theme-based constructive feedback is also progressive in that it introduces an alternative model for defining progress in a society for consideration.

The internal or the more endogenous view is based on a critique of the Philippine Digital Strategy, the current policies planned or existing, as well as technology transfer environment/mechanism assumptions. The study calls out weak points, clarifications or questions as deduced from observations or analysis conducted. The more exogenous or external view, on the other hand covers several other factors in the environment or ecosystem that influences ICT or operates in it, namely: political/legal, socio-cultural, economic environmental factors.

2. Science & Technology as a Driver of Progress in Society
There is no question; science and technology are among the key drivers of progress in society. It has emancipated women before world war Iii, it has changed the way people have worked and how work is organized, changed the way people are educated, changed warfare, and among countless visible and almost invisible impact into civilization, ultimately changed peoples' lifestyles and beliefs. More and more, technology is interwoven and integrated into people's lives. As it happens, it raises increasingly difficult questions society is not ready for, requiring a mastery of the evolution of and nature of technology as well as the challenge of solidifying or clarifying outlooks, morals, philosophiesii. Otherwise, technology's dynamics, speed, complexity and development overtakes the time in which people can master them; ending up as its slaves. And yet it is a tool made by people and while for the moment they are lacking advanced consciousness of possibly being slaves to technologies on various levels, efforts should be made to master and understand technology's history, nature and development thoroughly so as to make full and effective utilisation for its own and the society's objectives of overall progress.

3. Internal Environment Perspective
Developing strategies are based partly on an assessment of the state of the internal environment, which is about understanding what we’re dealing with (i.e. technology), our internal and external environment and challenges (system dynamics, value chains, consumer behaviour etc.,), ourselves, our capabilities, strengths and weaknesses, and finally what we want to achieve, where we’re going (visions and goals) and how we’re going to get there.

3.1. Observations on Philippine ICT Vision: The Philippine Digital
Strategy The Philippine Digital Strategy (PDS) acts as the document that consolidated public, private and government views on the roadmap for ICT. It builds upon the previously developed ICT Roadmap iii and serves as the lens upon which the vision on how technology will drive progress and national development.

As previously mentioned in the approach taken for this study, the focus that the next few sections would illustrate issues or concerns that stood out for me, or are perceived as either missing or misaligned whilst adding questions, clarifications or pointers for further/future consideration. 3.2.Understanding what we’re dealing with: Technology The PDS was not able to demonstrate a thorough knowledge and level of mastery of the technologies that the strategies focus on i.e, in terms of the assessment in terms of the nature, phases or stages of the technology and how they have influenced PDS strategy. Yet, this understanding provides a rich context upon which decisions will have been arrived at which helps in fully realizing a technology's potential or otherwise controlling it as necessary. Some reasons why we should improve our mastery of technologies: • it allows us to understand its impact to socio-economic activities and the kind of society that will emerge. Technologies influence consumer behaviour and the type and quality of challenges/problems that will arise. Understanding factors that influence the very opportunities that strategies can target towards resolving or addressing not to mention using them to also guide expectations from the conception to execution of such strategies enable planning and execution to be effective. it allows us to better understand and assess the higher order impact that technologies may cause. Technologies are merely tools part of a larger system of interactions of various variables and are never independent. They impact the entire lifecycle of a system from conception, development, business models, maintenance etc., In the meantime, lifecycles are also part of value chain/s which are almost fluid, continuously changing, updating, or improving, if not complex and tightly coupled among other things. For some, if not most technologies, the speed of technological change exceeds the speed of the work to assess or evaluate technology for proper feedback, or in considering and agreeing upon higher order impacts. It takes determined and consistent levels of discipline of continuous learning, diligence in terms of observation and critical thinking to be able to monitor and integrate implications of changes from all such factors considering the dynamics according to each factor's qualities and nature, including the changing behavior of people/the public or markets as participants in the value chain and the regulatory bodies locally and globally. • it allows us to be more effective at planning, forecasting, managing risk and anticipating or addressing challenges. In itself the exercise is already very challenging if not impossible sometimes, as to do so means there should be a good grasp of not just the nature of the technology in question, but also the understanding of the system dynamics and value chain relationships related to the technology.

What are some of the theories explaining the nature and stages of technologies? Two of various paradigms follow. A. Alvin Toffler's paradigmv of the three waves of civilizations, characterizes technologies into 3 ‘waves’:

1. First-wave technologies: pre-industrial technologies which are labourintensive, small- scale, decentralized, and based on empirical rather than scientific knowledge. 2. Second-wave technologies: industrial technologies developed between the Industrial Revolution and the end of the Second World War. They had been based on basic principles in classical physics, classical chemistry, and classical biology. 3. Third-wave technologies: post-industrial or high technologies that are usually termed as science-intensive. Based on more modern scientific knowledge of the structures, properties, and interactions of molecules, atoms, and nuclei. E.g. microelectronics, robotics, computers, laser technology, optoelectronics and fibre optics, genetic engineering, photovoltaics, polymers, and other synthetic materials. B. Stages of development by Sharif vi: 1. Operative capability – the ability to operate technology 2. Adaptive capability – indicates a level of mastery enough to adapt, change the technology to suit certain other needs 3. Replicative capability – indicates a stage indicating sufficient understanding of technology enough to be able to replicate them 4. Innovative capability-- the ability to make significant modifications and improvements on the basic design of existing technology 5. Creative capability—the ability to design and produce an entirely new and revolutionary technology. Given such theories, knowing that our energy, coconut technology industries are in more mature stagesi, can guide investment strategies from knowing there may be higher probabilities of sustainable returns from moving the technology towards innovative or creative capabilities should the government invest more on the same.

3.3. Understanding our internal and external environment and
challenges As in any business plan, strategy development also depends on the level of market understanding, the systems’ dynamics, its value chains, the consumer and industry behaviour etc., as these drive objectives. Information on the extent of major world trends had been generalized and integrated into the introductions to each objective in the PDS, however, it was not able to develop clear links between trends considered and the strategies developed in response for the same. It was neither able to consider other larger trends and assess its importance and strength of influence to the Philippine society. For example, which trends are most strongly felt in the Philippines? How have they been assessed to impact the country? Some other trends not expanded on at the PDS: Demographics and consumer oriented trends • Aging population, Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD), increasing frugality and differences in consumer spending, technology avoidance Market influenced trends • Decreasing privacy, demand for business capital from both developing and developed countries, business intelligence , predictive analytics and scientific research, healthcare etc., generating, managing and sustaining innovation, importance of technology standards, disruptive technologies and their implications for business disruption or business opportunity

Socio-cultural • an increasing culture of crowdsourcing and meritocracy, the increasing role of women and their economic contribution, increasing importance to the right to education • increasing need for defining ethical principles in computing or technology development. Considering the varying subtleties of views on ethics and the current challenge in Silicon Valley for ethical principlesvii; the need for cardinal principles is becoming more and more important. While the diversity of the world is among the things that make the world a wonderful place, it can also be a source of challenge especially in evaluating or assessing technology, its impact and higher order consequences and the many colourful and different views on what can be 'right' or 'wrong'. History shows that values are time, space, person bound and change according to such factors so it would be difficult to form evaluations if there are no common cardinal principles agreed by all to guide the judgments to be made on the use of technologies. These cardinal principles should be based on an ideology that cuts across people's perceptions, cultural differences, through the diversity of roles, national, civil, familial ties. Economic • the distribution of GDP over larger cities, a non-uniform growth in population, environmentalism, natural resource constraints, inequality or disparity

3.4. Understanding ourselves, our capabilities, strengths and
weaknesses While some challenges and weaknesses had been described in the PDS, the process and method by which they had been identified had not been communicated. More importantly, it was also less pronounced in its demonstration of the response them and how it had been incorporated and linked into the strategies that have now been developed. For example, which strategies aim to address which trends, challenges/weaknesses recognized and how? Other observations: • There were already indicators of the need for standards or the need to manage failed projects but not of the recognition that such issues also eventually mature and evolve into the need to prove and demonstrate the value of the IT investment. As IT benchmarking studies have illustrated in some areas, investing in IT does not necessarily automatically indicate effectiveness and efficiency or productivityviii. In fact, there is a certain balance of amount of technology investment that returns a more consistent positive return or growth pattern. Hence, higher ICT investment will not necessarily translate to higher productivity GDP. Besides, ICT impact is best measured on a process level where it directly makes an impact than an overall business goalix. This is similar to the finding that higher hours worked does not necessarily translate to higher output per hour worked x . • There were clearer strategies toward a knowledge economy consisting of BPO and services more than higher value innovative or creative technology that offers more sustainable development. There were no further details on the basis and the process of the decision. How has it been ensured for example that the strategies have not mainly been

driven by capitalist interests?

3.5. Understanding what we want and where we’re going
Vision underpins goals. Clear and strong vision and directions, as demonstrated by a long-term and social outlook, driven by a clear, strong accountability and leadership, all work together to giving the power or necessary impetus to strategy execution. Unfortunately most of these elements in the PDS are not as powerful as they could be. While the recent Executive Order xv to dissolve DICT in which case it will need revalidation does not help, the collaborative consolidated approach and stakeholder buy-in cultivated for the PDS is a great start. Such are key components for the development and execution of the strategy. However, responses and clarity to address other key issues have been observed to be weak.

3.5.1. We can become more than (be) an “IT-enabled service hub”
There were no further details or information on the basis for the end0state vision developed--no integrative or philosophy, outlook or model framework to enrich and give a foundation to the developed vision. While there was mention of self-reliance in the study conducted for UNi for the Philippines, similar to India's Swadeshi economic movementxvi, there was no connection made of this concept in the PDS. An 'IT enabled Service Hub" in Asia is not an economic philosophy or framework and is more of a medium-term goal. We should define and develop a socio-economic philosophy Socio-economic philosophy answers questions such as what defines 'real' progress for the Filipino society? If "prosperity" and "well being" is important, what do they mean? Would progress acknowledge development in all human spheres -- physical and basic necessities, mental/emotional, spiritual? What kind of KPIs would be agreed to interpret the nation's performance on these visions/concepts? For defining quality of life, e.g. would the use of 'average purchasing capacity' of Filipinos accurately demonstrate performance in the physical progress sphere? Adopting a long-term outlook The introduction of and description of how the goals defined fit into longer term goals and plans (especially for building up technology transfer mechanisms which takes longer amounts of time to develop) are lacking in the PDS. The lack of more solid technology transfer strategies are also an illustration of this symptom, as such strategies imply the need for a more thorough understanding of the nature of technology, its developmental stages and the ways in which it can be directed through higher value, sustainable technology development strategies. Seeing as it is a known cultural trait for most Filipinos to not necessarily maintain a long-term outlookxvii it gives all the more reason to emphasize, acknowledge and act upon it. Work towards continuity and integration Silos and lack of better coordination as depicted even through the country’s geographic separateness due to the islands already present a challenge. While the PDS is a continuation of the ICT Roadmap previously developed iii. There was unfortunately no integration or post-reference to the results of other relevant studies such as a previous UNDP study on Technological Dependence i, which pointed out that the Philippines is in a vicious cycle of technology dependence (see Figure 2). It further states as among its recommendations and

lessons, that the country would require no less than a radical transformation in order to alleviate itself from the vicious cycle. There was also no demonstration of acknowledgement of these issues or concepts such as self-reliance, even if perhaps in a retrospective way to demonstrate how it has been resolved or how it will be. This weakness around efforts toward broader and tighter integration of efforts were also recognized in the PDS as applied in program communications as perceived under the challenge of (the) “Lack of a Coordinated Marketing Campaign” mentioned in the PDS Appendices.

3.6. On understanding how we’re going to get there
What are the long term goals defined? How does the PDS contribute to such a long-term plan? What are the various thinking done and the main mechanisms identified towards how we can make growth sustainable? The PDS unfortunately had no clearer indications that illustrate a more systematic approach to acquiring, building, enriching technology transfer mechanisms and mediums--the source of expertise and intellectual property to fuel technology and intellectual property transfer. Granted, there are Balik Scientist programs xi , Filipinnovation initiativesxii, civil organization support such as from the Brain Gain Network (bgn.org), among many others, however, the government should be able to have a more comprehensive approach to organizing and setting the stage and seeds for effective capability building of foundations to propel the transfer of technology and intellectual property. Not to mention the Philippines' history of technological dependencei, the competitive environment it operates in and the slew of other environmental trends mentioned earlier, a more solid approach to maximising and driving potential should be sought. Otherwise, strategies can be rendered hollow, misguided, or lacking in the power to propel ICT into faster, more valuable, or meaningful progress; learn faster, operate more efficiently and compete more effectively. Policies would support the 'wrong' things, the talent ecosystem and its development would suffer among other things. The web services startup community, for example, already suffers xiii indirectly as a result. Web services such as social networking or related technologies are among the higher value products that can produce higher revenues or which generate wider socio-cultural impact at relatively lower costs and yet they do not receive encouraging support from the government. Assuming the industry agrees with Fred Wilson in that it would take 50 years to grow a 'Silicon Valley' environment xiv, and assuming the right mix of startup requirements are in place, any developing country hoping to establish such an environment should waste no time striving to realize the same. There is no reason to believe this cannot be achieved faster from developing stronger technology transfer strategies.

4. External Environment Perspective
What have others done that we can learn from? An assessment of the external environmental factors can be best introduced through a comparison of issues, challenges to science and technology development according to external categories, particularly between those that Philippines and Korea faced or is facing (Table 1) around the years the study on technological dependence i had been conducted. There is much to learn from Korea, having achieved growth from a post-communist country into among the most technology advanced in

Asia (or the world) in just around 10 years



4.1. Political / Legal View
Key things which stood out in my research for this case study on a political/legal view were: • Lack of systematic approach or a roadmap towards the establishment of policiesxix , subsidies, processes necessary to support the ideal target environment that fosters national progress visions xx. • Lack of check and balance or control for the influence of corporate/capitalist motivations and interests and political influences. The PDS' more detailed plan on the support of BPO services is an example of the power that has already been wielded. Not that it is necessarily 'bad' by itself it also shows the need for more active efforts to ensure the public good is prioritized more than just the corporate partners' profitability. • Lack of more civic and public engagement or enlisting of the same as linked to the challenge of 'lack of coordinated marketing campaigns' • Lack of recognition for the need for as well as the political cooperation for the development of a socio-economic philosophy, or the importance of achieving a level national self-reliance to enrich the national progress visions. • Lack of stronger ownership of technology transfer policies and strategies in order to ensure a more updated policy environment and ecosystem. • Lack of integration, collaboration in response to UNDP analysis of social policy comparison studyxxi and how such learnings were incorporated into the PDS. 4.2.Economic View How have the stakeholders in the PDS arrived at the decisions to invest on specific agricultural/fishing technologies? What kind of methodology and principles were used in the decision making, the stakeholder analysis xxii and the extent of consideration over or the country's economics, market ecosystem state of the ICT industries in relation to the vision and roadmap arrived at? How have the understanding of knowledge economy principles/strategies been incorporated into the planning and prioritization? 4.2.1. Economics and Technology Transfer What are the skills of the nations' OFWs? In which industries are they mostly in? What kind of systematic approach can be established to capture knowledge, expertise or intellectual property from such workers? What is the state of the technology ecosystem for higher value, sustainable technology services (based on revenue per employee ratio) such as web services, or consumer electronics? How can the relationships with BPOs be extended so that the country may to evolve into delivering higher level, high value technology products/services? The previous UNDP study made has described the more advanced level of maturity of the technology ecosystem in the energy, coconut industries for example. What lessons were learned from the aforementioned more mature technology ecosystems in terms of knowledge transfer mechanisms, political and legal factors, or socio-cultural considerations? Answers to questions raised can help strengthen the PDS at the same time explain cases where investing in R&D in areas thought to be 'common sense' for their country do not necessarily yield to results sought for, as has been the experience of New Zealand in the case of investments made in bio-technologyx. Given the stages of development of technologies, there

can be more value obtained from building upon the maturity of certain industries to pull the related industries within its value chain forward.

4.3. Socio-Cultural View
The major and yet often overlooked or underestimated aspect of any change execution is the importance, power and impact of the sociocultural aspect of things. Even if sufficient economic models and political support may be established, setting the stage for an environment which has the right tools and process but no buy-in and support from people, only makes for a culture where people will feel alienated while systems end up not being maximized. Should there be sufficient people/sociocultural support and the right economic factors/tools in place but not the right processes or political/legal support necessary on the other hand would make for some level of almost automated confusion and chaos. Finally, having socio-cultural capabilities and political-support but without economic tools/capacities can cause inefficiencies, feelings of frustration and probably increasing costs (Lean Enterprise Systems: Using IT for Continuous Process Improvement –steadyimprovement.com). All three elements people/socio-cultural, process-political/legal and technology/tools/economic factors need to be working harmoniously to effectively execute changes. Linking the above with change model frameworks such as ADKAR by Prosci in 1988 or the 8-step change framework by Kotter which can explain requirements for effectively instigating and executing change with the approach PDS took and it is easy to realise the insufficiency of the PDS' efforts to address this aspect of the strategy. Such a key aspect trickles down into other issues such as the lack of strategies that utilize a thorough understanding of certain cultural traits that may hinder or support progress towards PDS goals and in integrating such strategies into campaigns, communications and overall response / addressing of the problems. • Specific cultural aspects as Filipinos' natural low tendency towards longer-term outlook, higher power-distance cultures as indicated by the Geert-Hoffstede index. • Remnants of colonial exploitation via the materialistic focused lifestyle, capitalist influences and taste and lack of a stronger cultural identification from Filipinos abroad xxvi and in my opinion, within the Philippines itself. • Not that high science and math education naturally translates to national progress solely and specifically but artistic tendencies as depicted in the nations' penchant for singing and dancing in noontime shows or drama and acting in soap operas is much more pronounced than the promotion of science and technology thinking or science and math studies. • Lack of coordinated campaigns to communicate and celebrate inspirational and good news as far as the nation and its people is concerned. The only major effort of this type (www.goodnewspilipinas.com) is currently maintained by Filipinos living abroad. Korea has indicated that one of the key aspects of their success was due to the strength of their communications campaign and efforts to increase and encourage S&T thinking i • Our islands geography as a representation of the country's fragmented efforts and the challenge for more effective coordination, integration, unification and communication efforts.

Beyond answers to the questions raised above, in the end, the integrative and driving factor to the consideration of all political/legal, economic, socio-cultural factors is the development of a socio-economic framework or model for the country to work towards realizing. 5. Taking it All Constructively The more critical approach used in this study has been taken in the interest of time, in order to immediately provide feedback and increase the chances that they may be considered and taken constructively right away in lieu of much work that still needs to be done. There are already great seeds/ideas in place such as Filipinnovation, as well as civil society initiatives that contribute to accomplish various things in their own xxiii or are facilitating great discussionsxxiv. What follows are a few more specific ideas to take that progress further, especially in support of the need for a social transformation as recommended by Roger Posadasi.

• • • • • • •

The importance of defining clear, strong social outlook philosophies, a vision self reliance, of well being, of defining cardinal human moral principles. Such a challenge translated from a country level into the smaller corporate/organizational environment is similar to learning from the fact that 90% of organizations fail to execute their strategies successfully as 95% of a typical workforce does not understand its organization's strategy xxv. Importance and strength of leadership Socio-cultural considerations and effective communication The right political processes, policies, subsidies, local industry support Attention on building capability for and delivering high value, sustainable technology initiatives, R&D investment and technology transfer mechanisms Attention on and following through to successful execution for the long term by addressing challenges and more forward-thinking planning A decentralized barangay focus Utilising Free or Open Source Software (FOSS) to save costs, improve competitiveness and uplift IT's capabilities and contribute to IT innovation. While this was mentioned as one of the strategies, no specific efforts were further described in the PDS.

5.1. Develop a psycho-spiritual media campaign towards rebuilding
strength of tradition, culture and a redefinition/affirmation of Filipino identity Building strong foundations and a nation of patrons The need for social transformation needs a strong base from which the Philippines can build and move from. Like the Philippines' neighbours, a strong sense of culture and tradition are among those that helped them persist through to achieving their goals. It should be able to address the importance of building and strengthening the Filipino's sense of tradition and cultural identity and the importance of recognizing the dire need for it and its value. The new/reaffirmed identity should be realistic, meaningful or simple as it represents and appreciates the combination of values of all of its people and in a way that is as inclusive and encompassing of the people it represents as possible so that all can relate to them. Some ideas on methods that can be used

Beyond the definition or agreement of Filipinos upon a vision, in order to provide another perspective, it could be helpful to take surveys nations other than the Philippines itself to also assist in identifying qualities that have been renowned or associated with Filipinos. Crowdsourcing (e.g. via SMS voting) may also be utilized to get as many opinions as possible. Another important initiative in this redefinition/affirmation should include collecting as much information regarding a sense of culture, spirituality and scripture before the Philippines' colonial history. Such information should be sought for, preserved, restored and its documentation restarted. There are some initiatives like “Sentro Rizal” xxvi or information / materials xxvii that have been found but surely not sufficient, strong or coordinated enough. It should help affirm, illustrate and provide a unique and deep sense of meaning as envisioned and believed by the nation's ancestors that for sure has influenced Filipinos' beliefs today.

On understanding that Filipinos have more pronounced artistic than scientific leanings On another note, Filipinos are, among many other things, particularly artistic, joyful or humorous. From the colorful jeepneys to festivities and fiestas, the way that a smile can be found in the aftermath of Ondoy, or how Filipinos make fun of its politicians, art, joy and humor is usually predominantly pervasive in various little ways. These little quirks of behavior, coupled with sufficient rational judgement are the finer, subtle nuances that set our culture apart. I believe in utilizing these qualities to start with to channel the objective of building a stronger sense of tradition and culture in order to begin the campaign would be very effective in attracting, enlisting people to the cause. Conversely, perhaps, artistic creativity and a penchant for humor and joy can also possibly mean the Filipinos' sense of discipline is less pronounced. Creativity never works with too much structure and limitations, after all. Historically, it has been observed how too much democracy also usually doesn't accomplish as much such that I believe a certain level of authority and strict methods balanced by incentives for positive compliance would be best in order to efficiently lead, coordinate and drive most everyone into supporting, diligently following the programs/campaigns. Maintaining the momentum Finally, more than defining this vision, such a program should also include strategies to maintain, preserve its vigor and spirit, developing campaigns that will recognize and celebrate successes or uniqueness (e.g. goodnewspilipinas.com). As R. Posadas and the authors of the study i have indicated, there was a lack of effort in following through with S&T programs loudly envisioned and claimed. Subsequently, unconstructive media programs e.g. soap operas that illustrate negative qualities if not feed onto a psychology of self-pity, feeling poor, abused, mistrustful of the rich and powerful or the government should be discouraged, even prevented and instead cultivate positive, constructive, empowering values.

5.2. Promote economic decentralization and self-sufficiency.
It would be great if the increase in LGU support and management recommended by the authors shall include granting more authority in terms of responsibility in their economic performance and contribution in their respective areas. Britain is already attempting a similar path. NCC has started initiatives herexxviii and it would be good if these were strengthened. This focus on economic decentralization and self-sufficiency

makes reaching into the community more effective as groups and areas are broken down into a manageable size as coordinated, represented by the smallest unit of community, a barangay, managed by its barangay captain. Why? For people in the barangay know the local area and its resources more than its larger city/regional representatives. For example, they most probably have a better idea of the under-utilized resources in their area that are generating opportunity losses for the community. Proper management of such resources and the community's ability to maximize them would make contributions big or small to the community. Furthermore, they should have the flexibility to arrange and balance priorities, assess short/long term goals, develop high impact low cost S&T investments, including perhaps setting up and managing cooperatives or micro-lending within their community.

5.3. Explore creating a new or alternative currency for the community
that can be earned with labor provided by the more socioeconomically challenged or the unemployed. The community may decide on the value of the currency between labor/services to be exchanged, or the amount of exchange of this new currency into actual Peso currency as funded by the collective donation/sponsorship of the rest of the community. Certain European countries used this approach during the collapse of their economies and in their efforts to rebuild their nation and economically continue to survive.

6. Real Progress in Society. An alternative Societal Development Model The aforementioned thoughts are just some insights I think may usually be uncommonly heard but which may help. Clearly, executing strategies are not that simple. While S&T are among the drivers of a society's progress, they are not the only ones. Moreover, S&T would not even progress as fast as nations could make it to be, or fully maximize or utilize it since as a society, there is still a lack of common cross-cultural universal human cardinal principles that all agree upon and which will guide not just progress within S&T but in all other aspects of a society as well. There may well be advanced countries such as those in the G20 summit and while they are the worlds' best examples compared to all other countries, are their societies, which are predominantly capitalist and materialist, collectively representing the vision of what all other countries to achieve? Even the very way a society is defined may be indicative of something that is lacking -- direction or goals. Is society moving towards a direction that all agree and desire for themselves? What kind of world does the society desire? An alternative economic model is needed. I particularly admires the socioeconomic philosophy established by P.R. Sarkar called, PROUT (Progressive Utilization Theory). It is an alternative economic and spiritual model which is based on 25 main aspects, an overview of which may be found in Wikipedia v or Ananda Marga's websitexxix . It formulates the progressive development of metaphysical, supra-mundane and spiritual potentialities of the individual as well as of collective bodies so that human society may proceed on to touch the silver lining between the metaphysical and the spiritual. He also argues that real progress only occurs in the spiritual sphere as physical and psychic spheres are limited by causal qualities or environments. It defines society's progress and development to require the following major

factors: • • Asti is existence--dwelling place, food, clothing, education and medical facilities Bhati, derived from Vibhati, meaning development and progress is of the following elements: o Spiritual ideology in the life of both the individual and the collective body o Spiritual cult, a Sa'dhana or spiritual practice process that links the objective to the subjective. o A blending of Asti and Bhati through socio-economic theory. P.R. Sarkar explains there should be a priori knowledge regarding the social structure, the distribution of wealth and its growth. For want of this knowledge there can't be a solid ground for the construction of the social edifice. o Social outlook. A belief in that all living creatures are the children of the same Cosmic Entity as progeny of the same Supreme Progenitor. Naturally it implies that they are bound in a thread of fraternal relations. This is the central spirit to be recognized. Furthermore, P.R. Sarkar added that a socio-economic theory is of no use but for the said fraternal feeling. Also, the implementation of the said theory is an impossibility without a spiritual cult process/Sa'dhana'. o Existence of its own scripture. This element explains that all spheres of life need the company of elevated persons Satsaunga xxx and that society should have a Sha'stra of their own. In Sanskrit, the authority whose contact means Satsaunga for people is called the Sha'stra. Also, that which elevates society by dint of Sha'shan is called Satsaunga • • Preceptor Ananda, means bliss.

For more information visit: http://prout.net/six-factors.html While S&T progress is truly among the main drivers of a society, in P.R. Sarkar's philosophy, it is only one of the many factors affecting a society's development. If only based on this conceptual definition and compared to current definitions/models, society definitely still have much more aspects to consider, hence more room to grow; especially while taking advantage of being a 'latecomer' and learning from mistakes and successes of other nations. Additionally, despite S&T contributing to the wealth and advancement to some countries or people, as a whole society still maintain political wars that somehow make them no different from primitive civilizations colored by prejudice between clans fighting each other. This way, I don't think the Philippines is alone in needing a new economic model or social transformation, the rest of the world, does, too.

Table 1. Comparison of issues affecting each countries' ability to achieve self-reliance and S&T progress (based on the UNDP studyi 1994)

ENDNOTES i Technological independence - The Asian Experience. 1994. United Nations University {Saneh Chamarik, and Susantha Goonatilake (eds)}. http://www.unu.edu/unupress/unupbooks/uu04te/uu04te00.htm (accessed July, 11, 2011) ii Technology, Society in the Twentieth Century. 1997. Technology, Management and Society. Peter Drucker, New York Harper and Row Publishers, pp. 74-92 iii Philippine ICT Roadmap. 2006. Commission for Information and Communications Technology, Philippines. http://www.unapcict.org/ecohub/resources/philippine-ict-roadmap (accessed July 11, 2011) iv E-government maturity models: Extension of the Layne and Lee model . 2006. Kim Viborg Andersen4, Helle Zinner Henriksen. www.eiao.net/egovmonet/Background/paper %25202%2520AndersenHenriksen_GIQ.pdf (accessed July 11, 2011) v The Third Wave. 1980. Alvin Toffler. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Third_Wave_%28book%29 (accessed July 11, 2011) vi Management of Technology Transfer and Development. 1983. Sharif, Nawas. Regional Centre for Technology Transfer vii http://33bits.org/2011/06/11/in-silicon-valley-great-power-but-no-responsibility/ viii Public Sector Productivity Imperative – McKinsey & Company 2011. Martin Neil Baily, Karen Croxson, Thomas Dohrmann, Lenny Mendonca IT Spending and Firm Productivity: Additional Evidence from the Manufacturing Sector. 1999. Kevin M. Stolarick. paper provided by Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau in its series of working papers with number 99-10. ix The IT Payoff Measuring the Business Value of Information Technology Investments. 2002. Sarv Devaraj. Rajiv Kohli. FT Press x Mapping Our Future : StrategyNZ (video) 2011. Paul Callaghan. http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=OhCAyIllnXY (accessed July 2011) xi Balik Scientist Program. http://bsp.dost.gov.ph/ xii Filipinnovation strategy. http://www2.region5.dost.gov.ph/filipinnovation/index.php xiii http://thenextweb.com/asia/2011/04/24/building-a-startup-in-a-developingcountry-the-pitfalls-andopportunities/2/ xiv Startup Ecosystems Take Time. 2009. Fred Wilson. www.avc.com/a_vc/2009/11/startup-ecosystems-taketime.html xv Executive Order no. 47 www.gov.ph/2011/06/23 / executive - order -no-47 / (accessed July 11, 2011) xvi Swadeshi Movement http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swadeshi_movement (accessed July 11, 2011) xvii Geert Hoffstede Cultural Dimensions. 2003. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swadeshi_movement (accessed July 11, 2011) xviii Enter “Philippines Korea GDP” without the quotes as search terms in Wolframalpha.com to compare GDP over the years or see also Endnote I xix http://www2.upou.edu.ph/component/content/article/327-upou-steps-up-pitchfor-competitivenessagenda xx Is there a real national ICT Agenda? 2011. Helen Macasaet. http://www.competitive.org.ph/stories/258 (accessed July 11, 2011) xxi ICT Policies and e-strategies in the Asia Pacific. A critical assessment of the way forward. Phet Sayo, James George Chacko, Gopi Pradhan. 2004. UNDP Asia

Pacific Development Program. Reed Elsevier India Private Limited. http://www.unapcict.org/ecohub/resources/ict-policies-and-e-strategies-in-theasia-pacific (accessed July 11, 2011) Measuring Electronic Governance for Sustainable Development. 2011. Tomasz Janowski http://egovexchange.com/pdfs/%255BeGov%2520Forum%255D%2520Tomasz %2520Janowski%2520-%2520Sustainable%2520Development.pdf (accessed July 11, 2011) xxii An example of a Stakeholder Analysis process done for building space exploration sustainability is as follows. It explores why other methods would not work or might be too complex, and why the recommended process worked best given their situation. This should be useful when dealing with prioritization with multiple stakeholders involved. http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/aeronautics-andastronautics/16-842-fundamentals-ofsystems-engineering-fall-2009/projects/ http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/aeronautics-and-astronautics/16-842-fundamentals-ofsystems-engineeringfall-2009/projects/MIT16_842F09_sw02.pdf xxiii InvestPhilippines.gov.ph, http://www.adb.org/ICT/phi-ictdev.asp , CACCI.org.tw , Phildev.org , Startupphilippines.com, Science and Technology Advisory Council-Japan (STAC-J), in cooperation with the Association of Filipino Students in Japan (AFSJ), DOST & PEZA on technology incubatio, Philippine Emerging Startups Open, etc., xxiv BGN Discussions - http://www.bgn.org/discussions/topic/1038 , http://www.bgn.org/discussions/topic/1751 , http://www.bgn.org/discussions/topic/1038 etc., http://www.bgn.org/discussions/topic/1618 , http://blogs.inquirer.net/insidescience/2008/09/26/winningbrainsback-to-the-philippines/ , National Competitive Commission initiatives http://www.facebook.com/note.php?note_id=185293804852573 , xxv Balanced Scorecard Collaborative (2004) as mentioned in Keyes, Jessica (2005) Implementing the IT Balanced Scorecard xxvi Sentro Rizal http://edangara.com/?q=sentro-rizal-will-boost-national-prideangara xxvii Philippines Trivia http://www.scribd.com/doc/19875860/Philippines-Trivia (accessed July 11, 2011) xxviii NCC Sees Better Competitiveness Ranking http://www.mb.com.ph/articles/324909/ncc-sees-bettercompetitiveness-ranking (accessed July 11, 2011) xxix http://www.anandamarga.org xxx http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Satsang xxxi http://www.economist.com/node/16791650

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