# Pumps and Motors

Chapter 2:

Pumps & Motors
PUMPS

Non Positive Displacement Pumps
Non Positive Displacement Pumps: Centrifugal pump is a typical in this category

Positive Displacement Pumps

Delivery from the pump reduces as the pressure against which it has to operate increases If the discharge side of the centrifugal pump is blocked, pump stalls and delivery falls to zero These are limited in hydraulic circuits for providing a boosted supply to main positive displacement pumps, for fluid transfer systems or cooling and conditioning systems

Non positive displacement pumps A typical non-positive displacement unit is a centrifugal pump Delivery from the pump decreases as the pressure against which it has to operate increases. If the discharge is completely blocked the pump ‘stalls off’ and its delivery falls to zero In the figure below the impeller rotates and causes the fluid to be sucked through inlet port and flow to the outlet port by the action of centrifugal force Use of non-positive displacement pumps is limited to providing a boosted supply to the main positive displacement pumps, for transfer systems or for cooling and conditioning systems.

Positive displacement pumps Let L = pump stroke length Np = pump speed in rev/min Displacement Dp = π d2 / 4 L Qa actual pump delivery per min Tp average input torque at the pump shaft Pp pressure rise across the pump Theoretical pump delivery = Displacement per rev x number of rev / min = Dp x Np Actual pump delivery is less than the theoretical delivery owing to internal leakage and slippage Actual pump delivery Volumetric efficiency of pump = Theoretical pump delivery = vηp

Pump calculations Qp vηp = Dp x Np Volumetric efficiency of the pump will reduce as the pressure rise across the pump increases and as the speed increases The torque or mechanical efficiency of a pump is the ratio of the work output to the work input per rev of the pump shaft. Work input per rev = 2 πTp Indicated work output from the pump = Dp Pp Torque or mechanical efficiency = DpPp / 2 πTp Overall efficiency oηp is the ratio of the power delivered to the power input of the pump = vηp x tηp Oηp = (QpPp) / (2 πTpxNp)

Classification of Pumps:

Positive Displacement pumps

Non Positive Displacement pumps Centrifugal

Rotary Gear Vane External Internal Gerotor Screw

Reciprocating

Axial piston

Fixed displacement
Unbalanced Balanced vane pump Bent axis Radial piston
Stationary cylin block

Inline Variable plate Inclinable swash plate Cam/crank shaft driven

Variable displacement

Rotating cylin block

Fig 1. pressure development in Gear pump

Gear Pump
consists of a pair of intermeshing gears running in a casing with small clearances clearance exists between the tips of the teeth and the internal diameter of the casing end plates which are either pressure or spring loaded, seal the gear faces. pressure developed may be up to 210 bar displacements range from 0.2 to 400 cm3 per rev speed ranges from 500-600 rpm max operating pressure is 300 bar overall efficiency with some manufactures may go up to 90%

Pressure balancing
The principle of fluid mechanics states that Pressure acts equally in all directions Pressure exerted upon one point or area of a fluid body immediately translates to all portions of the body and acts with equal intensity throughout the body Pressure always seeks to move the fluid from a high pressure to a low pressure point. Pressure acting upon an area becomes a force. Equal pressures acting in direct opposition to one another cancel or neutralize each other. Pressure balancing in gear pump is proper utilization of all the above facts Pump carries oil from a point of less-than atmospheric pressure to one of high pressure. This action creates pressure gradient around the perimeter of the gear inside the pump. Due to this undesirable gradient, the confining surfaces tend to distort

When the pressures are relatively low, the strength of pump materials are sufficient to resist, but as the pressure increases the materials measurably distort. The is the result of unbalanced pressure force. This force is taken up by the bearings Roller bearing are used to take up these forces. Some of the balancing methods are as shown below The difficulty with these methods is not only cutting additional passages but also the need for preventing increased leakage that can occur between gear tips and housing wall. The gain in torque efficiency is cancelled by loss in volumetric efficiency

Pressure compensation methods in Gear pump.

Internal gear pump This consists of an internal gear, a regular spur gear, a crescent shaped seal and an external housing Power is applied to either gear, the motion of the gears draws the fluid from the reservoir and forces it around both sides of the crescent seal. Crescent acts as a seal between suction and discharge ports. When the teeth mesh on the opposite side to the crescent seal, the fluid is forced to enter the discharge port of the pump

Gerotor

Vane pump A fixed displacement simple vane pump is shown below It has a slotted rotor carrying vanes which can slide radially in and out The rotor assembly is mounted eccentrically in a ring housing and the end faces are sealed by plates As the rotor rotates the volume trapped between adjacent blades and the ring varies, which results in a pumping action. The vanes are thrown out by centrifugal force onto the ring and this force is increased by pressure oil applied to the underside of the vanes improving the sealing characteristics Vane pumps have minimum operating speed of about 600 rpm The approximate displacement per revolution of a vane pump neglecting the thickness of the vanes is 2 πDew where D – internal diameter of housing e – eccentricity of the rotor relative to housing w – width of the vane

Balanced vane pump If the vane pump is made oval in shape, the vanes reciprocate twice during one revolution of the rotor thus giving two pumping actions per revolution This double action has the advantage of balancing out the pressure forces on the rotor These type of pumps are known as balanced vane pumps

Simple vane pump

Balanced vane pump

Variable displacement vane pump If in an unbalanced vane pump the ring is moved relative to the rotor the eccentricity is altered There is a natural tendency for pressure within the pumping cavities to cause the rotor and ring to centralize Pressure compensation method is used to oppose this movement by means of a spring As pressure increases the spring is compressed, eccentricity and hence the flow are reduced accordingly Maximum and minimum delivery can be controlled by adjustable screwed stops which limit the eccentricity These are limited to 70 bar with deliveries up to 350 l/min

Square Design Vane pump

Reciprocating pumps

Piston pumps are used in systems where the operating pressure is 140 bar and above The prime characteristic of piston pumps is their high efficiency at high pressure This is of great importance when a constant flow is required, independent of pressure variations Axial, radial and plunger in-line type are the three major types of hydraulic piston pumps

Principle of axial piston pump

characteristics

These consist of number of pistons which reciprocate within a cylinder block These reciprocate by relative rotation of the angle plate By using suitable valves or valve plate assembly the pistons can be made to pump fluid from the suction port to the delivery port. The inclined cam plate which causes the pistons to reciprocate is non rotating and is known as swash plate. In some configurations the cylinder block is stationary and the cam plate rotates with the drive shaft, in such cases it is often described as wobble plate

Axial piston pumps which have seated valves are capable of operating at higher pressure than those using port plates but are not reversible Presently up to 700 bar and flow rates 640 l/min are available Port plate model have flows up to 1400 l/min and pressures up to 350 bar

Axial piston pumps

Bent axis pump Axial pump with swash plate

• Pumping Action in bent axis pump

Oil forced to outlet as piston is pushed back into cylinder

• Bent Axis piston pump

Bent axis pump

Inline Design Piston pump

Piston Shoe

Inline Piston pump

Port Connections

Valve Plate

Pressure Compensator Operation

Pressure compensator operation

Variable displacement In-line piston pump

Radial piston pumps In this case pistons are mounted radially in the main housing and spring loaded onto an eccentric bearing on the drive shaft Fluid is fed to and from the pistons through non-return valves Another form of radial piston pump has pistons housed within a block rotating in an eccentric ring Fluid is ported through the central shaft and a variable delivery can be achieved by altering the eccentricity of the ring Certain models operate at pressures up to 1700 bar and flow rates range up to 1000 l/min

Piston pump with stationary cam and rotating block

Plunger pumps Pistons are arranged in line above a special camshaft which consists of a shaft carrying a number of eccentric roller bearings Fluid is fed to, and discharged from, the cylinders through spring-loaded poppet valves. The output of a plunger pump cannot be reversed and fixed delivery types are most common They have a high volumetric efficiency They work against pressures in excess of 1000 bar Flow rates are up to 600 l/min

Pump selection
The main parameters affecting the particular type of pump selection are Maximum operating pressure Maximum delivery Type of control Pump drive speed Type of fluid Pump contamination tolerance Pump noise Size and weight of pump Pump efficiency Cost Availability and interchangeability Maintenance and spares

Motors (Gear motor)

Basic operation of vane motor

Vane Motor
contact between vanes and elliptical cam ring is maintained by coil or leaf spring pump cannot be made as motor by supplying fluid. Torque is developed by applying fluid pressure acting on exposed surface of vane. These are low-to-medium torque units. (1600 Nm) These perform best at speeds above 100 rpm In conventional vane motors pressure is only applied when vanes are fully extended. shaft is hydrostatically balanced. In line check valve can be used to generate a pressure which is always slightly higher than motor pressure.

• Vane motor

Vane type motor

Piston type motors
Clearance between cylinder and piston can be manufactured to close tolerance very fine clearances can be achieved giving low leakage rates and high volumetric efficiencies. Piston motors can be designed to work at relatively high pressure, reducing the leakage by increasing the length of the piston or increasing the viscosity of the oil. In theory all piston motors can be made to have a variable displacement. This is achieved by controlling the stroke of pistons or by varying the number of strokes per revolution. Controlling the number of strokes per revolution will give stepped speed change and is less commonly used.

Axial piston motors
These are similar to axial piston pumps and are available with port plates which can act as either pumps or motors. The fluid forces the pistons outwards and the reaction forces setup against the fixed swash plate results in a tangential force causing the piston block and output shaft to rotate. When the piston reaches its maximum outward stroke the flow path is switched by kidney port plate to the outlet port and fluid is forced out of the cylinder as the piston is driven inwards by the swash plate reaction. An alternative design is bent axis piston motor. In this case the cylinder block and the output shaft are maintained in alignment by either a universal link or meshing gears.

Piston motor