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0 Getting Started Guide
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2 Steps in Solving Your CFD Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 1. 2009 TOC-1 . . . . ANSYS FLUENT Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using the PDF Documentation . . . . . . .Contents Preface 1 Introduction to ANSYS FLUENT 1. . 3 Guide to a Successful Simulation Using ANSYS FLUENT A Glossary of Terms A. . . . . . . Planning Your CFD Analysis . .1 Summary of Terms . . . . .2 1. .1 2.3 Accessing the ANSYS FLUENT Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 c ANSYS. . . . January 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . .1 1. . . . . . . . . .2. . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inc. . . . . . . . . . . Using the HTML Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . A-1 Release 12. . . 1 1-1 1-3 1-4 1-4 1-5 1-7 2-1 2-1 2-2 3-1 A-1 2 Basic Steps for CFD Analysis using ANSYS FLUENT 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Program Capabilities . . . . . . . . . . .
and postprocessing of results. • The following addon module manuals oﬀer additional applications within ANSYS FLUENT: – Continuous Fiber Module Manual – Fuel Cell Modules Manual – Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Module Manual – Population Balance Module Manual Typographical Conventions An informational icon ( i ) marks an important note. Inc. commentary. 2009 1 . calculating a solution. and analyzing your results. setting up physical models. • The UDF Manual contains information about writing and using user-deﬁned functions (UDFs).0 c ANSYS. reading and writing ﬁles. The Contents of the Other Manuals In addition to this Getting Started Guide.Preface The Contents of This Manual The ANSYS FLUENT Getting Started Guide highlights some of the features in ANSYS FLUENT and how to get started using the software. deﬁning boundary conditions. January 9. • The Text Command List provides a brief description of each of the commands in ANSYS FLUENT’s text interface. there are several other manuals available to help you use ANSYS FLUENT and its associated programs: • The User’s Guide contains detailed information about how to use ANSYS FLUENT. Release 12. including information about the user interface. • The Tutorial Guide contains a number of example problems with detailed instructions. • The Theory Guide contains reference information for how the physical models are implemented in ANSYS FLUENT.
The product documentation is available from the online help. • Known Defects for ANSYS FLUENT—a link is available from the product page. The defects can be searched by word or phrase. please ﬁrst refer to the section(s) of the manuals containing information on the commands you are trying to use or the type of problem you are trying to solve. • Note what you were doing when the problem or error occurred. • Online Technical Support—a link is available from the main page on the User Services Center.fluentusers. we invite you to log a technical support request (www. If you encounter an error. there is a link to the Search Solutions & Request Support page. From the Online Technical Support Portal page. • Save a journal or transcript ﬁle of the ANSYS FLUENT session in which the problem occurred. please write down the exact error message that appeared and note as much information as you can about what you were doing in ANSYS FLUENT. and are listed by categories. or from the User Services Center. Contacting Technical Support If none of the resources available on the User Services Center help in resolving the problem. This is the best source that we can use to reproduce the problem and thereby help to identify the cause.Preface Technical Support If you encounter diﬃculties while using ANSYS FLUENT. However. The FAQs can be searched by word or phrase. 2009 .0 c ANSYS. Then refer to the following resources available on the User Services Center: • Installation and System FAQs—a link is available from the main page on the User Services Center. there are a few things that we encourage you to do before logging a request: • Note what you are trying to accomplish with ANSYS FLUENT. and are available for general installation questions as well as for product questions. or you have complex modeling projects. January 9. Inc. 2 Release 12.com) to obtain further assistance. where the solutions can be searched by word or phrase and where you have the ability to enter a technical support request.
Inc. After a mesh has been read into ANSYS FLUENT. For more information about ANSYS FLUENT’s parallel processing capabilities. including the ability to solve your ﬂow problems using unstructured meshes that can be generated about complex geometries with relative ease. heat transfer. These include setting boundary conditions. eﬃcient data structures. ANSYS FLUENT uses a client/server architecture. In addition. Release 12. and a set of compute-node processes. This architecture allows for eﬃcient execution. Supported mesh types include 2D triangular/quadrilateral. ANSYS FLUENT provides complete mesh ﬂexibility. reﬁning the mesh. Parallel processing in ANSYS FLUENT involves an interaction between ANSYS FLUENT. interactive control. ANSYS FLUENT also allows you to reﬁne or coarsen your mesh based on the ﬂow solution.2 illustrate the serial and parallel ANSYS FLUENT architectures. and postprocessing and viewing the results. and ﬂexible solver control are all possible.0. 3D tetrahedral/hexahedral/pyramid/wedge/polyhedral. ANSYS FLUENT interacts with the host process and the collection of compute nodes using the cortex user interface utility. Figures 1. Introduction to ANSYS FLUENT ANSYS FLUENT is a state-of-the-art computer program for modeling ﬂuid ﬂow. all remaining operations are performed within ANSYS FLUENT. executing the solution.Chapter 1. true dynamic memory allocation. or on diﬀerent computers in a network. which allows it to run as separate simultaneous processes on client desktop workstations and powerful compute servers. The ANSYS FLUENT serial solver manages ﬁle input and output. All functions required to compute a solution and display the results are accessible in ANSYS FLUENT through an interactive interface. ANSYS FLUENT is written in the C computer language and makes full use of the ﬂexibility and power oﬀered by the language. January 9. Consequently.1 and 1. and mixed (hybrid) meshes. ANSYS FLUENT’s parallel solver allows you to compute a solution using multiple processes that may be executing on the same computer. a host process. ANSYS FLUENT also uses a utility called cortex that manages ANSYS FLUENT’s user interface and basic graphical functions. 2009 1-1 .0. and chemical reactions in complex geometries. and ﬂow ﬁeld calculations using a single solver process on a single computer. and complete ﬂexibility between diﬀerent types of machines or operating systems. data storage. deﬁning ﬂuid properties.0 c ANSYS. please refer to the User’s Guide.
2009 .0 c ANSYS.0.Introduction to ANSYS FLUENT CORTEX Solver Data: Cell Face Node File Input/Output Disk Figure 1.1: Serial ANSYS FLUENT Architecture CORTEX HOST FLUENT MPI File Input/Output Disk Parallel Data File Input/Output Compute Node 0 Data: Cell Face Node Socket Compute Node 1 Data: Cell Face Node FLUENT MPI FLUENT MPI MP Data: Cell Face Node FLUENT MPI FLUENT MPI Data: Cell Face Node Compute Node 2 Compute Node 3 COMPUTE NODES Figure 1. Inc. January 9.2: Parallel ANSYS FLUENT Architecture 1-2 Release 12.0.
laminar. and mixed convection. and liquid-solid ﬂows • Lagrangian trajectory calculation for dispersed phase (particles/droplets/bubbles). tetrahedral.1 Program Capabilities 1. and heat exchangers • Acoustic models for predicting ﬂow-induced noise • Inertial (stationary) or non-inertial (rotating or accelerating) reference frames • Multiple reference frame (MRF) and sliding mesh options for modeling multiple moving frames Release 12. supersonic. hexahedral (brick). and porous-face pressure jump conditions • Lumped parameter models for fans. including forced. including coupling with continuous phase and spray modeling • Cavitation model • Phase change model for melting/solidiﬁcation applications • Porous media with non-isotropic permeability.0 c ANSYS. January 9. pyramid. inertial resistance.1. transonic. natural. conjugate (solid/ﬂuid) heat transfer. polyhedral. prism (wedge). and turbulent ﬂows • Newtonian or non-Newtonian ﬂows • Ideal or real gases • Heat transfer. including all speed regimes (low subsonic. 2009 1-3 . including homogeneous and heterogeneous combustion models and surface deposition/reaction models • Free surface and multiphase models for gas-liquid. and mixed element meshes • Steady-state or transient ﬂows • Incompressible or compressible ﬂows. pumps. solid heat conduction. radiators.1 Program Capabilities The ANSYS FLUENT solver has the following modeling capabilities: • 2D planar. and radiation • Chemical species mixing and reaction. and 3D ﬂows • Quadrilateral. Inc. 2D axisymmetric. gas-solid. and hypersonic ﬂows) • Inviscid. 2D axisymmetric with swirl (rotationally symmetric). triangular.
Introduction to ANSYS FLUENT • Mixing-plane model for modeling rotor-stator interactions. ANSYS FLUENT’s parallel solver allows you to compute solutions for cases with very large meshes on multiple processors. To view the documentation. 1-4 Release 12. Inc. 1. For printing. Inc. Inc.2. you can use either the HTML or the PDF ﬁles. torque converters. See the User’s Guide for information about accessing the documentation through ANSYS FLUENT. January 9. 1. and ANSYS POLYFLOW.g. and similar turbomachinery applications with options for mass conservation and swirl conservation • Dynamic mesh model for modeling domains with moving and deforming mesh • Volumetric sources of mass.1 Accessing the ANSYS FLUENT Documentation You can access the ANSYS FLUENT documentation from your ANSYS Inc. 2009 . ANSYS Icepak. which can be viewed with your standard web browser (e.. Adobe Acrobat PDF versions of the manuals are also provided. either on the same computer or on diﬀerent computers in a network.e. ANSYS. momentum. heat. either in the installation area or from the User Services Center (www. not through the ANSYS FLUENT on-line help utility).com). You will also need a web browser. Internet Explorer or Firefox). installation area.fluentusers. and chemical species • Material property database • Extensive customization capability via user-deﬁned functions • Dynamic (two-way) coupling with GT-Power and WAVE • Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) module (documented separately) • Continuous ﬁber module (documented separately) • Fuel cell modules (documented separately) • Population balance module (documented separately) ANSYS FLUENT is ideally suited for incompressible and compressible ﬂuid-ﬂow simulations in complex geometries. Airpak. Additional CFD programs from ANSYS. This section describes how to access the ANSYS FLUENT documentation outside of ANSYS FLUENT (i..2 ANSYS FLUENT Documentation ANSYS FLUENT’s integrated help system gives you access to the ANSYS FLUENT documentation through HTML ﬁles. include ANSYS CFX.0 c ANSYS. also oﬀers other solvers that address diﬀerent ﬂow regimes and incorporate alternative physical models.
2. This will bring up the ANSYS FLUENT documentation “home” page (Figure 1.adobe. and x is replaced by the appropriate number for the release (e. January 9.x \help\index. you can download it (at no cost) from www. 2009 1-5 . Inc. ⇓ ⇓ 1. bibliography.0. you can view the documentation by pointing your browser to: On Windows: path\ANSYS Inc\v120\fluent\fluent12. from which you can select the HTML or PDF version of the particular ANSYS FLUENT manual you want to view. Navigating the PDF Files For the purpose of easier on-line document navigation.fluentusers.com.1). PDF ﬁles are provided for the individual chapters in addition to a single PDF ﬁle for the entire manual on the User Services Center (www.x/help/index. sections. On UNIX/Linux: path/ansys inc/v120/fluent/fluent12.0.pdf suﬃx in their ﬁle names. Release 12..0. ﬁgures. and index entries.2 ANSYS FLUENT Documentation How to Access the Documentation Files in the Installation Area If the HTML and/or the PDF ﬁles have been installed with the software. 9 for fluent12.1. tables. In addition. These ﬁles are distinguished by a . which is available for most Linux/UNIX and Windows systems.0.com). 9 for fluent12.. For large manuals.2.g.htm where path is the folder in which you have installed ANSYS FLUENT (by default. If you do not have Adobe Acrobat Reader.9). the PDF ﬁles contain hyperlinks in the table of contents and index.g.9).2 Using the PDF Documentation The PDF ﬁles are appropriate for viewing and printing with Adobe Acrobat Reader. the path is C:\Program Files). hyperlinks have been applied to all cross-references to chapters.htm where path is the directory in which you have installed ANSYS FLUENT.0 c ANSYS. and x is replaced by the appropriate number for the release (e.
. Note that you can select the paper size to which you are printing in Adobe Acrobat Reader by selecting the File/Print Setup.0 c ANSYS. If the page is too large to ﬁt on your paper size. 1-6 Release 12. menu item and choosing the desired Paper size.Introduction to ANSYS FLUENT Figure 1. the PDF ﬁles are recommended when printing long sections since the printout will have a higher quality..2. While you can also print individual HTML pages from your browser.. 2009 . Inc.1: The ANSYS FLUENT Documentation Home Page Printing the PDF Files Adobe Acrobat PDF ﬁles are provided for printing all or part of the manuals. January 9. menu item and choosing the Reduce to Printer Margins option under Page Scaling. you can reduce it by selecting the File/Print..
Next takes you to the next page in the manual.2 ANSYS FLUENT Documentation 1. Release 12. Note that this is not the same function as the “Forward” button of your browser.2.2.3 Using the HTML Documentation Electronic versions of the ANSYS FLUENT documentation are also provided in HTML format. Contents takes you to the table of contents for the manual.2.2.2. Up takes you to the ﬁrst page of the current manual division (chapter or section). To make it easier for you to ﬁnd the information you need. Note that this is not the same function as the “Back” button of your browser. Note that these buttons do not necessarily appear on all pages.0 c ANSYS. Return to Home takes you to the ANSYS FLUENT documentation home page (Figure 1.2. Index takes you to the index for the manual.1. Navigating the HTML Files When you are viewing the HTML version of a manual in your browser.2: Navigation Buttons The navigation buttons are as follows: Search displays a full text search popup window (Figure 1. in such cases they are “grayed out”.2. Figure 1. as the Previous and Up buttons are in Figure 1.3). Previous takes you to the page just before the current one in the manual. January 9. Inc. The following sections describe the various options available to you when you are using the HTML documentation. there are many built-in navigation tools available as well as printing options and other viewing options. These ﬁles are used for the ANSYS FLUENT help system and can be viewed using a standard web browser. 2009 1-7 . Sometimes they appear but are inactive.1). as shown in Figure 1. a set of navigation buttons appear at the upper right and lower right corners of the HTML page.2.
January 9. If you insert a + before the keyword input.. 2009 1-9 . Figure 1. Inc. you can use the Edit/Find (on This Page). menu item in Internet Explorer to search for the word “turbulence” on a page of the manual.2 ANSYS FLUENT Documentation To use the search engine. By default. Release 12. Search results appear in the lower half of the search engine popup window. the search engine will look for pages that contain any keyword input (Boolean OR). you can access those results by selecting the lower portion of the window and pressing the <Page Down> button on the keyboard in order to activate scroll bars in the window. then the search engine will look for pages that contain all of the keywords provided in the text ﬁeld (Boolean AND)..0 c ANSYS. For example.2.1. When search results extend below the bottom edge of the window.3: The Full Text Search Engine You can also use the search capability provided by your browser to ﬁnd words or expressions on a single page. enter a speciﬁc term or keyword(s) in the text ﬁeld and click the Search button.
You might also want to adjust the window size to increase or decrease the page width to a comfortable reading width.Introduction to ANSYS FLUENT Printing Portions of a Manual Although you can print pages of an HTML version of a manual from your browser. a printout with higher quality can be obtained by using the PDF ﬁles provided with the ANSYS FLUENT installation or on the User Services Center (www. You can adjust the text size by changing the default font size of your browser. Font Size The absolute size of the text that you see when viewing your ANSYS FLUENT documentation is dependent on a number of factors. this information is not meaningful for most users.2: Printing the PDF Files for details. In Internet Explorer. you can disable the display of “Tool Tips” in the preferences menu. you can use the horizontal scroll bar at the bottom of your browser’s window. and you might ﬁnd it somewhat distracting. As a result. part of the ﬁgure will be hidden from view. including the resolution of your monitor screen. To see all of the ﬁgure. for example. and choose the one that is best for you. 2009 . you can change the font size by selecting an option from the View/Text Size menu. or increase your browser’s window size. January 9. you may ﬁnd a ﬁgure that is wider than your browser’s window. Try several sizes to see the eﬀect on the appearance of the manuals.0 c ANSYS. On some browsers. Tool Tips When viewing the manuals with certain browsers. However. Page Width While reading a manual. Inc. 1-10 Release 12.2. Modifying the Appearance of the HTML Files There are a few things that you might want to change about the way your browser displays the HTML ﬁles in order to increase their usefulness. information about a ﬁgure will be displayed if you put your cursor over it. See Section 1.com).fluentusers.
5. 1. 3. careful consideration of the following issues will contribute signiﬁcantly to the success of your modeling eﬀort. January 9. please refer to their respective manuals. Release 12. be sure to take advantage of the customer support provided to all ANSYS FLUENT users. 2. Consider revisions to the numerical or physical model parameters. Examine and save the results.0 c ANSYS. Also. Compute and monitor the solution. 2009 2-1 . Set up the solver and physical models.Chapter 2. 2. follow the basic procedural steps shown below. Create the model geometry and mesh. 6. Step 2 of the solution process requires a geometry modeler and mesh generator. you can use supported CAD packages to generate volume meshes for import into ANSYS FLUENT (see the User’s Guide). or a separate CAD system for geometry modeling and mesh generation. Alternatively. 4. For more information on creating geometry and generating meshes using each of these programs. Basic Steps for CFD Analysis using ANSYS FLUENT Before you begin your CFD analysis using ANSYS FLUENT. when you are planning a CFD project. The details of the remaining steps are covered in the User’s Guide. Inc.1 Steps in Solving Your CFD Problem Once you have determined the important features of the problem you want to solve. You can use the geometry and meshing capabilities within ANSYS Workbench. Deﬁne the modeling goals. if necessary.
0 c ANSYS. or one of the CAD systems for which mesh import ﬁlters exist. hexahedral. This ﬂexibility allows you to pick mesh topologies that are best suited for your particular application. January 9. those used by FLUENT 4 and many other CFD solvers). but you must always generate the initial mesh (whatever the element types used) outside of the solver.g. pyramid. and polyhedral elements (or a combination of these) in 3D. Inc. as described in the User’s Guide.. there are some questions that you need to consider: • Deﬁning the Modeling Goals – What results are you looking for. multi-block structured meshes. and tetrahedral. ANSYS FLUENT can also use body-ﬁtted. ANSYS FLUENT is capable of handling triangular and quadrilateral elements (or a combination of the two) in 2D. blockstructured meshes (e. and how will they be used? ∗ What are your modeling options? ∗ What physical models will need to be included in your analysis? ∗ What simplifying assumptions do you have to make? ∗ What simplifying assumptions can you make? ∗ Do you require a unique modeling capability? · Could you utilize user-deﬁned functions (written in C)? – What degree of accuracy is required? – How quickly do you need the results? – How will you isolate a piece of the complete physical system? – Where will the computational domain begin and end? ∗ Do you have boundary condition information at these boundaries? ∗ Can the boundary condition types accommodate that information? ∗ Can you extend the domain to a point where reasonable data exists? – Can it be simpliﬁed or approximated as a 2D or axisymmetric problem? • Creating Your Model Geometry and Mesh ANSYS FLUENT uses unstructured meshes in order to reduce the amount of time you spend generating meshes. 2009 . to simplify the geometry modeling and mesh generation process.2 Planning Your CFD Analysis For each of the problem-solving steps. to allow modeling of more complex geometries than you can handle with conventional. and to let you adapt the mesh to resolve the ﬂow-ﬁeld features. wedge. 2-2 Release 12.Basic Steps for CFD Analysis using ANSYS FLUENT 2. You can adapt all types of meshes (except for polyhedral) in ANSYS FLUENT in order to resolve large gradients in the ﬂow ﬁeld.
– Prescribe boundary conditions at all boundary zones. Inc. January 9. you will need to: – Import and check the mesh. – Select appropriate physical models. pressure based.2. – Select the numerical solver (e.2 Planning Your CFD Analysis The following questions should be considered when you are generating a mesh: – Can you beneﬁt from other ANSYS.). ∗ Fluid ∗ Solid ∗ Mixture – Prescribe operating conditions. Inc.g. Release 12. products such as ANSYS CFX. – Initialize the ﬂow ﬁeld. etc. – Set up solver controls. ∗ Turbulence. ANSYS Icepak. combustion. – Deﬁne material properties.. density based. – Set up convergence monitors. 2009 2-3 .0 c ANSYS. or Airpak? – Can you use a quad/hex mesh or should you use a tri/tet mesh or a hybrid mesh? ∗ How complex is the geometry and ﬂow? ∗ Will you need a non-conformal interface? – What degree of mesh resolution is required in each region of the domain? ∗ Is the resolution suﬃcient for the geometry? ∗ Can you predict regions with high gradients? ∗ Will you use adaption to add resolution? – Do you have suﬃcient computer memory? ∗ How many cells are required? ∗ How many models will be used? • Setting Up the Solver and Physical Models For a given problem. etc. multiphase. – Provide an initial solution. unsteady.
∗ Problem setup. ∗ A number of iterations are usually required to reach a converged solution. the following questions should be considered when you are analyzing the solution: – Are physical models appropriate? ∗ Is ﬂow turbulent? ∗ Is ﬂow unsteady? ∗ Are there compressibility eﬀects? ∗ Are there 3D eﬀects? 2-4 Release 12. shear layers.0 c ANSYS.Basic Steps for CFD Analysis using ANSYS FLUENT • Computing and Monitoring Your Solution – The discretized conservation equations are solved iteratively. January 9. ∗ Mesh resolution and independence. – The accuracy of a converged solution is dependent upon: ∗ Appropriateness and accuracy of physical models. 2009 . Inc. etc. · Residuals provide a mechanism to help monitor this trend. • Examining and Saving Your Results Examine the results to review the solution and extract useful data. – Convergence is reached when: ∗ Changes in solution variables from one iteration to the next are negligible. ∗ Overall property conservation is achieved. form? ∗ Are key ﬂow features being resolved? – Numerical reporting tools can be used to calculate the following quantitative results: ∗ Forces and moments ∗ Average heat transfer coeﬃcients ∗ Surface and volume integrated quantities ∗ Flux balances • Revising Your Model Once your solution is converged. – Visualization tools can be used to answer such questions as: ∗ What is the overall ﬂow pattern? ∗ Is there separation? ∗ Where do shocks.
2. January 9. 2009 2-5 .0 c ANSYS. Inc. or is the solution mesh independent? ∗ Does boundary resolution need to be improved? Release 12.2 Planning Your CFD Analysis – Are boundary conditions correct? ∗ Is the computational domain large enough? ∗ Are boundary conditions appropriate? ∗ Are boundary values reasonable? – Is the mesh adequate? ∗ Can the mesh be adapted to improve results? ∗ Does the solution change signiﬁcantly with adaption.
January 9.0 c ANSYS.Basic Steps for CFD Analysis using ANSYS FLUENT 2-6 Release 12. Inc. 2009 .
As a rule of thumb. Employ the appropriate physical models. January 9. Inc. most notably for triangular and tetrahedral meshes. • Look at maximum cell skewness (e.g. The node-based averaging scheme is known to be more accurate than the default cell-based scheme for unstructured meshes. For problems with conjugate heat transfer. you may have to re-mesh the problem. using the Compute button in the Contours dialog box). 2009 3-1 . 5.98. Other quantities can also be scaled independently of other units used. Before logging a technical support request. note if your residuals have decreased by at least 3 orders of magnitude to at least 10−3 . There are two basic things that you should do before you start a simulation: • Perform a mesh check to avoid problems due to incorrect mesh connectivity.. For the pressure-based solver. Set the energy under-relaxation factor between 0. Residual plots can show when the residual values have reached the speciﬁed tolerance. If there are mesh problems. ANSYS FLUENT defaults to SI units. when the conductivity ratio is very high. In ANSYS FLUENT. 2. 3.0 c ANSYS.Chapter 3. 4. make sure you do the following: 1. Monitor convergence with residuals history. Examine the quality of the mesh. Release 12. the scaled species residual may need to decrease to 10−5 to achieve species balance. etc. the scaled energy residual must decrease to 10−6 . Also. smaller values of the energy under-relaxation factor practically stall the convergence rate. After the simulation. 6. Scale the mesh and check length units. Use node-based gradients with unstructured tetrahedral meshes.95 and 1. Guide to a Successful Simulation Using ANSYS FLUENT The following guidelines can help you make sure your CFD simulation is a success. You should scale the mesh accordingly. all physical dimensions are initially assumed to be in meters. the skewness should be below 0.
drag. Inc. 8. Check to see that the solution makes sense based on engineering judgment. 7. At a minimum. January 9.0 c ANSYS. You are encouraged to collaborate with your technical support engineer in order to develop a solution process that ensures good results for your speciﬁc application. you should reconsider your physical models and boundary conditions. Verify that property conservation is satisﬁed. 11. surface integrals) at a boundary or any deﬁned surface. Monitor values of solution variables to make sure that any changes in the solution variables from one iteration to the next are negligible.g. the net imbalance should be less than 1% of smallest ﬂux through domain boundary. An inadequate choice of domain (especially the outlet boundary) can signiﬁcantly impact solution accuracy. Check for mesh dependence.. 3-2 Release 12. note if overall property conservation has been achieved. Reconsider the choice of the boundary locations (or the domain). If ﬂow features do not seem reasonable. 10. Run the CFD simulation using second order discretization for better accuracy rather than a faster solution. You should ensure that the solution is mesh-independent and use mesh adaption to modify the mesh or create additional meshes for the mesh-independence study. In addition to monitoring residual and variable histories. or moment forces as well as pertinent variables or functions (e. you should also check for overall heat and mass balances. 2009 . A converged solution is not necessarily a correct one.Guide to a Successful Simulation Using ANSYS FLUENT You can also monitor lift. You should use the secondorder upwind discretization scheme for ﬁnal results. After the simulation. 9. This type of collaboration is a good investment of time for both yourself and the ANSYS FLUENT support engineer.
January 9.1 Summary of Terms The following terms are deﬁned in this glossary: • adaption • case ﬁles • cell types • computational ﬂuid dynamics (CFD) • console • convergence • cortex • data ﬁles • dialog boxes • discretization • GUI • mesh • models • node • postprocessing • residuals • skewness • solvers • terminal emulator • TUI Release 12. A.Appendix A. 2009 A-1 . Glossary of Terms This glossary contains a listing of terms commonly used throughout the documentation.0 c ANSYS. Inc.
0 c ANSYS. combustion). fan rotation).. or polyhedral cells (or a combination of these). ANSYS FLUENT can use meshes comprised of tetrahedral. phase change (as in freezing or boiling). mass transfer (as in perspiration or dissolution). boundary conditions. ANSYS FLUENT provides tools for creating and viewing adaption ﬁelds customized to particular applications. A case ﬁle also contains the information about the user interface and graphics environment. 2009 . pyramid. wedge.1: Cell Types computational ﬂuid dynamics (CFD) The science of predicting ﬂuid ﬂow. mechanical movement (e. Inc. and solution parameters for a problem. 2D Cell Types Triangle Quadrilateral 3D Cell Types Tetrahedron Hexahedron Prism/Wedge Pyramid Polyhedron Figure A.g. cell types The various shapes or units that constitute the base elements of a mesh. stress or deformation of related solid structures A-2 Release 12.1. case ﬁles Files that contain the mesh.. hexahedral. January 9. The solution-adaptive mesh reﬁnement feature of ANSYS FLUENT allows you to reﬁne and/or coarsen your mesh based on geometric and numerical solution data.g. heat transfer. In addition.Glossary of Terms adaption A technique useful in improving overall mesh quality. chemical reaction (e.
and related phenomena by solving the mathematical equations that govern these processes using a numerical algorithm on a computer. etc. and may be beyond your needs. Inc. which consists of the main ANSYS FLUENT application window. or mass balances can be used instead. sometimes referred to as convergence at the level of machine accuracy. also help in determining when a solution is complete. the solution is still changing to a greater or lesser degree. If the residuals for all problem variables fall below the convergence criteria but are still in decline. console The console is part of the ANSYS FLUENT application window that allows for text command input and the display of information.0 c ANSYS.1 Summary of Terms (such as a mast bending in the wind). For this reason. graphics windows. convergence The point at which the solution is no longer changing with each successive iteration. This point. takes time to reach. A better indicator occurs when the residuals ﬂatten in a traditional residual plot (of residual value vs. discretization The act of replacing the diﬀerential equations that govern ﬂuid ﬂow with a set of algebraic equations that are solved at distinct points. however. data ﬁles Files that contain the values of the ﬂow ﬁeld in each grid element and the convergence history (residuals) for that ﬂow ﬁeld. Convergence criteria. iteration). along with a reduction in residuals. GUI The graphical user interface. 2009 A-3 . cortex A utility that manages ANSYS FLUENT’s user interface and basic graphical functions. alternative tools such as reports of forces. Release 12.A. dialog boxes The separate windows that are used like forms to perform input tasks. dialog boxes. January 9. Each dialog box is unique and employs various types of input controls that make up the form. heat balances. Convergence criteria are pre-set conditions on the residuals that indicate that a certain level of convergence has been achieved.
skewness The diﬀerence between the shape of the cell and the shape of an equilateral cell of equivalent volume.Glossary of Terms mesh A collection of points representing the ﬂow ﬁeld. where the equations of ﬂuid motion (and temperature. 2009 . there are solver formulations: pressure based. models Numerical algorithms that approximate physical phenomenon (e. integrals. January 9. solvers ANSYS FLUENT has two distinct solvers. decreases as the solution progresses. A-4 Release 12. based on numerical precision (single-precision vs. if relevant) are calculated. etc. TUI The text user interface. turbulence). double-precision). This imbalance in each cell is a small. density based explicit. under normal circumstances. and graphical analysis tools such as contour plots. postprocessing The act of analyzing the numerical results of your CFD simulation using reports.0 c ANSYS.g. terminal emulator See console. and density based implicit. Inc. non-zero value that. which consists of textual commands that can be entered into the terminal emulator. animations. Highly skewed cells can decrease accuracy and destabilize the solution. node The distinct points of a mesh at which the equations of ﬂuid motion are solved. residuals The small imbalance that is created during the course of the iterative solution algorithm.. Within each of these categories.
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