Nawroz University Second stage lec.:Ouday.N.

Ameen

Numerical Analysis

Budan’s Theorem
we evaluate the function at various points and all the derivatives at these points. let V the number of changes in sign in the sequence, then the number of roots is abs(Vx-Vx+1) or less than that number by a multiple of two.

Example: f(X) = X3+X2-3X-3 d/dX(f(X)) = 3X2+2X-3 d2/dX2(f(X)) = 6X+3 d3/dX3(f(X)) = 6

X

f(X)

d/dX(f(X))

d2/dX2(f(X)) d3/dX3(f(X) )

VX

abs(VX-VX+1)

2 1 0 -1

+ 0+

+ + -

+ + + -

+ + + +

0
One root(1)

1 1 2
no roots(0)
One root(1)

-2

-

+

-

+

3

One root(1)

Solving Nonlinear equations:
     Bisection Method (Halving the interval) False position (linear Interpolation) The Secant method The Newton Raphson Method (N.R.M) Fixed point Iteration Method { X = g(x)}

Bisection Method (Halving the Interval):
The Bisection method is an algorithm for locating the real roots of a function.  Select two boundary values (X1 and X2)  Find F(X1) and F(X2)  IF F(X1) >0 & F(X2)<0 or F(X1)<0 & F(X2)>0 then  Compute the mid point Xm, Where Xm =(X1+X2)/2  Compute F(Xm)  If F(Xm) = 0 then Xm is the Root , else  If F(X1) × F(Xm) > 0 then Set  X1 = Xm else X2 = Xm  Repeat Until abs(X1-X2) ≤ tolerance or abs(F(Xm) ) ≤ tolerance

Appling the method of Bisection F(X) = X3+X2-3X-3 = 0
Iteration Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

For the period [1,2]

X1
1 1.5 1.5 1.625 1.6875 1.7187 1.7187

X2
2 2 1.75 1.75 1.75 1.75 1.7343

Xm
1.5 1.75 1.625 1.6875 1.7187 1.7343 1.7265

F(X1)
-4.0 -1.875 -1.875 -0.94335 -0.40942 -0.12478

F(X2) F(Xm)
3 3 0.17781 0.17781 0.17781 0.17781 -1.875 0.1718 -0.9433 -0.4094 -0.1247 0.0219

Notes
 Number of roots of the equation equal to the degree of the equation.  Number of positive roots of the equation equal to sign changes in F(X) = 0.  Number of negative roots of the equation equal to sign changes in F(-X) = 0.

Finding position of initial roots:
a) tabulate the values of x & F(X) then the two consecutive values of X where F(X) changes sign gives the values of X1 & X2 b) Budan’s theorem.

Summary
The method of Bisection is used to find the root of the general form (f(X) = 0) The Bisection method is also known as the interval halving method Bisection is not the fastest method available for computing roots but it is the most reliable. Once a root has been bracketed, bisection will always close in on it.