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Mecnica de materiais 2010/2011

P. Areias
Avaliao:
Duas frequncias durante o semestre
Exame no nal do semestre
Assiduidade, trabalhos de casa e interesse demonstrado
Mini-teste surpresa
Dvidas (P. Areias):
Quintas e Sextas, fora do horrio de aulas
Sbados de manh
Urgncias: contacto telefnico (URL: http://home.uevora.pt/~pmaa/)
Bibliograa:
Vector Mechanics for Engineers, Statics, F.P. Beer, E.R. Johnston Jr., E.R.
Einsberg, Seventh Edition, McGraw-Hill
Engineering Mechanics, Statics, J.L. Meriam, L.G. Kraige, Fifth Edition, John
Wiley and Sons
Mechanics of Materials, F.P. Beer, E.R. Johnston Jr., J. DeWolf, Fourh
Edition McGraw-Hill
Programa
Introduo esttica

Vectores, foras e momentos

Esttica e relaes de equivalncia

Diagramas de corpo livre, equilbrio na forma vectorial e escalar

Diagramas de esforos

Centros de massa e momentos de segunda ordem


Introduo mecnica dos materiais elementar
Introduo aos corpos deformveis, lei de Hooke elementar, efeito de Poisson
Esforo axial
Toro de barras circulares, toro de barras com perl aberto e fechado
Introduo a depsitos e tubagens
Ligaes rebitadas e aparafusadas
Flexo pura, exo combinada
Teoria da elasticidade: deformaes, compatibilidade, tenses e equilbrio
Motivao
Y
Z
X
Y
X
Z
Y
X
Z
Y
X
Z
Y
X
Z
Y
X
Z
Y
X
Z
Y
X
Z
Y
X
Z
E = 200 10
9
= 0.3
H = 0.03
y = 300 + 600p
u = 0.1 u = 1
2 1396 Elements
2
v = 0.125 m
v = 0.374 m
v = 0.995 m
v = 0.666 m
v = 0.374 m
v = 0.339 m
v = 0.948 m
v = 0.251 m
b
a
b
a
a: u = w = 0
b: v = w = 0
Uniform, deformation-dependent pressure
Figure 18: Fracture process of a simply-supported plate with elasto-plastic behavior. Two cases are shown:
u = 0.1 and u = 1. Extrusion along the directors was performed.
23
Y
X Z
Y
X Z
Y
X Z
Y
X Z
v = 0 mm v = 6.3 mm
v = 7.5 mm
Crack path detail
Elasticidade,
inelasticidade,
fractura
Ocorrncias:
Recordaes de trigonometria elementar
Variaes do teorema de Pitgoras:
sin
2

A
2

=
1 cos(A)
2
cos
2

A
2

=
1 + cos(A)
2
Frmulas de meios ngulos:
sin
2
(A) + cos
2
(B) = 1
tan
2
(A) + 1 = sec
2
(A)
1 + cot
2
(A) = csc
2
(A)
sin(2A) = 2 sin(A) cos(A)
cos(2A) = cos
2
(A) sin
2
(A)
Frmulas de ngulos duplos:
Frmulas de soma/subtraco de ngulos:
sin(AB) = sin(A) cos(B) cos(A) sin(B)
cos(AB) = cos(A) cos(B) sin(A) sin(B)
Lei dos senos:
a
sin(A)
=
b
sin(B)
=
c
sin(C)
Lei dos cossenos:
c
2
= a
2
+ b
2
2ab cos(C)
Frmula de Euler
e
iA
= cis(A)
Lei das tangentes:
a b
a + b
=
tan

1
2
(AB)

tan

1
2
(A + B)

Trigonometria, contd
Trigonometric functions
2
(Top): Trigonometric function sin!"for selected
angles !, #!!, #+!, and 2#!!"in the four
quadrants. (Bottom) Graph of sine function
versus angle. Angles from the top panel are
identified.
In ordinary Euclidean geometry, according to the triangle postulate the
inside angles of every triangle total 180 ( radians). Therefore, in a
right-angled triangle, the two non-right angles total 90 (/2 radians),
so each of these angles must be in the range of 0"90. The following
definitions apply to angles in this 0"90 range. They can be extended
to the full set of real arguments by using the unit circle, or by requiring
certain symmetries and that they be periodic functions. For example,
the figure shows sin!" for angles !, #!!, #+!, and 2#!!" depicted
on the unit circle (top) and as a graph (bottom). The value of the sine
repeats itself apart from sign in all four quadrants, and if the range of !
is extended to additional rotations, this behavior repeats periodically
with a period2#.
The trigonometric functions are summarized in the following table and
described in more detail below. The angle !" is the angle between the
hypotenuse and the adjacent line "#the angle at A in the accompanying
diagram.
Function Abbreviation Description Identities (using radians)
Sine sin
Cosine cos
Tangent tan (ortg)
Cotangent cot (orctg
orctn)
Secant sec
Cosecant csc (orcosec)
(cos(x),sin(x))
List of trigonometric identities
4
hacoversed sine, hacoversine
cohaversine
hacoversed cosine,
hacovercosine
cohavercosine
exterior secant, exsecant
exterior cosecant, excosecant
chord
Symmetry, shifts, and periodicity
By examining the unit circle, the following properties of the trigonometric functions can be established.
Symmetry
When the trigonometric functions are reflected from certain angles, the result is often one of the other trigonometric
functions. This leads to the following identities:
Reflected in
[3]
Reflected in
(co-function identities)
[4]
Reflected in
Shifts and periodicity
By shifting the function round by certain angles, it is often possible to find different trigonometric functions that
express the result more simply. Some examples of this are shown by shifting functions round by /2, and 2
radians. Because the periods of these functions are either or 2, there are cases where the new function is exactly
the same as the old function without the shift.
Shift by n/2
Shift by n
Period for tan and cot
[5]
Shift by 2n
Period for sin, cos, csc and
sec
[6]
Relaes de simetria
Trigonometria, contd
Relaes de translao
List of trigonometric identities
4
hacoversed sine, hacoversine
cohaversine
hacoversed cosine,
hacovercosine
cohavercosine
exterior secant, exsecant
exterior cosecant, excosecant
chord
Symmetry, shifts, and periodicity
By examining the unit circle, the following properties of the trigonometric functions can be established.
Symmetry
When the trigonometric functions are reflected from certain angles, the result is often one of the other trigonometric
functions. This leads to the following identities:
Reflected in
[3]
Reflected in
(co-function identities)
[4]
Reflected in
Shifts and periodicity
By shifting the function round by certain angles, it is often possible to find different trigonometric functions that
express the result more simply. Some examples of this are shown by shifting functions round by /2, and 2
radians. Because the periods of these functions are either or 2, there are cases where the new function is exactly
the same as the old function without the shift.
Shift by n/2
Shift by n
Period for tan and cot
[5]
Shift by 2n
Period for sin, cos, csc and
sec
[6]
Prova da lei dos cossenos
c = a cos(B) + b cos(A)
c
2
= ac cos(B) + bc cos(A) (eq.1)
a
2
= ac cos(B) + ab cos(C) (eq.2)
b
2
= bc cos(A) + ab cos(C) (eq.3)
a
2
+ b
2
= ...(eq.2 + eq.3)
a
2
+ b
2
c
2
= 2ab cos(C)
Alguns valores teis:
Distribuio dos alunos pelas 2 turmas prticas
Datas de frequncias e exames
Primeira Frequncia:
17 de Outubro de
2011
Segunda Frequncia:
13 de Dezembro de
2011
Exame:
28 de Janeiro de
2011
Nmero Turma Nmero Turma
13751 B 25964 A
24405 A 25829 A
24517 A 25839 A
24647 A 25893 A
24694 B 25963 A
24747 A 26016 A
24906 A 26024 A
24967 B 26027 A
24676 A 26181 B
25017 A 26290 B
25219 A 26341 A
25249 B 26397 B
25308 A 26431 A
25325 A 26511 A
25407 B 26645 B
25424 A 26695 A
25706 B 26741 B
25824 A 26804 A
25828 A 26943 A
Recurso:
4 de Fevereiro de
2011
Princpios fundamentais

Lei do paralelogramo para adio de foras

Princpio de transmissibilidade

Primeira lei: Se a fora resultante, actuando numa partcula for


zero, esta permanecer em repouso ou mover-se- em linha
recta com velocidade constante, se estava em movimento
originalmente

Segunda lei:

Terceira lei: foras de aco e reaco possuem a mesma


magnitude, mesma linha de aco e sentido oposto

Lei de gravitao de Newton:


F = m u
F = G
mM
R
2
G = 6.674 10
11
Nm
2
Kg
2
R
Terra
6371km
M
Terra
5.9742 10
24
Kg
Sistemas de unidades
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Utilizam-se [g] e [mm]
ou [Kg] e [m]
As unidades de fora do S.I. [N] so derivadas: [F]=[MLT
-2
]
Ateno:
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Converso de unidades
8
lnlroduction
the submultiples of the unit of area are
I dm2
: ( 1 dm) 2
: ( 10- 1m) 2 :
10- 2 m2
I cm2
: ( 1cm) 2 : ( 10- 2 m) 2
:
10- a m2
I mm2
: ( 1 mm) 2
: ( I 0- 3 m) 2
:
10- 6 m2
and the submultiples of the unit of volume are
I dm3
: ( 1dm) 3 : ( 10- 1m) 3 :
l 0- 3 m3
I cm3
: ( 1cm) 3 : ( 10- 2 m) 3
:
l 0- o m3
I mm3
: ( 1 mm) 3
: ( 10- 3 m) 3
:
10- e m3
It should be noted that when the volume of a liquid is being measured,
the cubic decimeter (dm3) is usually referred to as a tlter (f).
Other derived SI units used to measure the moment of a force,
the work of a force, etc., are shown in Table 1.2. While these units will
be introduced in later chapters as they are needed, we should note an
important rule at this time: When a derived unit is obtained by divid-
inf a base unit by another base unit, a prefix may be used in the
numerator of the derived unit but not in its denominator. For example,
the constant k of a spring which stretches 20 mm under a load of
100 N will be expressed as
* : #H: #: 5oooN/ m
but never ask: 5N/ mm.
TABLE 1.2 Principol 5l Units Used in lYlechqnics
Quontity Symbol Formul o
o r k : l k N/ m
Unit
Acceleration
Angle
Angular acceleration
Angular velocity
Area
Density
Energlu
Force
Frequency
Impulse
Lengh
Mass
Moment of a force
Power
Pressure
Stress
Time
Velocity
Volume
Solids
Liquids
Work
Meter per second squared
Radian
Radian per second squared
Radian per second
Square meter
Kilogram per cubic meter
]oule
Newton
Hertz
Newton-second
Meter
Kilogram
Nervton-meter
Watt
Pascal
Pascal
Second
Meter per second
Cubic meter
Liter
joule
;
I
rtt/s2
t
rad/s2
rad./s
*'
kgm"
N . m
kg' m/s2
s- r
kg' m/s
+
+
*
+
N ' m
I/t
N/m2
N/m2
+
m/s
3
m-
10-3m3
N ' m
lSupplementary unit (1 revolution
:
2zr rad
:
360').
tBase unit.
Vectores e operaes

Denio
V =
3

i=1
V
i
e
i
com e
i
vectores da base
Base cannica (i,j,k)
e
1
= i = {1, 0, 0}
e
2
= j = {0, 1, 0}
e
3
= k = {0, 0, 1}
Na base cannica
V =

V
1
V
2
V
3

V W =
3

i=1
V
i
W
i
V W =

V
2
W
3
V
3
W
2
W
1
V
3
W
3
V
1
V
1
W
2
V
2
W
1

Produto interno e norma


Produto vectorial
U (V W) Produto triplo
V = V =

V V
I saac Newton f al ava de
foras. Para o corpo rgido
tambm so necessri os
momentos
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No caso de um binrio (duas
foras paralelas no colineares e
com a mesma norma mas sentidos
opostos), ao escrever a condio
de equilbrio esttico no sentido
de Newton, surge a necessidade de
mais uma quantidade, o momento.
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Equivalncia
Foras no plano Foras no coplanares
Momentos de uma fora Resultantes
Q
P
1
P
2
P
3
P
4
F
1
F
2
F
3
F
4
M
1
M
2
M
R
Q
=
N
f

i=1

QP
i
F
i
+
N
m

i=1
M
i
R =
N
f

i=1
F
i
Invariante escalar R M
R
Q
Invariante vectorial R
F
Q
P
r
M
Q
(F
P
) = r F
r =

QP = P Q =

OP

OQ
Z

d
M
Zd
(F
P
) = M
Z
(F
P
)

d
M
Zd
(F
P
) = M
Zd
(F
P
)

d
1125 N
Determi ne o momento da
t e n s o n o t r o o B H
relativamente aos eixos AD e
AG
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Ponto para o qual a fora resultante paralela ao momento resultante (wrench)
R
M
R
Q
Q
P
M
R
P

OP =

OQ+
RM
R
Q
R
2
Chave de fendas
R
M
R
P
=

M
R
Q
R
R
2

R
M
R
Q
= M
R
P
+

QP R
*
* demonstre geometricamente
Alternativa para a determinao do ponto P
M
R
P
=

M
R
Q
R
R
2

R
aX +bY +cZ = d
Casos em que
M
R
P
= 0

Foras coplanares

Foras concorrentes

Foras paralelas
Casos em que R = 0
M
R
Q
= M
R
P
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Determine o wrench usando a anlise anterior e o wrench usando os planos x-y e y-z
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Interpretao
R = 0, M
R
= 0
R = 0, M
R
= 0
R = 0, M
R
= 0
Casos possveis
Equivalncia e equipolncia
Dois sistemas de foras actuando no mesmo corpo rgido so
equivalentes
sse a soma das foras e a soma dos momentos das foras dos dois
sistemas num ponto dado A forem respectivamente iguais.
Dois sistemas de foras actuando num conjunto de pontos so
equipolentes sse a soma das foras e a soma dos momentos das foras
dos dois sistemas num ponto dado A forem respectivamente iguais.
Num corpo rgido sistemas equipolentes so equivalentes
Equilbrio, parte I
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Ligaes 2D Ligaes 2D, contd
Equilbrio, parte I, contd
Sistemas com 2 e 3 foras
F
1
F
2
F
1
F
2
F
3
2 Foras: colineares, norma igual e sentidos opostos
3 Foras: concorrentes OU paralelas (neste caso, pense-se numa balana)
F
x
= 0, F
y
= 0, M
A
= 0
F
x
= 0, M
A
= 0, M
B
= 0
M
A
= 0, M
B
= 0, M
C
= 0
Alternativas (no plano)
Universal
Condicional (neste caso,
linha AB no vertical)
Condicional (A, B e C no
colineares)

Frequentemente, pode
simplicar-se a anlise
Equilbrio, parte II Ligaes 3D
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Anlise das restries
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As equaes de equilbrio so necessrias e
sucientes para estabelecer o equilbrio de um
corpo. Porm,podem no providenciar toda a
informao para calcular as foras incgnitas
actuantes num corpo em equilbrio.
Um corpo ou combinao de elementos que
possua mais ligaes ao exterior do que as
necessri as para o equi l bri o di t o
estaticamente indeterminado.
Apoios que possam ser removidos sem destruir
o equilbrio so ditos redundantes.
Grau de indeterminao esttica: nmero de
foras exteriores incgnitas menos o nmero de
equaes independentes de equilbrio.
2D 3D
Restries imprprias:
Em 2D: quando as linhas de aco das reaces
so concorrentes ou paralelas
Em 3D: quando as linhas de aco das reaces
intersectam um eixo comum
Exemplos de problemas impropriamente restringidos
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Trace os
diagramas
de corpo
livre
Metodologia:
Isolar o corpo do exterior
Incluir o peso e outras
foras volmicas
Incluir reaces sempre
q u e o mo v i me n t o
impedido ou limitado (e.g.
por uma mola)
Incluir todas as foras e
momentos actuantes sobre
o corpo
19
Conveno de sinais
Como no caso 2D os vectores do binrio so ortogonais ao plano, a sua direco
sempre conhecida, apenas a magnitude pode variar.
Os clculos envolvendo momentos de foras e binrios podem ser executados
apenas utilizando as suas magnitudes, desde que seja admitida uma conveno
de sinais.
No diagrama de corpo livre, as foras e binrios de reaco no tm de ser
marcados com o sentido correcto, embora a direco tenha de ser a correcta.
admitido um sentido, no final dos clculos, o aparecimento de um valor
negativo indica que o sentido admitido o contrrio do real.
O clculo do momento resultante deve ser efectuado em relao a um ponto
que permita simplificar os clculos.
Em geral o ponto escolhido deve ser aquele em relao ao qual existe o
maior nmero de foras produzindo um momento nulo.
Exerccios
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1) Determine as resultantes no ponto O
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2) Determine as resultantes no ponto A
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3) Determine a interseco de R com x e y
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4) Determine as componentes da fora
no cabo CD
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5) 6)
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7)
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8) Determine as resultantes nos pontos A e B
9)
10)
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11) Determine T
12) De t e r mi ne a f o r a
necessria a aplicar pelo
homem represent ado de
forma a que a balana leia
500lb (227 Kg)
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13)
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14)
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15)
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16)
17)
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18) A barra uniforme AB tem
uma massa de 200 Kg.
Determine as reaces das
paredes e do soalho
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19) Determine a massa m que
pode ser suportada e as
reaces nas chumaceiras
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20) Determine as reaces
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21) Determine as reaces
22)
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23)
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24)
Introduo s estruturas

Trelias (1)

Estruturas reticuladas (2)

Mecanismos (3)
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(1)
(2)
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Bifora
Multifora
(3)
*
* pode exigir a separao de membros
Trelias: mtodo dos ns
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m + 3 = 2j
Condio necessria
de det er mi nao
esttica interna 2D
Estrutura simples: obtida por
ligao de tringulos satisfaz
automaticamente
Casos especiais:
j : juntas
m : membros
Peso: normalmente distribudo pelas juntas
juntas podem denominar-se ns
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Determine as foras em todos os membros
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1)
2)
3)
1
4)
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5)
6)
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7)
F
1
F
2
F
3

Traar o diagrama de corpo livre da estrutura e determinar as reaces

Usar um dos ns de ligao ao exterior para o mtodo dos ns

Localizar um n que una apenas dois membros desconhecidos e usar o mtodo


dos ns

Uso dos comprimentos:


F
4
a
b
c
d
e
f
F
2
F
3
F
1
+F
2
a
c
+F
3
d
f
= 0
F
2
b
c
+F
3
e
f
= 0

Marcar as foras sobre os membros

Em 3D
1) 2) 3)
Foras em todos os membros
Alternativa: mtodo das seces (usado quando no se pretende
conhecer as foras em todos os membros).
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3membroscortadose3equaes
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Determine a fora no membro DJ
Exerccios para o mtodo das seces
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1)
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2)
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3)
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4)
Membros multi-fora e mecanismos
Marwan and Waseem Al-Iraqi www.gigapedia.com
Diagramas de corpo livre do conjunto e dos membros separados
Marwan and Waseem Al-Iraqi www.gigapedia.com
Problemas
1)
Marwan and Waseem Al-Iraqi www.gigapedia.com
2)
Marwan and Waseem Al-Iraqi www.gigapedia.com
3)
Diagramas de esforos

Vigas
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Marwan and Waseem Al-Iraqi www.gigapedia.com
i) Reaces
Marwan and Waseem Al-Iraqi www.gigapedia.com
Marwan and Waseem Al-Iraqi www.gigapedia.com
Marwan and Waseem Al-Iraqi www.gigapedia.com
Foras e momentos internos
Marwan and Waseem Al-Iraqi www.gigapedia.com
Conveno de sinais
w =
dV
dx
V =
dM
dx
Exerccios elementares
Marwan and Waseem Al-Iraqi www.gigapedia.com
Marwan and Waseem Al-Iraqi www.gigapedia.com
1)
2)
Exerccios elementares, contd
Marwan and Waseem Al-Iraqi www.gigapedia.com
3)
Marwan and Waseem Al-Iraqi www.gigapedia.com
4)
5)
6)