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Aspen Tech Handbook: A Technical Aide for Chemical Engineering Process Design Students

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Contents

For information on the contents of any section, read the opening paragraph of that section, or use the alphabetical index in the back of the handbook for easier searching.

Chapter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Computer Management Multicomponent Flash Drums Generating Graphs in Aspen Modeling Distillation Columns Modeling Reactors Using RateFrac for Rate-Based Simulations Putting Everything Together Using Aspen Icarus for your Cost Estimate Using Aspen Pinch For Your Heat Integration

Title

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Appendix A Appendix B Appendix C

Thermodynamic Property Tree References Index

47 48 49

Note: The makers of the AspenTech, Inc.’s Aspen Plus simulation engine have no affiliation with this tutorial. This tutorial was produced for educational purposes and any distribution of this material without the expressed written consent of Cornell University is strictly prohibited. Possible side effects of using this software include: blurred vision, self-induced hair loss, hours of frustration, and the realization that you probably never need to use activity coefficients again. Please consult your physician before operating the simulation engine.

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Preface to the Manual

Over the last several years, we have introduced modern Chemical Engineering software to the Unit Operations and Design Courses. Even more recently, we have introduced AspenPlus simulation to the Separations Course and we hope this "downward" integration will continue. The value to the senior courses has been enormous and many graduates have expressed that knowing something about these computer techniques has been helpful in their jobs. Unfortunately, as the programs get more able to predict real processes and equipment, they become more complicated. The "Help" manuals are not easy (although they are complete) and step-by-step tutorials are non-existent. Keep in mind that we are being provided with several hundred thousand dollars worth of software and licenses for a tiny fraction of the normal price. While Aspen does provide technical service, we cannot expect them to answer our specific questions overnight. In the spring of '01, Brock Tuczynski was a TA for Separations and wrote a very nice tutorial for getting started with Aspen. I had written several sets of instructions for solving various problems with Aspen and Icarus and, over the years, we had assembled lots of specific but unorganized answers to questions. Over the summer of '03, Josh Banke and Meghan Cuddihy put together this tutorial. They edited Brock's original work, tied together all we had and wrote many new sections. They have tried to make this into a comprehensive user's guide to the Aspen and Icarus software and have added quite a bit of material about the computer lab organization and setup that I hope you will find useful. Good luck as you become more proficient with the simulations and remember that these are difficult and complicated programs to use. Patience is important. One last piece of advice: the fundamentals of Chemical Engineering are the most important tools you have. I have seen many, many flash drums that were not adiabatic, columns with a reflux ratio below the minimum( try a McCabe-Thiele Diagram for starters), and overall material balances that were not right. Start every problem with a sketch, a material balance and a heat balance and you will spend a lot less time trying to get yo ur process to converge. Ken Ackley

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Chapter 1: Computer Management
The purpose of this chapter is mainly to demonstrate how to setup a shared folder on the computer lab network, how to optionally set up one from your home, as well as to discuss some of the more pertinent issues regarding managing and securing the integrity of your computer that are useful to know. Windows XP File Sharing Windows XP lets you share a computer's disks and folders with other computers on the network, using a method called Simple File Sharing. If a disk or folder is shared, everyone with whom you give permissions to the file may access it from the network. This can be useful for several reasons: a shared folder will make it easy for all members of the group to access any saved Process Design or UO files; it obviates a need for writing files to discs or other data transfer media; and it can ward off any answer predators, who might want access to your Aspen or Icarus files. Probably the simplest method for going about this is to share and set permissions on a folder in your account on the Instruct Domain. Here is a brief explanation of how to do that. o Note: The computers in the computer lab in Olin Hall should have Windows XP Professional, if not the latest operating system, installed and running, so we will try to base our example on that assumption. In our example, we've used Windows Explorer to browse to the directory of the My Documents folder, which should be located on the desktop. o In the right-hand pane, right-click, select New and then Folder, and enter the name Shared Folder (or whatever you feel comfortable naming it). o Note: For maximum compatibility with all versions of Windows, use 1-12 characters. o Now, you should specify sharing options for the folder you have created. To do this, rightclick the folder and select Sharing and Security. o On the Sharing tab, select Share this folder and enter a share name. You can add a comment that describes the share on other computers on the same network. o Leave the User limit alone. On XP professional, the maximum limit is 10. o You should probably set some password permissions, so that only you or your group members can access it. To do this: o Click Permissions. Notice that, by default, the group Everyone has Full Control. This means that all users can read, write, and even delete files. That's not what we want at all! o Click Add, and then choose Object Types. Un-check Built-in security principles and Groups, because we only want to see Users. Click OK. o Choose Advanced, and click Find Now. Click on the users who should have access to this share. This should include your group partners and you. You can repeat this to add additional users. When you are done, click OK. o You should be back at the Permissions List. By default, the newly-added users have read-only access. You may want them to have read/write access, meaning each user who logs in can alter files as well as read them, so tick the Change box. You should repeat this for each user as you see fit. A powerful alternative is to set up a share at home, if you don’t want to worry about being in the lab to access the shared folder. This way, you and your partners can telecommute and can exchange ideas and work without being physically present. You would just need to drop your work on the shared folder and it would be accessible by all members of your group. But this method has some issues with compatibility that need to be taken into account first. • Important! Making Sure You Can Set Up a Shared Folder at Home The process for setting up a shared folder that is accessible from another connection is not necessarily easy. There are a few requirements that need to be met first. Before setting up a shared folder that can be easily accessed from home, either you need to be on the Resnet Domain, or you should have a direct connection to the internet with what is called a static IP given to you by your internet service provider. Being on Resnet automatically allows you to access your computer easily from home, but if you live off campus, and want to set up a share that you can access from outside home, you will need to make sure you have a static IP. Your IP address is essentially the identifying address that your computer uses to interact with the internet, and, as the name suggests, a static IP address is one that doesn’t change. If you are not sure whether you have a static IP or its counterpart, a dynamic DHCP-based address, there is a way to check.

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0.0. 255.255. enter the following command: netsh interface ip set address "[connection name]" static [ip address] [netmask] [gateway] [metric] o Netmask is the subnet mask (e. Because sharing in this way is so wide open.0.168. will be accessible by other network users. you would type: netsh interface ip set address "local area connection" static 192.” and the result should be a listing of numbers. For example. There are a number of ways to go about this. Windows XP tries to protect you from some potential security risks. along with all of the folders that it contains.1 (metric 3). to change to the static IP address 192. and metric is the numerical difference between the IP and the default gateway. so there is a good chance that someone in the group has a direct internet connection with a static IP. mask 255. o Right click the disk or folder that you want to share and select Sharing and Security.255.255.168.0) associated with the IP address. then your ISP supplied you with a static IP but if you no longer have access to the internet.g.255. Page 6 . but you will worry less about who is rummaging through your computer and who isn’t.255. This command provides several functions that relate to viewing and changing IP addressing on a Win2K system.4. For example. o At the prompt. This should bring up what is called a command prompt or a dos prompt. There are no user permissions and no passwords.0.0 192.1 3 o If you still have access to the internet. but the one you will need to actually take note of will be the number labeled by “IP Address. you need to merely enter into the command prompt: netsh interface ip set address "<connection name>" dhcp If you do not have Resnet or a static IP it isn’t the end of the world. You have 3-4 members per group. It’s a little more complicated. One way is to hit the Start button. gateway is the default gateway on the command prompt. here is a short how-to for setting up a shared folder with XP Home. However. and it really is simple. and assume your apartment has viable access. to switch from DHCP to static IP. everyone on the network can access it.” Keep this prompt open. Type in “cmd” and hit enter. type in “ipconfig. I recommend it over the Home Edition. since your computer more likely has the home edition installed on it. But let’s be optimistic. Windows XP Home Edition’s Simple File Sharing Windows XP lets you share a computer's disks and folders with other computers on the network.255. The disk or folder that you share. if you don’t already know it.4 255. If a disk or folder is shared. so if you have it or have access to it.0. you can use Win2K's multipurpose Net Shell (Netsh) command. then you don’t have a static IP. • Just a small note: Windows XP Professional has a much more powerful way to control the sharing of files.o First you need to know what your IP is.168.168. To switch back to DHCP-based addressing. then click the Run button. using a method called Simple File Sharing. To make IP address changes from within a script. and gateway 192.

o Note: If you're sharing an entire disk. since only that folder (and its subfolders) will be accessible by others. Click where indicated to either run the Wizard or to share files without running the wizard. Otherwise. urging you to use the Network Setup Wizard for safety. typing “\\” followed by the IP into the address bar in Internet Explorer. as a corollary. write. which users on other networked computers will use to access this disk or folder. or cable modem. Page 7 . and delete shared files. We strongly urge you to never run Aspen without an updated anti-virus agent. Windows XP displays a warning. select Just enable file sharing. Once it's deleted. But it's a terrible idea if you connect to the Internet through your LAN. This screen doesn't appear if you're sharing a folder. update your virus definitions frequently. What’s implied in the warning is that it's better to share a specific folder. you may now specify a Share name. un-check Allow network users to change my files. if you don’t have an Antivirus program. o Note: The Wizard automatically enables the Internet Connection Firewall (ICF) to prevent other Internet users from accessing your shared disks and folders. open My Computer. using a software or hardware router. o To access your shared folder. there is a good chance to pick up a virus accidentally from one of the computers in the lab. o The first time that you set up sharing. If you want ICF enabled. You can either memorize your IP address. Also. and the rest of the disk will be inaccessible. DSL. and select Map Network Drive . o By default. Enabling ICF is a good idea if you connect directly to the Internet through a dial-up. since it will block File and Printer Sharing. and. select Use the wizard to enable file sharing. users on other computers have full access: they can read. To map a network drive. o Having successfully run the Wizard's obstacle course. o XP should display another warning. o Warning: If a user has full access. you have a couple of options. Windows XP gives a warning. click Tools. Click where indicated if you want to go ahead and share the entire disk. or you can map it as a network drive. it's gone for good. If you only want them to be able to read files. deleting a file doesn't put it in the Recycle Bin.

you constantly protect your computer from viruses and worms. o To access your folder. right click the disk or folder and select Sharing and Security. you'll have to map it manually every time. or type in your IP address. o To create a hidden share. \\192. (For example. Make sure you update your virus definitions every two or three weeks. you can download it from the CIT website: http://www. followed by the name of the share. but if you think anyone you don’t want to give access is clever enough to guess a name like Design$. use a more secure name. you access it just like a disk on the same computer. Only people who know the share name should be able to access it. either map the hidden folder as a network drive like before. Specify a share name that ends with a dollar sign. such as Symantec Anti-Virus.cornell. so that the mapping will happen automatically every time you start your computer.168. Otherwise. if you share a folder at home. If you already have an anti-virus program. The mapped drive is connected and appears in a new window. In the format of \\“Computer Name”\“ Folder Name” or \\“IP Address”).edu/services/nav/. the “safety” afforded by Simple File Sharing is not enough for you.cit. One Method for Protecting Your Shared Files Hiding Them Most likely. like a combination of letters and numbers.4\Design$). It’s not incredibly safe for both your computer and your files. Page 8 . use 1-12 characters (1-11 before the dollar sign). o Check Reconnect at logon. as people would be able to add files to your shared folder willy-nilly. One answer is to create a hidden share by adding a dollar sign ('$') to the end of the share name. o Here we labeled the share Design$.0. A hidden share doesn't appear in My Network Places or Network Neighborhood on any of the networked computers. Click Finish. However if you don’t have it. Once it has a drive letter. You only need to enter your netid and your password. One last point that we can never stress enough is to make sure that. this should be quite sufficient for protective means. It should also be available in My Computer as a drive. Once again.Specify an unused drive letter and enter the network path for the share (ie.

• Setting up your flowsheet: First you need to select the piece(s) of equipment you desire. Page 9 . (Example taken from http://chemeng. an explanation appears under it. All the selections in a given directory are exactly the same program and only LOOK different so that your flow diagram can look the way you want it. 30% Heptane and 10% Nonane. Then click the down arrow next to the picture labeled Flash2. Some choices of drums come up. o Note: When you hold the cursor over each directory like “Flash 2” or Flash 3”. 5% Propane. choose to create a Template. select the top right by clicking on it.5 psia) is separating 1000 kg/hr (2204 lb/hr) of a feed that is 10 mol% Ethane. o To get to flash drums click on the Separators tab on the bottom of the screen.ppt) Solution Methodology: • The Basics (This section is a step-by-step process for those who have never used Aspen): Starting Up: First we shall discuss how to open Aspen. The purpose of this is to have all default settings in English Units.edu/~charles/cheme120/Lectures/Lecture6-BubbleDew. Click OK. Problem Statement: A flash chamber operating 80oC (176oF) and 500kPa (72. and covers how to perform a sensitivity analysis. If this is the first simulation you have ever made.Chapter 2: Aspen Plus Simulation Engine Multi-Component Flash Drums The purpose of this chapter will be to (re-)introduce you to the vile world of Aspen. It first goes step -by-step through the basics of Aspen. click OK. The sensitivity analysis is instrumental in observing how process performance changes with varied operating conditions. and then select . o This will bring up the Aspen startup screen. then specifies an important piece of equipment you should need to know how to model in Aspen. Right clicking stops you from placing drums on the screen. then click on and .stanford. 12% iso-Pentane. 10% n-Pentane. 15% n-Butane. and the drum should appear. o Now click the mouse in the middle of the screen. What are the product compositions and flow rates? Feed conditions are the same as that of the flash chamber. o Click on the button. 8% n-Hexane.

don’t worry about it. Click OK to run the simulation. Unfortunately. you can print your data table summary onto the flowsheet by clicking on the Stream Table button. o Set the Temperature and Pressure of your Flash Drum. Name streams using the same method as for naming the drum. will tell you the purpose of that stream (feed. you should have results similar to the data shown on the next page: Page 10 . etc) designate that gas as a Henry’s Component. or you can search for it using the Find button and typing in either a component formula or name. o For the exiting streams. left click on each piece(s) of equipment. This is done by clicking the button that looks like . It gives you numerous options for deciding on a calculation method. and continue on. so start from there. o Enter the stream data and conditions for the feed stream (Temperature. such as NRTL-RK. For all other systems. water and ethanol). simply go to Report Options. you will need to use a polar calculation method. click on the name. and again click on . click and hold away from the feed side of the drum and pull the mouse to connect with the Red feed arrow of the drum (it’s on the left side). With water in your system. If you have a relatively simple system. If you have a mixture of liquids that separate into two or three layers or if the liquids are non-ideal use an activity-based system. When you are done. etc) For your reference. such as FLASHDRM for example. you can probably get real data from numerous sources. pressure. o Note: Holding the mouse over the colored arrows. click . o In order to print your results. o Assuming you have input the data correctly. This is an equation of state model. etc. use RK-SOAVE. For the feed. things can get complicated. To do this. Simply type in the name if you know it. nonpolar) and continue along it. If there is a dissolved gas in the liquid phase (as from sparging a gas into your reactor. and choose Mole under Fraction Basis. Doing this can often be confusing. hold CTRL and type H. Click . because it fits our “thermodynamic path. o To view your results click on the button towards the upper right of the Control Panel that should now be up. o Note: For most problems that you face in your college career. Type in an 8 character name for your unit. according to Aspen. other library resources. To locate it. 3. Our system has a number of nonpolar components. and composition). as a selection of last resort. sit back and let the machine do the work. For this sp ecific operation. bottoms. This includes one of your professors. blue or red. click and hold the arrow on the top of the drum and pull the stream off the drum and release. o Note: It’s often more useful to have results with components in the form of mole fractions instead of mole flow rates. and choosing Rename at the screen that pops up. o Click on and then you can scroll down to see the results. Continue adding all components in our column and press Close. Follow the same procedure for the red arrow on the bottom of the drum. type it in the Title block that appears then click . If water will separate out as a third immiscible phase. o Important Note: The only real way to tell whether you have selected the proper system is to compare a T-x-y or x-y diagram generated by Aspen with REAL DATA. NRTL-RK. you need to choose an appropriate thermodynamic property for the specific separation. We cannot stress this point enough. Click OK to proceed to the next step • Setting Properties o To add a title. Choosing an Appropriate Thermodynamic Property: o Now. our flowsheet is shown in the diagram above. under the Setup folder. if water is miscible (ie.o To name the piece of equipment. flowrate. o Note: You can rename the components by changing their Component ID. but don’t stress over it. o Note: Any time you change conditions and want to run again you must Reinitialize the process before running. is the one to pick if you have no real data to check your selection with. Located in Appendix A is the very handy Thermodynamic Decision Tree. unless you are dealing with a very complex system or one that has little research associated with it. The component with a name of 2(or 3)-Methyl-Butane fits the description of iso-Pentane. Click when you are done. then the Stream tab. An easier alternative is to hold CTRL and type M. so press the Add button to add it to the list of components. tops. o Note: Here are some tips from Aspen on choosing a Thermodynamic system when you really don’t know what to use: 1. 2. you might have a little trouble finding iso-Pentane. you will rarely have to worry about your system having an electrolyte or not having available interaction parameters. and type in butane. For having the composition in terms of mole fractions. I chose to use PENG-ROB.” PENG-ROB is usually a good choice if you have a system with a several hydrocarbons. which is done by first clicking on the Material Streams tab at the bottom right of the screen. It is probably best to just assume that Aspen has the interaction parameters. use Find. o Note: If you don’t want names to be shown on the flowsheet. right click and then select Rename Block. o Next you will need to connect streams. but. since Aspen has its own conventions for carbon chains with branching. you must select Mole-Frac from the menu on the right. or one that has been researched thoroughly. o Now you need to add all of your components. o Click the (Next) button in the middle of the top of the screen. or search using its formula. Just start from the first branching (polar vs. the infamous Perry’s Chemical Engineer’s Handbook.

Here we named it ETHVAP.” which is the item Aspen changes while it performs its iterative calculations. so it would likely be either mole fraction of Ethane in the liquid or vapor streams. Then click on Sensitivity. merely choosing a range both above and below the initial guess. o Create a new sensitivity object by clicking on the button. then narrowing the range down can be quite useful. Name it something you will recognize or just keep the default S -1 name given to you. look at our example in the diagram to the right: o Under the Vary tab. so. This should be what you want to increment so that you obtain a change in the flowsheet variable. you could perform a sensitivity analysis showing how the flash changes while varying temperature.These results are pretty close to what you would obtain using a Depriester Chart. o Choose a range of values over which the temperature will be changing. o Note: Think of the flowsheet variable as that which is watched as Aspen performs its calculations. Again. Page 11 . which will be the block variables temperature or pressure. o Then. and incrementing by 1. under the define tab. • Performing a sensitivity analysis: If you wanted to determine how a component (say Ethane) in one of your output streams (let’s use the Vapor stream) is affected by the temperature. o This might be a little confusing at first. If you are performing an simulation where you want to show all the results in a range. to the right is an example. you are now asked to input conditions for the “Manipulated Variable. Create a name and specify what kind of variable it will be. if you are a little unsure of what this screen should look like. as an example. Methodology: o Click on the Data Browser button : o Open the Model Analysis Tools “folder”. create a new “Flowsheet Variable” by clicking on the New button. so let’s move on. I recommend using 100 to 300 as the temperature range to look at.

the main purpose for this manual is more geared to hopefully providing useful hints on managing the rather confusing simulation tool we refer to as Aspen. Page 12 . merely left-click on the column’s label box. However. mostly because we feel you do not need to be led by the hand through the entire process. o Note: To highlight a whole column of data. If you want to graph the results. This is usually located next to the Status column. As always make sure your answer makes sense. This ends the first chapter on using Aspen.o o o o Under the Tabulate tab. This should select all data below it. If you want to highlight all columns in one click. and enter the name of the Flowsheet Variable that you wish to evaluate. From here on. it is recommended that you highlight the data. copy (CTRL-C) the data then paste (CTRL-V) it into Excel or another database program. just click the blank box in the top left corner of the Summary table. To view the results click on the Check Results button on the control panel. the manual will no longer be written in a step-by-step -by-step fashion. then Sensitivity. Click the Next button to run the sensitivity simulation. and S -1 (or whatever you named the object) and then you can scroll down to see the results. and operates between -50oF at the top and 700oF at the bottom. If there are potentially confusing instances. type in a column number. once the calculations have been completed. You should be able to graph it quite easily from that point on. Click on the Model Analysis Tools folder. you probably should take a closer look at your column. we will try to accommodate by including a visual aide. If your distillation column consists of 7 trays.

including the streams. To input and edit your choice. so you will be required to heat your stream of methanol (obviously without exposure to air). o Choose the thermodynamic system you will be working with by using the Thermodynamic Decision Tree. you need to choose the property you wish to analyze. It’s a pretty useful tool to use if you need to give your manager hard-to-find physical property data for your system. Here I chose UNIQUAC.Chapter 3: Aspen Plus Simulation Engine Generating Graphs in Aspen Now might be a good time to demonstrate how to use Aspen to create and edit pure component. such as methanol (g) at 68oF. This includes documenting the constant volume heat capacity. and density over the specified range. you will need to use Aspen to graph these physical properties of methanol. Pure Component Systems: Problem Statement: Assume you are running an experiment using a simple pure substance (>99. o Click on the Tools button located on the toolbar at the top of the screen. or WILSON. at atmospheric pressure. and then add a piece of equipment. as such. click on the Components folder. located in Appendix A. click on the Specifications tab. Add all component(s) to the system. In our case. this is merely methanol. for purposes of data verification. click on the Properties folder.9%). Then choose Pure. o Much like in the previous chapter. you are asked to plot constant volume heat capacity. UNIQUAC usually provides a reasonable amount of accuracy. about methanol over the change in temperature from 68oF to 165oF. or if you want to evaluate your system’s temperature and composition data before you perform a simulation. and then go to the Specifications tab. but the only way to be completely sure of a correct choice is comparison to real data. the change in Gibb’s Free Energy and Enthalpy. o Open the data browser. Solution Methodology: First you need to input the components and specify which thermodynamic system you are going to use. t he change in Gibb’s Free Energy and Enthalpy. and you require a few bits of information. and choose the system from those listed under Base Method. binary and tertiary system property graphs. The screen might look something like this: Page 13 . You have found out through your various reference sources or your employer that. but you could also choose NRTL. From the problem statement. However. Click on Analysis and choose the option of Property. open either a new template or blank document in Aspen. Now we need to actually make the graphs. and density over the given range. methanol boils at 65oC (149oF). o When the Pure Component Properties Analysis Screen pops up. your experiment requires you to gather some information. Then.

o If you are satisfied with your plot. etc if you were dealing with the appropriate binary mixtures. o Click on Tools. o You can also change the type of gridlines that are present on the graph by changing the Grid Type or Line Type selections. and n-Butane (50-50 mixture). or you could edit the way the graph looks by playing around with the Plot Wizard. Here instead choose “Binary. o On this screen you are also given the option to change the units that are displayed. petroleum free-water method calculations. I haven’t covered them. and make any necessary changes to your thermodynamic system. With the plot done. Our plot is shown in the diagram below. you now have a couple of options. you can print the new plot. o Note: Whenever you make a modification to the current system. Click Next. or if your system is no longer at a low pressure. especially if you are adding a complex component. if any. Solution Methodology: o First you need to add n-Butane to your components list. o On the next screen you can alter the title of the graph. < to remove data from the right column. etc. Some other possible modifications could include adding Henry’s components.” Page 14 . o Select the data you wish to plot and click the > button to add data from the left column. Remember this is done by going to the “Properties” folder. since these options are mostly for aesthetic purposes. then choose the plot type (there is probably only 1 or 2 options) and go to the next screen. When you are finished.Hit the Go button to plot the results of your analysis. Binary Systems: Problem Statement: Now assume that you are running a similar experiment. you can perform another plot analysis using a different property. and you can alter the title of the axes (Usually you would like to have the axis display the units. o With the editing done. Txy. and you wish to obtain an xy. however you now have a mixture of Methanol. so do not remove %Unit%). and changing your Base Method. and click on the Plot Wizard button on the analysis results screen. you will be presented more editing options when you right-click on the diagram. make sure you make any pertinent changes. You can Zoom in or Zoom out. Optional: If you want to edit the plot: o Close the plot. then click on Analysis and Property. etc. change the color scheme. then hitting “Specifications”. and KVL diagram of your system. and repeat the process to create plots for the remaining properties asked for. ∆ o Note: With each type of Aspen graph. electrolytes. click the Finish button. However. Under “Property” you should have the choice of Pure and Binary.

Henry’s Components. Page 15 . it should look something like this: I think the diagram looks fine the way it is. There isn’t much in the way of editing options. After making your diagram look the way you want it to. so your graphing task should be complete. o The plot should pop up. range and number of points/increments are how you like it. In any case. add the new component to your system and make the necessary changes to your thermodynamic system. then on Analysis and then Property. and it should look like the diagram to the right: o You can either edit the plot or go on to the next chart. When you are done click Go. o The plot should pop up. o Make sure you are operating at Atmospheric Pressure. however. go to the Binary Analysis Results window created along with the plot. Here instead choose Residue. Binary and Residue with the addition of a third component. and you should have the choices of Txy. When you are done editing. o When the Residue Analysis screen pops up. plot the new graph. Make changes as needed and select the number of curves you wish to generate. You would now have the same options for editing a plot as you would in a pure component situation. o The other option is to choose either the xy or KVL type of diagram. you can plot each graph. When you choose either of these. o If you want to edit the current plot. some of the methanol in your system is actually ethanol (30-20 and 50 butane mixture). check to make sure that all of the options chosen are correct. which have already been discussed. this time. Under Property you should have the choice of Pure. Pxy. and you need to generate a ternary diagram of the system. and modify the axis labels. and that your property options (Base Method. o Click on Tools. you would select the Txy type of plot. go the Analysis Type option. Solution Methodology: o Again. etc). if any. and Gibb’s Free Energy of Mixing.o When the Binary Analysis screen pops up. other than the ability to add a legend. you enter the plot -editing pages. Tertiary Systems: Problem Statement: Now assume that you are running a similar experiment. o When you are done click Go. and. depending on the number of curves you chose. Choose Txy. and choose Plot Wizard.

hold the mouse over the red or blue arrow and Aspen will tell you. and it is also saleable. note: If your column does not have a reboiler or condenser.804 lbmol/hr 60 277 277 497 13 1. but optimizing becomes much more complex. your depropanizer column needs to remove 99% of the propane. RadFrac is the most common method we use to model our columns. and you’ve been assigned to design a series of columns to remove propane. o However. Tops and Bottoms or some variant of them usually works. o Another hint: By now. Page 16 . Remember if you are ever unsure of what a stream on the block (your column) represents. o Add a column by selecting the Column tab at the bottom of the screen. Feed. so that the saleable propane only contains 1% ethane. Now add your material streams and name them. o Click Next and then click OK to go to the Data Browser. Your selection really doesn’t affect the way Aspen does its calculations. To guide you through some of the more useful simulation techniques. If you have entered all information and need to go back to something else. you can press to proceed to the next step. Once those nasty red symbols turn into encouraging blue checks . You can also navigate backwards and forwards by clicking on the appropriate arrow: . Setting up a column is very similar to that of flash drums. feel free to pick the section you desire on the left bar of the screen.100 28.214 16. Next. o Place the column on your flow sheet and name it.887 938 59. you will need to first design a column to remove ethane. pick the picture that most closely represents your column. You are given the following information about your stream. For these reasons.943 Solution Methodology: The following instructions will guide you through the early steps of designing your deethanizer. so click on the arrow next to RadFrac and select your favorite picture of a distillation column. which enters your process at 100oF and 250 psia: Component Ethane Propane i-Butane n-Butane i-Pentane Total: lb/hr 1.124 Mole % 5% 25% 25% 44% 1% 100 12. it means you need to enter more information before moving onto the next step.Chapter 4: Aspen Plus Simulation Engine Modeling Distillation Columns Distillation columns will be the major units of your overall process flowsheet. Problem Statement: It’s your first assignment at your new job at the AMC ® Refinery. Propane tends to build up in reactor units downstream. you should realize that whenever tabs display . we’ll walk you through a quick example.

the next step is to choose a thermodynamic system from the Thermodynamic System Tree. condenser. the vapor pressure of ethane at 120oF is over 1000 psia! If we were to set the condenser pressure that high. As always. We’ll choose to feed at tray 15. as shown at right. The FACT Method will estimate the number of trays and reflux ratio. since we are rejecting approximately that amount of ethane. since it should always be 1.5 +/.o Supply a title if you wish. In other words just make sure you are using absolute pressure (unless the units on the right say psig or barg). so if you tell the column that it is operating at 10 inches of water it will treat the system as a vacuum. o Looking at Figure 23-20 in the GPSA Handbook. choose a number of stages. o Now specify where the feed(s) enter the column. o For a good starting point on column properties. which. distillate rate . you can search for it using the find options. The separation we are making is mostly between ethane and propane.5% 25/(a-1) o Using FACT to start from. the number of actual distillation trays is: Product Purity # of actual trays And the reflux ratio is: Value of a-1 R/D >1 1 +/. o Note: Make sure the units you are using are correct.5 2. If you are feeding to the bottom of a column (below the lowest tray) you must change the Stage Convention from Above -Stage (the default) to On-Stage. the relative volatility. To refresh your memory. and now the column should be ready to Run. but only losing 3% of Page 17 . providing an excellent starting point. The vapor pressure of propane at 120oF is around 250 psia. based on the relative volatilities of components you want to separate. a. and reflux ratio. You typically want to choose a condenser pressure to be the vapor pressure of the component you want to remove at around 20o greater than your cooling temperature. o Note: The condenser counts as the first stage. Setting only the condenser pressure is fine. as well as the temperature of the condenser. o Add your two components.0. Therefore we want to pick a pressure that is reasonably inbetween these two pressures. is approximately 4. o Next. We are removing 35% of ethane. too much of the heavier components would vaporize. Next. o The condenser pressure dictates the column pressure. Our results are pictured to the right: o Our separation converges. enter the conditions and flow rates of your feed stream (Remember: Make sure that all of the components add up or else you will get horrendous errors later on! We suggest using mole fraction because it is easier to make sure that the total is what it should be. We also chose a distillate rate of 60 lbmol/h. We are going to use PENG-ROB for our example. we recommend using Figure 19-19 in the GPSA Handbook to get a more precise starting set of conditions. and the reboiler counts as the last stage. is 30 stages. estimated by the vapor pressure ratio of ethane and propane. Most of the time you will be dealing with absolute pressure. use the FACT Method.0. always a good starting point. o Specify the column and/or condenser pressure. We’ll try running at 425 psia. This indicates that our reflux ratio should be around 1. a reflux ratio of 1.) o In the Blocks Data Browser.5. for a deethanizer. in the Streams Data Browser.15 6 <95% 17/(a-1) < 98% 19/(a-1) < 99% 22/(a-1) 99. and choose it under Property method. remembering that if you can’t type in the name of the component.

Ethane 30 o A table of your results should now appear. incrementing by 0. We want to find the smallest rate that satisfies our design spec of 99% recovery of propane in the tops. distillate rate. blocks follow the same procedure but select Streams on the left and then select the Type. heat duties) select Blocks on the left and then choose the Type. and finally . o Next. o A Variable Definition window should pop up that looks like this: o Again. Sensitivity. Stream. o If you wish to have more than one variable select the Variable Number pull-down menu and select New. for each column write a number and then type in the name of your variable. Double click on the vs Reflux Ratio variable you want to tabulate then close the Defined 100 Variable List window. and Component. Right click again in the variable 90 space and paste your variable name. First right click in the variable space and then select Variable List. o We can try changing several things to improve our column: reflux ratio. You can either Propane 20 scroll down the list in Aspen or select and copy the desired 10 columns and view them in Excel. We’ll do this by performing a Sensitivity Analysis. Block. then selecting the Sensitivity Analysis folder and pressing New to define a new variable. choose your manipulated variable. again. the amount of propane in the tops (just to keep track). 0 % Recovery Shown to the right is a plot of the % recovery of Ethane and Propane in the tops vs. The latter is useful if you wish to plot your results for visual comparison.propane out the tops. Select what you wish to vary by selecting the variable from the pull-down menus on the left (molar reflux ratio is MOLE-RR). number of trays.25. It’s fine to call this S -1. We’ll vary the reflux ratio from 1 to 10. in the results 50 browser menu select Model Analysis Tools. define the flowsheet variable of interest. S -1 40 (if this is what you named it). 60 o To view the results of the sensitivity analysis. this is the variable which you are observing while another variable is varied. pressure. o Remember that this is done by first selecting the Model Analysis Tools folder. and Variable. o Note: The more variables or points you have significantly increases the amount of time it takes to run the simulation so choose wisely. o Similarly. • Optimizing reflux ratio: o A good place to start our analysis is with the reflux ratio. We’ll define two: ETH as the molar flow rate of ethane in the tops. o Now either create a list of values for your variable or pick a range and a number of points or increments. But let’s see if a couple changes can improve this separation to our target point. and PROP. you can select % Component Recovery the variable from a list. 80 o Make sure you have reinitialized by clicking then click 70 to run your simulation. if the variable of interest is a block variable (temp. Repeat the process above until you have all of your variables. o In the Tabulate menu. the Reflux Ratio: 0 2 4 6 8 Reflux Ratio 10 12 Page 18 . in the Vary tab. o Reminder: Instead of typing in the name. and feed tray. For Stream.

Distillate Rate (lbmol/hr) o Lastly. The vapor pressures of ethane and propane are so different that a ends up being huge. the tops temperature was still too low. Instead. reflux ratio. we’ll try to find the best number of trays and feed tray. we should be safe with these numbers. we found that increasing to 35 total trays and feeding on tray 10 gave the best separation (results below). we ran a design spec on the reflux ratio to obtain an ethane molar flow rate in the bottoms of 2. and the ethane in the bottoms is around 0. the more ethane will be rejected through the tops. and also allowed us to decrease our reflux ratio to 5. In doing so. but you will still need to be aware of the specific circumstances of what you are trying to model.7 lbmol/hr (approximately 1% of propane). o Note: we have to reject at least 80% of the ethane to meet our 1% ethane in propane spec.o It looks like we might have a tough time recovering a lot of ethane with a low reflux ratio. and distillate rate. To increase the tops temperature. The more total moles you let out the tops. This is probably because there is so little ethane in the feed that the separation is actually more like a stripping column than a distillation column. and needing to use a higher reflux ratio. We’ll set it at 8 for now and see if after we change some other specs we can lower it a bit. o First. we can adjust the column pressure. but… o Note also that the tops temperature is 52oF. we increased the condenser pressure to 460 psi. and we are only losing 1% of the propane – Not bad! Since our overall goal is propane recovery downstream. This gave us a reflux ratio of 2. 96% of ethane is rejected out the tops. we’re seeing a hard separation. and see what else we can change to improve our process.5oF: o Originally. which will require very expensive refrigeration. To try and increase the temperature. Page 19 . The graph indicates that above 8 there isn’t much change in ethane recovery when increasing the reflux ratio. This caused more ethane to leave through the bottoms. but we ended up with a reflux ratio of 2. which means that it should be an easy separation with a low reflux ratio. The tops temperature ended up at 113.2. we used the FACT Method to calculate our reflux ratio to be around 1.4% of the propane in the bottoms. o Lastly.75: o The ethane rejected is around 98%. This is done by running a design spec on the feed tray for several different sized columns. o The message from this is that FACT is a good place to start from. we incrementally increased the distillate rate until the amount of ethane in the bottoms was nominal. we are letting at least as much propane into the tops as ethane. o We should keep the distillate rate at just over 60.2. With the distillate rate at 61 lbmol/hr. % Component Recovery In The Tops vs Distillate Rate 100 90 80 70 60 Ethane 50 Propane 40 30 20 10 pr 0 58 60 62 64 66 68 70 72 74 76 % Recovery • Optimizing distillate rate: o Increasing the distillate rate is not helping us very much – for every increase. o Though we rejected our desired amount of ethane.

We’ll set the reflux ratio to 3. and changing the feed stage to get the best separation. You can tentatively set RD to RMIN + 10%. o Plugging in 3. o To perform this analysis. o We’ll then vary the reflux ratio (our example will choose 1 to 10) and the distillate rate (we’ll try 274 to 350 lbmol/hr).062 Mole % 0. and the tops are 94% pure. and feed on tray 15.887 938 58.9% recovery of propane. feeding on tray 11. • Finding RD: In the beginning stages of process design. This will be your RMIN. you are not expected to know anything definitive about number of trays.4 100 o We will design the column in the same way as we did before. Since the overheads of this column will be a lot greater than the overheads of the deethanizer. o After checking out feed tray and number of trays. heat duties. reflux ratio.093 28. our reflux ratio is 3. o We’ll define two specs. we will design a depropanizer to remove the saleable propane from the deethanizer’s bottoms stream. we get the best results with 35 trays. setting the mass flow rate of propane in the tops and bottoms to our desired separation. our stream results are (right): o These results are excellent – 98. Here are the results: Page 20 . o The minimum reflux ratio can be estimated by increasing the number of trays dramatically.7 26 46. and 1 to 10. and later we will join them together. the distillate rate to 275. which is the approximate vapor pressure of propane at 120oF. The composition of the bottoms stream is: Component Ethane Propane i-Butane n-Butane i-Pentane Total: lb/hr 34 12. go to Design Spec under Flowsheeting Options in the Data Browser. and 99% molar purity of the tops. We’ll vary our distillate rate and reflux ratio from 273 to 350.3.030 lbmol/hr 1. We can try improving these results by performing a Sensitivity Analysis on distillate rate. Let’s try to find RD.1 25. We’re recovering 94. to see if we could improve our results. and 97. we will try doing a Design Spec.9 277 497 13 1.1 273.8% purity. respectively. and repeat until increasing trays does not change the reflux ratio. and total number of trays. RD is then approximately 3.078 16. and increase the number of trays until the reflux ratio satisfying our specs does not get any smaller. and the condenser pressure to 200 psia. Note the reflux ratio required for the best separation.o Next. o We will start with 35 trays. etc. Our two specs will be 99% recovery of propane in the tops. Let’s see if we can improve the purity of the tops to less than 1% impure. there shouldn’t be any problems with a low reflux ratio. feed tray. feeding on stage 100. The results from this initial simulation are: o These results are very good for an initial simulation.8 1. We’ll try playing with some Design Specs to find RD.5% of the propane. in a separate file.3 as the reflux ratio. o Lastly. Our best results are shown in the Results Summary to the right: o With 600 trays.

Here are the results of the combined columns: Page 21 . the depropanizer. where the feed of the 2nd is the product of the 1st. we’ll Reconnect Destination of BOTDEETH to DEPROP. Aspen may ask you for a new feed stage for the second column. Arrows should show up on various locations where you can reconnect the stream to. it is very easy to connect them. We will reconnect it to the feed of DEPROP. In addition. right-click on one stream. Enter the same stage you had been operating at previously. All you have to do is select the picture of one column.With a distillate rate of 274 lbmol/hr and a reflux ratio of 4. you might need to add a heat exchanger or pump in case what you took from the first column is too hot or cold for what you designed for the feed of the second column or the pressure of the second feed doesn’t match the pressure of the first bottoms product.2. and paste it onto the other flowsheet: o Next. We can then delete PROPFEED: o You may then reinitialize and run the simulation. copy it. we have obtained our design specs! • Connecting Columns: o Now that we’ve optimized our two columns.

you can officially call yourself an Aspen Guru. We realize this is your first time attempt to model distillation columns.o The two columns now produce saleable propane with 99% purity. We can finally call this chapter to a fond end. but once you have read through and perhaps tried running this example yourself. It's quite a lot of information to take in. Page 22 .

nor should you immediately have enough information to perform such a task. mixers. and various solid separators) represented in Aspen. Let’s start with an example. but it still needs to be represented in Aspen. (I am making this number up for this example. it is always recommended that hand-calculations of these are done before modeling. RStoic Type Reactor You would usually use RStoic if the kinetics of the reaction are unknown. For right now. Each can usually be adequately modeled in Aspen. The only real requirements are that you know the stoichiometry of the reaction and the reaction’s percent molar conversion. and open the data browser. The typical ethanol reactor operates according to the reaction: C6H12O6 → 2(CH 3CH2OH) + 2(CO2 ) Assuming that you found in several journal papers or patents with verified documentation that the typical molar extent of reaction for an ethanol plant was 99. this includes your reactor. you don’t need to worry about it. Connect all required streams (there should be 2). If you are in a Tuesday group. will be to give you an introduction to the “black boxes” of Aspen. and for having your equipment (simple reactors. and “x” (or “y. let’s work with a reactor. RStoic can model reactions occurring simultaneously or sequentially and can determine selectivity and perform heat of reaction calculations. In many cases you will not be able to model your reactor at all.5% you should be able to model this reaction in Aspen. It is a reactor that separates components and performs reactions based on chemical stoichiometry.” in the case of reactors) comes out. The simplest way of representing a reactor is by using RStoic type reactor. splitters. These are for stating material “x” goes into your device. all components of your design process will need to be modeled in Aspen so that a cost estimate in Icarus can be evaluated.Chapter 5: Aspen Plus Simulation Engine Modeling Reactors Eventually. Let’s assume you were in one of the Tuesday ethanol plant design groups and you needed to model your reactor. select the Reactors tab and place an RStoic reactor on the flowsheet. too. but for your design needs. since there is no real basis for comparison. Page 23 . therefore. you will need to find this number or more pertinent information yourself) Solution Methodology: o Open Aspen. The main purpose for this chapter. However.

If the reactions occur in series you would need to check the box below the New button. Specify the temperature and pressure at which the reactor should be operating. o You need to now edit the stoichiometry of each reaction that is involved. o Compositions of outlet stream (phase equilibrium). o Outlet component weight distribution factors (weight distribution). there is only one component in the feed (Dextrose). o OK for one. or to perform the calculations by hand and enter the resulting value by selecting “Specify heat of reaction” and inputting it. o Mass & energy balances (balance). and supplying a reaction coefficient. In that case.o Add a title if you like. o Polymer distributions (distributions). If you were dealing with a whole system. and that the flow rate is 150 lbmol/hr. o Polymer distributions (distributions). For the sake of having a number. o Conversion is known. Output (Tab) o Mass & energy balances (balance). I chose UNIQUAC. in a paper or journal. you should be in the block options. 1 atm). o You next need to specify the reaction. Under the composition. Rate-based kinetics only. o Compositions of outlet stream (phase equilibrium). Products have a positive coefficient. calculates the other. • Optional : Finding the Heat of Reaction o You might need to specify the heat of reaction so that the heat duty can be accurately transferred to Aspen Pinch or Icarus. o Unknown stoichiometry or kinetics. o Reaction kinetics are not important or known. (ie: dextrose = -1. o Specify temperature or heat duty. o Pseudocomponent results (pseudocomponent breakdown). selecting “Calculate heat of reaction” and input the reference component). o Mass & energy balances (balance). change the report options (Setup à Report Options à Stream Tab) so that you have both molar flow and mass flow reported. o Mass & energy balances (balance). Reactor RStoic Conditions/Restrictions o Reaction stoichiometry known. so enter it as a 100%. o Specify the conditions of the feed stream. let’s use 2 atm for the pressure. o Equilibrium constants for reactions (Keq). o Heats of reaction (reactions). a typical temperature that the microorganism facilitating in the reaction operates best around is usually 95-98oF. o The best way of doing this is either to have Aspen calculate the value (by going to the “Heat of Reaction” tab. but it isn’t really too important for this example. For Design class you probably should just stick to either RStoic or REquil. In this case we can assume that the feed is at normal conditions (68oF. and this means selecting each reactant or product. Rate-based kinetics only. ethanol = 2). You create a reaction by clicking on the New button in the Reactions tab. o Reaction kinetics known.or two-phase reactors. Cooling stream (cocurrent and countercurrent) optional. Either works. Specify stop criteria. RYield REquil o Stoichiometry known. o Next. The screen could look something like the diagram to the right: o Run the simulation. You may again find. Here is a little rundown of the requirements for each type of reactor. o Mass & energy balances (balance). o Yield distributions known. o Some or all reactions reach equilibrium. o Select your base thermodynamic method. CO 2 and “Dextrose”). RCSTR Plug o Mass & energy balances (balance). o Contents of the reactor have same properties as outlet stream (Assumes perfect mixing). o The final step is to specify the Molar Extent of Reaction or Fractional Conversion. and realize that no professor in Design class will seriously expect you to completely model all aspects of your reactor in ASPEN. o Product selectivities (selectivities). RBatch Page 24 . let’s use 98oF as our reactor temperature. if the reactor had multiple reactions occurring within. o o o o o o Reaction kinetics known. there would obviously be more components but these are the only ones pertinent to our little example. and then add your components (there are 3: Ethanol. Reaction kinetics known. you create an item for each reaction. but reactants will be negative since they are being used up.

and we will try to give some useful hints for designing your absorber or stripper. You will need to find the outlet acetone composition in the water. click Next. rather than the idealized representation of equilibrium stages. but it is recommended that you choose a picture that most accurately represents your desired piece of equipment. place a RATEFRAC column on the flowsheet. open a blank simulation in Aspen.000 mol/h. absorbers and strippers. The column specifications are as described below: Temperature and Pressure: 68oF. and the pure water inlet flow rate is 45. and dragging it along the edge of the piece of equipment to another location. o Next attach all required Material Streams: this includes 2 inlet streams. or pseudo streams.Chapter 6: Aspen Plus Simulation Engine Using RateFrac for Rate-Based Simulations The purpose of this chapter is to get you acquainted with a new and powerful Aspen tool for systems such with rate-based models such as extractive and azeotropic distillation columns.000 mol/h. but it shouldn’t be completely unfamiliar territory. Page 25 .5 ft Height: 7 ft Solution Methodology: First we need to set up our example simulation. o Note: You are able to move the head of the stream arrow by clicking on it. and in the outlet gas leaving the top of the column it should be at most 0. Under the Columns subdirectory. The total entering gas flow rate is 15. Choose any icon. 14. Problem Statement: Let’s assume first that we have a packed tower absorber and acetone in a stream of air is being absorbed by water.5 mol%. one tops stream and one bottoms stream. If you have a more complicated system you could have to add side product. We will run through a fairly thorough example. so understanding how to fully use it can be complicated.7 psia Diameter: 1. RateFrac is a rate-based nonequilibrium model for simulating many types of multistage vapor-liquid operations and simulates actual tray and packed columns. called RateFrac. o Once the flow sheet connectivity is complete. o First of all. The acetone composition in the inlet air entering at the bottom of the column is 3 mol%. free water distillate. Pressing the arrow next to the RateFrac block will give you a list of icons you can use to represent the column. This is a relatively new item in your Aspen arsenal.

This is given in the problem statement as being 7 ft. Click Next when you are done. o On the Material Streams screen. for the purpose of easing calculations in evaluating heat and mass transfer rates between contact phases. click Next. in order to enter your compositions in terms of mole fractions. but you can merely enter these names and the correct item should appear. you will need to change the composition basis from MoleFlow to Mole-Frac. you can give your model a title. Now. o Note: Notice that the number 11 was stated for the bottom segment. you are free to pick any type. the Operating Specifications at the bottom of the screen should have both condenser and reboiler duty set at 0. However. divides columns into segments. Again. we need to specify information for our Absorber. we need to input an initial packing height that will be used to calculate our gas and liquid concentrations. The first segment is the first segment from the top. but more importantly you can change the output options for your results to a mole fraction basis. Also. but if you wish to have a basis for comparison.” defining packing types and sizes. we could have Aspen calculate the diameter for us by selecting Use calculated diameter. Plastic Pall Rings. Acetone.5 ft and click Next. o You have entered all the information Aspen needs. flow rate. Here you will need to enter the number of segments. we will be using NRTL. o Note: Because of this. and entering column dimensions. While inputting your values. click Next and the input sheet for your Block. these get translated into segments of packing. fill in the required fields according to the problem statement. including temperature. since we are modeling an absorber. This is because the default convention for stream location is Above Segment. in a packed bed column. o Note: In the inlet vapor stream sheet. o You can access your results by clicking on the shown on the next page: button and choosing the Streams folder. The only requirements are inputting the percent flooding. remember that the molar flow rate is in metric units. o Under the Base Method option. select the None option for both the condenser and reboiler. Since we are using a packed tower instead of a trayed tower. When you are done. Since this is an absorber. o Once you are done. There should be 3 in this example: Air. o Input the number of the last segment. You can make it so that the bottom segment is 10 by changing the convention to On Segment as shown to the left. o Next. you need to specify where the segments the feed and outlet streams are located. which. In our example. pressure. and composition. Now. if you are unsure at any time what your property method is. so Run the simulation by clicking Next and hitting OK at the Required Input Complete screen. They should look something like the picture Page 26 . as stated in the problem. In our example. you can skip this step by simply going to the folder in the data browser. Once you are done. don’t hesitate to use the Thermodynamic Method Tree located in Appendix A.o Under the Setup folder. 1) and click OK. but usually you should stick to one segment per foot or two of packing. and an initial estimate for the diameter. o On the next screen. just ignore it. and click Next. o You should be at the Tray Specs object manager screen. Click Next. and enter the starting segment number (ie. o On the stream property sheets for each inlet streams. but feel free to use more if it will be more accurate. and enter our pressure as the Top Segment Pressure. click the New button. under Ending Segment. click the Next button. enter the diameter given in the problem statement of 1. Usually you will need to Find your components in Aspen’s directory. click Next again and choose to Go to Next required input step. o Enter your components. or a series of trays in a trayed column.7 psia for the first segment. is 14. which is what we want. we will use 10 segments. should appear. if you were given vapor fraction and one other property. and not the English Unit lbmol . click Next. the feed and outlet streams all leave either the top (Segment 1) of the column or the bottom (Segment 11) of it. o Next. with the gas entering from the bottom and the liquid from the top. so first change the view to Top/Bottom if it isn’t already chosen. you can enter the percent vapor fraction under the missing property. there is a listing of information on various packing types in Figures 19-23 and 19-24 of the GPSA Handbook. o Note: If we were given the percent flooding instead of the column diameter in the problem statement. We have chosen 1 in. o You will also need to select the Condenser and Reboiler type. enter the Thermodynamic Method you will be using to evaluate the properties of your components. o Note: Remember this is done by going to the Setup folder à Report Options folder à Stream tab and de-checking mole in Flow Basis and checking it in Fraction Basis. the absorption column. and Water. instead of both temperature and pressure. you will need to enter the pressure. which in our example is 10. so when you are done. More segments usually mean more accuracy. o Note: Aspen. the number of the bottom segment. Since the packing type was not specified in the problem. If the Binary Interaction screen appears. This includes specifying numbers of “segments.

0001. then name of your block ABSORBER. o Now we have to create a flowsheet variable. o Under the Spec tab. o Under the Vary tab. • Change a non-numeric estimate or a variable • Create a Design Spec Changing a Non-Numeric Estimate or a Variable The first option is probably the easiest to do if you have a result that is very close to what you want and you weren’t looking for an answer with a high degree of error tolerance. like ACETON and select OK.005. On the Variable Definition form. You can view your results by clicking on Results Summary.06 ft of packing material if everything was done per our instructions. our resulting acetone composition in the exiting gas stream doesn’t meet the requirement set by the problem statement of 0. Click OK to keep the name of DS -1. Finally. since this will be very tedious and potentially unreliable. or you can click on the Convergence folder to obtain your new packing height. There are a couple of things you can do to correct this. Notice that this is not the actual height of the absorber. and enter under Target the value of the variable. Any one of the options associated with it could be altered to theoretically give us a better answer. Our wish here is to vary the packing height in the column in order to obtain the desired mole fraction of acetone in the gas outlet stream. Page 27 . and material. o In the ID1 field enter the column number. for the sake of getting more accurate results. so this should be a refresher course for those with distillation experience. as a warning.4 mol% which satisfies the problem statement. enter the name of the variable just created. select HTPACK as the variable. which. you can highlight the variable and look at the dialogue box at the bottom of the browser to obtain a description of what each represents. this includes size. is the height of packing. which will be the mole fraction of acetone leaving the column in the gas outlet stream. do not attempt at all. we set the tolerance to 0. which is the allowable difference between the spec and the target. Though. that being our type of packing. and name it something easily remembered. then choosing the Streams folder to obtain the resulting stream compositions. But. which should also be 1. So. or change it if you are the discerning type. o Reinitialize and Run your simulation. You would need to account for the area above and below the equipment. Creating a Design Spec Creating a design spec for a RateFrac model is practically the same as creating one for a distillation column. This information should be listed under Variable Value as having a value of 8. select the category All (or Streams). Choose Block-Var. and the type of variable that Aspen is changing. if you are confused. this does not always work to benefit you. o Create a new design spec by clicking the New button on Object Manager Screen that pops up. choose a range for the upper and lower limits for your manipulated variable. In this case. you will need to specify t he manipulated variable. this would be a good option. which should be 1. in our case. type. o Reopen the data browser and choose the Flowsheeting Options folder and then open the Design Specs folder. and it is necessary to stop iteration. and fill out the required fields under Reference and click Next. If this is not the case.5 mol%. In our case. or those who have already read Chapter 4. click on New. Here. let’s try a Design Spec. though you don’t have to adhere to that number.Unfortunately. One possible solution is to change the Pall Rings from Plastic to Metal material. o Next. since we are varying the total height of the packing. and in ID2 enter the starting segment number. This results in an acetone composition of 0. which is 0. so try it only when your results are very close to the spec. Remember that. since we have at least one non-numeric variable. set the error Tolerance. A reasonable set of values for Aspen to iterate between is 30 (ft) as your upper limit and 1 (ft) as your lower limit. o Note: Don’t get discouraged while looking through this giant list of strangely labeled manipulated variables.

and Aspen should model all reactions. We hope that it has been helpful in modeling any absorber or stripper that you have in your design process. If you are unable to find this. it’s ASPEN’s fault. select the precipitating salt from the list. o After you have finished entering your packing material specifications. or. click on the Reactions sub-directory located below it. look at the picture below. create a new Reaction ID by choosing New from the pull down menu. This concludes our discussion on RateFrac columns. In such situations. Page 28 . then. since we haven’t entered the reaction yet. merely Run your simulation.• Optional: Modeling Reactions Within Your Absorber Some design groups might have system that incorporates a stripping or absorbing column with one or more reactions occurring inside the model. click on the newly created R-1 reaction. o Now you need to fill out the stoichiometry form. as well as create your column. but if you are dealing with a Salt Precipitation. then hit OK. and select the reaction type that fits your reaction. say. and their stoichiometric coefficients. but a salt precipitation is not out of the question. you merely need to specify the two reacting agents. simply click on New. o Under the Reactions main directory. that precipitate out the salt. Kinetic/Equilibrium/Conversion type reactions should yield virtually the exact same form as the one in the previous chapter. So. o Note: Usually you will be dealing with an equilibrium or conversion reaction. but its default should be R-1. o With your Reaction sheet filled out. You will need to specify the stoichiometry of the reaction. If you have time and feel the need to have your process as detailed as possible. o Enter the starting segment and the ending segment. you might want to model the reactions occurring within your piece of equipment. Again. Reactions are introduced to Aspen in a similar manner as they are in Reactors (Chapter 7). In that specific case. you can give the reaction a name.” That always made my group feel a whole lot better. if you are furiously writing up your Stripping column report for UO Lab one or two days before it is due because you were unable to figure out how to get this part to run. keep telling yourself “It’s not me.

and then with propane refrigerant. Stripper Height: 15 ft. where chilled lean oil (nonane) is introduced at the top. We will try to show you how to model an entire process. later on in our process. as well as a large percentage of methane. but it isn’t impossible to model it if you take what you have learned here and try to adapt it to your own specifications. and as such. The feed is then introduced to the bottom of an absorber. where some propane and lighter hydrocarbons are removed by a vapor stream created by a reboiler. The bottoms are then sent to a debutanizer. 19-20) Absorber Height: 23 ft. Our goal in this example is to recover more than 85% of the propane in the feed. we have decided to give an example that tries to pull together most of the work and information gleaned from the previous chapters into one. and C5+ (pentanes and above). Diameter: 36 in.Chapter 7: Aspen Plus Simulation Engine Putting the Pieces Together This will be our final chapter dealing solely with Aspen Plus. Packing: 2 in. or not have the exact same pieces of equipment. where saleable propane is removed in the tops. Diameter: 18 in. whereas the stripper bottoms are then fed into a depropanizer. Absorption and Stripping Column Specifications: (Partially suggested by the GPSA Handbook Fig. butane. and are introduced to the top of a stripping column. all of which could be sold at a higher price in its purified liquid state. Plastic Pall Rings Packing: 1 ½ in Plastic Pall Rings • Setting Up Your Absorber: Page 29 . The absorption/stripping column can be pretty challenging. One of the best suggestions we can give is to use the GPSA Handbook. Listed below are some good estimates for the first two columns. we have a stream of natural gas at 400 psig and 110oF. you also do not know the flowrates of the absorbing oil or the distillate rate in the stripping column. where saleable butane is removed. thereby causing condensation of the heavier hydrocarbons. This stream contains numerous saleable propane. but let’s just stick with what we have now. Remember that your system might be a little more rigorous than ours. because. aside from not knowing the column dimensions. remove any excess nonane from our process with another distillation column and recycle it back to the absorber. To extract these. We could. we first cool our feed to -20oF by heat exchanging with our cold residue gas. and find initial estimates for your specific column. Its product stream can contain at most 1 mol% ethane. The lean oil will absorb the heavier hydrocarbons from the gas. The stripper tops are recycled back and mixed with the feed. Problem Statement: In the process pictured below. The methane-rich Residue Gas can then be resold at a higher price than purchased. which you could hopefully translate to your own work. The lean oil and hydrocarbons leave the bottom of the absorber. Solution Methodology: You may realize that you probably don’t have enough information to completely design this system.

we chose to set the pressure to be our constant. 19-19. we will first need to choose one of these two variables to keep constant. Our recommendation is to input one piece of equipment at a time. accessible by going to Start -> Programs -> AspenTech AES 11. or are unsure. an index of most common abbreviations for the models is given in the online help. However. o Enter all of the components into the component setup page. You could alternatively use Perry’s Chemical Handbook. let’s setup our flowsheet. We don’t know what our flowrate of nonane will be.processassociates. we are going to set some goals for the amount of some components in our packed columns. tried to find the “best” flowrate of nonane to obtain a desired percentage of our component(s) retained. and scaling it up for this process. but. If you use a pressure higher than that of your feed streams. when you have actually added the recycle stream.1 Documentation. your segments could dry up because there isn’t enough driving force into the column.First. A complete list of abbreviations is given in the online manuals. Next. and not worry about the recycle or the stripper.htm. It is easier to try to figure out why your column dries up with one column than with 4. realizing that. In our example. and various hydrocarbons at http://www. later on. try not to marry yourself to any initial guess made. and. we are only initially going to deal with our first main column. o Note: If you are unsure of the volumetric flowrate of your gas. Without going into details because this should be somewhat obvious. o Note: As well as the recommended Thermodynamic Property Tree. so that when it gets to the DePropanizer. instead of putting in every piece all at once. This manual will have details of the parameter names and the models. We are using 10 as our number. o Enter the Thermodynamic Property Method you will be using. while remaining within the specifications set by the problem. its products. as this number will be overridden later on. and still maintain 85% recovery. you can find a pretty reliable online weight. since there is a recycle. but make your preliminary guess. Nonane. Remember that both nonane and feed streams will be at 400 psig and -20oF. However. while we optimize the column via the other variable. you need to setup the specifications for your column in the Data Browser (If you are confused on how to do this. will save you precious time. o Note: Since this wasn’t really stated in the problem. and between 85 – 90% in the stripper. which will give you severe errors. first you will need to enter the pressure at the top segment. which can often be tricky. if you are entering iso-Hexane you would need to Find using “Methyl -Pentane. o Enter your stream specifications. we are missing two important pieces of information: the column pressure. column optimization is also much easier separately.600 lb/hr (this is a number we arbitrarily chose). but we can take a fairly educated initial guess by using the suggested L/G ratio in the GPSA Handbook Fig. Page 30 . So. see Chapter 7 for details on setting up your absorber column). A good starting guess for the mass flowrate of the nonane would be 1. o Now you need to enter the number of segments and the conditions for your Reboiler and Condenser (you have neither. it has more than enough room to achieve the purity specification. it wouldn’t hurt to add a stream mixer before the feed. the list is not complete.” Make sure to also add n-Nonane. and the flowrate of our absorbing oil. Look for the pdf file Physical Property Methods and Models. flowrate and volume converter for crude oil. it will save you time in the long run. Trust me. so choose None for both). o Important Note: From the problem statement. o So.1 -> Aspen AES 11. as shown below in our flowsheet. such as the one on the website. but using a conversion calculator. Since we are trying to optimize our system. or stop calculations entirely. we will arbitrarily try to achieve a minimum of 95% recovery of propane in the absorber. That said. More segments usually translate into more precision. the absorber. or one of many other online unit conversion websites.com/process/basics/oil_vw.

you will find later on. with a column pressure greater than 80 psig. Run your simulation. since we are attempting to retain most of our propane. Column Pressure 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 0 100 200 300 % Component Retained Methane Ethane Propane 400 Column Pressure (psig) For now. Col umn Diameter.3% of the methane and 48. should have an even better retention rate than propane (near 99%). o Now enter any specifications for the mixer. there is no appreciable loss in propane. so don’t worry about where this came from right now). Our heavier hydrocarbons. for now.5% of the ethane. This is a pretty good number to use.4% of our propane. while getting rid of most of our lighter hydrocarbons. at 80 psig.600 lb/hr). Your results should look something like those shown below. You may notice that. but some of the other components that we wanted to remove (ethane and carbon dioxide) are still present in relatively large amounts. you need to enter your Packing S pecifications. o Note: I have only shown the effects on Methane. so. Page 31 . we have removed 95. however a significant amount of our lower weight hydrocarbons are removed. and Feed Locations (remember to use On Segment convention). For our current flowrate of nonane (1. % Component Retained vs. o Next. Ethane and Propane.o Shown below is a diagram of how some important components will be retained in our absorbing oil when we vary the pressure of the column (We created this using a Sensitivity Analysis after completing our first run. let’s assume that the added benefits to our separation gained from using a lower pressure won’t change too dramatically upon changing the flowrate of our absorbing oil. while still retaining 99. This includes the stream pressure and temperature conditions. we will mainly be concerned with these three components. After you are done. We have successfully removed a fair amount of the methane and nitrogen.

but you could take a possibly more difficult path by creating a design spec and solving for the flow rate of a specific component.2% of our propane. etc) go for it. temperature or pressure of the feed. You might very well achieve a better separation.4% of the methane. go to your Model Analysis Tools folder and then Sensitivity Analysis. you want to input the information for the Mass flowrate of Nonane. (For more information on performing a Sensitivity Analysis. create a flowsheet variable and input the information for the first component you want to look at. etc. enter the name of each variable and the order you want their spreadsheet column to appear as. You may take either path. and always remember to do this before you run your simulation. and Aspen will terminate its calculations. I would recommend varying the flowrate from 500-4. Reinitialize. Run the simulation.000 lb/hr.We will minimize this by now running a sensitivity analysis on the flow rate of our absorbing oil. You will find out that if you don’t reinitialize you will get fatal errors. or it doesn’t get the separation you want. % Component Retained vs Nonane Flowrate 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% % Component Retained Methane Ethane Propane 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 Flowrate of Nonane (lb/hr) 3000 o By using a flowrate of Nonane of 1.000. we will retain 95. incrementing by 100. We have managed to optimize this column just by varying the pressure of the column and the flowrate of the absorber oil. you will want to find the “Mole Flow” of Methane in TOSTRIP. but if change your input and then run your fairly complicated simulation. see warnings everywhere. we specifically chose to use a sensitivity analysis on the flowrate of nonane because we can see easily see how many components change with varying the nonane flowrate. 36. Using this new flowrate.6% of the ethane. however. and 3. When you are done. Finally under the Tabulate tab. o Next. You probably won’t realize this at first. Our results are shown in the plot to below. The latter is potentially more complicated because you have the risk of going crazy from running your design spec and finding it doesn’t work. repeat this for the other two components we were looking at earlier (Ethane and Propane). see Chapter 2) o Firstly. o Under the Vary tab. run the simulation once more as a check. our results are as follows: Page 32 . Using the new chosen flowrate. Under the Define tab. at the very least. If you want to try varying another aspect of this column (number of segments. Aspen will freak out! You will. here. packing type.

column pressure. Ethane. since the Column Pressure (psi) minimum ethane composition occurs there. o Reinitialize. the Ending Segment is now 9. and run your simulation. I speak from experience when I say that you will probably Pressure for Initial Distillate Rate of 1. the stripping column. you will require the addition of a pump as well. 20% o Again. I am not trying to dissuade you from 100% using 10. so that it can minimize the 80% number of variables. According to the chart. so try using a molar 30% distillate rate of 1. merely saying that it happened when I ran my column. N2). This will really only include the discharge pressure of 400 psig. since you need the feed going to both columns at 400 psi. if you have 10 segments. which exits at 80 psig.75 lbmol/hr. then add another RateFrac column to the stream coming from the pump. you will need to add your second piece of equipment. here we don’t know the column pressure. o Note: In the final design. such as distillate 90% flow rate. This also means that. The diagram on the next page is a visual description. boilup ratio. reboiler duty. and attach a Pump (found under Pressure Changers item directory) to the absorber bottoms. it is probably a good idea to add a pressure changer to the Residual Gas Stream. the optimum 0 100 200 300 400 pressure to operate at would be approximately 30 psi.With your work on the absorber ostensibly completed.75 receive errors otherwise. go back to your flowsheet. o You have to assign it an Operating Specification. I recommend you try using 5 % Component Retained vs Column – 7. Hopefully your results match ours below. etc. A Ethane 50% good initial estimate for your distillate flow rate should be around Propane the size of the molar flow rate of the amount of impurities you are 40% Iso-Butane trying to remove (Methane. Page 33 % Component Retained . This should be very similar to the manner in which you set up the absorber. Repressurizing your residual gas (or adding a multi-stage mixed-propellant cascade refrigeration unit) will cause it to condense. o Note: Instead of using 10 segments. However. thus making your methane saleable as well as yielding a 600-fold decrease in volume and making it easy to transport . except that you now have to include a Reboiler when you get to the Setup page. Shown to the right 10% is a sensitivity analysis plot for % of component retained in the 0% bottoms vs. o Now you need to set up the stripping column. o Reopen the browser and add the setup information to the Pump block. CO2. So. I personally think that using the Distillate 70% Flow Rate makes it easier to find out later on how large your 60% recycle stream has to be in order to achieve your specifications.

Our diagram is shown to the right. The results you obtain are ok. One thing to take note of is that the higher the distillate rate you use.5 1. try running a Sensitivity Analysis comparing component molar flow rates to distillate rates. To find the best separation possible. D = 2. since we will be recycling the stripper vapor back to the feed.38. the less room the depropanizer has to meet the recovery specification.75 2 2.4 lbmol/hr. you should obtain a bottoms stream fairly free of ethane that yields approximately 85% recovery. If you re-Run your simulation. we also remove more propane than our spec allows. this is fine. For right now. we’ll now need to introduce and design in Aspen the two remaining columns: the DePropanizer and the DeButanizer. you should find that the best operating range for your distillate flow rate is between a flow rate of 1. While the value we used. % Component Retained in Bottoms vs Molar Distillate Rate 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 1 1.% Component Retained While we do manage to remove a lot of the ethane bottoms stream. The final results for our absorber and stripping column with recycle are shown below. If you do.5 Methane Ethane Propane Iso-Butane To produce saleable propane and butanes. reinitialize and run the simulation. was on the higher end of this operating range.25 Molar Distillate Rate (lbmol/hr) 2.25 1. this was OK since our depropanizer does a very good job of separating out our propane from our butanes. but still do not manage to meet the specifications that we were hoping for. So. now connect the STRIPVAP stream to the mixer. Page 34 .99 to 2.

o We tried lowering the distillate rate. Our first converging run produces the following results: o All of the propane is removed out the tops. We ended up with a condenser pressure of 140 psia (below). We cannot really improve this separation. decreasing the size of the column to 30 trays and continuing to feed at tray 16 results in the same level of recovery and purity. While doing this.3 lbmol/hr.6022 .2914 Mole % 0.16 17. so we won’t walk you through the basics.0201 0. Lastly.39 6.17 0. Refer back to Chapter 5 to navigate yourself through the simulation.29% of that of propane. with a reflux ratio of 4. feeding at tray 15.7%. o We’ll start the column with 30 trays. o The results from our initial run are shown on the next page.95 0. and distillate rate to 0. we desire to recover as much of the butanes as possible from the bottoms of the depropanizer.04 0. with at least 97% purity. but the purity is not at 99% yet.84 2.43 49.0603 .14 10.017 999.46 35.00 4. we’ll use the depropanizer in Chapter 5 as a start to simulating this column.85 0.35 14. while increasing the purity of the tops to over 98.92 5. and lowering the condenser pressure if the column dried up. and setting our reflux ratio to 1. which is the vapor pressure of iso-Butane at 120oF.• DePropanizer o The feed into this column will be the bottoms from the stripper: Component Ethane Propane iso-Butane n-Butane iso-Pentane n-Pentane iso-Hexane n-Hextane n-Heptane CO2 n-Nonane Total lb/hr 0. stages below the feed started to dry up.20 1.2 and distillate rate of 1.59 1. we won’t ever reach a 99% purity level in the tops.9 lbmol/hr 0.5.91 lbmol/hr. and and the molar flowrate of ethane is 1. we maintained total recovery of propane. We set the condenser pressure to 100 psia. since ethane will come out with propane.2009 .75 100 o You should be decently familiar with how to set up a distillation column in Aspen.0144 1.0004 7. Page 35 . • Debutanizer Next.73 10. o While running this column.7960 10.1158 .3004 . so we lowered the condenser pressure slowly until our column converged at 160 psia.1206 0. o After inputting the feed rates.0603 .50 1. We’ll start with 35 trays.004 75. feeding on tray 11.59 0.

wasn’t that fun? Sorry for the blatant sarcasm (we thought it would introduce an element of levity). or increment size. but I am sure you will have as much fun with this example as we did. while feeding on tray 9: Our final results for the debutanizer are almost 100% recovery of iso-Butane. When you are modeling your process and you find that nothing seems to work. Mastery of ASPEN comes in time.8% recovery of n-butane. o We were able to decrease the reflux ratio to 0. but. and a stream purity of 99%. and the purity of the stream is over 99%. “fine-tuning. much like all chemical engineering courses. in reality. by running a Sensitivity Analysis on reflux ratio. and feed tray for several column sizes. Fiddling with. This could include adding a small purge stream. Wow. Excellent results for the first shot. perhaps in error tolerance. possibly consider modifying your process slightly. hopefully. and use 25 total trays. Page 36 . to aid in convergence. you will need to create a project cost estimate with the help of Aspen Icarus Process Evaluator. as I like to call it. but also understand that small things like that have.o Here we see that we’ve recovered 100% of the butanes. 99. We have only worked on a simple case here. it is our wish that you are able to adapt what you have learned here to your personal situation.” can mean the difference in getting severe ASPEN errors on the first iteration and seeing your 7 column system with 3 recycles converge in 4 iterations. have overcome the challenge of Aspen. and to conquer that is seriously quite an accomplishment. major consequences on how ASPEN operates.9. o We’ll try to make the column a little smaller. just try making slight adjustments. Recycle streams are easily the worst possible curveballs you will have thrown at you. If you are still stuck. or specifying the data associated with a stream. or. Now that you.

The equipment that is of concern to you at this point is listed under Process Equipment. o You can also add extra equipment to the blocks you are mapping by selecting New Mapping. and can be used to price everything from your columns. o Important Note: Make sure you choose a configuration that does NOT have a split condenser or you will run into problems later on. Process View. o Right-click on each item and choose Size to view the sizing information Icarus obtained from Aspen. and other facilities (FACT description). go to File à Import. Mapping ISBL: o Once you have your Aspen Plus file fixed to import. Project View. for U. steam. It’s not the simplest thing to remember. check out the Configuration option box. cooling water. Go ahead and fix anything that doesn’t look right. you’re going to need to report ISBL and OSBL. and highlight all of the fields on the right. and first change the file type to Templates (*. shipping for feedstock and product. this includes known flow rates. The detailed descriptions are on page 4-30 of the Icarus manual. For a plant addition (i. o Now. go to File à Send to à Aspen Icarus. flare stack. You can also select multiple items at once to view multiple reports. and fire hydrants on the road (OSBL).apt). On the left-hand side of the screen. and the costs associated with that equipment. o Click the button. o Once added. etc. to the pavement on your parking lot. the first thing you will need to do is to fix your simulation so that it will import correctly into Icarus. right-click on each item and click Size. o Now go to your Data Browser. but does so in a more detailed manner. Now you will need to send your project to Icarus and map your equipment. You may also click on to map all items. Fixing an Aspen Simulation to Work in Icarus: o With your Aspen Simulation open. when you reach the Project Component Map Preview screen. which indicates what type of a project this is (addition/new). Reinitialize and Run. o Select the area you are dealing with. Click on the Databanks tab. OSBL (Outside Battery Limit) facilities include storage tanks. by pro-rating each item and area. This should allow you to properly import your working Aspen files.Chapter 8: Icarus Process Evaluator (IPE) Mapping ISBL and OSBL Once you’ve got your process design down. Click OK to map. Before you begin. but it really should be done to ensure your Aspen file will be properly detailed and analyzed by Icarus. your manager will probably want to know something about cost. Page 37 . o Clicking the Results tab will reveal your overall capital and utilities costs. on the left-hand side of the screen. ISBL (Inside Battery Limit) facilities are comprised of major purchased equipment costs. you should see the following tabs: o Select the first tab. select List. pressure head required. select the center tab. Select Map to turn it into an Icarus component.1/GUI/ Templates/Simulations/ called Aspen IPE Stream Properties. In evaluating your process.apt. Appraising ISBL and OSBL is done through Aspen Icarus Project Evaluator. click on the third tab. Right-click on the main process area. o You can also right-click on each item and choose Item Report to view the sizing and cost data. Aspen Icarus provides a more precise cost estimation than that of the FACT Method. o Enter any required input. reactors. and on the right side. open the Components folder. Labs) change Grass Roots/Clear Field to Inside Plant Addition. o To add extra pumps or peripheral equipment. click on General Specs. and then open the Specifications subfolder.e. and left click your design. Project Basis View. It works in a similar fashion as FACT method. This lists ten different configurations (use the arrows to scroll up and down – it only looks like it has two options) to choose from. environmental treating. It should look something like the image to the right. In the Basis for Capital Costs folder. and Add Project Component. fire water.O. instrument air. o Click on (or Run à Evaluation Project) and Evaluate All Items. and other process equipment (ISBL). o There is a field labeled Project Type. o For columns. You will need to open a file located under C:/Program Files/Aspen Tech/Aspen Plus 11.

Before adding OSBL facilities. For example. note that the following elements are sized with a default value. condensate returns. click on the Project Basis tab. In Icarus. so do NOT add these components: Components Included UNIT Control MCC*. Most importantly. not necessarily areas of your plant. which you do not have any control over. it will estimate the size of water facilities. You have probably already used the FACT method to calculate costs of OSBL. o The wastewater treatment and settling pond sizes are also calculated depending on what your process requires. o Note: To proceed with these sizes. Areas refer to objects that contain particular types of mapped equipment. steam lines. process lines. as well as what Icarus tells you. o When your scale is under control.Once you’re confident that you have correctly mapped your ISBL components. SW Operator Center. you can move on to OSBL. so be careful with sizing. you should be able to read area sizes and your pipe rack with a ruler. click on General Specs. In the Basis for Capital Costs folder.ICS reports file. or amount of wiring. Mapping OSBL: Icarus is a good tool for estimating the cost of OSBL within your facility. Understand that although Icarus may be more exact with their calculations (FACT only uses percentages of one cost to estimate another). • Icarus automatically adds certain components. etc. Transformer Control Center Project Type Grass roots/Clear field MAIN Substation Transformers. and pipe lengths are needed for flare headers. makes sense. where you can indicate if this is a type of plant addition or a brand-new project. based on the area of your plant. Switchgears Page 38 . Within the Results tab click on the Project Summary tab (it may be hidden if the middle window isn’t expanded enough – its tab should be next to Executive Summary): • Area Sizing/Pipe lengths: o Area sizing is needed for infrastructure sizing. o The number and size of each type of storage tank should have been calculated previously. • What you do NOT need to add: o On the left-hand side of the screen. which indicates that this is a new project. A lot of OSBL tends to be projectspecific. and will need to be resized: • Utilities (except for Electricity) o These are read from the PROJSUM. You should choose Grass roots/Clear field. adjust your VISIO diagram to scale for the now known equipment sizes. and you might find that the numbers are fairly similar. There is a field labeled Project Type. o Piping and wiring lengths are calculated from the center of an Area so be sure that the sizing and type of area specified is accurate. make sure whatever you tell Icarus. it is also just an estimation based on sizing.

double-click on them in the left-hand window (Project View) to see their default sizes.1 Clarification and/or silica removal may be required if city water is not the raw water source. Suggest minimum 300 scfm • Compressor(s) Usually two at 100%. Check the cost. because some items are too project-specific for IPE to calculate. etc). or expand the area and drag certain components. wastewater. Fuel Gas • Incoming gas metering station • Fuel gas supply drum (5 minutes of capacity going from 60 psig to 45 psig with main supply source not flowing) • Fuel gas collection drum if process makes useable fuel gas Page 39 . o Once you’ve dragged over the components you need. Boiler feed water (BFW comprises all steam demand – non-recovered condensate or process steam) x 1. buildings. and you may need to research a cost and add it in. One or more for process And one or more for OSBL • Un-interruptible Power Sufficient for all instrument and shut down systems and emergency lighting (say 5 kW minimum) • Emergency Generator Say 50 kW minimum Air System (Instrument Air and Yard Air) • Typically air is available to the consumer at 90 psig. click the Projects tab and the + sign next to Additional Project Components. and make necessary adjustments to their size or Number of identical units (number you wish to purchase). and plant area (as big as the whole plant for parking. You can either drag the entire area to your project in the left-hand window. Some OSBL facilities to consider: Water • Raw water treating • De-Aerator Electric Power • Incoming power switch yard • Motor control centers.• Adding OSBL: o On right side of screen. main process.1. o You might want to create/drag areas for storage. roads. one motor and one turbine drive • Air Dryer Usually one sized for 100% + spare • Air Receiver 5 minutes of capacity going from 90 to 60 psig. Demineralization required All water going to steam generators Total electric power load All electric motors in facility. o Double-click on either inch-pound or metric and a window similar to the one shown below should open in the right-hand window: o Note: Each is considered an “Area” by Icarus. (Make up for BFW + process water + cooling tower) x 1.

if not then you need a separate sanitary waste treating plant. Fences. Bridges. so much the better. 1 turbine and 1 diesel minimum) Eight hours at maximum capacity of one fire pump Size for 1500 gpm flow or 8 inch diameter minimum Sufficient to attack the fire from at least two locations (Should have some sort of fire fighting truck. Vessels. Parking Lots • Should be around 1 – 2 % of total installed cost dependent upon plant size Raw Material Receipt and Product Shipping • Rail siding • Truck loading bays • Pipeline Connection • Warehouse Maintenance Equipment • Cranes • Trucks • Other Vehicles • Welding Machines • Other Special Equipment • Hand Tools Buildings • Central Control Building\ • Product Loading System Control Building • Dispatcher’s Office • Gate House • First Aid • Fire House • Admin Building • Maintenance Machine Shop • Spare Parts Store House These services can be combined in one or more buildings depending upon plant size Spare Parts Commissioning and Start Up Insurance Spares 1% of all equipment and materials Percent of equipment capital cost Fired Heaters @ 10% Heat Exchangers @ 4 % Pumps and Compressors @15% Columns. • As a minimum. Flare System • Flare line (s) • Flare Drum (s) • Flare Stack (s) (minimum height 150 feet) • Flare drum pump out pumps Roads.Fire Fighting Facilities • Central Fire Pumps • • • • • • • Central Fire Water Tank Ring Mains Hydrants and monitors Breathing Apparatus Fire Truck Foam inventory Fire Station 200-psig discharge pressure minimum. May need full size engine) Aqueous Effluent Treating Plant • This is very much a function of the plant and the types of aqueous effluents. Reactors @ 1% Page 40 . and aerated bio-digester followed by polishing tank or pond and land farm for sludge disposal. 1 motor. require a collection tank. . If you can hook up to the municipal sanitary sewer.

plus testing a full tank.000-gallon tank for this service. or it more or less tank cars might make up a shipment. and the other would be providing feedstock to the process. That means that the tank must have no flow in or out from the time the samples are taken.000 gallons capacity per car.000-gallon tanks. All incoming feedstock is usually tested for quality assurance purposes. tanks are specified for a "working capacity. look at this amusing Dilbert anecdote with the full knowledge that we are nearing the end. There must be enough tankage for supplying the maximum sized product shipment. Continuing this example. plus rundown capacity for product. Since it would make no sense to run the tank totally empty or totally full. then the tank must be able to receive at least 500. then there may be need for further tankage.000 gallons of working capacity we would specify a 600. Product Product storage is a function of testing policy and shipment size. In lieu of a witty comment. the plant would have at least two 600. middle and bottom of the tank and are tested both individually and as a composite sample. either by random samples or by testing a tank of received product. test it the next and release it for processing on the third. Typically samples are taken from the top.000 gallons of material. Feedstock. Any product produced in that period must go to another tank(s).000-gallon tanks rather than two 600. This "working capacity" is then multiplied by say 120% to give the actual size of the tank. Page 41 .000-gallon tanks in the feed system. One tank would be receiving feedstock. For added flexibility you might also choose to have three 400. It is industry practice to run a full lab test on a tank before it is released for shipment. If the feedstock delivery method is somewhat erratic. If your feedstock is being delivered by pipeline then it is common to run to a tank and then into the process. So for 500.Invested Spares Fire and Safety Equipment @ 14% Instruments @ 10% Electrical @ 13% 25% of major critical un-spared equipment such as compressors and high pressure pumps Storage Tanks The sizing of storage tanks is a function of the amount of material that is likely to flow in or out of them in a given time period. This suggests that you should have three tanks each with say 120% of one day's capacity. If a storage tank is expected to receive one lot of feedstock equivalent to 20 rail cars of 25. You would most likely fill the tank one-day.

46 4. Alternatively. For B2 Condenser HOT each stream. Operating cost is calculated from minimizing utilities. utility is also consumed for each reboiler and condenser. we’ll develop a stream table that will display the data needed to solve the heat integration problem. Now. with few exchangers and low capital cost. B1 Feed COLD o In addition. Let’s step back and work through a simple example. with three columns. and a mixer and use Aspen Pinch to optimize your heat integration: Solution Methodology: o First. we are going to show how performing your heat integration by hand compares to using Aspen Pinch. and thus your operating cost will soar.4 28. T1 (oF) 200 100 160 135 150 140 160 140 170 T2 (oF) 140 145 200 135 150 140 160 140 170 dH (MMBtu/Hr) -4.3 5.8 -28. Then cooling and heating requirements left over from this scheme must be satisfied by utilities. We can easily see that one hot stream is the Reactor Effluent.32 -3. a reactor. Problem Statement: Consider the following scheme. you should balance two economic factors: operating cost and capital cost. o Note: The names for streams that you choose in your flowsheet are not Stream Type going to be the same names that Aspen Pinch chooses. and two cold R1 Effluent HOT streams are B1 Feed and B2 Bottoms.4 -39. you can obtain the heat capacity B1 Reboiler COLD of each element at various temperatures by doing a Property Analysis. Pinch Technology uses thermal data from streams involved in heat integration to assist in designing an efficient network. Pinch Technology calculations assist the process engineer in achieving the balance by choosing the best streams matches for streams to exchange. The first step in heat integration is to define hot and cold streams. you have a fixed system of material and energy balances from which you can design a heat exchanger network. separation units and recycles. o Our completed stream table is shown to the right. you will have a lot of utility to make up for. and “Cold” streams are streams that need to be heated. Though you may design an intricate heat exchanger network that minimizes utilities. subtracting the B3 Reboiler COLD enthalpy of each stream at its initial temperature from its final temperature.6 Page 42 . B2 Reboiler COLD then averaged the two for an average heat capacity. we used a weighted average of each stream’s Cp at T 1 and T 2. Once you’ve optimized your design of reactors.7 35. B1 Condenser HOT o As you might remember from Chapter 3. and capital cost is calculated from minimizing the number of heat exchangers. your capital costs will skyrocket purchasing all those exchangers. When designing a heat integration scheme. so we B2 Bottoms COLD must include those items in our stream table.12 1. “Hot” streams are streams that need to be cooled. your main objective is to arrange your process to provide the most economically efficient heat transfer.Chapter 9: Aspen Pinch An Introduction to Aspen Pinch While tackling the issue of Heat Integration throughout Design. B3 Condenser HOT o The enthalpy of each stream also can be taken from Aspen.

add the streams: (http://www. leaving us with a pinch temperature around 130oF. o The composite curves for our example are shown in the diagram below. The driving force. o Shift your curve horizontally so that at the pinch temperature the DT is the DTmin that you selected earlier.com/pinchtech4. The Pinch Point is the point at which there are the most restrictions in the design of the heat exchanger network. o The overhangs that occur at the end of the two curves are considered the minimum hot and cold utility. and maximize energy recovery. In this case. but it will lower heat recovery. DTmin will be between 15 and 30oC. This is the amount of heat that cannot be recovered through internal exchange. You will probably find that multiple streams fall within one temperature change interval. Then move on to the next -highest temperature range in your stream table.shtml ) o To make heat transfer possible. because there needs to be some driving force. Page 43 . you cannot transfer heat from one stream to another if the hot stream is at a temperature lower than the cold stream. o A composite curve is constructed by graphing each stream as a line. we will use 20oF. large DT min will ensure a large driving force.Performing your manual calculations: • Selecting DTmin: As you hopefully remember from Thermo. The temperature difference between hot and cold streams at any enthalpy must always have this DTmin to ensure minimal capital cost. For our example.cheresources. must be chosen to minimize heat exchange area. o Drawing horizontal lines across your curves indicates the maximum amount of enthalpy that can be recovered at that t emperature. the hot and cold streams cannot cross. and must be provided through external utilities. with temperature on the y -axis. where our DTmin is 20oF. Typically. one cold) at which this occurs are called the Pinch Temperature. For example. The temperatures (one hot. and thus a smaller exchanger. which is an enthalpy-temperature diagram that compiles the enthalpy changes of hot and cold streams at each temperature. where the two curves approach each other most closely. The graphs should indicate a minimum temperature difference. it is time to create a composite curve . o Start with the stream with the lowest temperatures and zero enthalpy and graph the temperature and enthalpy changes of that stream. DTmin. and enthalpy on the x-axis. • Creating composite curves: Once you have compiled a stream table similar to the one above.

the first rule of Pinch Technology is: 1. and this is where the Pinch Method comes into consideration. No external heating below the Pinch. you can move on to designing a heat exchanger network. it may give you a lower capital cost to do so. 3. Experiment with different combinations of heat exchanger networks to see what gives you the lowest capital and operational costs. • A Note on Pinch Technology: Now you can consider where you can design your heat exchangers. No external cooling above the Pinch. so hopefully you will have plenty of heat exchange opportunities. No heat transfer across the pinch. (See Aspen Pinch’s Training Course Lecture 2 for across pinch diagrams) If the two stream groups (above and below the pinch) are considered separately. Pinch Technology sets up three simple rules to obey for an “optimum” heat exchanger network. o Using hot utilities below the pinch. you can see that exchanging across the pinch increases utility requirements: Heat donated from above the pinch to below the pinch. The streams above the pinch require hot utility. Sometimes it is okay to exchange heat across the pinch. here’s how: o Exchanging hot utility above the pinch with cold utility below the pinch.Your process will probably be a lot more complicated than our example. requires utility to add heat above the pinch… …and utility to remove excess heat below the pinch The second and third rules of Pinch Technology are: 2. o Using cold utilities above the pinch. Page 44 . and those below the pinch. Therefore. outweighing the operational cost you save in a complex heat exchanger network. and will you not have such high minimum hot and cold utilities! Now that you understand the basics behind Pinch technology. and those below the pinch require cold utility. If you choose to do so. The pinch point splits hot and cold streams into two groups: those above the pinch. These two groups are considered two separate energy balances.

indicate the lower temperature on the right. o Once all hot streams have been matched. it is R1 Effluent. This basically indicates that the heat capacity of the stream heading into the pinch must be less than the heat capacity of the stream paired with it (heading out of the pinch). Lastly. Using Aspen Pinch o First you need to open Aspen Pinch (Located by going to Start > Programs > AspenTech > Aspen Engineering Suite > Aspen Pinch 11. you must follow a Cp rule: CpIN = CpOUT. Move on to the next biggest. o Note: If you run into problems. see Aspen Pinch’s Training Course Lecture 3 for more information if you are stuck. with any stream that does not reach the pinch. ½ DTmin from the pinch T in each direction. Find your flowsheet and press OK. As Pinch’s manual states: The stream names Aspen Pinch creates are derived from the Aspen Plus block names. Next to each line. o Work with the largest stream first. check out Aspen Pinch’s Training Course Lecture 3 for some more detailed graphs. and subtract the utility used from the stream you matched it with. in our example we’ve represented reboilers and condensers as a small line. Pinch will then begin to extract streams and units. o Next. The stream name could just be the Aspen Plus name (for heaters/coolers). place heaters on all cold streams that you have extra utility. o Next. and select New.• Designing a Heat Exchanger Network: Grid Diagrams o Create a Grid Diagram by drawing horizontal lines to represent each stream. you need to create a Base Directory. Name your new case. The default selections should be okay. o The “Data Extraction Options” window should pop up. Start at the pinch temperature. and blue lines (on bottom) represent cold streams. o When it is done. move to streams above the pinch. use the Editing Data Extraction Information dialog box. place coolers on all hot streams that have extra utility left over. o Now is a good time to take a look at the Stream Table and acquaint yourself with Aspen’s names. and look at streams going into the pinch (HOT streams). As a visual aid. Follow the same steps. If you want to replace the stream name. it will be easy to design a heat exchanger network. with COND and REB added for the condenser and reboiler respectively. so sit back and give it a few minutes. If you are confused by this.1 > Aspen Pinch 11. o First. Give it a name you will easily remember. such as more hot streams below the pinch or more cold streams above the pinch than you can match. and move outward. starting with the largest streams heading into the pinch (these should be cold streams now). check it off. Again. and the higher temperature on the left. let’s work above the pinch. o Once you’ve matched your stream. you can experiment with splitting streams. o When picking streams to match. o To import your flowsheet. You may also notice streams that Pinch did not consider. If heat is associated with the Aspen Plus block. In our example. Next. Convention dictates that red lines (on top) represent hot streams. the word HEAT might be added. With a couple general steps. depending on whether the stream is a feed or a product.1). a stream table should appear that looks like this: o You’ll probably notice that Pinch renames your streams according to its own conventions. Distillation columns use the Aspen Plus column name. like the figure above. for example preheating feed before a column. so select OK. or with utility (this won’t violate Rules 2 & 3). o Note: Streams heading OUT of the pinch can be paired with any stream that follows the Cp rule. right-click on the folder (your base directory name) on the left hand side of the screen. The letters FD or PR might be added to the end. Remember that there are different pinch temperatures for above and below the pinch. Page 45 . and repeat the same steps until you’ve matched all streams going into the pinch. click File > Import > Aspen Plus.

respectively. • Adding Streams: o In the “Add Stream” window that pops up (shown to the right). o Under Supply. o Hit Calculate Duty and after it is calculated. It should then prompt you for a DTmin. Here you should see a diagram that looks like the diagram to the right: • Obtaining a Report on Minimum Hot and Cold Utilities To obtain your minimum hot and cold utilities. name the stream that you would like to add. select Yes. and select OK. go to Targets > Report > Targeting. o In Target. select OK. You can also obtain this graph by clicking . or select Finish if you are done.9oF. you should be asked if you want to add streams. The stream data should appear. select what stream you are referring to. • Creating Composite Curves To create a composite curve in Aspen Pinch.9oF. It indicates all of the stream’s names on the left hand side.o When you close the “Editing Data Extraction Information” window. Here. • Grid Diagram: In the toolbar. select Tools > Network Design. go to Tools > Targeting. o You can add more streams in this manner. Note that the hot and cold Pinch temperatures are indicated on the top and bottom of the diagram. select the stream again. and their supply and target temperatures on the left and right of each stream. Enter your value (here we are using 20oF). the hot pinch is 139. A grid diagram should pop up: This is Pinch’s version of the diagram we constructed manually earlier. and the cold is 119. or click . If so. and change the target temperature. Your report should look like the diagram below: Page 46 .

and select Utility Data from the Create New Data window). and see how close to the minimum hot and cold utilities you have gotten. o You will probably have been given. Save and close the Utility Data window. and a distillation column: Page 47 . medium. and steam for heating. but as guidelines. In Type. etc). and low pressure steam. you should use air for cooling. Therefore for every $/Btu fuel costs. Overall example: Problem Statement: Here is a simple scheme with a reactor. you want to enter what you will use for Hot and Cold Utilities (Cooling Water. o Create another report. you can right-click and select List to see a list of possible utility types. and high $2/Btu greater. o When deciding on pricing for steam. • Creating a HEN (Heat Exchanger Network) o Press to go back to your Grid Diagram. a separator. • Entering Utility Data o In the toolbar. right-click on a stream and select Heat Exchanger. right-click on a cell and select Insert Record. and should be used to power drivers. o To add heat exchangers between streams. You can do the same with your utility streams. consider low pressure steam to have the same heating value as fuel. low pressure steam will cost the same. Here. or decided upon amongst groups. symbolizing utility exchangers. Medium pressure steam should be priced $1/Btu greater than low pressure steam. respectively. and cooling water temperature should be 5-7o below summer ambient temperature. not the hottest day in history!). o To enter additional data. Medium and low pressure steam is saturated at 150 and 50 psig. standardized values for these utilities.9oF. For pressurized steam. respectively. Now you should see streams added for your hot and cold utilities. Once you’ve entered your data. The cooling air temperature should be summer ambient temperatures (an average temperature.7 MMBtu/hr. High pressure steam should be is supersaturated at 600psig. select Data > Utilities > General Data (or click on the Case Manager toolbar. and the minimum hot and cold utilities are 73.2 and 70.The pinch temperature is reported as 129. Saturated Steam. you will have the choice of high.

13 .13 .6 dH (MMBtu/Hr) 50 50 20 12 12 o We imported this stream table in to Aspen Pinch. while composite diagram is up: Targets > Report > Targeting). Thus we will pair it with a cold stream going out of the pinch (above the pinch). we have represented each of the five streams. the same as you would add streams (Data > Streams). so either RX Feed.7 MMBtu/Hr) Minimum cold utility (3. In this case. as well as a cooling and heating stream. and obtain minimum hot and cold utilities of 23. we will pair the two streams. you can see that the pinch temperature is at 110oF (also in Target Report). Page 48 .7 MMBtu/Hr) o In the composite diagram.Stream Type T1 (oF) 500 100 100 300 300 T2 (oF) 100 600 250 100 320 RX EFFLUENT RX FEED FRAC FEED FRAC BOTTOMS REBOILER HOT COLD COLD HOT COLD MCp (MMBtu/HrR) 0. It is also clear that the minimum cold utility is much smaller than the minimum hot utility.7 MMBtu/Hr.06 . starting above the pinch. Since RX Feed has a bigger Cp value. Minimum hot utility (23. o In the Pinch grid diagram.12 0. above. Then we were able to construct a composite diagram in Pinch.7 and 3. the biggest hot stream is RX Effluent. (Remember to find these utilities. respectively. or Frac Feed.

Students have noticed that Aspen Pinch might import values incorrectly. Our hope is that this tutorial has been useful in your UO and Design classes. a recycle. and 82 MMBtu/Hr in cold streams to heat. o Since we originally had 62 MMBtu/Hr in hot streams to cool. we now only have 3.• Note: By right-clicking on a stream on the grid diagram. paired with Frac Bot’s 10. We have achieved our minimum utilities! • A Noteworthy Comparison: Manual vs.5 MMBtu/Hr (RX Effluent) from 50 MMBtu/Hr (RX Feed).com/pinchtech1. Many different Heat Integration schemes can result from each process. we will subtract 47.7 MMBtu/Hr (62 – 58. Use that fire inside to make a better distillation column. Therefore we saved a total of 58. Since both hot streams above the pinch are paired with cold streams. We can now check off Frac Bot. and selecting More Information > Duty.heatintegration. Also make sure to add any streams Pinch might not have considered.8 MMBtu/Hr. leaving 0. so just play around while following the rules and try to find the best results for your design.7 (82 – 58. a fully optimized pre-feed heat exchanger. which has 20 MMBtu/Hr above the pinch. Please don’t let the little goblins in your head tell you to burn things. and 23. you can see the heat duty of the stream on the side of the pinch you are clicking on. RX Effluent can be checked off.3) in cold utility.com. Page 49 . o Let’s move on to Frac Bot. you might notice some differences. and leave 9.3 MMBtu in hot utility. with side streams.3 MMBtu/Hr with RX Feed. This can be paired with Frac Feed. that your burdens have been lightened somewhat by having this reference.3) in hot utility. Aspen Calculations If you try to use both manual calculations and Aspen Pinch in constructing a Heat Exchanger Network. and a partridge in a pear tree.cheresources. This concludes our final chapter in this tutorial for Aspen Pinch. we have to leave the rest up to utility. which is the next hot stream heading into the pinch. • Note: More extensive resources for Pinch Technology can be found at www.shtml and www. and since there aren’t any cold streams below the pinch.2 MMBtu/Hr with Frac Feed. so be sure to double check the numbers and make necessary corrections. o Next.

Appendix A: Thermodynamic Property Tree Page 50 .

7th Edition. Webpage.Appendix B: References 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Aspen Technology Inc. 2000 McCabe.ppt 2) Brigitte McNames. 2000 Aspen Technology Inc. Aspen Plus: Physical Property Methods and Models. 11th Edition.heatintegration.edu/~charles/cheme120/Lectures/Lecture6BubbleDew.edu/mse/chem-che/chemE/nsfproj/aspen/absorber.dilbert. Getting Started Modeling Petroleum Processes. Smith and Harriott. 5th Edition.. http://www.pdf 3) 4) 5) 6) Heat Integration – Pinch Technology Software. Cambridge.sdsmt. Dilbert Comic Strip Webpage. 1997 Gas Processors Suppliers Association. http://www. 2000 Aspen Technology Inc. Perry’s Chemical Engineer’s Handbook.com/pinchtech1. http://www. Aspen Plus: Unit Operations Models. Website. Volumes I and II. Cambridge. Cambridge. New York. 2000 Aspen Technology Inc. Engineering Data Book. McGraw-Hill Publishing. http://www. Cambridge.stanford. Design Procedure for an Absorption Unit on the Aspen Plus Software. Tulsa OK.shtml United Feature Syndicate. Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering.com Process Associates Website. http://chemeng. 1998 Recommended Websites: 1) Stanford Chemical Engineering Department. et al.htm Page 51 . http://www.cheresources.com Chemical Engineering Resources Webpage. New York. Website.com/process/basics/oil_vw. 1993 Perry.processassociates. Inc. McGraw-Hill Publishing. Aspen Plus: Aspen Plus User Guide.

24 Hidden Share. 37 Add Project Component. 27 Distillation Column Optimization of. 8 Fractional Conversion. 38 Storage Tanks. 19. 37 ISBL. 15 Thermodynamic System. 16 Rate-Based Simulations. 26 Tray Specs. 40 Settling Pond. 45 Adding Streams. 45 S B Binary Systems. 47 Manually. 25 RateFrac. 43 Pinch Technology. 43 Plot Wizard. Design Specification Reactor. 38 Water. 26. 20 RStoic. 14 Pure Component Properties Analysis. 39 RD. 37 Static IP. 24. 16. 15 RMIN. 20 Reactions. 46 AddingUtility Data. 46 Manually. 20 Design Specification Distillation Column. 17 Condenser Pressure. 38 Product Storage. 42 Heat of Reaction. 13 Top Segment Pressure.Index Fuel Gas. 40 Flare System. 28 Simulation of. 42. 16 DTmin. 39 Ending Segment. 42 Icarus. 23. 38. 29 Aspen Pinch. 45 Heat Integration. 24 R RadFrac. 25 Page 52 . 43 Sensitivity Analysis Distillation Column. 43 M Mapping ISBL. 17 REquil. 24 Residue Analysis. 45 I Icarus. 39 Sizing Equipment FACT Method. 18 Shipping. 37 D Design Specification Distillation Column. 40 Pipe Lengths. 38 Configuration of Columns. 26 F FACT Method. 26 O OSBL. 24 A Absorber Reactions Within. 37 Feedstock Storage. 17 Icarus. 41 File Sharing. 40 Sizing Air System. 38 E Electric Power. 8 C Components Graphing. 23 Reboiler. 18. 13 Composite Curve Construction Aspen Pinch. 37 Adding OSBL. 17 Connecting Columns. 39 Area Sizing. 41 Wastewater Treatment. 5 T Tertiary Systems. 46 Manually. 6. 13 U Utilities Aspen Pinch. 28 Reactors. 14 H Heat Exchanger Network Aspen Pinch. 47 G Graphs. 46 Heat Integration. 5. 13 Grass Roots/Clear Field. 37 Grid Diagram Construction Aspen Pinch. 42 Pinch Temperature. 37 Minimum Hot and Cold Utilities. 40 Fire Fighting Facilities. 41 Reactors. 21 Simulation of. 37 P Pinch Point. 43 Condenser. 16. 21 Cp rule. 39 Buildings.

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