Business Legislation

Report on
CONSUMER PROTECTION ACT, 1986


Report by:
Ravi Gera
Ravi Motwani
Shreya Shukla
Sneha Lashkare
Siddharth Dhanpal
MBA Sem III
times business school
Vashi, Mumbai
Introduct|on


1he Consumer ÞroLecLlon AcL 1986 ls a soclal welfare leglslaLlon whlch was enacLed as a resulL
of wldespread consumer proLecLlon movemenLŦ 1he maln ob[ecL of Lhe leglslaLure ln Lhe
enacLmenL of Lhls acL ls Lo provlde for Lhe beLLer proLecLlon of Lhe lnLeresLs of Lhe consumer
and Lo make provlslons for esLabllshmenL of consumer counclls and oLher auLhorlLles for
seLLlemenL of consumer dlspuLes and maLLer LherewlLh connecLedŦ
ln order Lo promoLe and proLecL Lhe rlghLs and lnLeresLs of consumersţ quasl [udlclal machlnery
ls soughL Lo be seL up aL dlsLrlcLţ sLaLe and cenLral levelsŦ 1hese quasl [udlclal bodles have Lo
observe Lhe prlnclples of naLural [usLlce and have been empowered Lo glve rellefsţ of speclflc
naLure and also Lo lmpose penalLles for non compllance of Lhe orders glven by such bodlesŦ

1he maln ob[ecL of Lhese bodles ls Lo provlde speedy and slmple redressal Lo consumer
dlspuLesŦ lL ls one of Lhe benevolenL pleces of leglslaLlon lnLended Lo proLecL Lhe consumers aL
large from explolLaLlonŦ
now the act was enacted?
1he acL was passes ln Lok Sabha on 9
Lh
uecemberţ 1986 and 8a[ya Sabha on 10
Lh
uecemberţ
1986 and assenLed by Lhe ÞresldenL of lndla on 24
Lh
uecemberţ 1986 and was publlshed ln Lhe
CazeLLe of lndla on 26
Lh
uecemberţ 1986Ŧ
1hls acL was enacLed ln Lhe 37
Lh
year of Lhe 8epubllc of lndla and was amended from Llme Lo
Llme ln Lhe followlng years lŦeŦ 1991ţ 1993 and 2002Ŧ
Consumer Þrotect|on Act 1986 Ŵ An Introduct|on
1he acL came lnLo effecL flrsL on uecember 24ţ 1986 afLer belng passed by Lhe lndlan
ÞarllamenL and slgned by Lhe ÞresldenL of lndlaŦ lL was modlfled laLer on and Lhe modlflcaLlons
came lnLo effecL on March 13ţ 2003Ŧ lor all legal purposesţ you can read Lhe bare acL as
publlshed ln Lhe nCu8C webslLeŦ
1he acL ls appllcable ln all sLaLes ln lndla excepL ln !ammu and kashmlrŦ 1he acL makes
provlslons Lo lnclude boLh Langlble goods and lnLanglble servlces (henceforLh referred Lo as
producL) purchased from a Lrader or servlce provlder (henceforLh referred Lo as company)Ŧ 1he
acL can apply Lo any consumer who uses Lhe producL for nonŴcommerclal acLlvlLlesţ Lhe only
excepLlon belng use of lL Lo earn hls llvellhoodŦ ln oLher wordsţ Lhe acL excludes commerclal
cusLomers fullyţ buL lncludes lndlvldual domesLlc cusLomersţ groups of domesLlc cusLomersţ
socleLles and noLŴforŴproflL organlzaLlonsŦ

Consumer Þrotect|on Counc||s
1he acL provlslons Lhe cenLral and sLaLe governmenL Lo creaLe counclls aL Lhe cenLralţ sLaLe and
dlsLrlcL level Lo promoLe consumerlsmŦ 1hese consumer proLecLlon counclls have very llLLle
sLaLuLory powers and as such any dlrecL beneflL you can geL as a consumer from Lhese counclls
ls low Lo noneŦ AparL from a few excepLlonsţ mosL of Lhese counclls Loday have been reduced Lo
whlLe elephanL groups and groups for pollLlclansţ bureaucraLs and neLas Lo park Lhelr chamchas
ln! neverLhelessţ alLhough rareţ Lhere are sLlll a handful of consumer proLecLlon counclls ln
lndla LhaL acLlvely promoLe consumer proLecLlon acLlvlLlesŦ
Consumer D|sputes kedressa| Agenc|es
1hls secLlon of Lhe acL provldes for Lhe creaLlon of consumer courLsŦ 1he cenLral governmenL ls
glven Lhe responslblllLy Lo creaLe and malnLaln Lhe naLlonal Consumer ulspuLes 8edressal
Commlsslon ln new uelhlŦ 1he sLaLe governmenL ls glven Lhe responslblllLy Lo creaLe a SLaLe
Consumer ulspuLes 8edressal Commlsslon aL Lhe sLaLe level and a ulsLrlcL Consumer ulspuLes
8edressal lorum aL Lhe dlsLrlcL levelŦ

1he sLaLuLory powers and [urlsdlcLlon of Lhe Lhree are summarlzed hereŦ
Amount of
Compensat|on ¥ou
Seek
Court Þres|dent Cther Members
up Lo 8sŦ 20 Lakh
ulsLrlcL Consumer
ulspuLes 8edressal
lorum
MusL be quallfled Lo be a
ulsLrlcL !udgeŦ
1wo oLher
membersŤ one musL
be a woman
8sŦ 20 Lakh Lo 8sŦ 1
Crore
SLaLe Consumer
ulspuLes 8edressal
Commlsslon
MusL be a person who ls or
has been a !udge of a Plgh
CourLŦ
AL leasL Lwo oLher
membersŦ
Plgher Lhan 8sŦ 1
Crore
naLlonal Consumer
ulspuLes 8edressal
Commlsslon
MusL be a person who ls or
has been a !udge of Lhe
Supreme CourL
AL leasL four oLher
membersŦ
?ou cannoL flle a complalnL ln a consumer courL lf Lwo years have elapsed afLer Lhe cause of
acLlon (such as paymenL of a blll or Lhe lncldenL LhaL sLarLed Lhe dlspuLe wlLh Lhe company)


D|str|ct Consumer D|sputes kedressa| Iorum
1he forum ÞresldenL and members are dlrecLly / lndlrecLly appolnLed by Lhe sLaLe governmenL
and he shall be ellglble Lo be a dlsLrlcL [udgeŦ All members of Lhe courL can have a Lerm of up Lo
flve years or up Lo 63 yearsţ whlchever ls earllerŦ 1he ulsLrlcL Consumer lorum cannoL conducL
a hearlng wlLhouL Lhe ÞresldenL and aL leasL one oLher memberŦ
1hls consumer courL deals wlLh complalnLs where Lhe compensaLlon soughL ls |ess than twenty
|akhsŦ 1hls llmlL ls commonly known as Lhe ƌpecunlary [urlsdlcLlonƌ of Lhe ulsLrlcL Consumer
ulspuLes 8edressal lorumŦ lor more deLalls on how Lo flle a complalnL wlLh a ulsLrlcL Consumer
CourLţ please refer Lo our arLlcle abouL flllng complalnLs ln consumer courLsŦ
A ulsLrlcL Consumer lorum can hear cases for any company LhaL operaLes an offlce or a branch
ln Lhe dlsLrlcLŦ lL can also hear cases provlded Lhe acLual reason why you are flllng Lhe complalnL
(such as sale or malnLenance servlce LhaL led Lo Lhe defecL) parLlally or fully occurred wlLhln Lhe
dlsLrlcLŦ lor Lhls same reasonţ lL ls vL8? lMÞC81An1 LhaL you do noL do buslness wlLh any
company LhaL does noL have local represenLaLlon or one LhaL makes you slgn an agreemenL
regardlng Lhe [urlsdlcLlon of Lhe dlspuLeŦ
1he law provldes LhaL Lhe ulsLrlcL Consumer ulspuLes 8edressal lorum has Lhe same powers as
a clvll courL under Code of Clvll Þrocedure 1908ţ buL you may be surprlsed as Lo how much of
Lhls power ln law books acLually manlfesLs when puL Lo pracLlceŦ
1he ulsLrlcL Consumer lorum can order Lhe company Lo Lake Lhe followlng acLlons once lL hears
Lhe complalnL and decldes LhaL Lhe company ls aL faulLť
O CorrecL deflclencles ln Lhe producL Lo whaL Lhey clalm
O 8epalr defecL free of charges
O 8eplace producL wlLh slmllar or superlor producL
O lssue a full refund of Lhe prlce
O Þay compensaLlon for damages / cosLs / lnconvenlences
O JlLhdraw Lhe sale of Lhe producL alLogeLher
O ulsconLlnue or noL repeaL any unfalr Lrade pracLlce or Lhe resLrlcLlve Lrade pracLlce
O lssue correcLlve adverLlsemenL for any earller mlsrepresenLaLlon
lf you are noL saLlsfled wlLh Lhe verdlcL from Lhe ulsLrlcL Consumer CourLţ you can appeal ln Lhe
SLaLe Consumer ulspuLes 8edressal Commlsslon wlLhln a perlod of 30 daysŦ lf a verdlcL has been
glven agalnsL Lhe companyţ lL can appeal only afLer deposlLlng 30Ʒ of Lhe compensaLlon Lo be
pald Lo you or 8sŦ23000/Ŵţ whlchever ls lesserŦ


State Consumer D|sputes kedressa| Comm|ss|on
1he law provldes LhaL Lhe SLaLe Consumer Commlsslon funcLlon ln Lhe sLaLe caplLalţ buL Lhe
governmenL has Lhe powers Lo move lL as neededŦ 1he ÞresldenL of Lhe SLaLe Consumer
Commlsslon shall be or should have been a Plgh CourL [udge and should be appolnLed only
afLer consulLaLlon wlLh Lhe Chlef !usLlce of Lhe Plgh CourL wlLh Lhe sLaLes [urlsdlcLlonŦ 1he
remalnlng members of Lhe commlsslon are appolnLed by a commlLLee wlLh Lhe ÞresldenL of Lhe
SLaLe Consumer CourL as lLs chalrmanţ and Lhey can have a Lerm of up Lo flve years or up Lo 67
yearsţ whlchever ls earllerŦ
1he SLaLe Consumer ulspuLes 8edressal Commlsslon deals wlLh a pecunlary [urlsdlcLlon of only
Lhose complalnLs where Lhe compensaLlon soughL ls h|gher than twenty |akhs but |esser than
one croreŦ lor more deLalls on how Lo flle a complalnL wlLh a SLaLe Consumer CourLţ please
refer Lo our arLlcle abouL flllng complalnLs ln consumer courLsŦ
1he SLaLe Consumer lorum usually hears cases of Lhree Lypesť
1Ŧ Appeals from ulsLrlcL Consumer lorums
2Ŧ Cases agalnsL companles LhaL operaLes an offlce or a branch ln Lhe sLaLeŦ
3Ŧ Cases where Lhe acLual reason why you are flllng Lhe complalnL (such as slgnlng of an
agreemenL or paymenL of a blll) parLlally or fully occurred wlLhln Lhe sLaLeŦ
1he SLaLe Consumer CourL also has Lhe powers Lo Lransfer a case from one ulsLrlcL Consumer
lorum Lo anoLher lorum provlded Lhere ls such a requesL or lL ls ln Lhe lnLeresL of Lhe lawŦ
lf you are noL saLlsfled by Lhe verdlcL from Lhe SLaLe Consumer CourLţ you can appeal ln Lhe
naLlonal Consumer ulspuLes 8edressal Commlsslonţ wlLhln a perlod of 30 daysŦ lf a verdlcL has
been glven agalnsL Lhe companyţ lL can appeal only afLer deposlLlng 30Ʒ of Lhe compensaLlon
Lo be pald Lo you or 8sŦ33000/Ŵţ whlchever ls lesserŦ

-at|ona| Consumer D|sputes kedressa| Comm|ss|on
1he naLlonal Consumer CourL musL ordlnarlly be funcLlonlng ln new uelhl and ls preslded over
by a person who ls currenLly or has been ln Lhe pasL a [udge of Lhe Supreme CourLŦ 1he
ÞresldenL of Lhe naLlonal Consumer ulspuLes 8edressal Commlsslon (nCu8C) ls appolnLed by
Lhe CenLral CovernmenL afLer consulLaLlon wlLh Lhe Chlef !usLlce of lndlaŦ 1he naLlonal
Consumer Commlsslon has a mlnlmum of four oLher members and ls appolnLed by a commlLLee
chalred by a Supreme CourL [udge as recommended by Lhe Chlef !usLlce of lndlaŦ Members of
Lhe nCu8C can have a Lerm of up Lo flve years or up Lo 70 yearsţ whlchever ls earllerŦ
lf your complalnL seeks more than one crore rupees of compensaLlon from a companyţ Lhen
Lhe naLlonal Consumer Commlsslon has Lhe pecunlary [urlsdlcLlon over your complalnLŦ lor
more deLalls on how Lo flle a complalnL wlLh Lhe naLlonal Consumer CourLţ please refer Lo our
arLlcle abouL flllng complalnLs ln consumer courLsŦ 1he naLlonal Consumer CourL handles flve
Lypes of complalnLsť
O ComplalnLs LhaL has been soughL or need Lo be Lransferred from one SLaLe Consumer
Commlsslon Lo anoLher ln Lhe lnLeresL of [usLlceŦ
O Appeals from SLaLe Consumer ulspuLes 8edressal Commlsslons
O Consumer complalnLs LhaL occurred ln lndlaţ excepL ln Lhe SLaLe of !ammu and kashmlr
O Cases from SLaLe Consumer Commlsslons where Lhere has been accusaLlons or proof of
maLerlal lrregularlLy or lllegal acLlvlLles
O Cases where exŴparLe (where verdlcLs have been passed ln Lhe absence of elLher parLles)
orders have Lo be seL asldeŦ
lf you are noL saLlsfled by Lhe verdlcL from Lhe naLlonal Consumer CourLţ you can appeal ln Lhe
Supreme CourLţ wlLhln a perlod of 30 daysŦ lf a verdlcL has been glven agalnsL Lhe companyţ lL
can appeal only afLer deposlLlng 30Ʒ of Lhe compensaLlon Lo be pald Lo you or 8sŦ30000/Ŵţ
whlchever ls lesserŦ

Consumer Þrotect|on Act of 1986 Ŵ Summary
1he acL ln lLself ls rosy and seems omnlpoLenL Lo promoLe consumerlsm ln lndlaŦ 1he law sLaLes
LhaL Lhe consumer courLs have Lhe auLhorlLy slmllar Lo LhaL of a !udlclal MaglsLraLe of Lhe flrsL
class ln aLLachlng properLles and arresLlng persons ln case any of lLs verdlcLs are vlolaLed or noL
adheredŦ 8uL ln pracLlceţ Lhe law and Lhe consumer courL sysLem suffer from Lhe followlng
drawbacksť
O Seldom do companles pay heed Lo Lhe consumer courLŦ 1helr reporLsţ orders and
summons are very commonly lgnoredŦ As a resulLţ mosL consumer cases drag on
unnecessarlly wlLhouL any ouLcomeŦ
O Seldom do companles adhere Lo Lhe verdlcLŦ As a resulL once Lhe verdlcL comesţ
proceedlngs Lo execuLe Lhe verdlcL Lake even more Llme of Lhe complalnanLŦ
O Consumer courLs are noL known Lo be devold of corrupLlonţ llke oLher courLs ln our
counLryŦ
O Consumer courLs are overwhelmed and underfundedŦ 1he governmenL palnLs very rosy
sLaLlsLlcs LhaL 84Ʒ of cases ln naLlonal Consumer Commlsslonţ 77Ʒ of cases ln SLaLe
Commlsslon and 91Ʒ of cases ln ulsLrlcL Consumer lorums are dlsposedŦ Poweverţ lL
does noL Lell you how long lL Lakes Lo dlspose a caseţ nor how many cases are dlsposed
ln Lhe favor of Lhe consumerŦ Je would have Lo assume a very large amounL of Llme
and a very low percenLage as answersŦ
O Accordlng Lo Lhe Supreme CourL Lhere are 3Ŧ3 crore pendlng cases ln Lhe lndlan courLs
LodayŦ SLaLlsLlcallyţ lL could Lake 330 Lo 300 years Lo dlspose of Lhe cases pendlng ln
lndlaŦ Add Lo Lhls Lhe facL LhaL our governmenL ls lnefflclenL ln appolnLlng ÞresldenLs for
ulsLrlcL lorumsţ and creaLlngţ encouraglng and rellshlng bureaucraLlc delaysţ you would
be exLremely lucky lf you can geL your case dlsposed ln 3 yearsŦ
Poweverţ we do sLlll encourage you Lo flle complalnLs aL Lhe varlous consumer courLs as per Lhe
provlslons of Lhe Consumer ÞroLecLlon AcL of 1986ţ as alLhough a slow oneţ we Lhlnk of lL as a
sLarL on lndlaƌs progress Lowards consumerlsmŦ llnallyţ we encourage you Lo seek oLher
measures Lo flghL agalnsL anLlŴconsumer companles as explalned ln Lhe followlng arLlclesŦ
Consumer k|ghts
ln Lhe 20Lh cenLuryţ Lhe presence and lnfluence of Lhe markeL grew dramaLlcally ln consumer
llfeŦ Je began Lo purchase Lhlngs from Lhe markeL for a prlceŦ Soonţ mass producLlon and
lndusLrlal producLlon came lnLo belngţ glvlng Lhe consumer world an enLlrely new dlmenslonŦ
Pave you ever wondered how much urban consumers depend on Lhe markeL for fulfllmenL of
even Lhelr baslc needsŦ 1hls overŴdependence on Lhe markeL and Lhe lnherenL proflL moLlve ln
mass producLlon and sales has glven manufacLurersţ and dealers a good reason Lo explolL
consumersŦ As a consumerţ you would know how markeL producLs are consLanLly underŴwelghLţ
of lnferlor quallLy and do noL prescrlbe Lo quallLy sLandards speclfled by quallLyŴconLrol
agenclesŦ Consumers noL only do noL geL value for Lhelr money buL also ofLen have Lo suffer
losses and lnconvenlence due Lo markeL manlpulaLlonsŦ

1he 8 Consumer k|ghts
ln order Lo safeguard consumer lnLeresLţ 6 consumer rlghLs were lnlLlally envlsloned by
consumer rlghLs acLlvlsLs of Lhe JesLţ namelyť
O 8lghL Lo SafeLy
O 8lghL Lo lnformaLlon
O 8lghL Lo Cholce
O 8lghL Lo be Peard
O 1he 8lghL Lo 8edress
O 1he rlghL Lo consumer educaLlon
Consumer k|ghts and kespons|b|||t|es
1hese rlghLs were concepLuallzed ln Lhe developed worldƌs consumer conLexL where consumers
are wealLhy and compleLely dependenL on Lhe markeL Lo fullfll Lhelr needsŦ 1hese rlghLs had Lo
be redeflned keeplng ln mlnd Lhe reallLles of a developlng counLry llke lndlaŦ ConsequenLlyţ Lwo
very lmporLanL rlghLs were added vlzŦť
O 1he 8lghL Lo 8aslc needs and
O 1he rlghL Lo a healLhy and susLalned envlronmenLŦ
1hese Lwo rlghLs are very closely llnked wlLh Lhe reallLles of developlng counLrles where
envlronmenL plays a very lmporLanL role as a resource and supporLŴsLrucLure for Lhe peopleŦ ln
a counLry llke lndlaţ a large secLlon of Lhe populaLlon looks for food securlLyţ assured safe waLer
supplyţ shelLerţ educaLlon and healLh servlcesŦ MosL consumers relaLe very llLLle Lo lmporLed
goods sLacked ln supermarkeLs or for cholce among laLesL models of carsţ as ls Lhe case ln Lhe
developed worldŦ lor lndlaƌs 1 bllllon populaLlonţ food securlLy and a safe envlronmenL are
more presslng needs Lhan any oLher consumer opLlons and rlghLsŦ 1he developlng counLry
naLural resources also serve as a resource base for Lhe developed worldƌs lndusLrlal ouLpuLŦ

k|ght to 8as|c -eeds
Access Lo foodţ waLer and shelLer are Lhe basls of any consumerƌs llfeŦ JlLhouL Lhese
fundamenLal amenlLlesţ llfe cannoL exlsLŦ ln SepLember 2001ţ lndlaƌs sLock of foodgralns were
around 60 mllllon Lonnesţ yeL one Lhlrd of Lhe lndlan populaLlon llves below Lhe poverLy llne
and consumers ofLen go hungry or remaln severely malnourlshedţ leadlng Lo poor healLhŦ 1he
recenL sLarvaLlon deaLhs ln Crlssa are a case ln polnLŦ A very cruclal ob[ecLlve of Lhe
concepLuallsaLlon and exlsLence of consumer rlghLs ls Lo ensure LhaL consumers have an
assured food supplyţ safe and permanenL dwelllngsţ baslc amenlLles of llfe llke sanlLaLlon and
poLable waLerţ and power supplyŦ

urbanlsaLlon ls seen as a mark of developmenL buL for rural mlgranL populaLlonţ llvlng
condlLlons ln clLles ls very poorŦ 1he populaLlon of clLles ls growlng rapldly ln lndla and afLer
1988ţ Lhe percenLage of urban poor has been more Lhan LhaL of Lhe rural poorŦ Around 20 Lo 23
per cenL of Lhe urban households llve ln slumsţ makeŴshlfL colonles or refugee seLLlemenLs due
Lo nonŴavallablllLy of affordable and decenL hablLaL ln urban areasŦ Ŧ Accordlng Lo some
esLlmaLesţ ln urban areas aloneţ Lhere ls a houslng shorLage of 17 mllllon unlLsŦ 1hls has led Lo a
hablLaL crlsls ln lndlan clLlesŦ ln rural lndlaţ Lhe slLuaLlon ls equally badţ wlLh a large parL of Lhe
populaLlon sLlll llvlng ln makeŴshlfL dwelllngs and huLmenLŦ JlLh nonŴpermanenL houslng comes
lack of sanlLaLlon faclllLles and oLher amenlLles llke runnlng waLer and elecLrlclLy supplyŦ uue Lo
burgeonlng populaLlonţ mosL people do noL have access Lo dry LolleLs ln rural and urban areasŦ

Iood Secur|ty for Consumers
1he recenL deaLhs of poor people ln Crlssa due Lo sLarvaLlon ln AugusL 2001 have lndlcaLed LhaL
food securlLy ls sLlll a myLh of a secLlon of Lhe lndlan consumersŦ 1o solve Lhls food scarclLy
problemţ Lhe CovernmenL of lndla mooLed Lhe ÞuS (Þubllc ulsLrlbuLlon SysLem) Lo help reach
foodgraln Lo Lhe masses aL subsldlzed raLes Lhrough governmenLŴrun 'lalr Þrlce ShopsƌŦ 1here
are abouL 4Ŧ3 lakh lalr Þrlce Shops all over lndla of whlch 3Ŧ03 are ln rural areas and 0Ŧ94 ln
urban areasŦ Cn an average Lhere ls 1 ÞuS shop for every 2000 consumersŦ ?eLţ many parLs of
lndla sLlll suffer from food shorLagesŦ Þoor dlsLrlbuLlon and underŴuLlllsaLlon of food gralns has
led Lo arLlflclallyŴcreaLed food scarclLles ln Lhe counLryŦ ÞresenLlyţ Lhere are 60 mllllon Lonnes of
foodgraln ln Lerms of buffer sLock ln lndlan godownsŦ 1hls foodgraln ls roLLlng due Lo
unuLllsaLlon and lmproper sLorage faclllLlesŦ 1he need of Lhe hour ls Lo channellse Lhls sLock
Lowards needy consumers and offer Lhem 'food for workƌ programmesţ whlch wlll noL only glve
Lhem employmenL buL also moneyŦ 8esldes maklng sure LhaL Lhere ls enough food accesslble Lo
consumers aL all Llmesţ nuLrlLlon ls anoLher area whlch Lhe healLh of chlldren and Lhe
vulnerable secLlons of populaLlon ls aL sLakeŦ 1hls ls an area where consumers can Lake
responslblllLy for ensurlng LhaL quallLy ls added Lo Lhelr baslc food supplyŦ

k|ght to Safe Lnv|ronment
lor urban consumersţ envlronmenL means parksţ gardensţ and deLerloraLlng alr and waLer
quallLyŦ MosL urban areas are berefL of any wlldllfe and people are unaware of Lhe blodlverslLy
around LhemŦ Cn Lhe oLher handţ rural consumers rely on Lhelr envlronmenL for fulfllmenL of
Lhelr baslc needsŦ

1he need for envlronmenLal conservaLlon ls seen as a necessary defence agalnsL deLerloraLlng
quallLy of llfe worldŴwldeŦ Je are all vlcLlms of conLamlnaLed food and waLer supplyţ pesLlcldeŴ
rldden foodţ adulLeraLed mllk and choklng exhausL fumes emlLLlng from vehlclesŦ Accordlng Lo a
Jorld 8ank reporLţ lndla ls belng pushed back due Lo lLs hlgh envlronmenLal cosLsŦ Je lose
around 8s 24ţ300 crores every year ln Lerms of alr and waLer polluLlon aloneŦ lf you llve ln a clLyţ
you musL have experlenced alr and waLer polluLlon aL some polnL of LlmeŦ Chlldren ofLen fall lll
due Lo polluLed envlronmenLsţ lL leads Lo lncreased healLh cosLs and dlscomforL for consumersŦ
valuable resources and manŴdays are losL due Lo polluLed envlronmenL and llvlng condlLlonsŦ
Consumers need Lo undersLand LhaL only a safe envlronmenL can ensure Lhe fulfllmenL of Lhelr
consumer rlghLsŦ

Internat|ona| Standards for Safeguard|ng k|ght to Safe Lnv|ronment
Consumers lnLernaLlonal (a nodal agency of consumer organlsaLlons from all over Lhe world)
has made cerLaln guldellnes for ensurlng consumersƌ rlghL Lo safe envlronmenLŦConsumers
should be proLecLed from envlronmenLal polluLlon byť
O ÞromoLlng Lhe use of producLs whlch are envlronmenLally susLalnableŦ
O Lncouraglng recycllng
O 8equlrlng envlronmenLally dangerous producLs Lo carry approprlaLe warnlngs and
lnsLrucLlons for safe use and dlsposalŦ
ÞromoLe Lhe use of nonŴLoxlc producLs byť
O 8alslng consumer awareness of alLernaLlves Lo Loxlc producLs
O LsLabllshlng procedures Lo ensure LhaL producLs banned overseas do noL enLer naLlonal
markeLsŦ
O Lnsure LhaL Lhe soclal lmpacLs of polluLlon are mlnlmlsedŦ
O ÞromoLe eLhlcalţ soclally and envlronmenLally responslble pracLlces by producers and
suppllers of goods and servlcesŦ
8ural consumers are lnvarlably closer Lo Lhelr envlronmenL Lhan urban consumersŦ 1helr
llvellhoods and way of llfe depend on Lhe envlronmenL around LhemŦ 1helr flrewood and
sources of energy come from Lreesţ manure for flelds comes from llvesLockţ waLer ls procured
elLher from underground waLer supply or from rlversţ Lhe crops heavlly depend on annual
ralnfallţ even pesLlcldes for safeguardlng of crops and sLorage also come from Lrees llke neemŦ
ln shorLţ Lhe rural llfe revolves around naLural resourcesŦ lor Lhemţ Lhls dependence on Lhe
envlronmenL ls compleLe and Lhey have a sLake ln lLs preservaLlonţ wheLher lL ls for bulldlng
Lhelr housesţ fodder for Lhelr caLLle eLcŦ

k|ght to Safety
Consumer rlghL Lo safeLy ls as vasL ln lLs purvlew as Lhe markeL reach lLselfŦ lL applles Lo all
posslble consumpLlon paLLerns and Lo all goods and servlcesŦ ln Lhe conLexL of Lhe new markeL
economy and rapld Lechnologlcal advances affecLlng Lhe markeLţ Lhe rlghL Lo safeLy has become
a preŴrequlslLe quallLy ln all producLs and servlcesŦ lor eŦgŦ some lndlan producLs carry Lhe lSl
markţ whlch ls a symbol of saLlsfacLory quallLy of a producLŦ Slmllarlyţ Lhe lÞC and ACMA8k
symbollse sLandard quallLy of food producLsŦ 1he markeL has for long made consumers belleve
LhaL by consumlng packaged food or mlneral waLerţ consumers can safeguard Lhelr healLhŦ 1hls
noLlon has been proved wrong Llme and agaln due Lo rampanL food adulLeraLlon ln markeL
producLsŦ 8lghL Lo food safeLy ls an lmporLanL consumer rlghL slnce lL dlrecLly affecLs Lhe healLh
and quallLy of llfe of consumersŦ

Larllerţ Lhe lnLerpreLaLlon of Lhe rlghL Lo safeLy was llmlLed Lo elecLronlc producLs and oLher
such producLsŦ nowţ lLs deflnlLlon has expanded a loL Lo lnclude safeLy aspecLs of new
Lechnologles llke CM foodţ food labelllngţ chemlcal lngredlenLs ln food producLs eLcŦ ln Lodayƌs
scenarlo of globallsaLlonţ consumers have no conLrol over where Lhe producLs or commodlLles
Lhey useţ come fromŦ lor lnsLanceţ Lhe chocolaLes or syrups we consumeţ may be
manufacLured ln counLrles as far as Lhe uŦSŦ or AusLrallaŦ Consumers ln lndla would have no
conLrol over or knowledge of Lhe manufacLurlng pracLlces of Lhose counLrles and wlll have Lo
rely compleLely on lmporL regulaLlons of Lhe lndlan governmenL and food labelllngŦ 1hls makes
Lhe consumer rlghL Lo safeLy a very lmporLanL and crlLlcal lssue for consumersŦ

GM Iood Ŵ Safe or -o?
Larllerţ rlghL Lo safeLy meanL LhaL a consumer should be proLecLed from healLh rlsks of uslng
elecLronlc producLs llke lronsţ plugsţ or oLher such LhlngsŦ 1echnologlcal changes have however
wldened Lhe amblL of Lhls consumer rlghLŦ 1he rlghL Lo safeLy has now expanded ln purvlew Lo
lnclude CM foodŦ CM food can be lood safeLy should ensure LhaL consumer has no shorLŴLerm
or longŴLerm adverse healLh effecLs due Lo consumpLlon of CM foodŦ CeneLlcally Modlfled
organlsms can be deflned as 'organlsms produced as a resulL of 8loLechnologlcal changes or
geneLlc englneerlngƌŦ CM Lechnology ls suspecL because maklng changes ln Lhe geneLlc code
alLers Lhe enLlre sequence of Lhe maLerlal and LhaL mlghL lead Lo unlnLended developmenL of
many undeslrable LralLsŦ lor eŦgŦ A vlrus whlle ln conLacL wlLh a gene reslsLanL planL may
acqulre Lhe geneLlc maLerlal ( dlsease reslsLanL quallLy) and may become even more dangerousŦ
lf any such vlrus becomes vlrulenLţ lL may desLroy deslrable planL specles and creaLe serlous
lmbalance ln Lhe glven ecoŴsysLemŦ Alsoţ lf a consumer eaLs CM food producLsţ s/he may
develop reslsLance Lo anLlŴbloLlcs or allergles ln cerLaln casesŦ



k|ght to Informat|on
8lghL Lo lnformaLlon means Lhe rlghL Lo be glven Lhe facLs needed Lo make an lnformed cholce
or declslon abouL facLors llke quallLyţ quanLlLyţ poLencyţ purlLy sLandards and prlce of producL
or servlceŦ 1he rlghL Lo lnformaLlon now goes beyond avoldlng decepLlon and proLecLlon agalnsL
mlsleadlng adverLlslngţ lmproper labelllng and oLher pracLlcesŦ lor eŦgŦ when you buy a producL
or uLlllse a servlceţ you should be lnformed abouL a) how Lo consume a producL b) Lhe adverse
healLh effecLs of lLs consumpLlon c) JheLher Lhe lngredlenLs used are envlronmenLŴ frlendly or
noL eLc Ŧuue Lo Lhe ever lncreaslng lnfluence of Lhe markeL and Lhe ever changlng scene wlLh
prlce wars and hardŴsell Lechnlquesţ Lhe consumerƌs rlghL Lo lnformaLlon becomes even more
lmporLanLŦ 1he rlghL Lo lnformaLlon means much more Lhan slmple dlsclosure of Lhe producLƌs
welghL or prlceŦ A consumer has Lhe rlghL Lo know how Lhe producL has been preparedţ
wheLher lL has been LesLed or anlmals or noLţ lf envlronmenLallyŴsound Lechnlques and
resources have been used ln lLs producLlon processesţ whaL klnds of chemlcals are used lnLo lLs
manufacLurlng and whaL could be Lhelr lmpacL on consumer healLhŦ Clearlyţ a consumer has Lo
conslder a loL of facLors before s/he buys a producLŦ

ldeallyţ a consumer should have knowledge of Lhe enLlre 'cradle Lo graveƌ [ourney of Lhe
producL Lo deLermlne wheLher lLs safe and beneflclal for use or noŦ 1he 'cradle Lo grave [ourneyƌ
refers Lo Lhe processes a producL goes LhroughŴ from Lhe Llme of lL belng made ouL of raw
maLerlalţ Lhe processes of lLs mouldlng lnLo lLs flnal shapeţ LransporLaLlonţ labourţ lngredlenLs
usedţ Lo Lhe form ln whlch lL ends up on markeL shelvesŦ lL ls only when a consumer ls aware of
Lhe hlsLory of Lhe producL LhaL he can make lnformed cholcesŦ An example of Lhls ls Lhe CM
food conLroversyŦ CM food ls promoLed as Lhe answer Lo worldƌs hunger and malnuLrlLlon buL
lLs safeLy for consumers and Lhe envlronmenL ls yeL Lo be provedŦ uesplLe sLrong lobbylng by
proŴCM groups and Lhe markeLţ consumers ln Lurope have campalgned effecLlvely agalnsL Lhe
enLry of CM food lnLo Lhelr food chaln and markeLsŦ 1here are lnformaLlon and publlclLy
campalgns LhaL have made consumers rally behlnd a common consumer sLand agalnsL CM
foodŦ As a resulLţ Lhe governmenLs and Lhe Luropean unlon have placed sLrlcL resLrlcLlons on
Lhe Lrlal uses of CM Lechnology ln Lhe markeL or ln agrlculLureŦ


k|ght to Cho|ce
ulfferenL lnLeresLs can lnLerpreL Lhe rlghL Lo cholce ln dlfferenL waysŦ lor Lhe developed world
consumersţ rlghL Lo cholce LranslaLes lnLo more and a varleLy of producLs Lo choose fromŦ lor
eŦgŦ Amerlcan consumers can choose from 23ţ000 super markeL lLemsţ 200 klnds of cerealsţ and
read 11ţ092 magazlnesŦ 1hls klnd of cholce ofLen glves consumers a sense of wellŴbelng and
safeLy and encourages Lhem Lo belleve LhaL abundance leads Lo good llvlngŦ 1he markeL also
perpeLuaLes Lhls llne of LhoughL by adverLlslng and promoLlon glmmlcksŦ 1he rlghL Lo cholce has
a very dlfferenL deflnlLlon ln developlng counLrlesŦ lor a populaLlon dependenL on Lhe
envlronmenL for llvellhoodţ Lhe rlghL Lo cholce and oLher consumer rlghLs need a shlfL ln focusŦ
1he focus needs Lo be on cholce of good pracLlces llke organlc farmlng and conservaLlon of
naLural herlLageŦ ln clLlesţ people should be able Lo choose cleaner and safer ways of
LransporLaLlon over polluLlng onesŦ Slmllarlyţ healLhy and fresh food should be chosen over [unk
foodŦ 1he rlghL Lo choose musL essenLlally be a consumerƌs rlghL Lo choose a safe and healLhy
producL of good quallLy over an unsafe or defecLlve producLŦ 1hls can glve a consumer lmmense
leverage noL [usL Lo choose producLs LhaL are safe buL also Lo lnfluence Lhe pracLlces adopLed
by Lhe markeLŦ

1he consumer has been made Lo belleve LhaL more varleLles of Lhe same producL on Lhe markeL
shelves glve hlm or her Lhe rlghL Lo choose whaL s/he wanLsŦ ln reallLyţ more varleLles of Lhe
same producL [usL encourages false adverLlslng clalms and glve Lhe consumer a false sense of
cholceŦ varlous klnds of shampoosţ soapsţ and oLher cosmeLlcs dlffer merely ln colourţ smell
and brand lmageŦ Lach one of Lhem clalms oneŴupmanshlp over Lhe oLher buL glves Lhe
consumer very llLLle value for money or a beLLer quallLy producLŦ


k|ght to be neard
1he rlghL Lo be heard means LhaL consumers should be allowed Lo volce Lhelr oplnlons and
grlevances aL approprlaLe foraŦ lor eŦgŦ lf you have been cheaLed ln Lhe markeL place or
deprlved of Lhe rlghL quallLy of servlceţ your complalnL should be heard and glven due aLLenLlon
by Lhe auLhorlLlesŦ Consumers should also have a rlghL Lo volce Lhelr oplnlon when rules and
regulaLlons perLalnlng Lo Lhem are belng formulaLedţ llke Lhe recenL amendmenLs ln Lhe
Consumer ÞroLecLlon AcLŦ 1he rlghL Lo be heard holds speclal slgnlflcance ln Lhe lndlan conLexL
because lndlan consumers are largely unaware of Lhelr rlghLs and passlvely accepL Lhelr
vlolaLlonŦ Lven when Lhey have legal recourseţ Lhey prefer noL Lo use lL for fear of geLLlng
embrolled ln legal complexlLlesŦ

k|ght to kedress
CompeLlLlon ls Lhe byŴproducL of Lhe markeL economyŦ Lverydayţ manufacLurers are
dlscoverlng newer ways of cheaLlng and duplng consumersŦ unscrupulous markeL pracLlces are
flndlng Lhelr way lnLo consumer homesţ vlolaLlng consumer rlghLs and [eopardlslng Lhelr safeLyŦ
lL ls Lo proLecL consumer lnLeresLs LhaL consumers have been glven Lhe rlghL Lo obLaln redressŦ
ln lndlaţ we have a redress machlnery called Consumer CourLs consLlLuLed under Lhe Consumer
ÞroLecLlon AcL (1986)ţ funcLlonlng aL naLlonal sLaLe and dlsLrlcL levelsŦ 8uL lL has noL been made
compleLe use of under due Lo lack of awareness of baslc consumer rlghLs among consumers
LhemselvesŦ

Jhlle ln Lhe developed worldţ rlghL Lo redress ls perhaps Lhe mosL commonly exerclsed
consumer rlghLţ ln developlng counLrlesţ consumers are sLlll wary of geLLlng lnvolved ln legal
redress sysLemŦ 1here are consumer courLs ln lndla where any consumer can lodge a case lf
s/he Lhlnks he or she has been cheaLedŦ 1he deLalls of how Lo lodge a complalnL have been
explalned elsewhere ln Lhe manualŦ

k|ght to Consumer Lducat|on
Consumer educaLlon empowers consumers Lo exerclse Lhelr consumer rlghLsŦ lL ls perhaps Lhe
slngle mosL powerful Lool LhaL can Lake consumers from Lhelr presenL dlsadvanLageous poslLlon
Lo one of sLrengLh ln Lhe markeLplaceŦ Consumer educaLlon ls dynamlcţ parLlclpaLory and ls
mosLly acqulred by handsŴon and pracLlcal experlenceŦ lor lnsLanceţ a woman who makes
purchase declslons for Lhe household and does Lhe acLual buylng ln Lhe markeLplace would be
more educaLed abouL markeL condlLlons and 'besL buysƌ Lhan a person who educaLes hlmself
abouL Lhe markeL wlLh Lhe help of newspapers or LelevlslonŦ Alsoţ Lodayţ lL ls noL [usL Lhe
markeL or producLs LhaL a consumer needs Lo educaLe hlmself abouL buL s/he also needs Lo
know abouL company proflleţ governmenL pollcles and lnLroducLlon of new LechnologyŦ

1he pharmaceuLlcal lndusLry ls one such exampleŦ lndlaţ wlLh lLs 1 bllllon populaLlon and largely
uneducaLed consumersţ ls a very lucraLlve markeL for Lhls lndusLryŦ 1he pharmaceuLlcal
lndusLryţ Lo boosL lLs salesţ offers free samples of medlclnesţ freeblesţ and even free luxury
holldays Lo physlclans Lo lnfluence Lhem Lo use Lhelr brands and glve Lhem preference over
oLher brand namesŦ 1here have been many lnsLances when drugs banned ln counLrles llke uSţ
have been prescrlbed Lo lndlan consumers and are readlly avallable as overŴLheŴcounLer drugsŦ
lL ls a sad example of gross vlolaLlon of consumer LrusL by medlcal pracLlLlonersŦ 1hls slLuaLlon ls
rampanL noL [usL ln rural areas buL also among educaLed urban consumersŦ 1he reason why Lhe
markeLţ ln connlvance wlLh physlclansţ ls able Lo explolL consumers ls LhaL lndlan consumers are
noL aware of Lhe prevalllng slLuaLlon and do noL keep Lhemselves abreasL wlLh laLesL
developmenLs Laklng place around LhemŦ Consumer educaLlon can play a cruclal role ln
proLecLlng consumers agalnsL such dangersŦ ln Lhe lndlan conLexLţ susLalnablllLy and LradlLlonal
knowledge can play a vlLal role ln empowerlng consumers buL consumers are unable Lo connecL
Lo Lhelr knowledge baseŦ Consumer educaLlon can re[oln Lhe broken llnk and make LradlLlonal
knowledge accesslble Lo consumers agalnŦ


Consumer kespons|b|||ty
Jhlle we all llke Lo know abouL our rlghLs and exerclse Lhemţ we hardly ever accord Lhe same
lmporLance and urgency Lo our consumer responslblllLlesŦ Consumer rlghLs and responslblllLles
are lnLerLwlned LogeLher and wlLhouL sharlng consumer responslblllLyţ consumers wlll flnd lL
very dlfflculL Lo en[oy Lhelr rlghLs on a longŴLerm baslsŦ

Consumers need Lo Lread cauLlously ln Lhe markeL placeŦ Jhlle buylng a producLţ ask yourself
Lhese quesLlons ť
O uo you really need Lhls producL?
O lor how long would you llke Lo use lL? Jlll lL lasL as long as you would llke lL Lo?
O JhaL are Lhe healLh fallouL of LhaL producL? lf lL ls a food producLţ does lL glve you any
healLh beneflLs? Check Lhe labelllng of Lhe producL Lo see Lhe nuLrlLlonal charL of Lhe
producLŦ
?ou can also empower yourself by knowlng Lhe lawŦ lor eŦgŦţ dld you know LhaL lSl mark on
boLLled mlneral waLer has been made mandaLory by Lhe governmenL and now labelllng of nonŴ
vegeLarlan lngredlenL ln food producLs wlll also mandaLory for Lhe lndusLry?

Consumer responslblllLy can play a very lmporLanL role ln noL only checklng Lhe markeL buL also
ln resLrlcLlng unnecessary consumpLlonŦ lL ls noL Lhe sole responslblllLy of Lhe markeL or of Lhe
governmenL Lo provlde consumers wlLh deLalled lnformaLlonŦ A consumerţ on hls parLţ musL
make every efforL Lo lnform hlmself of Lhe producL or servlceŦ lor exampleţ lf a consumer
consumes a healLh producLţ he musL make efforLs Lo lnform hlmself beforehand abouL lLs
posslble sldeŴeffecLsţ and musL also exerclse cauLlon regardlng hls eaLlng hablLsţ dleL and
physlcal exerclseţ Lo Lake full advanLage of Lhe producLŦ


kespons|b|||ty towards safe waste d|sposa|
MosL ofLen we consume wlLhouL sparlng any LhoughL for whaLƌs golng Lo be lefL behlnd as
wasLeŦ More and more percenLage of wasLe generaLed ln urban areas Loday conslsLs of nonŴ
blodegradable wasLeŦ urban consumers are maklng use of plasLlcţ paper and cardboard
packaglngţ dlsposables baLLerlesţ plasLlc LhrowŴaway pensţ use and Lhrow napples ţempLy cans
eLc are becomlng a common feaLure of an urban dusLblnŦ lndlaƌs urban populaLlon ls around
300 mllllonŦ 8y 2011ţ Lhe LoLal quanLlLy of solld wasLe generaLed ln urban areas ls expecLed Lo
cross 36 mllllon Lonnesţ creaLlng a wasLe managemenL crlsls for urban lndlaŦ Consumers need
Lo become accounLable for Lhelr consumpLlon paLLerns and Lhelr serlous envlronmenLal and
economlc lmpllcaLlonsŦ 1he 4 8s of consumpLlon (8educeţ 8ecycleţ 8efuse and 8euse) are noL
[usL a consumerƌs prerogaLlve buL also hls consumer responslblllLyŦ

kespons|b|||ty to endorse safer products· Lco|abe|||ng
LcoŴfrlendllness ls an lmporLanL crlLerlon ln [udglng a producLƌs feaslblllLyŦ lL ls a way of
assesslng how much damage a producL has caused Lo Lhe envlronmenLŦ 'LcoŴmarkƌ ls one way
of knowlng whlch producLs conform Lo envlronmenLal sLandards and are more envrlonmenLŴ
frlendly Lhan oLhersŦ Lcolabelllng ls a meLhodology pracLlsed by many counLrles ln Lhe worldţ
lncludlng lndlaŦ 1he lndlan governmenL has formulaLed a scheme whereby some caLegorles of
producLs are awarded Lhe 'Lcomarkƌ lf Lhey conform Lo cerLaln sLandards seL by Lhe MlnlsLry of
LnvlronmenL and loresLsŦ unforLunaLelyţ ln lndlaţ Lhe scheme has noL Laken off due Lo
consumer apaLhy and lack of responseŦ 1he markeL has manlpulaLed Lhls slLuaLlon Lo lobby wlLh
Lhe governmenL Lo make ecolabelllng a volunLary schemeţ whlch wlll allow manufacLurers Lo
dlsclose and cover lnformaLlon aL wlllŦ


¥oung Consumers and Consumer kespons|b|||ty
Chlldrenţ Leenagers and youLh consLlLuLe a very lmporLanL consumer segmenL for Lhe markeLŦ
1helr consumpLlon hablLs are unlque and Lhelr purchase declslons are based on popular Lrendsţ
brand lmageţ use of new Lechnologyţ flavour of food producLsţ and sLyleŦ1he markeL also
reallses LhaL young consumers have a propenslLy Lo consumer [unk food and prefer Lhem over
LradlLlonal forms of foodŦ 1hls characLerlsLlc ls explolLed by Lhe markeL by assoclaLlng
convenlence and a brand lmage wlLh [unk food llke colasţ plzzasţ and fasLŴfood [olnLsŦ

1here are Lhree ma[or brands of LooLhpasLe ln lndlaţ vlzŦ ColgaLeţ ÞepsodenL and Close upŦ All
Lhree of Lhem compeLe wlLh each oLher Lo capLure maxlmum markeL shareŦ ln order Lo achleve
Lhlsţ Lhey noL only LargeL chlldren as consumers buL also feaLure Lhem ln Lhelr adverLlsemenLs
Lo aLLracL oLher young consumersŦ ColgaLeţ for eŦgŦţ LargeLs young chlldren ln Lhe age group of 3
Lo 12 and offers free carLoon bookleLs along wlLh LooLhpasLesŦ ÞepsodenL vles for Lhe same
consumer segmenL and deplcLs some chlldren rellshlng snacksţ confecLlonery and sweeLsţ whlle
oLhers are scolded by Lhelr moLhers for havlng done Lhe same LhlngŦ 1hls adverLlsemenL makes
chlldren belleve LhaL consumers who use ÞepsodenL are lmmune Lo any LooLh decay because of
Lhe superlor quallLy of Lhe producLŦ 1hls clalm ls unauLhenLlcaLed and aLLempLs Lo mlslead
chlldrenŦ

Close upţ on Lhe oLher handţ does noL percelve chlldren as lLs LargeL audlenceŦ lnsLeadţ lL
LargeLs Leenagers and Lhe youLhŦ lL creaLes a brand lmage of confldence and popularlLy for
young consumers beLween Lhe age group of 16Ŵ30Ŧ lLs adverLlsemenLs consLanLly feaLure
successful frlendshlps and romances beLween CloseŴup usersŦ

Jomen Consumers
Jomen consumers noL only consLlLuLe 30Ʒ of Lhe LoLal consumer populaLlon buL also make
80Ʒ of all purchase declslonsŦ 1hey are belng speclflcally LargeLed by Lhe markeL because of
Lhelr growlng purchaslng power and Lhelr 'worklngŴwomanƌ sLaLusŦ nowţ women have Lhe dual
role of famllyŴmakers and work professlonals Lo playŦ As a resulLţ Lhey have less Llmeţ lncreased
pressures and are slowly belng deŴllnked from Lhelr LradlLlonal knowledge bankŦ 1he markeL
Lakes advanLage of Lhls slLuaLlon by offerlng Lo women lnsLanL servlces and producLsţ llke fasLŴ
foodţ 'LwoŴmlnuLeƌ snacksţ and refrlgeraLors and washlng machlnes wlLh supposedly beLLer
LechnologlesŦ

Jomen consumers have Lhe responslblllLy of chooslng producLs LhaL are noL [usL convenlenL
buL also safe Lo use and ecoŴfrlendlyŦ 1hey musL evaluaLe Lhe nuLrlLlon conLenL of food producLs
before buylng Lhem and welghL Lhelr quallLy wlLh LradlLlonal foods LhaL are lessŴexpenslveţ have
beLLer nuLrlLlonal scores and consume less resources llke packaglng and LransporLaLlonŦ

Case Study 1ť
lnLernaLlonal banklng ma[or ClLl 8ank has been lmposed a flne of 8s 30ţ000 by Lhe counLry's
apex consumer forum for flllng ºmerlLless" peLlLlons agalnsL lower consumer fora order asklng
lL Lo pay 8s 1Ŧ80 lakh Lo one of lLs car loan cusLomersŦ
1he naLlonal Consumer ulspuLe 8edressal Commlsslon dlsmlssed ClLy 8ank's plea challenglng
Crlssa SLaLe Consumer Commlsslon orderţ saylng lL has come before Lhe nCu8C ºLo cover up"
lLs own ºfaulLs and negllgenL acLs" ln belaLedly challenglng Lhe dlsLrlcL consumer forum orderţ
whlch had dlrecLed Lhe bank Lo pay 8s 1Ŧ80 lakh Lo lLs car loan cusLomerŦ Jhlle lmposlng
penalLy on Lhe bankţ !usLlce v 8 CupLa sald Lhe sLaLe consumer commlsslon had rlghLly
dlsmlssed lLs appeal agalnsL Lhe dlsLrlcL consumer forum as lL had flled lL afLer a delay of more
Lhan 3 yearsŦ
ºlL ls well seLLled LhaL no lenlency should be shown Lo such llLlganLsţ who ln order Lo cover up
Lhelr own faulL and negllgence goes on flllng merlLless peLlLlons ln dlfferenL foraţ" Lhe nCu8C
saldŦ ºAs Lhe Lwo fora below have glven deLalled and reasoned orders whlch do noL call for any
lnLerference nor Lhey suffer from any lnflrmlLy or erroneous exerclse of [urlsdlcLlonţ Lhe presenL
peLlLlon ls dlsmlssed wlLh punlLlve cosLs of 8s 30ţ000ţ" lL saldŦ
ClLl 8ank had approached Lhe apex consumer forum agalnsL Lhe order of Crlssa consumer
forum whlch had declded noL Lo hear lLs plea afLer a dlsLrlcL consumer forum dlrecLed Lhe bank
Lo pay 8s 1Ŧ8 lakh Lo Crlssa buslnessman Þradeep kumar ÞaLrlŦ ÞaLrl had purchased a car on a
loan from Lhe ClLl 8ank ln 2006 and was Lo pay 60 LMls vla posLŴdaLed chequesŦ Pe had moved
Lhe dlsLrlcL forum alleglng LhaL Lhe bank dld noL furnlsh accounLs deLalls Lo hlm as Lo wheLher
Lhere ls any ouLsLandlng dues and Lhe vehlcle was ºunŴunauLhorlsedly repossessed" ln CcLober
10ţ 2006Ŧ
1he bank ln lLs reply sald some posLŴdaLed cheques lssued by Lhe cusLomer had bounced due Lo
whlch lnsLallmenLs were noL reallsedŦ 1he bank had reŴsold Lhe vehlcle Lo anoLher person ln
ChhaLLlsgarh a monLh laLerŦ 1he dlsLrlcL forum ln !anuary 2008 ordered ClLl 8ank Lo refund 8s
1Ŧ74 lakh Lo Lhe complalnanL and also pay 8s 3ţ000 as ºcompensaLlon for menLal agony" and 8s
1ţ000 as llLlgaLlon cosLŦ
AfLer Lhe sLaLe consumer commlsslon dlsmlssed Lhe bank's appeal agalnsL Lhe dlsLrlcL forum
order on Lhe grounds of delayţ lL moved nCu8C clalmlng lL had been followlng Lhe case ln Lhe
dlsLrlcL forum buL lLs lawyer dld noL lnform lL as Lo when lL gave Lhe orderŦ
1he nCu8Cţ howeverţ re[ecLed lLs plea saylng ClLl 8ank ls a mulLlŴnaLlonal bank havlng large
number of employees ln lLs legal deparLmenL and lL dld noL flle Lhe appeal ln Llme only due Lo
ºnegllgence"Ŧ(Þ1l)

keferencesť
1) wwwŦconsumerŦorg
2) wwwŦconsumer behavlourŦcom
3) wwwŦconsumerŦnlcŦln
4) wwwŦauLhersLreamŦcom
3) Caseť hLLpť//wwwŦrLlLodayŦcom/deLallarLlcleŦphp?arLlcleldƹ1327

° n°   @ .

°¾¯ 9 n°n¾f¾nf €f  –¾f°nf¾ °fn f¾f ¾ € ¾½ f n°¾¯ ½ n°¯ ¯ ° @ ¯f° © n€  –¾f °  °fn¯ °€¾fn¾½ €   ½ n°€ °  ¾¾€ n°¾¯  f° ¯f ½¾°¾€ ¾f ¾¯ °€n°¾¯ n°n¾f°  f ¾€ ¾  ¯ °€n°¾¯  ¾½ ¾f° ¯f   n°° n  ° ½¯ f° ½ n –¾f° °  ¾¾€n°¾¯ ¾ f¾© nf¯fn°  ¾¾– ¾ ½f ¾n ¾f f° n °f  ¾ @ ¾ f¾© nf   ¾f   ¾   ½°n½ ¾€°ff©¾n f° f  ° ¯½  –   €¾ €¾½ n€n °f f° f¾¯½¾ ½ °f ¾€°°n¯½f°n €  ¾– ° ¾n   ¾   @ ¯f° © n€ ¾    ¾¾½ ¾½ f° ¾¯½   ¾¾fn°¾¯  ¾½ ¾ ¾° €  °  °½ n ¾€ –¾f°° ° ½ n n°¾¯ ¾f f– €¯ ½f°   fnf¾ °fn " @ fnf¾½f¾¾ ¾°f f° n ¯  f° f©ff f° n ¯   f° f¾¾ °   9 ¾ °€° f° n ¯  f° f¾½ ¾ °  f  €° f° n ¯    @¾fnf¾ °fn °  f€  ½ n€° ff° f¾f¯ ° €¯¯  ¯ ° €°– f¾  f°   .

fn  f –f½½¾ ¾ nf° f   f fnf¾ ½ ¾ ° -.°¾¯ 9 n°n °° n° @ fnnf¯ ° €€ n€¾° n ¯  f€  °–½f¾¾   ° f° 9ff¯ °f° ¾–°   9 ¾ °€° f f¾¯ € f °f°  ¯ €nf°¾ nf¯ ° €€ n°.

.

 ¾  @ fn¾f½½nf  °f¾f ¾°° f n ½°f¯¯f° f¾¯ @ fn¯f ¾ ½¾°¾°n  f°–  – ¾f° °f°–  ¾ n ¾% °n € €  f¾ ½ n%½nf¾ €¯ff ¾ n ½ % °n € €  f¾n¯½f°% @  fnnf°f½½f°n°¾¯ ¾ ¾ ½ n€°° n¯¯ nffn ¾  ° n ½° °–¾ € f°¾  °  ¾  fn n ¾n¯¯ nf n¾¯ ¾€  °n ¾°  f ¯ ¾nn¾¯ ¾ –½¾€ ¯ ¾nn¾¯ ¾  ¾n  ¾f° ° € ½€–f°f°¾  .

 .

°¾¯ 9 n°.

°n¾ @ fn½¾°¾ n °ff° ¾f – °¯ °n f n°n¾f n °f ¾f f°  ¾n  ½¯ n°¾¯ ¾¯ @ ¾ n°¾¯ ½ n°n°n¾f    ¾f½ ¾f° f¾¾nf°  n ° €nf°– f¾fn°¾¯ €¯ ¾ n°n¾ ¾°° ½f€¯f€  n ½°¾ ¯¾€ ¾ n°n¾ ff  ° n     ½f°–½¾f° –½¾€½nf°¾   fnf¾f° ° f¾½f nf¯nf¾ °"-    ¾¾ f–f   f ¾ff° €€n°¾¯ ½ n°n°n¾° ° fffn ½¯ n°¾¯ ½ n°fn ¾  .

°¾¯ ¾½ ¾  ¾¾f– °n ¾ @¾¾ n°€ fn½ ¾€ n f°€n°¾¯ n¾ @ n °f– °¯ °¾ – °  ¾½°¾ n f f° ¯f°f° -f°f.

°¾¯ ¾½ ¾  ¾¾f .

¯¯¾¾°°-   @ ¾f – °¯ °¾– °  ¾½°¾ n f ff  .

°¾¯ ¾½ ¾  ¾¾f.

¯¯¾¾°f ¾f   f° f¾n.

°¾¯ ¾½ ¾   ¾¾f¯f  ¾n     @ ¾f½ ¾f° ©¾ n°€  f ¾¯¯f    ¯°€ .

¯½ °¾f° .

   ¾n.

°¾¯  ¾½ ¾  ¾¾f D½¾ f ¯ f .

°¾¯  ¾ f¾  ¾½ ¾  ¾¾f .

  .

¯¯¾¾° -f°f.

°¾¯  – f°¾  ¾½ ¾  ¾¾f .

  .

¯¯¾¾° 9 ¾ ° .¾ f€  f ¾n –   . ¯ ¾ @  ¯ ¯ ¾ ° ¯¾ f¯f° .¾ f½ ¾°¾  f¾  f¾ °f – €f– ¯ ¯ ¾  .

  .¾ f½ ¾°¾  f¾€  f¾ °f – €  ¯ ¯ ¾  ½ ¯ .

 nf°°€ fn¯½f°°fn°¾¯ n€ f¾f  f½¾ f€  nf¾ € fn°%¾nf¾½f¯ °€f  °n °f¾f   ¾½  n¯½f°%   .

¾n.

°¾¯ ¾½ ¾  ¾¾f¯ @ €¯9 ¾ °f° ¯ ¯ ¾f   n$°  nf½½°   ¾f – °¯ ° f°  ¾f  –   f ¾n© – ¯ ¯ ¾€ nnf°f f ¯€½ €  f¾½ f¾ n  ¾ f  @ ¾n.

°¾¯ ¯nf°°n° n f f°– 9 ¾ °f° f f¾°  ¯ ¯   @¾n°¾¯ n f¾n¯½f°¾   n¯½ °¾f°¾–¾ ¾¾f° ° f¾ @¾¯¾n¯¯°°°f¾  ½ n°f©¾ n° € ¾n.

°¾¯  ¾½ ¾  ¾¾f¯ ¯  f¾°€ fn¯½f°f¾n.

°¾¯  .

 ½ f¾  € fn f €°–n¯½f°¾°n°¾¯ n¾  ¾n.

9@-@f °  ¾° ¾¾f° n¯½f°f  ¾°f nf ½ ¾ °f°° f¯f ¾¾–°f°f– ¯ °  –f °– ©¾ n°€  ¾½  @ f½ ¾f ¾n.°¾¯ ¯nf° fnf¾ ¾€f°n¯½f°f½ f ¾f°€€n f f°n °  ¾n nf°f¾ fnf¾ ¾½  fnf f¾°f €°– n¯½f° %¾nf¾¾f ¯f° °f°n ¾ n f   € n%½ff€nn °  ¾n ¾¾f¯  f¾° ¾I.

°¾¯ ¾½ ¾  ¾¾f¯f¾ ¾f¯ ½ ¾f¾ fnn° .

 €.

9n    ¯f ¾½¾ f¾¯n€ ¾½ °f ¾fnf¯f°€ ¾¾ °½½fnn  @ ¾n.

°¾¯ ¯nf°  n¯½f°f  €°–fn°¾°n  f¾  n¯½f°f°  n ¾f n¯½f°¾f€f  O O O O O O O O .

 n €n °n ¾° ½ nf nf¯  ½f € n€ €nf– ¾  ½fn ½ n¾¯f¾½ ½ n ¾¾ f€ €° € ½n  9fn¯½ °¾f°€ f¯f– ¾$n¾¾$°n° ° °n ¾ J f ¾f € ½ nf–   ¾n°° ° ½ ff°°€ff ½fnn   ¾n f ½fnn  ¾¾ n n f  ¾ ¯ °€f° f ¯¾ ½ ¾ °f° €f °¾f¾€    n€¯ ¾n.

°¾¯ .

 nf°f½½ f°  f .

°¾¯ ¾½ ¾  ¾¾f.

¯¯¾¾°°f½  € f¾ €f  nf¾ ° – °f–f°¾ n¯½f° nf°f½½ f°f€  ½¾°– € n¯½ °¾f°  ½f ¾ $ n  ¾ ¾¾     .

f .

°¾¯ ¾½ ¾  ¾¾f.

¯¯¾¾° @ f½ ¾f f .

°¾¯ .

¯¯¾¾°€°n°° ¾f nf½f    – °¯ °f¾ ½ ¾¯ f¾° @ 9 ¾ °€ f .

°¾¯  .

¯¯¾¾°¾f ¾ f  °f–.

© – f° ¾  f½½° ° f€ n°¾f° .

 €¾n € –.

 ¾f ¾©¾ n° @   ¯f°°–¯ ¯ ¾€ n¯¯¾¾°f f½½°  fn¯¯  9 ¾ °€  f .

°¾¯ .

f¾¾nf¯f° f°  nf°f f ¯€½€  f¾½  f¾ n  ¾ f   @ f .

°¾¯ ¾½ ¾  ¾¾f.

¯¯¾¾° f¾f½ n°f©¾ n°€° ¾ n¯½f°¾   n¯½ °¾f°¾–¾– f° °f¾  ¾¾ f° ° n ¯  f¾°€ fn¯½f°ff .

°¾¯ .

 ½ f¾   € fn f €°–n¯½f°¾°n°¾¯ n¾  @ f .

°¾¯ ¯¾f f¾nf¾ ¾€ ½ ¾    ½½ f¾€¯¾n.

°¾¯ ¯¾   .

f¾ ¾f–f°¾n¯½f° ¾f½ f ¾f°€€n f f°n° ¾f    .

f¾ ¾   fnf f¾°f €°– n¯½f°%¾nf¾¾–°°–€f° f– ¯ °½f¯ °€f %½ff€nn ° ¾f  @ f .

°¾¯ .

f¾f¾ ½ ¾f°¾€ fnf¾ €¯° ¾n.

°¾¯  ¯f° ¯½   ¾¾nf  ¾¾° °  ¾€ f  €f °¾f¾€     n€¯ f .

°¾¯ .

 nf°f½½ f°  -f°f.

°¾¯ ¾½ ¾  ¾¾f.

¯¯¾¾° °f½  € f¾ €f  nf¾ °– °f–f°¾ n¯½f° nf°f½½ f°f€  ½¾°– € n¯½ °¾f°  ½f ¾ $ n  ¾ ¾¾    -f°f.

°¾¯ ¾½ ¾  ¾¾f.

¯¯¾¾° @ -f°f.

°¾¯ .

¯¾ °f €°n°°–°-  f° ¾½ ¾   f½ ¾°¾n °f¾ °° ½f¾f© – € ½ ¯ .

 @  9 ¾ °€ -f°f.

°¾¯ ¾½ ¾  ¾¾f.

¯¯¾¾°%-.

.

%¾f½½°    .

°f °¯ °f€ n°¾f° .

 €¾n €° f @ -f°f .

°¾¯ .

¯¯¾¾°f¾f¯°¯¯€€ ¯ ¯ ¾f° ¾f½½°  fn¯¯  nf  f½ ¯ .

© – f¾ n¯¯ °   .

¯ ¾€  -. €¾n €° f .

.

nf°f f ¯€½€  f¾½ f¾ n  ¾ f   €n¯½f°¾ ¾¯ f°° n ½ ¾€n¯½ °¾f°€¯fn¯½f°  °  -f°f.

°¾¯ .

¯¯¾¾°f¾ ½ n°f©¾ n° n¯½f°  .

¯  f¾°€ fn¯½f° -f°f.

°¾¯ .

 ½ f¾  €  fn f €°–n¯½f°¾°n°¾¯ n¾ @ -f°f.

°¾¯ .

f°  ¾€  ½ ¾€n¯½f°¾  O .

¯½f°¾ff¾ °¾–°  f°¾€  €¯° f .

°¾¯  .

¯¯¾¾°f° ° °  ¾€©¾n  ½½ f¾€¯f .

°¾¯ ¾½ ¾  ¾¾f.

¯¯¾¾°¾ .

°¾¯ n¯½f°¾fnn °° f  n ½° f €f¯¯f° f¾¯ .

f¾ ¾€¯f .

°¾¯ .

¯¯¾¾°¾    f¾ °fnn¾f°¾½€€ ¯f f –f –ffn ¾ .

f¾ ¾    ½f %    n¾f  °½f¾¾ ° f ¾ °n €  ½f ¾%  ¾f  ¾ f¾  O O O O €f °¾f¾€     n€¯ -f°f.

°¾¯ .

 nf°f½½ f°  ½ ¯ .

 °f½  € f¾ €f  nf¾ °– °f–f°¾ n¯½f°  nf°f½½ f°f€  ½¾°– € n¯½ °¾f° ½f ¾ $  n  ¾ ¾¾    .

°¾¯ 9 n°n€ ¯¯f @ fn°¾ €¾¾f° ¾ ¯¾¯°½ °½¯ n°¾¯ ¾¯°° f @ f¾f ¾ f n°¾¯ n¾f  f¾¯ff€f nf.f–¾f € €¾ nf¾¾°ffn°–½½  ¾f° f ¾°–½ ¾°¾°nf¾ f°€¾  n¾f f ° f    °½fnn  ff°  n°¾¯ n¾¾ ¯¾€€ €¯ €°– f fn¾    ¯ n¯½f° ¾½f  n°¾¯ n @  ½¾  ¾f°  ¾¯¯°¾f  n¯¯°–° ¾f ¾ ¯¾n°¾¯ nf¾ ¾ f–° °° n ¾¾ff°n¯  O   ¯ n¯½f° ¾f      n ¾f ¾°n    nn¯ ¾  ½n °–¾  n    nf   °¯ ¯ € n¯½f°f°  O .

°¾¯ n¾f °°°   €n½°   n¾° n°  O .

°¾¯ n¾f   ¯ f° ° €° @ – °¯ °½f°¾ ¾ ¾f¾n¾f €nf¾ ¾°-f°f.

°¾¯ .

¯¯¾¾°  €nf¾ ¾°f  .

¯¯¾¾°f°  €nf¾ ¾°¾n.

°¾¯ ¯¾f  ¾½¾      ¾° °–f ¾ ¾½¾ fnf¾ °¯f°nf¾ ¾f  ¾½¾  ° €f€ n°¾¯  J  f f¾¾¯ f f– f¯°€¯  f° f ½ n °f– f¾f°¾ ¾  O .

O nn °– ½ ¯ .

  f  n ½ ° °–nf¾ ¾° ° f°n¾  f f¾nf n f  f¾ ¾½¾ € nf¾ ¾½ ° °–° ° f  ¾ €fnf– °¯ °¾° €€n °°f½½°°–9 ¾ °¾€ ¾n¯¾ f° n f°–  °nf–°–f°  ¾°–  fnfn f¾     ¯ n€nf°– nf¾  ¾½¾ ° f¾       ¾ °nf– € n¯½f°¾f f¾n°¾¯ n¾f¾½   ½¾°¾€ .

°¾¯ 9 n°n€ f¾f–f¾°  °€f¾f ¾f°° f ¾½– ¾¾f ¾n°¾¯ ¾¯ °f   °nf– ¾   ¯ f¾ ¾€–f–f°¾f° n°¾¯ n¯½f° ¾f¾ ½f° ° €°–fn ¾  .

°¾¯ –¾ ° n °  ½ ¾ °n f° °€ °n € ¯f –  f¯fnf°n°¾¯  € J  –f°½nf¾ °–¾€¯ ¯f €f½n ° ¯f¾¾½ n°f°  ° ¾f½ n°nf¯ ° °– –°– n°¾¯  f° ° °  ¯ °¾°  f   °  ¯n f°n°¾¯ ¾ ½ ° ° ¯f €€€¯ °€  °  f¾n° ¾ @¾  ½ ° °n ° ¯f f°  °  °½€¯ ° ¯f¾¾½ n°f° ¾f ¾f¾– °¯f°€fn ¾ f°  f ¾f–  f¾° ½ n°¾¯ ¾ ¾fn°¾¯   °¯f ½ n¾f n°¾f°°   –  €°€ ff°  °½ ¾n f¾f° f ¾¾½ n€  f n° f– °n ¾ .

°¾¯ ¾°° °– f € ¯°  f¾€ °f ¾€€  ¾¾ ¾f° °n° ° °n   ¯f ¯f°½f°¾   @ .

°¾¯ –¾ ° ¾f€ –f n°¾¯ °  ¾ n°¾¯ –¾  °f °¾°   n°¾¯ –¾fn¾¾€ J ¾ °f¯   O O O O O O –f€  –°€¯f° –.

n  –  f  @ –  ¾¾ @ –n°¾¯  nf° .

°¾¯ –¾f°  ¾½°¾  ¾ @ ¾ –¾  n°n ½f °   ½  ¾n°¾¯ n°   n°¾¯ ¾ f  ff° n¯½   ½ ° °° ¯f €€ ° ¾ @ ¾ –¾f   €°  ½°–°¯°   f ¾€f  ½°–n° ° f .

°¾  °   ¯½f°–¾  f   O O @ – f¾n- ¾f°  @ –f ff° ¾¾f°  °°¯ °  .

¾n°¾¯ ¾ f   ¯½  – ¾¾fn °¾½ ¯f ¾€nn f¯°–f ¾¯ ¾€nf¾ f¾¾ nf¾ °   ½  ° f ¾ °½½f° € ¾ nf° f¾f€  °°¯ °f  ¯ ½ ¾¾°–° ¾f°f° n°¾¯ ½°¾f° –¾ @   ½°–n° °ff ¾n ¾f¾¾  f¾f ¾n  f¾ €   ½  ¾° ¾f½   – f¾n- ¾ nn ¾¾€ f f° ¾  f   f¾¾€f°n°¾¯  ¾€ J ¾  €° f¯ °ff¯ ° ¾ € nf°° ¾ ° ½ ¯  ° f ¾¾n€€ –f°¾   f° ¯°°° ¾  °  € ° f°½½f° ¾  ½ °  f° n°¾¯ ¾€ °–°– ¯f°¾   ¯f°¾  f °–½ f @   n °¾ff° f¾°¾¾ff fnf¾ °½°  nnf © n €  n°n ½f¾f°f°  ¾ °n €n°¾¯ –¾¾ °¾ fn°¾¯ ¾f f° f¾¾ € ¾½½ ¾f€ f° ½ ¯f° °  °–¾  f¾nf¯ ° ¾€€  ¾f°f°f°  ½f  f  f° ½ ¾½½   D f°¾f°¾¾ °f¾f¯f€  ½¯ ° €f¯–f°½½f° °– n° °¾°n ¾¾ ½ @ ½½f°€n ¾¾–°–f½ °° ff° f€    ½ n °f– € f°½f¾ °¯ f°f€ f½ °  ½ n °€  f°¾  ¾ °¾¯¾ ¯f ¾€n° ¾ €– ¾  ¯ °¾   °° fff €f€€ f  f°  n °f f° f°f f¾  nn °–¾¯  ¾¯f ¾ ° f°f f¾f°   ¾f¾°–¾f– €¯°°¾ @¾f¾ f f fn¾¾°° f°n ¾ °f° f  ¾f°¾ f f ff– ½f€  ½½f°¾°–°¯f ¾€  °–¾f° ¯ ° J°° ½ ¯f° °¾°–n¯ ¾ fn€¾f°f°€fn ¾f°  f¯ ° ¾ °°°–f f°   nn¾½½   – °°–½½f° ¯¾½ ½  °f fnn ¾¾  ¾°ff°  f°f f¾     n€.@ ¾ –¾f  n¾ °   f ¾€  ½°–n° ¾   °°¯ °½f¾f ¯½f° f¾f ¾n f° ¾½½ ¾n € ½ ½ ° fn° ° f ff– ¾ n°€ ½½f°¾€€ ¾ n f¾¾ ¾f€ f  ¾½½ ¾    nf°f°  f¾ n ¾ .

°¾¯ ¾ @  n ° f¾€½½ ½ °¾¾f  ¾ff°°–¾f ° nf f € ¾ n¾¾f¯€f¾ n°€ ° f°n°¾¯ ¾ @¾ ¾€ ¾nfn ½  ¯   °¯ °€° f¯  9%9 n¾ °¾ ¯% ½ fn € –f° ¯f¾¾ ¾f¾ ¾  f ¾–– °¯ ° °#f9n ½¾ @   f f  ff9n ½¾f ° f€n f °ff f¾f°  °  f°f f¾ °f°f f–   ¾9¾½€  n°¾¯ ¾   ¯f°½f¾€ ° f¾¾€€ €¯€ ¾f– ¾ 9 ¾ °f° °  ¾f°€€ –f°¾f¾  f€nf n f € ¾nfn ¾° n° 9 ¾ °   f ¯°°° ¾€ € –f°° ¯¾€ €€ ¾n°° f°– °¾ @¾€ –f°¾°–   °¾f°f° ¯½½ ¾f– €fn ¾ @ ° € ¾nf°° ¾ ¾¾n f ¾° n°¾¯ ¾f° €€  ¯#€ € ½–f¯¯ ¾ n°°–   ¯ ¯½¯ ° f¾¯°   ¾ ¾¯f°–¾ f  ¾ °–€ fnn ¾¾   n°¾¯ ¾ff¯ ¾ °°¾f° f fn  f€n  °f°   .

° f  ¾ n°¾€½½f°¾f¾f @¾¾f°f f  n°¾¯ ¾nf°f   ¾½°¾ € °¾°–ff¾f   f¾n€ ¾½½   –f€ °°¯ °  f°n°¾¯ ¾  °°¯ °¯ f°¾½f¾ –f °¾ f°   f°–ff° f  f .¾ f°f f¾f   €€f° € f° ½ ½ f °ff €    ¾ f°  ¯ °  f° fn°¾¯ ¾ °  °°¯ °€€€¯ °€   f¾n° ¾   @ ° € °°¯ °fn°¾ f°¾¾ °f¾f° n ¾¾f € °n f–f°¾  f°– f€€   J f fn¯¾€n°f¯°f € f° f ¾½½ ½ ¾n  °€ f  f ¯f° n°– f¾€¯ ¾ ¯°–€¯ n ¾ nn °–f J  f° ½ ° f¾ °–½¾  fn  ¾– °°¯ °fn¾¾ J ¾  f° ¾ n ¾   f° ¯¾€ff° f ½°f° € °fn  ¯¾f  ½  °n ff° f ½°f¾¯ ½°€¯ .

  °€ °€f  ½  °°¯ °¾  f ¾°n f¾  fn¾¾f°  ¾n¯€€n°¾¯ ¾  Iff   ¾n ¾f° ¯f° f¾f ¾  ½  °°¯ °f° °–n° °¾  .

°¾¯ ¾° ° ¾f° f°f¾f€  °°¯ °nf° °¾  €€¯ °€  n°¾¯ –¾   ° °f°ff° f ¾€f€ –f °––f€ °°¯ ° .

°¾¯ ¾° °f°f%f° ff– °n€n°¾¯ –f°¾f°¾€¯f   % f¾¯f n f°– ° ¾€ °¾°–n°¾¯ ¾ –¾f€  °°¯ ° .

°¾¯ ¾ ¾  ½ n €¯ °°¯ °f½°   O O O 9¯°– ¾ €½ n¾nf  °°¯ °f¾¾f°f   °nf–°– nn°–  °– °°¯ °f f°– ¾½ n¾nff½½½f f°°–¾f°  °¾n°¾€¾f€ ¾ f°  ¾½¾f  9¯  ¾ €°° n½ n¾   f¾°–n°¾¯ ff ° ¾¾€f °f ¾n½ n¾ ¾f ¾°–½n  ¾ °¾ f½ n¾ f°°  ¾ f¾ ° ° °f°f ¯f ¾  O °¾ f ¾nf¯½fn¾€½°f ¯°¯¾  O 9¯  nf ¾nff°  °°¯ °f ¾½°¾  ½fnn ¾ ½ n ¾f°  ¾½½ ¾€– ¾f° ¾ n ¾  O O fn°¾¯ ¾f °ff n¾   °°¯ °f° f°n°¾¯ ¾ @    ¾f° f€€  ½ ° °  °°¯ °f°  ¯ @ €  f°  ¾n ¾€ ° –n¯ €¯ ¾ ¯f° €€  ¾n¯ ¾€¯ ¾n f ¾½n   €¯° –° f ¾½½€¯ ¾  n½¾ f ½ ° °f°°f f°€f   °½ ¾n ¾€¾f€ –f °–€n½¾f° ¾f– f¾n¯ €¯ ¾ ° ¯  .

°¾  f€   ¾f° °ff ¾n ¾  ¯ ¾ ½ ° °n °  °°¯ °¾n¯½  f°  f f¾f °¾½ ¾ f°   ¾€  °–  ¾ ¾ € € nf  n   –f€  .

€ € f °– n ¯nf°–  °¾°€ ½ n¾ n ° f ¾ ¾n °f€– f¾f° n°¾¯ ¾f °n°    ½ n¾n¯¯  ¾  ¾ n¯ €¯ °¾f°n  nnf ¾¾½¾ n°¾¯ ¯f  ¯f°€fn °n° ¾f¾€ff¾ D  ¾ff . ¾¯ ¾ ¾f° f f€€ ½ n¾ @ ¯f f¾€°–¯f n°¾¯ ¾    f n°¾¯°–½fnf– € ¯° ff  n°¾¯ ¾nf°¾f€ –f   f @¾ °°f¾ °½ °–¯ f° f–f°  f¯½f°€ f  f°°¯f  ½ n¾ –€ ¾f€ ¾f°¯½f°n°¾¯ –¾°n   nf€€ n¾  f f° f€€ €n°¾¯ ¾   f   ° ½ f°€ –¾f€ f¾¯   n°n½ n¾f°   ¾n½ n¾ - ¾ €°°f¾ ½f° f°n ¾f€ f¾½ n¾€°   n°– ¾ .°¾¯ –¾f€ ¾f¾f¾°¾½ f¾ ¯f  fn¾ € f½½ ¾f ½¾¾  n°¾¯½°½f °¾f° f– ¾f° ¾ n ¾ ° n° € ° ¯f  n°¯f° f½  n°–nff f°n ¾f€€ n°– ¯f   –¾f€ f¾ n¯  f½  ¾ f°f½ n¾f° ¾ n ¾  – ¾¯ ° f°½ n¾nf  ¯f n¾f¾¯ €¾f¾€fnf€f½ n ¯f  9f° .

 n°–¾¾¾½ n nf¾ ¯f°–nf°– ¾° – ° nn  f ¾  ° ¾  °n € ¯f ff° f¯– f °° °   ½¯ °€ ¯f°° ¾f  f¾  – ¾ °n°fnf– °  ¾¾f°½f°¯f fn  – ° n¯f f% ¾ f¾  ¾¾f°f%f° ¯f n¯   °¯  f°– ¾  €f°¾n¾ n¯ ¾ ° ¯f ¾ ¾f  ½f°¾½ n ¾f° n f ¾ ¾ ¯ ff°n ° – ° n ¾¾ ¯ ¾ €fn°¾¯  f¾. €  –f°¾¯¾nf°  €° f¾#–f°¾¯¾½ n f¾f ¾€  n°–nfnf°– ¾ – ° n °–° °– .°¾¯ ¾°° f f ° n° ° – € ¯f°€fn°–½fnn ¾€¾ n° ¾f° f   n¯½  °¯½ –f°¾€ ° f°– °¯ °f° € f °– @¾¯f ¾  n°¾¯ –¾f€ f ¯½f°f° nnf¾¾ €n°¾¯ ¾   .€ .€  ° nf.€ ½ n¾ ¾$ ¯f  ½ ¾¾f°n f° n¾f – ¾°n f°nf¾ ¾     .  f€ -" f  –¾f€ ¯ f°ffn°¾¯ ¾  ½ n €¯ f¾¾€¾°–  n°n½ n¾ °¾ ½–¾  ¾n°–¾ @ n°–nfnf°– ¾f     °  f¯ €¾n°¾¯ – @ –¾f€ f¾° ½f° °½  °n .€ nf°  ¾f€ ¾  °¾ fn°¾¯ f¾°¾  ¯ °–  ¯f  ¾  f €€ n¾  n°¾¯½°€.

–°€¯f° –°€¯f°¯ f°¾ – – ° €fn¾° ¯f f°°€¯ nn   n¾°f €fn¾ f f° ½ °n ½¾f° f ¾f° ½n €½ n ¾ n @ –°€¯f°°– ¾ ° f °– n ½°f° ½ n°f–f°¾ ¯¾ f °–f  ¾°– ¯½½ f °–f°  ½fnn ¾  –  ° f½ n ¾ f¾ n ¾  °€¯ f f%n°¾¯ f½ n % f  ¾   f €€ n¾€¾n°¾¯½°n%J   °–  °¾¾ f  °°¯ ° € °  ° n     °n f¾°–°€ °n € ¯f f°    nf°–°–¾n °  ½n f¾f° f ¾  n° ¾  n°¾¯  ¾–°€¯f° n¯ ¾  °¯  ¯½f° @ –°€¯f°¯ f°¾¯n¯ f°¾¯½  ¾n¾ € ½ n ¾  –½n n°¾¯ f¾ –° ½ nf¾ °½ ½f    f¾ ° ¾ f°¯f¾° € °°¯ °f ¾°  n° ¾f°   ¾n ¾f  °¾ °¾½ n°½n ¾¾ ¾ f° ¾€n ¯nf¾f ¾ °¾ ¯f°€fn°–f° fn   ¯½fn°n°¾¯  f .

€ ° € nf°f° ¯f ¾ @  f °€¯f°f° ½ n nf¯½f–°¾ff ¯f n°¾¯ ¾f ° fn¯¯°n°¾¯ ¾f° f–f°¾. € n° ¾ .–½¾f°  ¯f  n°¾¯ ¾°½ f nf¯½f–°  €€ n f–f°¾  °€. € ¾f ¾  – °¯ °¾f°  ½ f°D°°f ½fn ¾n ¾n°¾°  f¾ ¾€. n°–° ¯f °f–n    –.€ ¾½¯ f¾ f°¾  ¾°– f° ¯f°°  ¾¾f€ €n°¾¯ ¾f°   °°¯ °¾  ½  ¾½ ¾°– °–  ½ . f fn°¾¯ f¾ n°¾ f€€fn¾ € ¾$  ¾f½ n    f fn°¾¯ ¾ f ° – €  ° #nf  –f ©° €  ½ n  ¯°   ¾¾f€ f°  ° €nf€¾ ° @ #nf  –f ©°    € ¾ ½n ¾¾ ¾f½ n– ¾– €¯ ¯ € °–¯f €f ¯f f  ½n ¾¾ ¾€¾¯ °–°¾€°f¾f½ f°¾½f° f  °–  °¾ ¾  €¯°n ° ¾½°¯f ¾  ¾ ¾° °fn°¾¯ ¾ff €  ¾€ ½ nf nf°¯f °€¯ nn ¾ ° f¯½ €¾¾ .

n  €€  °°  ¾¾nf°° ½  –nn ° €€  °f¾    ½   n°¾¯ ¾ –nn f°¾f ¾°¯ f° ff €½ n¾n¾ €¯  – ¯ nf°n°¾¯ ¾nf°n¾ €¯ ¾½ ¯f  ¯¾ ° ¾€n  f¾ f°   f  ¯f–f° ¾ @¾° €nn € °– ¾n°¾¯ ¾f¾ °¾ €  °–f°  ¾f€ f°  °nf– ¾ ¯   ff ° f°n  f ¾– °– @ ¯f f¾ ½ ½ f ¾¾° €– f  ¾°–f° ½¯°–¯¯n¾ @ –nn f¾ f  €€  ° €°°°  ½°–n° ¾ f½½f° ½ ° °°  °°¯ °€   –nn f°  n°¾¯ –¾° f¾€°€n¾  @ €n¾° ¾ °nn €– ½fnn ¾ –f°n€f¯°–f° n°¾ f°€ °ff f– °n ¾ ½ ½ ¾  f  n¾ n f° f° ¾f€ f¾€ f°¾½f° ½°–° ¾ ¯f  ff° € ¾€ ¾  n¾ ° ©° € @ –n¾ ¯¾ ¾¾ °f fn°¾¯  ¾–n¾ f¾f€ f°  f .

½ n€– f f°°¾f€  € n ½ n @¾nf°– fn°¾¯ ¯¯ °¾    f– °©¾n¾ ½ n¾ff ¾f€  f¾°€ °n  ½fnn ¾f ½   ¯f    @ n°¾¯ f¾ °¯f    f¯ f  ¾€ ¾f¯ ½ n° ¯f  ¾  ¾– ¯  –n¾ f¾$ f°¾ ° f ¯ f  ¾€  ¾f¯ ½ n©¾ °nf– ¾€f¾ f  ¾°–nf¯¾f° –  n°¾¯ f€f¾ ¾ °¾ € nn If¾° ¾€¾f¯½¾ ¾f½¾ f°  n¾¯ n¾ €€ ¯  °n ¾¯  f°  f° ¯f– fn° € ¯nf¯¾° ½¯f°¾½    – ¾  n°¾¯   f €¯° f  f½ n    –  f  @ –  f ¯ f°¾fn°¾¯ ¾¾  f n  ½°°¾f°  – f°n ¾ff½½½f €f  – €f  °n f ° ¯f ½fn  ½ € –f€¾ n n¯½f°¾   f f° – °  f °°  f ¾ .

°¾¯ ¾¾ f¾f f–n  ½°° ° ¾f°   –f°¾½ f°°– ¯f  °–€¯f    n °f¯ ° ¯ °¾°  .

°¾¯ 9 n°n @ –  f  ¾¾½ nf¾–°€nf°n ° ° f°n°  nf¾ ° f°n°¾¯ ¾f f– °ff € –¾f° ½f¾¾ fnn ½  f°  ° ° f  –f n¾  ½ € °¾ €€ f€– °– ¯  ° –fn¯½  ¾   –  ¾¾ .

¯½ °¾   ½ n€ ¯f  n°¯   f ¯f°€fn ¾f  ¾n °–°  f¾€n f°–f°  ½°–n°¾¯ ¾ D°¾n½¾¯f ½fnn ¾f  €° °– f°n°¾¯ ¯ ¾ f°–n°¾¯ –¾f° © ½f ¾°– ¾f€   ¾½ nn°¾¯ °  ¾¾fn°¾¯ ¾f  °– ° – f°  ¾¾  °° f  f f  ¾¾¯fn° nf .

°¾¯ .

¾n°¾ °  .

°¾¯  9 n°n%% €°n°°–f°f°f¾f f°  ¾n  ¾  f¾° °¯f  n¯½  ¾ €°   fn€ff ° ¾¾€ f¾nn°¾¯ –¾f¯°–n°¾¯ ¾  ¯¾  ¾   J °   ½  –  ¾¾¾½ f½¾ ¯¾n¯¯°  n¾  n°¾¯ – °  ½°–n° ¾ n°¾¯ ¾f ¾f€– °–° ° –f   ¾¾¾¾ ¯ @  f n°¾¯ n¾°° f  f°n°¾¯ nf° – fnf¾ € ¾$ °¾ ¾ f¾ °n f @  f¾€ – fn¯½f°f  ° ½f°  ¾   ° ¯f°f   –.

°¾¯  nf° .

°¾¯  nf° ¯½ ¾n°¾¯ ¾  n¾  n°¾¯ –¾ ¾½ f½¾  ¾°– ¯¾½ €fnf°f n°¾¯ ¾€¯ ½ ¾ ° ¾f f°f– ¾½¾° ° €¾ °–° ¯f ½fn .

°¾¯  nf°¾ °f¯n ½fn½ff° ¾ ¯¾fn  f° ¾ °f° ½fnnf ½  °n °¾f°n f¯f°¯f ¾ .

½nf¾  n¾°¾€ ¾  f°   ¾ fnf °–° ¯f ½fn    ¯  nf f ¯f n° °¾f° # ¾ ¾ f°f½ ¾° nf ¾¯¾ € f  ¯f   ½€° ¾½f½ ¾  ¾° ¾  f ¾°©¾  ¯f ½ n¾ffn°¾¯ ° ¾ nf ¯¾ €f  ¾$ f¾° ¾ °f n¯½f°½€ – °¯ °½n ¾f° ° n°€°  n°–   @ ½f¯fn nf° ¾¾° ¾n f¯½ ° f ¾ °½½f°f° f–  ° nf n°¾¯ ¾ ¾f nf ¯f €¾° ¾ @ ½f¯fn nf ° ¾  ¾¾¾f ¾ €€ ¾€ ¾f¯½ ¾€¯ n° ¾ €  ¾ f°   °€   f¾½¾nf°¾°€ °n  ¯¾   f° ¾f° –  ¯½ €  °n     f° °f¯ ¾ @  f  °¯f°°¾f°n ¾ ° –¾ f°° °n° ¾ D  f  °½ ¾n ° f°n°¾¯ ¾f° f  f fff  f¾   n°  –¾  ¾f¾f  f¯½ €–¾¾f°€n°¾¯ ¾ ¯ nf½fn° ¾ @¾¾f°¾ f¯½f°°©¾°ff f¾ f¾f¯°– nf  f°n°¾¯ ¾ @  f¾°  ¯f  °n°°f°n ½¾nf°¾ ¾f   ½n°¾¯ ¾¾f° f°n°¾¯ ¾f  °ff € ½ f°–¾f°f°  ° ½ ¯¾  ¾f  f¾f ¾  ½¯ °¾f°–½fn f°  ¯ .

°¾¯  nf°nf°½ffnnf ° ½ n°–n°¾¯ ¾f–f°¾¾n f°– ¾ ° ° f°n°  ¾¾f°f f° f °f ° – nf°½fff ° ¯½ °–n°¾¯ ¾ n°¾¯ ¾f °f  n°° n  ° –  f¾ .

°¾¯  nf°nf° ©°   °°f° ¯f f °f ° – fnn ¾¾  n°¾¯ ¾f–f°    .

°¾¯  ¾½°¾  J  f °f –¾f°   n¾  ¯  f   fnn  ¾f¯  ¯½f°n f° – °nn°¾¯  ¾½°¾  ¾ .

°¾¯ –¾f°  ¾½°¾  ¾ f ° ° –  f° ¾f°–n°¾¯  ¾½°¾  n°¾¯ ¾€°    €€n °© –¾°f°–  ¯ f¾¾   .

°¾¯ ¾°  f nf¾° ¯f ½fn J  °–f½ n f¾¾ €  ¾  ¾°¾  O O O  f° ¾½ n" °–  ¾ "Jf¾f¾°–f¾  " Jff   f€f€f½ n"€¾f€ ½ n   ¾– f°  f ° €¾".

 n f °–€ ½ n¾  °°fnf€  ½ n  nf°f¾ ¯½ ¾ € °°– f  –   °f¯f°  ¯° ff f¾ °¯f ¯f° f  – °¯ °f° °f °–€°°  – ff°°–  °°€ ½ n¾f¾¯f° f€ ° ¾"  .

°¾¯  ¾½°¾ nf°½ff ¯½f° °°°n n°– ¯f  f¾ ° ¾n°–°° n ¾¾fn°¾¯½° ¾° ¾  ¾½°¾ € ¯f €  .

 f° ¯ ½ n °f– €f¾ – ° f ° f°f f¾ fn°¾¾¾€°°  –f f  f¾ D f°n°¾¯ ¾f ¯f°–¾ €½f¾n ½f½ f° nf f  ½fnf–°–  ¾½¾f  ¾ f  ¾ ½f¾n ff½ °¾ ¾ f° °f½½ ¾ ¯½nf°¾ nf  n¯°–fn¯¯°€ f €f° f° ¾ ° ° f ¾ f°½½f°¾f°  ¯°    ff°€¾ f¾ – ° f ° f°f f¾¾ ½ n  n¾¾¯°°° ¾ n f°–ff¾ ¯f°f– ¯ °n¾¾€ f°° f .¾€ ° n°¾¯ ¾½f°–f°–€f ¾–°–  € ° f¾ f¾ .– °¯ °½ n°¾¯ ¾ f °€¯f° n°¾¯  °¾½f ¯¾ ¯f    €€°€¯¯¾ €€ ½ n¾ n  f¯½ €fn°¾¯  n°¾¯ ¾f f½ n  ¯¾¯f  €€¾°€¯¯¾ € € f° f ¾ ½¾¾  ¾ €€ n¾ f° ¯¾f¾  n¾ nf° –f °–¾ f°–f ¾   f°  ½¾nf  n¾ f €f f°f– € ½ n     ¾½°¾ f ¾¾f€ f¾  ¾½¾f .

°¾¯ ¾°   n¯ fnn°f  € n°¾¯½°½f °¾f°  ¾ ¾ °°¯ °ff°  n°¯n¯½nf°¾ @ ¾€n°¾¯½°% n  nn  €¾ f°  ¾ %f ° ©¾fn°¾¯  ¾½ –f  f¾¾n°¾¯  ¾½°¾     ¾½°¾  ° ¾ ¾f€ ½ n¾%nf °– n € ° ° ¾¾¾f°¯½f°n °°© –°–f½ n ¾€ f¾  ¾ff€ f¾¾ ¾¾°–¯n f¯f– f½ nf¾nf¾   °°¯ ° #n ¯f ¾° f €°°–n½ n¾n°€¯ °°¯ °f¾f° f ¾f° f ¯  °°¯ ° € ° f° ¾ nf °–¾f¯  –½fn¾  ¯f°n° ¾°   °n °–° f @ ° f°– °¯ °f¾€¯f f¾n ¯   ¾¯ nf – ¾€ ½ n¾f ff  #n¯f € n°€¯n f°¾f° f ¾¾   .°¾€ °°¯ °f°  ¾¾ D°€°f  °° f  ¾n ¯ f¾°f °€€   n°¾¯ f½ff° fn€ ¾½°¾ @ ¯f f¾¯f°½f ¾¾f°   – °¯ °¯f  nf °–f°f¾n ¯ nf¯f°€fn ¾ ¾n¾ f° n °€¯f°f    °–.

°¾¯ ¾f° .

°¾¯  ¾½°¾  .

  °  °f– ¾f° n°¾ f ¯½f°n°¾¯ ¾ –¯ °€ ¯f   @ n°¾¯½°f ¾f ° f°  ½nf¾  n¾°¾f  f¾ °½½f ° ¾  f° ¯f– ¾ €°  n°– €f€€ ½ n¾ f° ¾ @ ¯f f¾  f¾ ¾f°–n°¾¯ ¾f f½½ °¾n°¾¯ ©°€ f° ½ €  ¯  f °f€¯¾€€ @¾nffn ¾n¾ ½   ¯f  f¾¾nf°– n° ° °n f° f f° ¯f– ©°€  nf¾ ½f¾ f° €f¾ € ©°¾   @  f  ¯f© f° ¾€½f¾ °° f  .

–f 9 ½¾ °f° .

¾ D½   € ¯n¯½   fn nf½ ¯f¯¯¯f ¾f ° fn   ¾  °°f– n  °f¾n°¾¯ ¾ f¾€ f  ¯° f  ¾ ¯ °¾ ffn °–n°¾¯ ¾ .

–f € – f– ¾°–n  °° f– –½€ .

f° €€ ¾€ nf°  ¾f°–½f¾ ¾ 9 ½¾ ° ¾€ ¾f¯  n°¾¯ ¾ –¯ °f°  ½n¾¾¯ n  ° ¾°–¾°fn¾ n°€ n° f° ¾ ¾    ¾f ¾n   ¯ ¾€f°– °  ¾f¯ °– @¾f  ¾ ¯ °¯f ¾ n  °   fn°¾¯ ¾¾ 9 ½¾ °f ¯¯° f° nf nf¾ €  ¾½ f€ ½ n @¾nf¯¾°f °nf f° f ¯½¾¯¾ f  n  °   .

¾ D½ °  f°   ¾°½ n  n  °f¾¾f– f  °n °¾ f  f– ¾ °f– ¾f°   n f ¾f f° ¯f– €n°€ °n f° ½½f€ °–n°¾¯ ¾  ° f– –½€  ¾f  ¾ ¯ °¾n°¾f°€ f  ¾nn ¾¾€€ ° ¾½¾f° ¯f°n ¾  °.

¾ D½¾ ¾   J¯ °.

°¾¯ ¾ J¯ °n°¾¯ ¾°°n°¾  € fn°¾¯ ½½f° f¾¯f   €f½nf¾  n¾°¾ @ f  °–¾½ n€nff–    ¯f  nf¾ €  –°–½nf¾°–½ f°  #°– ¯f° ¾f¾ - ¯ °f   f  €€f¯ ¯f ¾f° ½€ ¾¾°f¾½f ¾f ¾  f  ¾¾¯ °n f¾  ½ ¾¾ ¾f° f ¾ °– ° €¯ f °f° –  f° @ ¯f  f ¾f f°f– €¾¾f° €€ °–¯ °°¾f°¾ n ¾f° ½ n¾  €f¾ € # ¯° ¾°fn¾ f°  €– f¾f° f¾°–¯fn° ¾¾½½¾     n°– ¾   J¯ °n°¾¯ ¾f   ¾½°¾ €n¾°–½ n¾ff °©¾n° ° ° f¾¾f€ ¾ f°  n € °  @ ¯¾ ff  °°n° °€€ ½ n¾ €  °– ¯f°  – ff °f€ ¾ff  ¾¾ ½ °¾ f   °°f¾n ¾f° n°¾¯  ¾¾ ¾n ¾ ½fnf–°–f° f°¾½f°   .

f¾    ° °f°f f°°–¯f©.

 f°f¾ °¯½¾ f€° €¾   n°#¾ f½ n°¾¯ €¯€€°–#¯  ¾¾#½ °¾f–f°¾ n°¾¯ €f f¾°– ½f¾ f° €¾nff°n¾¯ ¾  @ -f°f.

°¾¯ ¾½   ¾¾f.

¯¯¾¾° ¾¯¾¾ .

 f°#¾½ fnf °–°– ¾¾ff .

°¾¯ .

¯¯¾¾°  ¾f°–f¾n¯  €  -.

.

#n ½# ¾°#€f¾f° ° –– °fn¾#° f nf °–°–  ¾nn°¾¯ €¯   nf   n   f°½f¾ f¾nff°n¾¯  J ¯½¾°– ½ °f°  f° ¾n I ½f¾f  ¾f n°¾¯ n¯¯¾¾°f – ¾¯¾¾ ¾f½½ ff–f°¾  ¾nn°¾¯ €¯f¾f € f€ f f€¯  f° f¾  #¾ ¾  f° ° °n¾  ¾°¾n–f°¾ ° n ½  °€ff° ° –– °n – ¾°€°–¯  ¾¾½ °¾° €€  °€f # -.

.

 .

¾f #¾ €f f – ° f f°  f¾°  ¾n °nf€f° ° €  °n ° ¾€€ €¯f°°€¯ ° ¾  n¾ €©¾ n°  ½ ¾ ° ½ °¾ ¾¯¾¾ ½° n¾¾€¾  #¾f  .

 f°f f½½fn  f½ n°¾¯ €¯f–f°¾  €¾¾fn°¾¯  €¯nf  n ° f¾½ ff€ f ¾nn°¾¯ €¯  n   f° ½f¾ f¾¾f ¾° ¾¾¯f°9f ½¯f9f 9ff ½nf¾ fnf°f f°€¯ .

 f°°f° f¾½f.¾f½¾ f n  ¾  f ¯    ¾n€¯f –°–f  f°  °€°¾fnn°¾ f¾¯f¾     ¾f°¾f° °–  ¾f°   n f¾#° °f¾  ½¾¾ ¾¾ #°n     @  f°°¾ ½¾f ¾¯ ½¾ f n  ¾¾¾   n¾¯ f  °n    n°¾f¯ °¾  ° f¾ @  f°f  ¾   n f° ½ ¾°° .

f¾–ff¯°f  @  ¾n€¯°f°f  .

 f° €° ¾  f n¯½f°f°f° f¾½f¾ f¾#n¯½ °¾f°€¯ °ff–°#f° ¾  f¾–f°n¾  €  ¾f n°¾¯ n¯¯¾¾° ¾¯¾¾   f°#¾f½½ ff–f°¾  ¾n€¯  ° –° ¾€ f ¯ -.

.

nf¯°–f  °€°– nf¾ °  ¾n€¯ ¾f   °°€¯f¾ °–f     @ -.

.

    © n ¾½ f¾f°–.

 f°¾f¯ °f°f f°f°–f–  °¯ € ¯½ ¾°¾ –f ½f¯ °f°   °€  f½½ f°¯ °   #° –– °n # %9@%   €  °n ¾  % n°¾¯  – % n°¾¯  f n¯ % n°¾¯  °n ° % f ¾ f¯ n¯ %.

f¾ ½ $$  f n¯$ ffn ½½"fn    .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful