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Barbara A. Wilson
Better informed people are more likely to participate in societal activity and a critically active workforce is needed to compete in a global economy, there has been a call to make critical thinking a national priority for education.
Useful to test the relationship of intellectual development and a disposition toward critical thinking. The research questions were the following: 1. What is their disposition toward critical thinking? 2. Is there a difference in a disposition toward critical thinking among ethnic groups (African American, Latino, and White)? 3. Is there a difference in a disposition toward critical thinking between men and women? 4. Is there a relationship between a disposition toward critical thinking and SAT scores and GPA? 5. Is there a relationship between the disposition toward critical thinking and intellectual development?
Context The population comprised 693 African American, Latino, and White freshmen students in the College of Business Administration and Economics (COBAE) of a large state university in California Student participation in this study was as follows: 13 African American females, 7 African American males, 11 Latino females, 13 Latino males, 15 White females, and 10 White males. Thus, group size for ethnicity was 20, 24, and 25 respectively.
Open-Mindedness -Understanding the opinions of others 3. Inquisitiveness .Approaching problems.Persistence though difficulties are encountered 4. Analyticity . Maturity . Truth-Seeking . Systematicity . and decision making with a sense that some problems are necessarily ill structured.California Critical Thinking Dispositions Inventory (CCTDI) 1.Diligence in seeking relevant information 5. some situations admit of more than one plausible option. and many times judgments must be made based on standards. Confidence . . contexts.Confidence in one’s own ability to reason 6. and evidence that preclude certainty.Concern to become and remain generally well-informed 7. inquiry.Flexibility in considering alternatives and opinions 2.
. reasonable in the selection of criteria. procedural. Intellectual (epistemological) development -beliefs about the nature of knowledge and truth. trustful of reason. " The ideal critical thinker is 1. clear about issues. and (d) identifying assumptions Cognitive processes -there are three kinds of knowledge-declarative. habitually inquisitive. Three domains Generalised skills. persistent in seeking results which are as precise as the subject and the circumstances of inquiry permit. orderly in complex matters. (a) focusing on a question. willing to reconsider. fair-minded in evaluation. flexible. 9. 8. and 11. or righteousness. 6. and metacognitive. honest in facing personal biases. well-in formed.Critical thinking means making a reasoned opinion on any matter involving a judgment of its value. open-minded. prudent in making judgments. 4. 7. 2. (b) analysing arguments c) making judgments. truth. 5. focused in inquiry. 3. diligent in seeking relevant information. 10.
Separated knowledge: "objective analysis" (what techniques can I use to analyze this poem?) Contextual Relativism>>>”Pre-Commitment": 4-Commitment/Constructed Knowledge: Integration of knowledge learned from others with personal experience and reflection. therefore. engraved on Golden Tablets in the sky. known to Authorities. Commitment>>Challenges to Commitment>>"Post-Commitment": Learning Environment Preferences (LEP) Instrument Full Dualism: Early Multiplicity: Late Multiplicity: Contextual Relativism . Early Multiplicity>>>Late Multiplicity: 3-Relativism/Procedural Knowledge: There are disciplinary reasoning methods: Connected knowledge: empathetic (why do you believe X?.Perry’s Intellectual and Ethical Development Model 1-Dualism/Received Knowledge: There are right/wrong answers. Basic Duality>>>Full Dualism: 2-Multiplicity/Subjective Knowledge: There are conflicting answers. what does this poem say to me?) vs. not external Authority. students must trust their "inner voices".
Although they use evidence. which [people who hold these assumptions] attribute to missing information or to methods of obtaining the evidence. rather than. People who hold these assumptions treat all problems as though they were well-structured" Quasi-Reflective Reasoning (Stages 4 and 5): Recognition "that knowledge-or more accurately." based on their evaluation of available data. They also readily admit their willingness to re-evaluate the adequacy of their judgments as new data or new methodologies become available" . for example. knowledge claims-contain elements of uncertainty. they do not understand how evidence entails a conclusion Reflective Reasoning (Stages 6 and 7): People who hold these assumptions accept "that knowledge claims cannot be made with certainty. through the evaluation of evidence. They believe they must actively construct their decisions. rather. [they] make judgments that are "most reasonable" and about which they are "relatively certain. but [they] are not immobilized by it. and that they know with complete certainty.Reflective Judgment Model Assumptions about the process of knowing (view of knowledge) and how it is acquired (justification of beliefs)-espitemolgy. and that knowledge claims must be evaluated in relationship to the context in which they were generated to determine their validity. [People who hold these assumptions] believe that what they know is absolutely correct. The seven developmental stages are Pre-reflective Reasoning (Stages 1-3): Belief that "knowledge is gained through the word of an authority figure or through first-hand observation.
CIMO ? Research Question Is there a relationship between the disposition toward critical thinking and intellectual development? CCTDI Generalised Skills Disposition to Critical Thinking Critical Thinking LEP Cognitive Process Intellectual/ epistemological Development Reflective Judgement Maturity Gender and ethnic differences .
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BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION STUDENTS' DISPOSITION TOWARD CRITICAL THINKING Barbara Since A. No. (U. Accordingly. Bush in po better informed people are more likely to participate is needed to com litical activity and a critically active workforce pete in a global economy. seeks President articulated six national and governors from all 50 states In Goals 2000. American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education. truth. communicate effec of Education. institutions of higher education should investigate the disposition toward critical thinking of entering freshmen so that those cogni and Peter and Noreen Facione tive skills might be cultivated. PA.S. Rationale for the Study Critical thinking means making a reasoned opinion on any matter "Moti involving a judgment of its value. 4). ThinkingDisposition Inventory(CCTDI) for that JGE: THE Copyright JOURNAL ? OF GENERAL Vol. being motivated is valued and what is attained" (Facione. Sanchez (1994) have developed the California Critical Carol purpose. 1981. University Park. 1989. Brookfield. 47. EDUCATION.5 education goals. critical There strate an advanced the proportion thinking in their mission is now a need tomeasure of college graduates who demon to think critically. 4. 1935) provides the assumption thinking would that the disposition impel an individual to value and utilize critical to achieve mastery over criti to close the gap between what Sanchez. there has been a call to make critical to increase ability tively. For this reason. the theoretical grounds for vation theory (Lewin. or righteousness. 1998. Department have attempted to answer the call by statements and pro the construct. Gainen. Wilson thinking(Altbach. p. & Facione. nurturing skills. 1990). Goal 6. 1998 The Pennsylvania . 1987) a national priority for education. and solve problems and universities Colleges including gram goals. that disposition pre 1995. of critical-thinking cedes the development cal thinking skills. State University.
Mentkowski. Latino. Nelson. Is there a relationship between a disposition cal thinking and SAT scores and GPA? 5. toward critical thinking and intellec ship between a disposition CCTDI tual development. test the relationship between for group differences. in theory on principles development structional activities. 1981. Is there a relationship between the disposition cal thinking and intellectual development? In the following section. 1983. 1995). A review of the definition study. 1992. What is theirdisposition toward critical thinking? in a disposition toward critical think ethnic groups (African American. Rickerts. Moeser. Thus. and a disposition development Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study was to measure the disposition toward critical thinking of freshmen students enrolled in the College of test the Business Administration and Economics (COBAE). curriculum design. the Next will be a . it would Reisetter Hart. as well as an of a disposition of the theory of intellectual development that pro explanation vides the theoretical base for this research study.Business The CCTDI would have additional Administration 305 value for the prescriptive if itwere related to intellectual thinking development and methods of teaching. The research questions were the following: 2. topic for this research the construct 3. will be defined. Is there a difference White)? toward criti of critical main toward critical thinking. and in a disposition toward critical think between men and women? ing toward criti 4. Goldberger. Is there a difference ing among 1. 1994. the and investigate the relation CCTDI and achievement variables. and program assessment of critical for college students (Adams & Marchesani. & Strait. & Mentkowski. thinking. be of interest to test the relationship of intellectual toward critical thinking.
For this study. Inquisitiveness one's desire for even when the application curiosity and of the knowl . 1995). reasonable inquiry. fair-minded formed. is that developing students' the nurturing of a disposition critical toward Disposition Toward Critical Thinking Each of the seven Thinking individual Disposition is defined learning Critical dispositional Inventory as one's scales is defined intellectual in the California (Facione et al. clear about issues. methodology. 1990.. and measure the limitations will describe ments. willing to reconsider. the section on the implications of the study will explain the analysis and con tributions of this study to education and assessment. Definition of Critical Thinking Education and philosophers have offered numer psychologists ous definitions of critical thinking. in evaluation. diligent in seeking relevant in in the selection of criteria. The ideal critical orderly in complex matters. Finally. well-in trustful of reason. flexible. p. 3) The underlying assumption thinking skills encompasses critical thinking. Sections on present secondary sources struct of critical thinking. open-minded. and persistent in seeking results which are as pre and the circumstances of inquiry permit. the following definition from Peter Facione's research will be used: Delphi thinker is habitually inquisitive. the research design and results of this study. focused in formation. cise as the subject (Facione. epistemological literature will and summary will present findings and discussion. honest in facing personal biases. The section on scope and education component of the participating students and how general it relates to critical thinking and will focus on the limitations of the instrument and the need for additional research.306 Wilson to the con appropriate theories. prudent in making judgments.
and diligent in inquiry. A person with critical self-confidence exhibits leadership qualities appropriate to thinking critical thinking skills. and edge in a given context. is defined as being eager Truth-Seeking to seek the best knowl is defined as prizing the application Analyticity of reasoning to resolve problems. courageous even if the findings honest and objective about pursuing inquiry do not support one's self-interests or one }s preconceived opinions.Business edge is not readily apparent. learn more. is defined as being organized. new evidence A truth-seeking person welcomes and continually to evaluate new information. is defined as approaching Maturity inquiry. A process in truth-seeking is not open to new facts or per person lacking spectives and is not likely to change his or her mind (egocentric). Systematicity orderly. and considering the process. A person lacking critical-thinking self-con . lacking mindedness be intolerant of divergent viewpoints by catego may rizing them as right and wrong (sociocentric). and the use of evidence anticipating poten tial conceptual or practical difficulties. A person lacking her learning potential.). focused. and consistently being alert to intervene. A person lacking the need to reevaluate recognizing solutions to a may have difficulty evaluating multiple analyticity to the need problem or preparing a good argument. A person systematicity may be distracted easily or may use evaluation to the field. An open-minded and values the freedom to person invites pluralistic viewpoints lacking frame An analytical person resolves problems the component parts and their relation to the whole. engages in a dialectical Critical-Thinking trust the soundness others in the rational S e If-Confidence is defined as allowing of one's own reasoned judgments and one to to lead fidence may underrate (or overrate) his or her critical-thinking skills. works inappropriate cording is defined as being tolerant of divergent views Open-Mindedness and sensitive to thepossibility of one's own bias. open (lifestyles. A systematic person pursues inquiry ac to accepted methodologies in a field. Administration 307 The inquisitive inquisitiveness person is eager to may not reach his or A person choose etc. about asking questions. ill cision making with a sense that some problems are necessarily resolution of problems. by examining the potential effects of one choice over another. and de problems. religion.
poli cies. for Position 2. however. perceive knowledge in addition to perceiving themselves Dualistic functions are subordinate as contextual in a special the right answer. Judgment the basis of quantity. For this reason. and many times judgments must be made based on standards. The Theory of Intellectual Development Williams frameworks (1968. In Multiplicity. is defined Rela Multiplicity. frameworks. beliefs.308 Wilson structured. ity. A person with ma turity is comfortable working with issues having multiple solutions that require judgments based on values. Position 4 is that everyone has a right to his or her own opinion and authorities do not know learners acknowledge different of these viewpoints. 1970. contexts. philosophies. a disposition A disposition toward critical thinking represents an aptitude and inclination that precedes the development of critical thinking. and Commitment. or ethics. Learners relativistic of meaning. is made on viewpoints. In Dualism. 1981) is divided intofourdifferent epistemological are static and develop as upward movement. there are two realms?Good and Bad?and knowl as receptacles is quantitative. or when asked for their confronted with conflicting viewpoints own personal opinions. Learners view themselves edge as active makers . The positions temological Position 3 is that we are still waiting for Early Multiplicity: the real Truth to explain uncertainties. Relativism: ism. 1 is the belief that there is one right author Dualism: Position true authorities are right and others are frauds. some situations admit of more than one plausible op tion. Position 5 makes a shift from Dualism and values to Relativ and case. A person lacking maturity may prefer a dualistic context inwhich one solution appears to be more right than others. Nine positions tivism. Therefore. learners have difficulty when absorbing Truth. Consequently. learners have difficulty justify ing their opinions. it seemed appropriate to test the relationship between toward critical thinking and intellectual development. represent the four epis Perry's Scheme of Intellectual and Ethical Development ment regarding knowledge?Dualism. and evidence that preclude certainty.
dent from patterns of responsibility and engagement. In Commitment. and personal judgment Commitment: Position 8 moves is Diversity and depen with several of Perry's Scheme seems comparable scales in Facione's CCTDI. has this time. used in this study will The Construct of Critical Thinking are represented three perspectives in the literature on Basically. ships. by making personal commitments. Posi to values. may be an informal generalized course offered through the philosophy that in logic department The . critical thinking and its development and intellectual develop skills. of orienting themselves In Relativism.Business With hend Position 6 comes the realization Administration 309 their that learners must make Learners own decisions in this uncertain world. At tested the relationship between Other re thinking and intellectual development." Learners view themselves as alone in a cha otic world and feel the loss of simpler. review. The essence of the individual other research toward critical lated sources. relation tion 9 moves further to commitments is evi identity. namely. 7 is that of making tomaking Position several commitments. cognitive processes. Now learners must create their own "truth" based on their own experi ences. welcomed and respected. is disengaged from the concept of Dualism?absolute the necessity begin to appre in a relativistic world all knowledge Truth and "good" versus "bad. in college students. 1988). generalized ment (Kurfiss. first perspective. epistemological research conducted with the instruments be reviewed. no a disposition Literature The being Review of critical and theories and thinking. one commitment. is qualitative Knowledge dent on contexts. Finally. skills. construct critical thinking. are appropriate to present in the literature however. dualistic guidelines. careers.
Brown. knowledge and is about is apprenticeship model which includes model and that it is on them that prior to conceptualization temologically more attention needs to be focused (Brown. 1987). au assumptions and inquiry influence our ability to think critically. procedural son. The and Judgment Model. than content. Declarative is about facts and things. truth. metacognitive. tool. & Duguid. & Newman. 1976). Three thority. coaching. examples of models Perry's (1970) Kitchener and King's (1981) Reflective and associates' Women's Belenky Ways Clinchy. The third perspective. Epistemological about knowledge. follows epistemological development. 1994).and (d) identifying (McPeck. 1986). 1988) or thegeneral principles thatone can apply inorder to solve problems (King. knowledge Procedural is about how to perform activities such as knowledge critical thinking. of Knowing (Belenky. Collins. 1981). repre knowledge sents a frame of reference for presenting a good argument in the second perspective. Critics of the generalized-skills perspective argue that knowledge The or context as lyzing arguments. field (Kurfiss. Subject matter is not infused or embedded into the curriculum. The theory of situated learning suggests that activity and perception are epis 1989). nization There subject matter is necessary for inquiry met acognitive. ing. and culture. (c) making judgments. an example of the cognitive-perspective. scaffolding. A criticism of the cognitive-processes suggests that critical thinking in perspective volves more than just acquiring skills and knowledge. supports procedural The cognitive planning and monitoring. The third kind of knowl edge. articulating. Goldberger. problem solving. 1986).310 eludes Wilson the following goals: (a) focusing on a question. epistemological de . reflecting. Scheme of epistemological of Intellectual areWilliam development and Ethical Development. are three kinds of knowledge?declarative. and exploring is sequenced within (Collins. (b) ana Informal logic focuses on form rather sumptions (Ennis. of knowledge inmemory and its role in critical thinking. and decision making (Ander For critical thinking. Learning the connections of activity. & Tarule. in students' beliefs about the nature of knowledge and changes truth. and procedural. studies the orga cognitive processes.
important that topics are embedded in various through disequilibrium. Learners change knowledge date new brought Administration 311 on adaptation. Change epistemo is or truth into existing mental mental beliefs by modifying logica! ment is uneven Develop subjects a student seem to advance first. produce skills will and found that the relationship between More critical thinking is only moderate. is differentiated development about (Kurfiss. Two studies support this state (1983) found that structural development (reflec the solving of closed.Wood. 1997). Consequently. providing for learning generalized critical-thinking opportunities not necessarily reflective thinkers. judgment and they defined . The Reflective Judgment Model have secondary sources Intellectual and Ethical Development. the construct of critical thinking. generalized Brabeck defined critical-thinking skills as skills that transfer across domains and are not content skills are defined in the literature review (Generalized This study has one very important implication: Learn alter one's beliefs about truths and their knowledge instructional does not ing the supposedly generalized skills of critical thinking students with necessarily structures. 1977). andMines (1990) also tested the relationshipbe tweenreflectivejudgmentand critical thinking (generalized skills) reflective the following critical-thinking skills thatdistinguish different important. lems (Hofer& Pintrich. Thus. which accounts for either assimilate new beliefs about structures or accommo structures.) construct. of on more The Reflective Judgment Model and Kitchenermake thedistinction thatcritical thinkingis King concerned Brabeck with ment. section. Furthermore. stages of reflective judgment: King. it is in through education is engaged in our curriculum by design. content areas. Those Epistemological Theories and Critical Thinking and the Scheme Two models.Business are based velopment models and growth. well-structured prob tive judgment) and skills acquisition (critical thinking)are not the same specific.
opin accumulation contexts across different and synthesized ions are compared. detecting fallaciously arguments (e. evaluated. and inquiry that are im learners assume that in the process. and the degree of accuracy of inferences inference.. (p. Intellectual and actions. 6). truth. deduction. authority. and individuals are seen as good critical thinkers.g. Underlying In Perry's Intellectual and Ethical external authorities provide them with truth and knowledge. 1988). yond Stage 5. 546) likely to be demonstrated These Model. evalu ambiguous 3. Prior to Relativism. justify their ideas justifications. Development structures (episte in knowledge Scheme. 4. ating arguments to determine whether the laws of a valid argument were violated). As individuals change their assumptions nature of knowledge to a contextual structure (Relativism). individuals are seen as poor criti about the cal thinkers. inquiry is not understood. p. and judge the rationality tions about knowledge. analyzing drawn from a given statement. plicit of their dif ferences in critical thinking may be best explained by positing stages of thinking which change in systematic. reasoning deductively from premises to conclu sions. differences account for the difficulty in developing critical-thinking mology) critical thinking are assump skills (Kurfiss. Interpretation. learners identify assumptions underlying their beliefs. weighing evidence and identifying gener alizations that are warranted beyond a reasonable doubt. of discrete development theorists argue that "individual skills. which In acts as a barrier to critical thinking.312 Wilson 1. 2. Relativism. When (Van Hecke. qualitative ways" individuals believe that all opin 1990. ions are equally valid (Multiplicity) and critical thinkingis an . in the higher stages (Stages 5-7) of The Reflective Judgment most studies do not include students be critical-thinking skills are most Unfortunately.
Northridge in this study are freshmen enrolled in one participating of eight colleges of a university and are required to complete gen for the general One of the six objectives eral education courses. and as having good networking ing. more research using the and group decision-making demonstrates the complexity of critical the construct is defined in (bachelors' degrees or no degrees) women scored significantly study. skills. the scope requirements of the students who it relates to critical thinking. Research using the LEP shows thatmove ment on Perry's Scheme is related to education. 1995). The literature review and patient. In the next section.." Namely. the limitations of the CCTDI. Vocational edu cation instructors with more education (masters' degrees) reasoned at higher stages of intellectual development than did their coun terparts with less education (Wilson.Business Instruments The two instruments being used Administration 313 Critical ThinkingDisposition Inventory(CCTDI) and theLearn ing Environment conducted using Preferences the CCTDI in this study are the California (Facione et al. along the general education will define participated in the study and how Scope and Limitations "an understanding der thinking skills in each student. of higher-or "the development education program encompasses Students . which impacts measurement and how the in strument is used. At this time. in some areas of the liberal arts and of information and principles in sufficient depth to encourage critical and creative sciences thought and expression" (California State University. people-oriented. however. First. there is only LEP needs tobe published. 1995). More instrument. higher on the LEP In the same than men one published study establishing the validity of the instrument research needs to be (LEP). will be identified. Still. with the need for additional research. as more nurtur and were perceived thinking and the importance of how theoretical models. the instrument being used for this study.
46). Population The White 693 African American. Spe Logic. students com critical Methodology This was a descriptive study designed to compare groups and test relationships. and Symbolic Logic I and II. this study is limited to data collected from college freshmen. In addition. For ex dispositions the Reflective ample. & Strohm. assessment and how itwould be a better measure students changed during a semester. however. Over the next six years. Critical Reasoning. The California Critical Thinking Dispositions Inventory has the for assessment. which includes five courses offered by the Philosophy Department? entific Method. I am concur another study to investigate course assessment disposition activities. comprised population freshmen students in the College of Business and Latino. management . p. However. Kitchener. of their senior year. Inductive Logic and the Sci the appropriate research is needed to investigate how students' cifically. and the use of instructional thinking. tion units must be from the subsection of Critical Reasoning.314 Wilson General 1996-1998. longevity toward critical thinking change over time. more research is use of the instrument. Three out of the 52 general educa Catalog. for program assessment over a four programswill be invitedto retake theCCTDI during pleting their the last semester rently conducting measurements of analytical writing. Consequently. of a large state university in Cali (COBAE) the students were majoring in accounting. Administra tion and Economics fornia. the RJI would not be a good measure of 1985). Judgment Interview (RJI) indicates that col course lege students change one-half of a stage (seven total stages) be tween freshman and sophomore years (King. At the present time. toward year period. Students in this potential to be used needed to determine study are beginning to fulfill their general education requirements.
or manage ing. 7 Latino males.80. scores above 40 indicate a positive tendency The total score is a sum of the individual toward the disposition. scores above 280 indicate a toward critical thinking. 7 African American males. science. The alpha reliability for the . 24. and sample size was 1980). range from 10 to 60." scales are provided CCTDI contains score on each 75 Likert-type of the seven indi as a total score above. cluded the following ethnic East. 10 percent. females. group size for ethnicity respectively. population was as follows: African American males. Thus. for African American. Latino. Student participation 13African American follows: females. and Other. Power was set at . Thus. economics. and White females. 13 percent.Business information ment Administration 315 in the Representation African American females. Middle Participants The size of the groups was determined by a power test (Huitema. females. finance. 12 percent. (Definitions in "Disposition Toward Critical are asked to rate each statement and can range from 70 to 420. 6 percent. management. business law.16.80. business education. 15White 11 Latino 13 Latino males. office systems. Asian. items and reports an individual vidual scales as well individual Thinking.) Respondents by choosing one out of six responses ranging from Strongly Dis Scores on the individual scales can agrees to Strongly Agrees. positive overall disposition for the seven individual scales in the initial reliabilities Alpha pilot sample ranged from .05. Latino White 8 percent. scores of the (1994). groups: American Indian. was 20.71 to . Instruments Dispositions Inventory (CCTDI) California Critical Thinking and Sanchez's Facione. and 25 White males. The minimum number of participants per calculated in this study was as group was set at 20. and 10 females. percent. market systems. and White ethnic groups accounted The other 44 percent in 56 percent of freshmen in the COBAE. to be 20. alpha at . males. Facione.
(Moore. rarely exists at the college shift in focus however.81. lows: Position 5. The LEP measures 2-5 the intellectual Position 5). Position 4.316 overall Wilson the overall et al. each item in the five domains complex are asked a position in Perry's Scheme. ..84 (Moore. with gender subgroups was used. (d) the classroom evaluation 1989. and Position from intellectual Procedures A 3 2 design.84. and (e) the role of Each domain presents a list of the classroom.91 (Facione 1995). a mixture of more using a rating scale from (1) Not at all Significant to (5) Very At the end of each domain. there is a to ethical develop ethical development development it is very difficult tomeasure Positions 7-9) using an objective survey instru (Commitment. The reliability coefficients for each position were as fol ment. 1990). (LEP) Learning Environment Preferences The Learning Environmental Preferences is a survey in (LEP) strument consisting of five domains related to epistemology and course con to learning: and (a) view of knowledge approaches tent. .72. Position 1989). Position 4. Positions 3 and 2. Latino males. Significant. three groups of ethnic background (African Ameri can. Latino to assure females. and White males females. represents Participants to rate each statement in terms of its significance or importance 13 itemsbeginningwith the least complex itemsand followed by Position (Dualism. Thirty five students were randomly selected from each of six popula American tions?African females. Latino. measuring cal thinking. 2. 1 is ignored because it Position Beyond Position 5. (c) role of the student and peers in atmosphere. disposition toward criti instrument. (b) role of the instructor. 2nd. . and Relativism. ment. level. 3rd). rank the top three statements according tance (1st. 3. Multiplicity. White that ethnic background and gender were represented in groups and . portion of Perry's Scheme. participants are asked to to significance or impor items. and White). . African American males. was .
and a stamped return en students responded after the first letter. the relationships Question vari toward critical thinking (dependent scores and GPA (independent variables) were tested by gender by multiple tion 5 was regression using the stepwise method. with 68 percent of par In Table . a disposition For Research (Facione between able) and SAT 4. Each of the randomly selected students received an envelope in the in the mail containing a letter inviting them to participate study. both instruments. strument takes most to complete. gender. and the the LEP (dependent variable) gression was run between seven individual scales (independent variables) of the CCTDI & (Grimm Yarnold. and SAT scores subgroups. after the postcard. and a $5 stipend. Research Ques and tested by multiple regression between the CCTDI re was significant. 1995). the frequency distribution for a disposition cal thinking shows a normal distribution. were Because gender was significant. a second letter was sent with another consent form.. For Research by a two-way runfora disposition towardcritical thinking ethnicity and gen by Question 1. GPA. 1995).making were unusable. postcard was sent A follow-up Two weeks following the postcard. a consent form. group differences were tested Questions score (de between the CCTDI factorial ANOVA pendent variable) and ethnicity and gender (independent variables). letter. additional one-way ANOVAs run for each of the individual scales of theCCTDI et al. Each student was asked to complete in Each consent form and instruments and return all materials. a stamped return enve the lope. participants 30-45 minutes one week after the first letter.Business Administration 317 Information on ethnicity. two instruments. surveys the total Analysis ofData For Research der. 31 Twenty-three velope. summary and frequency statistics were 2 and 3. multiple Because the relationship the LEP. was provided by the university administration. response and 17 after the second Two rate 30 percent. Findings and Discussion toward criti 1.
in this study and the freshmen in the Facione In the Facione et al. Facione.38 . 7. 41.85 43. freshmen have validation study.22 33. Mean 291.17 42.55 6.34 47.07 SD Mean 28.318 Wilson ticipants having a positive overall disposition toward critical think the scores for a disposition toward critical think ing. as well as higher scores in Truth-Seeking.36 5.36 298. In individual mean Open-Mindedness.95 44. & Gainen.74 46.08 6. Comparison ofCCTDI Scores ofCOBAE Freshmanwith Freshman in the CCTDI Validation Study1 COBAE Validation Study Scales Total Score Truth-Seeking Open-Mindedness a comparison scores between of mean CCTDI et al.65 40.58 6.53 6. CCTDI FrequencyDistributionof Freshmanby EthnicityandGender Ethnicity African Gender White 3 2 4 4 Male Female Total Score American Latino 2 225-238 211 2 5 239-252 42 253-266 27 267-280 534 281-294 7 5 295-308 66 22 4 1 309-322 3 42 4 6 2 323-336 11 2 337-350 351-365 1 1 1 20 Table 2 shows 25 4 8 5 8 16 4 1611 8 3 24 30 1 69 39 4 the freshmen (1995) a higher total mean score than COB AE freshmen.77 40.40 5.88 Sanchez. Table 2. However.60 5. 1995.39 44.35 40.31 5. ing shows a higher range for males Table 1.11 4. than for females.71 7.89 6.22 35.10 Maturity bacione.73 Analyticity Systematicity Self-Confidence Inquisitiveness 44.22 6.96 6.30 42. study.96 SD 27.
40 25 1122.66 28. 12).57 824. had higher individual mean Systematicity.51 28. contrast. In university" comprehensive for this study was drawn from a state univer the difference in popu system. private. no significant difference was found.05 1454. p. scores inAnalyticity.021 56043. Ethnicity was nonsignificant.86 40 Table 4. SummaryStatisticsofCCTDI Scores for ANOVA Group Variables Mean Groups SD Variance AfricanAmerican Latino 302. freshmen in this study and Maturity. quisitiveness.30 383.00 2.143 .00 2.32 290.059.00 596.69 63 45648.14 724. 3 shows variables. et al. sition toward critical thinking among ethnic groups.05 TOTAL 68 *p < .17 F F Ratio 3.85 2141. a selective.69 29 783.43 24. At this with F(2.Business Administration 319 In contrast. lations.69 24 821.71 5 10395.24 Female 286.96 4.67 3300.05 2 2908.853 20 618.037 .13 24.21 White Male 298.05. the sample (1995.74 .36 2079.55 2.34 1 Gender 3300.05 Mean Square 2176. 63) = 2. Table 4 shows theANOVA table with alpha at . Table 3.059 . sample "was drawn from The Facione and Self-Confidence. Two-WayANOVA for CCTDI by Ethnicityand Gender_ Sum of Source df Main Effects Ethnicity Ethnicity/Gender Explained Residual Squares 3 6530.87 33.56 2 4283.96 and no published studies have tested for differences in a dispo time.87 Prob . Considering sity in the California seem comparable. > .037* . themean scores and standard deviations Disposition Table Toward Critical Thinking and Ethnicity scores and group summary statistics for CCTDI In testing for differences in a disposition toward criti cal thinking among ethnic groups.
& Tarule.19). Clinchy.MSAT scores were not significantly related to a disposition scores for the achievement vari thinking. et al. Table 4 shows that gender had a = 4. because high-school students in the upper five percent of their class are not required to report SAT scores when applying in California within the California ables were as follows: GPA (2. Josselson. for this study. as well as a higher mean seven individual of the scales. Facione men scoring higher inAnalyticity while women scored higher with inOpen-Mindedness and Maturity. 8 stu variables dents out of 69 did not report SAT scores. Significant gender differences in a disposition toward critical thinking were attributed to devel differences in young adult men of social-gender roles. and women (p < . Wilson. (1995) also found significant gender differences. and there was a negative relationship tween a disposition toward critical thinking and theMSAT. portraying a desire for inquiry and new evidence. Disposition Variables GPA Thinking and SAT toward critical Mean SAT scores should be interpreted with caution VSAT(420).012). using and intellectual development have found ment. 1986. 1995). Men had a higher mean ratio of F(l. ego development.55 with > . Gilligan. Achievement be to . and explained only three percent of the variability in a disposition ward critical thinking.019) and Inquisitiveness (p < . cultural differences between men and women Goldberger. studies in the area of moral develop However.320 Wilson Toward Critical Thinking and Gender Disposition A significant difference in disposition toward critical thinking was found between men and women. 1982. 63) score in six of the total CCTDI score. women had a higher mean score for one Men scored significantly higher in Truth-Seeking similar. Mean (450). State University system.037. scales. 1987. Toward Critical and Achievement (Belenky. SAT (870). Both dispositions are opmental or to their perceptions No other published studies have tested for gender differences the CCTDI.
in Position 2 chose from Position while seven students in Position 4 chose Position 5 items 33 per that students chose items in Position cent of the time. 2Students in this study in the Position 2 stage of intellectual development. two students intellectual development progresses. basis of quantity rather than quality. FrequencyDistributionof PositionRatings on the Development of Freshmen Intellectual Development of - PositionRatings by% Pos 21 Pos 3 Pos 4 Pos 5 Freshmen Dualism Position 22 Transition 2/3 Multiplicity Position 3 Transition 3/4 Position 4 Transition4/5 72 58 82 0 815 20 26 35 19 9 35 37 27 16 25 31 14 19 33 25 20 7 lrThe percentage of times a person chose items representing Position 2 in the LEP. Students in Relativism will choose Position related 5 to items at least 50 percent of the time. frequently as their For instance. the CCTDI the LEP. was As shown in Table 6. structures In Relativism (Position 5). Table 5 shows evidence that fits an established belief (King.0140. Quantity LEP by Intellectual Table 5. points.Business Administration 321 The CCTDI and The LEP Table that 72 percent of freshmen in this study were in Positions 3 and 3/4 of their intellectual devel early Multiplicity. 5 shows is made on the however. 5 more significantly only eight percent of the vari . 5 items 0 percent of the time. 1994). with <. Judgment of these viewpoints. However. with students often choosing means choosing evidence provided by external authorities while quality means choosing evidence only after internal evaluation. InMultiplicity. students have knowledge that are most likely associated with critical thinking. the students acknowledge different view opment.
628995 26.60 to . answers.160675 . multiple regression was run with individual able and the CCTDI scales ables. with are differ and Truth-Seeking (3) Open-Mindedness.75634 < . experiences. in the CCTDI ofMaturity includes concepts such ill-structured problems.0001 .0000 (Constant) Maturity2 (Constant) *p<-05 .124 8.124 of the variability in intellectual inquiry.964819 SEB Beta .29679 'Multiple R R Square = . First.71 to . These concepts are consistent with the construct of Relativism in Perry's Scheme of Intellectual other Unexpectedly. Eleven percent and development The definition as was intellectual shown as the independent vari related to the LEP.11559 Adjusted R Square Standard Error = 38.90537 F-Ratio = 6.164713 48. and may be con dividual scales of theCCTDI were defined by a Delphi method consensus resulting in alpha reliabilities crossdisciplinary ranging from . related to the CCTDI.525 4. judgments being made inmultiple contexts. were not significantly individual is difficult to explain. such as Open scales. Mindedness. with T= 3.12879 = .35887 2Multiple R R Square = . when stepwise the LEP as the dependent vari development.80 in the initial pilot sample and from .415778 196.08808 = . Multiple Regression Statisticsfor the CCTDI and the LEP_ Variables LEP1 . and evidence.744354 .0140 Standard Error = 38.02719 = 9.786 Sig . Analyticity.235583 21. Analyticity. and Truth-Seeking.0140* .075 3. the LEP is designed around educational founded. (2) reliabilityof theCCTDI (1) the design of the LEP is somewhatunstable.07427 Adjusted R Square = . Maturity was significantly < .0027* . plausible Table 6.0027 F-Ratio reasons include these: periences rather than an epistemological platform of how students make meaning of their educational the in Second.322 ance Wilson in a disposition toward critical As by thinking was explained in Table 6.296787 2. ex ent constructs.0027.358867 = . decision making. This Development.964674 234.37495 P<. Three possible and Ethical explained by Maturity.
Third. theory They may be epistemological more closely related to generalized skills that are critical-thinking transferable across and are not content specific. the COBAE of the California State University system at this cam pus with no ethnic barriers restricting the students' dispositions toward critical thinking. a significant differ for gender. toward critical thinking among ethnic groups (Afri had There was disposition can American. Open are not related to the Mindedness. Of the seven CCTDI CCTDI individual scales.Business . and Truth-Seeking of intellectual development. 1995). Latino. African American and Latino freshmen are not disadvantaged or underprepared toward critical thinking. Implications of the Study Based that relate to education on the results of this study. and White).78 in two additional Administration 323 samples (Facione et al. Women there is positive reinforcement for cultivating a de in a dialectical sire for investigating ideas. as well as higher total scores on the CCTDI. I will and assessment: note five implications ethnic groups enter Latino.. disciplines The relationship between the CCTDI and the LEP needs to be re tested with a more comprehensive sample having representation in 4/5 of the LEP. ties in which . only Maturity was significantly related to the LEP. disposition compared to Whites in a enter the COBAE of the California State Univer (2) Women at this campus with weaker dispositions toward criti sity system need to be provided with more opportuni cal thinking. Position Summary COBAE ward Freshmen critical a positive to tendency for a disposition There were no significant differences in thinking. and evaluating evidence. ence in disposition toward critical or SAT scores. with men thinking in Truth-Seeking and In scoring significantly higher than women was not sig A disposition toward critical thinking quisitiveness. participating process. related to GPA The LEP and the nificantly were significantly related. and White (1) African American. Analyticity.
Consequently. (1992). In P. (Eds. Students inDualism knowledge prefer a dualistic con text in which one solution appears to be more right than others make decisions based on quantity. and students in Multiplicity not quality. profession Adams. sures is needed.324 Wilson scores (GPA and SAT scores) are not good (3) Achievement measures of a student's disposition toward critical thinking in the of the California COBAE State University system at this campus. G. & Marchesani. longevity investigating whether significant changes occur between freshmen and senior scores on the CCTDI need for comparison studies fects of instructional strategies sitional attributes subscales vidual of the CCTDI to be published. The CCTDI instrument. society. 52. there needs to be embedded and inte grated into the curriculum appropriate experiences ill-structured problems with more than one plausible that judgments are contextual and founded on values to determine and their (4) Maturity is associated with beliefs about truths that present option such and beliefs. 85-98. G. Curricular innovations: Social Diversity M. Higher education inAmerican Prometheus . statements thinking is included in themission some universities and colleges.. in the 1980s?and Stark realities: The academic Altbach. Because critical and program a need to assess thinking. with an instrument measuring the construct. in specific courses There is similar need that investigate the ef to develop the dispo that are used toward critical generalized critical-thinking termine whether they are the same construct. the indi and other instruments measuring skills need to be investigated to de may be useful as a critical think However. O.). research is needed the appropriate use (5) More of the CCTDI. course content. there is of objectives References as L. P. New Directions for Teaching and Learning. Berdahl Books. (1981). beyond. program/course-assessment must be defined by institutions and then appropriately matched ing the same construct. Altbach Buffalo: & R. Since the mission of the university and college includes the de velopment of higher-order thinking skills such as critical assessment of these skills using appropriate validated ing. studies Specifically. Furthermore. S. think mea structures.
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