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Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Madras email: email@example.com
Dynamic - Loads change with time Nonlinear - Loaded beyond Elastic Limit
Type Linear Static
Usual Name Equivalent Static
Dynamic Effects No Yes No Yes
Material Nonlinearity No No Yes Yes
Linear Dynamic Response Spectrum Nonlinear Static Nonlinear Dynamic Pushover Analysis Time History
What is pushover analysis? What are its fundamental techniques? What tools can be used? Common pitfalls in pushover analysis Example of pushover analysis application
. It is one of the three analysis techniques recommended by FEMA 273/274 and a main component of the Capacity Spectrum Method (ATC-40). or simply "push-over" analysis has gained significant importance during the past few years. Proper application can provide valuable insights into the expected performance of structural systems and components Misuse can lead to an erroneous understanding of the performance characteristics. also known as sequential yield analysis.Why Push-Over Analysis? Static Nonlinear Analysis technique.
and failure of various structural components is recorded. The intensity of the lateral load is slowly increased and the sequence of cracks. plastic hinge formations. parabolic.e. yielding. .. inverted triangular or uniform). Push-over analysis can provide a significant insight into the weak links in seismic performance of a structure.What is Push-Over Analysis? Push-over analysis is a technique by which a computer model of the building is subjected to a lateral load of a certain shape (i.
This iterative analysis and design process continues until the design satisfies a pre-established performance criteria.What is Push-Over Analysis? A series of iterations are usually required during which. The performance criteria for push-over analysis is generally established as the desired state of the building given a roof-top or spectral displacement amplitude. the structural deficiencies observed in one iteration. . are rectified and followed by another.
Objectives of Push-Over Analysis To obtain the maximum shear strength of the structure. Vb. To obtain the monotonic displacement and global ductility capacity of the structure. To evaluate if the structure can achieve the collapse mechanism without exhausting the plastic rotation capacity of the members. To estimate the concentration of damage and IDI (Interstorey Drift Index) that can be expected during the nonlinear seismic response. . and the mechanism of collapse.
Low-Stiffness. Ductile Low-Strength. Brittle Roof-top Displacement . High-Strength. Brittle Moderate Strength and Stiffness.Push-over Curve or Capacity Spectrum V/W (Acceleration) Using simple modal analysis equations spectral displacement and roof-top displacement may be converted to each other. High-Stiffness.
Composite or ADRS Plot Co V/W (Acceleration) nst an tP V/W (Acceleration) er io d Li ne s Period DESIGN SPECTRUM Spectral or Roof-top Displacement ELASTIC DEMAND SPECTRUM .Design Spectra Representation Ordinary Design Push-Over Analysis .
What Tools Can Be Used? Nonlinear Analysis software with built-in push-over analysis capabilities Nonlinear Analysis software with built-in push-over analysis capabilities DRAIN DRAIN IDARC IDARC SAP2000NL SAP2000NL ETABS ETABS ANSYS ANSYS SAVE SAVE Spread Plasticity Spread Plasticity Spread and Point Plasticity Spread and Point Plasticity Point Plasticity Point Plasticity Point Plasticity Point Plasticity Spread Plasticity Spread Plasticity Point Plasticity (Public version) Point Plasticity (Public version) Spread Plasticity (Research version) Spread Plasticity (Research version) Sequential application of linear analysis software Sequential application of linear analysis software .
In addition to usual ‘moment hinges’. there can be ‘axial hinges’ and ‘shear hinges’.Spread and Point Plasticity 1. Length of plastic hinge Plastic Hinge Curvature diagram along the length of the member . 2. Nonlinearity is assumed to be distributed along the length of the plastic hinge. and not gradually or fibre-by-fibre. Plasticity is assumed to be concentrated at the critical locations. It provides a more accurate representation of the actual non-linear behaviour of the element 1. Plastification of the section is assumed to occur suddenly. 2.
• Performance point is where the Seismic Capacity and the Seismic Demand curves meet. • If the performance point exists and damage state at that point is acceptable.Establishing the Performance Point • No building can be pushed to infinity without failure. we have a building that satisfies the push-over criterion. .
05 T e ff ∆e/B SRA = 5% damped elastic spectrum 3.31 − 0.12 2.ATC-40 Method This is an iterative procedure involving several analyses.21 − 0. For each analysis an effective period for an equivalent elastic system and a corresponding elastic displacement are calculated.65 δe SRV = Roof-top Displacement . This displacement is then divided by a damping factor to obtain an estimate of real displacement at that step of analysis.4 ln( β eff ) 1.68ln( β eff ) 2. V/W (Acceleration) T0 β eff = κβ 0 + 0.
Develop the Pushover Curve .ATC-40 Nonlinear Static Procedure 1.
ATC-40 Nonlinear Static Procedure 2. Convert Pushover Curve to capacity diagram .
Plot elastic design spectrum in A-D format .ATC-40 Nonlinear Static Procedure 3.
instead analyse equivalent linear systems . Plot the demand diagram and capacity diagram together Intersection point gives the displacement demand Avoids nonlinear RHA.ATC-40 Nonlinear Static Procedure 4.
ATC-40 Nonlinear Static Procedure 5. Compare to limiting values for specified performance goals. Convert displacement demand to roof displacement and component deformation. . 6.
Do not underestimate the importance of the loading or displacement shape function. 8. 9. Three-dimensional buildings may require more than a planar push. Do not ignore gravity loads. Do not push beyond failure unless otherwise you can model failure. 3. it cannot be pushed. If it is not designed. 7.. 4. . 2. 6. 5. 10. Do not confuse the Push-over with the real earthquake loading.Points to be taken care. Know your performance objectives before you push the building. Do not ignore shear failure mechanisms P-Delta effects may be more important than you think. 1. Pay attention to rebar development and lap lengths.
1. Loading shape importance increases for tall buildings whose earthquake response is not dominated by a single mode shape. Do not underestimate the importance of the loading shape function. For these buildings. a loading shape function based on the first mode shape may seriously underestimate the seismic demand on the intermediate floor levels. . It is most common to keep the load shape constant during the push. The loading or deformation shape function is selected to represent the predominant dynamic mode shape of the building.
4 0.8 Inverted Triangle Uniform parabola ∆ /H(%) .06 0.14 0.6 0.12 Vb/W 0.16 0. Do not underestimate the importance of the loading shape function.1.1 0.02 0 0 0.04 0.2 0.08 0. 0.
Adapting Load Patterns • So called “higher mode effects” as the load distribution changes Limit base moment increases adapts for maximum shear force Limit base shear increases adapts for maximum bending moment Not apparent from linear analysis • • • .
No building can be displaced to infinity without damage. Performance objectives such as collapse prevention.2. . building can be displaced It is of paramount importance to understand the specific performance objectives desired for the building. Know your performance objectives before you push the building. and (b) specific limit states acceptable for various structural components A push-over analysis without a clearly defined performance objectives is of little use. life safety. or immediate occupancy have to be translated into technical terms such as: (a) a given set of design spectra.
C 3.C 6.C 5.BUILDING PERFORMANCE LEVELS Structural Performance Levels and Ranges Nonstructural Performance Levels S-1 Immediate Occupancy S-2 Damage Control S-3 Life Safety S-4 Limited Safety S-5 Collapse Prevention S-6 Not Considered N-A Operational 1.C 2.D 6.C Life Safety 4.C NR 2.A Operational 2.D 5.B 3.A NR NR NR NR N-B Immediate Occupancy 1.B Immediate Occupancy 2.D 4.B NR NR NR N-C Life Safety N-D Hazards Reduced 1.D N-E Not Considered NR NR 3-E 4-E 5-E Collapse Prevention No rehabilitation Ref: FEMA 356 .D 3.
1 Serviceability earthquake .Earthquake Levels (FEMA356) Earthquake levels p t years Serviceability earthquake .2 Design basis earthquake (DBE) 50% 20% 10% 5% 10% 2% 10% 50 50 50 50 100 50 250 N years 72 224 475 975 1000 949 2475 2500 2373 Very rare Approximate N years 75 225 500 Frequent Occasional Rare Remarks Maximum considered (MCE) earthquake -1 (alternate) Maximum considered (MCE) earthquake -2 (alternate) Extremely rare .
2 Design basis earthquake (DBE) 50% in 50 years a b c d 20% in 50 years e f g h 10% in 50 years i j Ba s Maximum considered Earthquake (MCE) 2% in 50 years ick Sa fe ty o l m n Ob jep c ti v e .Performance Objectives (FEMA 356) Earthquake levels Probability of Exceedance in a period Target building performance level Operational Immediate Occupancy Life Safety Collapse Prevention Serviceability earthquake .1 Serviceability earthquake .
and A are not sufficient. Push-over characteristics are strong functions of force-displacement characteristics of individual members and their connections. E. I. the pushover analysis will be an exercise in futility. If it is not designed. If detailed characteristics are not known. it cannot be pushed.3. .
4. Do not ignore gravity loads. gravity load delays the onset of yielding and cracking in the beams. Inclusion or exclusion of the gravity loads can have a pronounced effect on the shape of the push-over curve and the member yielding and failure sequence. resulting in a stiffer structure at lower magnitudes of base shear. The ultimate capacity of the structure. . Example: Due to the unsymmetric distribution of + and . is usually reduced with increasing gravity load.reinforcements in R/C beams.
Do not push beyond failure unless otherwise you can model failure Ultimate Capacity Lateral Force Modeled with failures ignored Actual Force or Moment Displacement Displacement or Curvature .5.
as they are in most of the older buildings. For R/C members of existing structures. .6. it is very important to note the development lengths when calculating member capacities. Failure to do so will result in overestimating the actual capacity of the members and results in an inaccurate push-over curve. Pay attention to rebar development and lap lengths. the contributing steel area should be reduced to account for this inadequacy. If inadequate development lengths are present.
Joint Detailing Such reinforcement detailing should not be used .
Do not ignore shear failure mechanisms If the shear capacity of structural members is not sufficient to permit the formation of flexural plastic hinges. but lateral reinforcement is not spaced close enough at the plastic hinge zones. If this happens. In R/C members. the plastic capacity is suddenly dropped to what can be provided by the longitudinal steel alone. shear failure will precede the formation of plastic hinges at the end of the member.7. even if the shear capacity is sufficient. the concrete may crush in the absence of sufficient confinement. .
Shear Failure .
Short Column Failure • This failure can be avoided by providing special confining reinforcement over entire column length .
P-∆ effects may be more important than you think.8. Strong column . In a substantially deformed state. .weak beam design strategy commonly deals with the moment capacity of columns in the undeformed state.weak beam behaviour envisioned by the design. Cases of plastic hinge formations during a push-over analysis in columns "designed" to be stronger than the beams are not rare. The P-∆ effects become increasingly significant with larger lateral displacements and larger axial column forces. the moment capacity of columns may be sufficiently reduced to counteract the strong column .
The push-over load is monotonically increased The earthquake generated forces continually change in amplitude and direction during the duration of earthquake ground motion. an effect which is difficult to model by the push-over loads. Do not confuse the Push-over with the real earthquake loading. This is particularly true for near-fault ground motions which tend to concentrate the damage on the lower floors.9. Push-over loads and structural response are in phase Earthquake excitations and building response are not necessarily in phase. .
004 -0.2 /H . Do not confuse the Push-over with the real earthquake loading.008 0.9.1 0.25g 0.006 -0.2 0.004 0.1 -0.3g 0.15 -0.16g 0 0.002 -0.002 0.15 0.008 -0.35g Vb/W 0 -0.05 IDARC SAP 0.006 0. 0.05 -0.
. a planar (two dimensional) push-over analysis may not suffice. or pushed simultaneously in orthogonal directions.10. or with numerous non-orthogonal elements. Three dimensional buildings may be pushed in the principal directions independently. For building with strong asymmetry in plan. For such cases a 3D model of the building must be constructed and subjected to push-over analysis. Three-dimensional buildings may require more than a planar push.
Analysis Procedure SAP2000 NL .
25LL Lateral Pushover (Displacement controlled) Assign end offsets Define Load case (Lateral Load at centre of mass) Define Hinge properties Run Static analysis Assign Hinge properties Beams – Default M3 Columns – Default PMM Run static pushover analysis Define Static Pushover Cases Establish Performance point .Pushover Analysis Procedure Create 3D Model Gravity Pushover (Force controlled) DL+0.
fck • Modulus of Elasticity of concrete ( Reinforcing Steel Properties E c = 5000 f ck ) • Yield strength of steel • Modulus of Elasticity of steel Es .Material Properties Concrete Properties • Cube compressive strength.
6 0.8 0.5 . Little knowledge about the details of components mk 1.Modification Factors Factors to estimate the expected strength 1.0 0.9 0. including material testing report Documentation as in (1) but no material testing undertaken Documentation as in (2) and minor deteriorations of original condition Incomplete but usable original construction documents Documentation as in (4) and limited inspection and material test results with large variation.7 0.5 times the Concrete compressive strength (fck) Steel yield stress (fy) (Factor of 1.25 used for capacity estimation considering strain hardening of steel) Knowledge Factors. mk No 1 2 3 4 5 6 Description of available information Original construction documents.
Material Properties Frame Elements Infill (struts) .
cantilever slabs Inclusion of appendages .Modeling of Structural elements Beams and columns Slab Flat slabs Beam column joints Asymmetric Structures 3D Frame elements Diaphragm action (ignore the out of plane stiffness) Plate elements End offsets (Rigid zone factor 1) Centre of mass (add non structural mass to corresponding beams) Centre of stiffness Include water tanks.
Modeling of Structural elements Stairway slabs Shear Walls Infill walls Foundation Isolated footings Single pile Multiple piles Plinth beams Fixity of columns at top of pile cap Frame elements Hinged at the bottom of foundation Fixed at five times the diameter of pile Equivalent frame elements Wide Column Elements Equivalent strut method .
material type Effective moment of inertia Beams Rectangular T-Beam L-Beam Columns 0. reinforcement details.7 Ig .Modeling of Beams and Columns 3D Frame Elements Cross Sectional dimensions.5 Ig 0.7 Ig 0.6 Ig 0.
Modeling of Beams
Modeling of Columns
Modeling of Beam Column Joints
End offsets (Rigid zone factor 1)
Modeling of Slab .
where A = wt Strain = P/A . Ei c) Equivalent strut width (when force in the strut = R). t Step 2. Stress – Strain Values Stress = P/AEi . P b) Initial modulus of elasticity of infill. Equivalent Strut Properties – Smith and Carter Model a) Strength of infill. w d) Thickness of infill.Modeling of Infill Equivalent Strut Approach Step 1.
Single Lift Core Column Equivalent Wide Column Elements connected to the frame through rigid links BEAM y x MASTER NODE t L Beam elements with rigid ends .Modeling of Shear Wall (Lift Core ) Type I Model .
Modeling of Shear Wall (Lift Core ) Type II Model .Single Lift Core Column The lift core can be treated as a single column with master node defined at the centroid and the beams connected by rigid links BEAM y x CORE MASTER NODE SLAVE NODE .
the full cross-sectional area should be used BEAM y x CORE MASTER NODE FOR A.Modeling of Shear Wall (Lift Core Column Properties) For axial and torsional rigidity. J SLAVE NODE .
Modeling of Shear Wall (Lift Core Column Properties) For shear along y axis and bending about x-axis (ground motion along y-axis). the walls in the direction of ground motion should be considered as two parallel elements BEAM y x CORE MASTER NODE FOR Ay. Ixx SLAVE NODE .
Modeling of Shear Wall (Lift Core Column Properties) For shear along x axis and bending about y-axis (ground motion along x-axis). Iyy SLAVE NODE . the walls in the direction of ground motion should be considered as three parallel elements BEAM y x CORE MASTER NODE FOR Ax.
Beam Hinge Properties .Flexural hinge (M3) .
Hinge Properties for Beams b a Lateral Load 1.0 B C D c A ∆y E ∆ Lateral Deformation Generalized Load Deformation Relations * ATC 40 Volume 1 .
Beam Hinge Properties .Shear hinge .
3 of IS13920 .Shear hinge Shear capacity Shear strength (V) V sy = f y A sv d 0 .3.2 Vy ∆y Total Shear Capacity.Beam Hinge Properties .05Vy =0 0. Vy = Vc + Vsy Residual Shear Strength 1.5∆y ∆m=15∆y Shear deformation (∆) Refer Clause 6.6 s v Vy Vu = 1.
Flexural hinge (PM2M3) .Column Hinge Properties.
0 B C D c A ∆y E ∆ Lateral Deformation * ATC 40 Volume 1 .Hinge Properties for Columns b a Lateral Load 1.
Column Hinge Properties.Shear hinge .
8 f ck ( 1 + 5 β − 1) τc = 6β 0.5 Ag f ck Note: For moderate and high ductility of the column section Vc = δτ c bd V sy = f y A sv d 0 .6 s v δ = 3 Pu ≤ 0 .Column Hinge Properties. Vy= Vc + Vsy is taken in calculation (ATC 40) .116 f ck bd w h ere β = ≥ 1.0 100 A st 3Pu δ = 1+ ≤ 1.5 A g f ck Total Shear Capacity.Shear hinge Shear capacity 0.
Shear hinge Yield deformation (∆y) is to be calculated using the following formula.Column Hinge Properties. Yield shear strength R ∆y = = Shear stiffness ⎛ GAeff ⎜ ⎜ l ⎝ R×l = ⎞ G × 0.75 Ag ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ Where G = Shear modulus of the reinforced concrete section Ag = Gross area of the section l = Length of member .
. The values were taken as per SAP 2000 manual recommendations. Shear strength (V) Vy Vu = 1.Column Hinge Properties.2 Vy ∆y y Shear Residual Shear Strength 1.05Vy 0.Shear hinge The ultimate shear strength (Vu) is taken as 5% more than yield shear strength (Vy) and residual shear strength is taken as 20% of the yield shear strength for modelling of the shear hinges as shown in Figure.5∆ ∆m=15∆y deformation (∆) Similarly maximum shear deformation is taken as 15 times the yield deformation.
Infill Properties .Axial hinge (P) .
Static Pushover Case Data (Gravity Pushover – Force Controlled) .
09 h d Ta = Q3 VB = Ah W Wi hi Qi = VB 2 ∑ W j hj 2 Q2 Q1 .Lateral Load Pattern Determination of the Load pattern: (IS 1893 (part 1) : 2002 ) Fundamental natural period Design Base Shear Design Lateral Force 0 .
Static Pushover Case Data (Lateral pushover – Displacement controlled) .
Seismic Evaluation of a Typical RC Building .
95m 15.2m X 13.7m Type-II (Medium) .Building Data Building frame system Usage Built in Zone Number of stories Footing Symmetry Material used Plan dimensions Building height Soil Type (assumed) RC OMRF Residential 1999 V G+4 Multiple Piles About Y-axis M15 & Fe 415 25.
Plan.Beam Locations n Storey number Beams (only in 1 to 4 floor) .
Plan .Column and Equivalent Strut Locations Infill wall Location Storey number n .
. Rebar detailing was not complete in the available structural drawings. Knowledge factor was not applied. Elevator walls not considered as lateral load resisting elements. Building considered to be noncompliant with IS 13920: 1993 (R = 3). Geotechnical data was not available. Architectural drawings were not available.Comments Visual inspection did not reveal concrete deterioration. Location of infill walls was postulated. Soil-structure interaction neglected. Fixity considered at pile cap.
Plan – Frames along X-direction .
Plan – Frames along Y-direction .
Elevation along line A-A .
Typical Beam Section (Ground Floor) .
Typical Column Sections (Ground Floor) Tie spacing 100 mm c/c near beam-to-column joints .
Detailed Structural Analysis Gravity Load Analysis Lateral Load Analysis Linear static analysis (Equivalent Static Method. IS 1893 (Part 1): 2002) Response Spectrum Method (IS 1893 (Part 1): 2002) Non-linear Static Analysis (Pushover Analysis. ATC 40) .
23 7.05 0.05bi .23 7.08 0.5esi + 0.15 12.55 6.55 12.82 0. esi ( m) Xdirection Ydirection Design Eccentricity.23 7.23 0.08 1.05 0.60 12.34 1.60 12.55 12.05 0.60 12.08 0.34 1.82 0. edi (m) Xdirection Ydirection 5 4 3 2 1 3550 4175 4175 4175 3200 255 306 306 306 222 12.60 12.Structural Parameters Center of Mass (m) Xdirection Ydirection Floor Seismic Weight (kN) Lumped Mass (Ton) Center of rigidity (m) Xdirection Ydirection Static Eccentricity.34 1.15 7.05 0.60 7.15 7.20 0.82 edi = 1.15 7.90 7.05bi edi = esi − 0.33 0.34 1.34 1.23 7.55 12.55 12.82 0.05 0.08 0.
Location of Centre of Mass .
36 (for Zone V) = 1 (for normal building) = 3 (for OMRF) ZI ⎛ Sa ⎞ Ah = ⎜ ⎟ 2R ⎝ g ⎠ Ah = 0. .Calculation of Base Shear IS 1893(Part 1):2002 Base shear. VB = AhW W Z I R = Total seismic weight of the building = 0.15 × 20270 kN = 3039 kN Sa/g = 2.15 VB = 0.5 corresponding to both the time period in with-infill case.
Comparison of Base Shear Without infill stiffness Analysis methods Vx (kN) Equivalent Static Method EQX EQY 2796 2796 Vy (kN) With infill stiffness Vx (kN) Vy (kN) 3039 - 3039 Response Spectrum Analysis EQ 1773 1851 2092 2170 .
59 2.50 Without infill stiffness 0.30 Computational Model With infill stiffness 0.28 2.87 Without infill stiffness 0.38 2.Comparison of Fundamental Periods Empirical Formulae With infill stiffness Time Period (s) Sa/g Tax= 0.64 .50 Tay= 0.83 1.73 1.
10 90.25 0.14 Uy 1.78 0.23 6.24 Mass Participation (%) UX 1 2 3 4 5 88.11 Uy 1.16 8.22 1.44 0.47 0.33 .First five modes and their participation Without infill Mode T (s) 0.05 0.22 0.26 0.83 0.69 0.34 2.72 4.02 0.73 0.38 0.95 86.29 1.21 T (s) With infill Mass Participation (%) UX 92.13 6.23 0.71 0.59 0.42 0.
91%) Second Mode T=0.83s (UX=92.Mode Shapes First Mode T=0.51%) .76s (UY=90.
25s (UX=5.Mode Shapes Third Mode T=0.52%) Fourth Mode T=0.39% UY=0.11% UY=0.04%) .39s (RZ) (UX=0.
24s (UX=0.03% UY=7.Mode Shapes Fifth Mode T=0.07%) .
x Mux1 load contour θ A Muy1 0 Muy = Pu ey 1C1 1C2 1C3 1C4 1C5 2C4 2871 3102 3070 3241 3301 3241 236 280 250 263 296 263 207 218 242 277 253 277 1744 1534 2266 2614 1422 2355 323 433 288 414 420 416 311 334 335 350 346 270 2.Moment (Equivalent static method) Y Section Absolute Capacities Absolute Demand (Without Infill stiffness) DCR Absolute Demand (With Infill stiffness) DCR z y Pu x X X θ ey ex Pu Puz Y PuR MuR.49 2.20 1.72 1.84 2.Demand and Capacity for Columns .95 1.57 1712 1860 2400 2506 1546 2029 342 159 310 435 445 285 338 354 354 368 365 220 2.81 1.30 2.04 2 2 M uR = M ux + M uy Mux = Pu ex .92 2.y P (kN) M2 (kNm) M3 (kNm) P (kN) M2 (kNm) M3 (kNm) P (kN) M2 (kNm) M3 (kNm) MuR.60 1.36 1.
82 Vu is higher of the shear from analysis and the shear corresponding to the flexural capacity Mu (Vu = Mu / Ls) .69 0.55 DCR Absolute Demand (Without infill stiffness) Vd (kN) 161 206 177 209 212 231 DCR Vu (kN) 1C1 1C2 1C3 1C4 1C5 2C5 250 259 275 282 285 282 0.Demand and Capacity for Columns – Shear (Equivalent Static Method) Sections Absolute Capacities Absolute Demand (With infill stiffness) Vd (kN) 184 226 189 227 231 154 0.80 0.64 0.74 0.74 0.81 0.87 0.64 0.80 0.74 0.
Maximum displacement response in X-direction (Equivalent Static Method) 5 4 Storey Level 3 2 1 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 Displacement (mm) 5 4 Storey Level 3 2 1 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 Displacement (mm) With Infill Without Infill .
Inter-storey Drift in X-direction Equivalent Static Method 18 16 14 12 Storey level (m) Storey level (m) 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 20 40 -2 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 60 0 20 40 60 In te r-store y dri ft ( X 10 %) Inter-store y drift ( X 10 -2 %) With infill Without infill .
Design Basis Earthquake + Life Safety (2% total drift) Maximum Considered Earthquake + Collapse Prevention (4% total drift) 2. .Performance Objective 1.
83 Q2= 3.Distribution of Lateral Force at each Storey Level for Lateral Pushover Q5= 15.22 Q4= 11.70 Q3= 6.00 5 4 3 2 1 .25 Q1= 1.
015 0.2 1 B IO LS CP C B IO Yield state Immediate Occupancy 0.8 Moment/SF 0.025 0.Moment Rotation Curve for a Typical Element Hinge Property 1.6 LS Life Safety D A 0 0.03 0.01 0.4 CP Collapse Prevention E 0.2 0 C Ultimate state .005 0.035 0.02 Rotation/SF 0.04 0.
10) 0.16 Seismic Coefficient.16) 0.36 .33 0. CV Type I Type II Type III 0.24 Zone V (0.24 0.40 0.36) 0.24) 0.36 0.16 0.36 0.36 0.24 0.10 0.16 0.60 Zone IV (0.10 0.27 0.10 Zone III (0.49 0.14 0.16 0.17 0.Demand Spectrum Seismic Coefficient. CA Soil Type I Type II Type III Zone II (0.10 0.22 0.24 0.
00 0.46 ∆/h = 0.02 0.10 Roof Displacement (m) .05 0.5VB 3500 3000 µ = 2.04 0. Roof Displacement – Push X 4000 1.06 0.49% µ = 1.08 0.07 0.01 0.Base Shear Vs.34% Base Shear (kN) 2500 2000 1500 1000 Without infill stiffness With infill stiffness 500 0 0.09 0.03 0.41 ∆/h = 0.
10 Roof Displacement (m) .01 0. Roof Displacement – Push Y 4000 3500 1.03 0.06 0.5VB 3000 Base Shear (kN) 2500 2000 1500 1000 Without infill stiffness With infill stiffness 500 0 0.Base Shear Vs.08 0.04 0.02 0.05 0.00 0.07 0.09 0.
4 0.6 0.8 0.6 0.0 0.5 0.30 Spectral Displacement (m) Spectral Displacement (m) Lateral Push along X Lateral Push along Y .8 0.2 0.9 0.0 0.Capacity and Demand Spectra (With infill stiffness) 1.0 0.2 0.0 Spectral Accelaration Coefficient (Sa/g) 0.0 0.7 0.10 0.20 0.1 0.4 Spectral Accelaration Coefficient (Sa/g) 1.2 0.3 0.00 0.4 0.
3 0.0 0.7 0.30 Spectral Displacement (m) Lateral Push along X Lateral Push along Y .0 0.00 0.2 0.20 0.6 0.0 0.5 0.8 0.4 0.4 Spectral Displacement (m) Spectral Accelaration Coefficient (Sa/g) 1.8 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.9 0.6 0.4 0.1 0.Capacity and Demand Spectra (Without infill stiffness) Spectral Accelaration Coefficient (Sa/g) 1.0 0.10 0.
Ground Floor Plan .Retrofitting Scheme 1. Continuing infill walls only at a few locations. 2. Strengthening of the ground floor columns.
Capacity Curve – Push X
C B A
∆/h=0.28% ∆/h=0.48% ∆/h=0.75%
Base Shear (kN)
∆/h = 1 %
Roof Displacement (m)
State of the Hinge at A and B in Lateral load
State of the Hinge at C and D in Lateral load
4 Spectral Displacement (m) .2 0.9 0.11 m/s 0.4 0.0 5% Demand Spectrum Capacity Spectrum Effective Period Teff = 1.1 0.0 Spectral Accelaration Coefficient (Sa/g) 0.3 0.Z ) 1.2 0.0 0.9% V = 7682 kN D = 0.224s βeff = 24.29 m/s2 Sd = 0.3 0.6 0.1 0.Performance Point ( Demand spectrum.8 0.167 m = 0.7 0.93% of H 15% 17.5 0.3% Performance Point Sa = 0.
06 0.14 0.Storey Displacements 18 15 A B C D 12 H(m) 9 6 3 0 0.18 0.02 0.10 0.12 0.00 0.04 0.08 0.20 Displacement (m) .16 0.
020 .015 0.000 0.IDI 5 B A D C 4 3 H(m) 2 1 0 0.010 IDI 0.005 0.
What if Performance Point Does Not Exist? FE V/W (Acceleration) ADD STRENGTH OR STIFFNESS OR BOTH FI Inelastic demand spectrum 5% damped elastic spectrum capacity spectrum Roof-top Displacement .
What if Performance Point Does Not Exist? FE V/W (Acceleration) ENHANCE SYSTEM DUCTILITY FI Inelastic demand spectrum 5% damped elastic spectrum capacity spectrum Roof-top Displacement .
What if Performance Point Does Not Exist? FE V/W (Acceleration) REDUCE SEISMIC DEMAND BY: ADDING DAMPING OR ISOLATION FI New demand spectrum 5% damped elastic spectrum Roof-top Displacement .