Kurt

W.

Forster

and
e
Romano's House In Mantua

Ri ( ha r d
The rasa Pippi:

T u ttl
Giulio

Wee

k

6

Korte. '. GtJI[.19H_ D'~A.ts th~ .01TIC to On 13 . euy oe"an opment II] this beir .un with "The Palazzo del Te.' -rseI'1tbuildi <> eVJ ence wul11n the •~ appropria re f f t>. Therefore. Forster.1 I0gtt'S 10 rel~luon to urban planning. deJ/a Cicos . aga chur~h and n e asnano and the Island of the T sepa ra res the fi f!:eenth d si e.i 1 se.!. bur none more generously than Sig. . We acknowledge [his continued help with particular gr~tirudt. passes . while yinunJly the entire lir<!T.lTI Neither the first nor rhe in Mantua. tere "c 0' A . D~. Fo r s te r and Richard J. II e e Ie opne di ng. T3. (Giu/lo ~41. connecting < h f gment of a mer. >" an De key pasacql1l~ltlOn "p d J J'romanu ab hrdibus ~ H· -d .' Pal. Un tne of Gu~!ro Romano's Ho use Mard! J 538 Giulio b g 1 f Jr the domlls (hou OU or one thousand house. Nebbia.' \'~ ii Florence. . . L. gna Giuljo (see D'Atc(J D Ilc° . La. 1. lrad. 1 'liso. Sein. L eorus pardi pae' nosrra III vice nes vf aru corm . Milan.. II the b· '.7. D.: p~rJOo Nov. "I dcrico Zuccari a Eireuzc. ppo tl.. l. sr to east. c scuror auti in ... esslYe Zones f M nSlon (f!" ) 0 j atJtua's urban "h e. ve opment ot the OOt too difficult. near S. J> aow« ptlO mill auro . ~ h hei . building "Florence.. un rudied buildings architecture. . POma .IS a rcsr enr of ustena (see Hartt I ). ear leSt clevel. \VI. p e una domo . tranSCnplWr1 . we want This requires define precisely what Giulio an account of the house before decorations.1._' Yet.Ilt. ' IT! In lac urbe '.ltIlr' merely 011 the hCilde as a p~radigm (If ". f PP I iouse arc lacking but . reo. I 57\-1519. bur bv Feb a se '~" followed IpPOl. Th e cntrv is dated '1.. Ill58.o Pippi R9maTlO. and j• g or r l urban de re I .n . 1-9 and 4l.1<'. only \hnru"iI. 'W" shall d. proprietor of the CJ~ Pippi. arrtu an house r understandin orr a amlly lIke the Ippoliri. A house In I " folan- lived in in the on 22 house typt. 1)'. t~ Icstimo' fh .. "La rnaison d..!rllt 1 •. Hartt kindly lem some photograph for illustration. of the Accademia Virgiliana. 1842. Where the l' U ar and curving in the . HOUSE.. . . ccnce nnus . 'IDlitt) degl. c' !J<lU Ha vcn. 1960. Manwa. with assistance from the Swiss National Fund.I IS XXVU) .! ." L'Oeil. aSI" 0 archaeoJo<>icaJ id _ .. and :lPp. J2G f. W. . O· . . to).IU' a whole. incm a prUTIO 1:1. and WII· sen Ponti of the Biblioteca Comunale were unfailill'.:J.imare reco Y .! . . 114). even to explain facade disposition decoration. B. . Bl. architecture". F. j' ). T'u r rl e The Casa Pippi Giulio Romano's House in Manula* The acquisition and embellishment of private Renaissance houses forms a It inseparable nomic. rhe 10~ . .no. casa de! Vaslitiin /\ re?ZO ( See for example: s. J 1537 to J J ' .l.atzaniga Donosmcndi aud Mansuero Bassi.101\).. ilrc (the . Mantua. assocIated with r e arll e deg/. the COntrad'l the Contrad:l P e . after his intervention. ar r ~ . 1]"-" G' li' emered bcc:luse of ' 1! . JIU os purcha.3.c/nmlt. . R rnischc After Forschungcn Carlo der "Bibliotheo dcl!« H.. Usually tic archirccrure ning the architect by by size.I:JI. Arcilivio Goilza· Lib .a . Palazzo "tile . Our work was made pos ib!e by support frQm the Carnegie and Kress Foundations and.idian street which. and d t.rsrn's fDrrhcomill~ scud\" T r a5 Urban Deuelopers which trcr.' '" around [400 th ralghtclls as' 1 . . 195 j. V. . 327-34 g.scu$s rhis .Ly uc readIng differs in Hartt D . the background and an effort to decipher practice) Lcip7-ig. . IIJeS 0 the I alit' J .t e ell' 01 Ipolder b ildi . palace of Sa S b . xxx. Prof.ua w' f /:. Issoria dell« v'( d (" . Andrea ('"' d' quandarn domum posit. rhe COre of the city witb the GOllZ. 'f 'PP" e HIP' us d posua in Civirarc 'i.. Freskel1m'muuk "nd seine Gr. . . ta.<. an SIxteenth-century zones. maJor north-south present Via Am d ) a eo. Hcikarnp.e street broadens fl • It eads tllrou h J <:onc to b g a are tifteenthtlr eCOfile as' -century paCIOUs and Straight 'hr avenue A . cspeciallv Avv.s.': . at Via Carlo Perna was purchased Gonzaga had already An entry that the city for over fourteen years'." .. .~ '. the ambition. Luigi Risi. Palazzo rhe icon- of the sculptural the original as in OUT (Q of the entire "The House of An drca Manregna ill Mantua/'Ga%CIIl' des Beolux-A. lrreg I .lO~. . (I '. of his station that reached beyond GiuJio Romano's the most famous of Italian historians ography to residence stands among Again. G. ~ AdS .d . IU 10 we need to make an nstrucnOL\ of it V' 1 . W.m Rom. not paj ace) fro Ii' j. ~ helpful. I ro del Mandali . Avv.' t( cr I I . Giulio moved -{rom B.-Hi ibid. and their interior frequently they outclass ueighbouring (han This article is part of a series of studies bq. . the r S.' Through otherwise Working tations part of the social.. ug th. Because dlLS '01' to be remodeled b G' rung ppro). h nil 'w Roma. 2)6-24 I) J cat1 WI . X -. The position gave public decorations aims. limi- could give his house an eminence for the buildings his gain was one of prestige "the social and economic Mantuan for himself. rsua and wrrt. Zevi. :'. n~m . ecoof these houses new ideological domes- ascent of Italian and appearance revealed design./ vic ser.95S. 137 (1966).fgio Ro setti.. Turin. .. .. reserved aod care of his planof his patron. ruaj-v 1527 he W 'J . rom north-we tou«. :267-<93. 207 (1967) :. (old collocation: F 11 • g.• . . of his role in the of a burgher rebuilding house evaluated. . I.'(1011 I Schemalic plan o] Mant. 01.. was :I tax cvied on . . eo t lstori« r Frederick Hartt . La casu dr Gmenoni in Milano.Ku r t W. we take pleasure in thanki[\& the local authorities and :I growi 19 number of friends iu Mantua. J [urure only property owned alter t lie by GiuJio artist house which bears his name.. del Leopard " 0. 201.8 I' 57" 98). r"lcucci and [be straff of the Ar cbivio eli Stuo.. quality rather notice of new status. I' • ·UlltlJll.ou . II a hou« . LX (196l).1 . for K.t from p. 1963. scud.I .1l~{o Te..·rni. 1<.ree.CJ. C..\ Libro dei M andati records June: 'pG be WaS give . Many houseowncrs opened 1l1eir doors [or UI. See K . Fo. [. Mantua.. to the great attributed was made in the history The paradox modem no or del built. su 1 !"ralI5<lCtlOns. 22 arcn 15 8 dI sage mentions the '.ri.. ' . ll) for t I..'" r. and intellectual artists. Suee .r~o XVHI. knowledoe ab '11-1 meaning of its elaborate as a public demonstration zaga city can Giulio's be properly THE Only against arid GOH- of Mantuan di Giulio Pip p: Romano. somewha OC. 4 (197r)..' . U IU Pipu '.uy '5)8.11. STudy of the if 5110 museo." jousnal of the Soclet y of Arcauecturai Hist orlans.\ \. and the i Renaissance have is due principally serious attempt reconstruct significance to its facade. I anidc.P-'17. 11 Roscnchal. Jo1. In~ Luigi M:lTSOll.

Unfortunately I].mcesco dc' Ippolit i. ]\0. See also M.hc' rnonstrouPalazzo di Giustizia.malvsis vi that they would have long fallen into ruin.37· We know of no study devoted co the . "no scholarly T. Only a huge and undivided and orchards [7 is typirn] (t1t. lime?i. uf two storey> and a low attiJ. of Corpus along with s\lggest Mantuan degli door single large rooms possess windows was not very old. settlement 'Inti! progressed 111 overall proportions and ill its I?lc"arion the southward along this thoroughfare land srrerdied it reached hold- house at Via Frarclli Its street frontage Within an elevation porral rectly even leading above lateral Bronzerri the Via Porna. [he state. great patrician falllilies bur examination of Roman domestic nrchirccrurc in d1C' fiftcentf-t century has '10t h"Cll 1ll. in Roman Q/~a{/roceTJro /!-rchJtec-t:<re. A. and Marbec di Ippoliu ni TLl) • nd residence.. now .G. Milan. pro1)00. eli rhis building rcmaius obscure. Ippoliri house was loc. within was the commissarius today. when considered circumstances have been built as a typical orsixreenrh A l\er the church of S. in whose parish rh. 1955. of s ManttlUIl houses resulted and chimney from rhe emplacement..9)." will. all the wa y to the lay between complex and extends a mere IJ'. Florence. as unaltered celwinof house type. or stairwells. Stll. datill§. N. SapllT uedcre {'"rb.'> built for workers. c.). est scaling of the house. died in 15 j S. whence ing of Gonzaga city walls." The location. 1. IJl 153 ' 6 and a sister was living in the monastery Christi. Schiaparclli.:k holm. a Mancertain that the ranked holding of Coiro." House <l! Vi" l.I}.'11z.'15 mct('r>./1" XXVIII.lrlr>rJ/.. joyed the advantages ban site and stood In ail probability Mantua's cerrtury urban ambit of the Manruan one another.ldl" (SI.ZJ1is I icu. 10". Dvspite the rich and suggestive manuscripts whole ol Ser 011 liQ'S and more permanent burgher tb<tt1 the dwellings Munich .'Ourt- A house on this street thus enof both an urban wirhin ruling an especially family.l (r 96. "Sebastiano Sorlie's LHC Style in the' AWr)' I. 1971. M. Magnuson's $t~Lenll'il! Of cou rse subsran rial portions of various Renaissance houses may still be seen.wtHtI.~ hi'lOr).. 1 JOO [ourna] of the Society 0/ ·llrd!il~ctM"ll·F' . in Mantua. ground-plans wan houses and elevations. ceuurry Maruuan State. Barriaba. . Without 7 No fifteenth aud repairs houses ill' their original alterurions 15. R. 19. literature) may easily appl y In J talian domes I ic architecture in general lh'fui beginnings were made by A. On the basis of the history growth. chimney arc ·till prominent. As a rul e.'. 155-172. Mantua.t'ar the internal of rooms: to the right of the the house which Giulio bought we shou Id not expect that of the fifteenth Ippoliri. a long hall to windows rear . . intervals.[bell extant portion 01 the Palazzo Colloredo.in the 1ifl:centh century. uburprivileged yard. disposition 111e reason they are not >pac'ed at for this lie' ill onl Y ll. B. sizes and shapes of their plots.. Renaissance housing ill 1\.1 y. sec csp. che closest major building was th. Bronzeui I7. whether lars. minors. Ferrara eli Biagio Rossetti . tile family that it burgher survive Il1USt date and the rela tjvely modof the lppoliti. . Considerably than the palazzi 01' of the. .I<die.ibrarv Version of tl1C Sixth Book on Domestic An:hitCCl~r~. Along Ma nruan streets The Ippoliri sancc houses.11)' . houses may be identified Several existing this period help by ehe Manus to rhc litcrat uro rernains Seelo Libro delle N"bil. AdS. hom as well as by their Fragmentar hid. "Notes on lht' Domestic Archirccrure. Z 'vi. busre 2j 22> "Ph lerrers bv Fr. 44.J D gardens we find on rhe ground -11001" through ec cenrrica 11 Placed y "<I the Via Poma and the San Sebastiane the Casa Mautegua. . at the center of a fireplace strcctBid~ Rcnai~_ is almost of the room's which retain house had be eo buil r by him or by his [at her. Although the facade arc placed eli. portions Manruau examples far larger of artisans Man-man A critical permits facade co-ordination schemes or simply of such surviving the ty pology the best surviving less imposing uS to reconstruct houses and to identify of this period.Illd Nt'v York the low tenement.. wall. while rhose to the lefr are narrow aI\ti ha ve onl y oue win dow each.. . Trincanaro. Tm. dowsills. 1905. til e widel y spaced windows in the larger roan . tops above rhe street facades Houses of this kind han among the older [amiliar] of the Gonzaga.·rat.. it ably not much later than lower executive Ippoliro's brother positions rhei r corners. render a picture [06 of what 'they were like originally».1..18. La cr15<1 jiore1I1 ina.!> of and. it was built before the third quarter al1d since Ippolito wan judge.ircd and where Giulio was buried.

A good example of such a stairway still exists at Via Frarelli sions are found particularly elegant Bandiera 14. J.. of bays z and 3 were not excavatwith virtually universal prac- ed. willie (he two compartments 5 11 our fig. .-----. without structure Ferrarese present facade bay divisions. Mane'la. Pippi. 'stanza pe-l" il pranzo.171 The end bayscontain run perpendicular largest undivided The rear portions long narrow runnel va ulrs tha in bays 4 and to to the street line.. Mtmtu(/. C'IS<l PiPPI. Nella disposizionc planimetrica non si risconrrano sirnmcrrie. MiIan..- oJ A careful inspection of rhe present building discloses ample in dicarions that the lppoliti home. • • old portions of the house in terms of the transformed cellars. . Ip politi House. cd. 6) built in 1490: located il Moro.. In rhe rear at least two large fresco decorations of \ wo winCracks one distinguishes goni 36.. T'rattati di archi- militant. are constructed an economically Iicienr design ill' which thin but wide barrel were built. These houses nor rear logge. In additio». . Looking of the cellar we can see that the is divided evenly into four major heavy walls t '0 cr. Manca. scmprc avere usare le scale prime e principali volre a ruano sinisrra. 95' "Sono organismi generalmence bloccati in cui gli ambicnci prospella no sul f route c sul retro lasciando irnmuni cia aperture i fi>1uC'hi..rheir stairs at [he rear of their enrrvways.t ' not extend the full length of the present building. Usually Junction <l3 an integra I unit. and a Via Maran- where the large salone the entire right haH of the -piano nobile orthe I P'p0liti house. the present vaul ted subterranean extends from the property line on the lefl: through of this house ty pe in Ferrara to its Manruan is textually applicable nobile floor-pi". ra ra's sou-thern periphery palace of Ludovico of virrually of Ernilian In the Casa "in proximity may be thoroughly changes in their the house is not only Zevi's dehllirioll - identical domestic size. contain luger barrel vaults par-allel the street.-. I the shape and position to the street facade.1 corri I. stai rs ascend ing to the second From the very contained oj piano nobile JOS storey continue tile same bay. The Ippoliri to house shows remarkable (fig. This allows for a fairly precise reconstruction. we should B. una stanza per la poche eccez. L 1500. C. encased in Giulio's and later additions. l09 . Houses substantial 4. The cellar stairs enter at the rear of the second bay_ Ttl accordance tice. as the cellar does counrerpa rt. 13'0: "Trova li antidii. parallel usually possess neither botteghe ill Giu[jo' clea rly outline dows towards wall. 16. Soper -oedere Purbanistica. gi ven suita bl e access to rhe cellar to the attic.. no other OCCUPied rhese are foun-d to the lefl. sec t ettura tngegneria separated by relatively J 5. ~ con gli aml a stanza per il of the stairs terrene. And just.ioui. 4. Above chill room. esperrissirni in ogni arts. Maltese. are dog-legged in plan and vau lred. L'atrio e eli rcgols spostato verso un lam dell'edificio . For the purpose of clarity we shall reFer to the right and Ie£\: corners of 'the rear Thei r location is a nalogous to those of the present Windows opening on the street. hou~e~ type the entry passage and che stairs normally biancher ia. present d ay j1oorpl. J 967. house ended at the sixth bay.9 lead all tile way from area of the hou se could ha ve the second storey. as we have alin unaltered del Fuoco. a walled-up window once looked eastward. Cellars. This conhrms the evidence provided by the limits of the cela lar that the rear wall of rhe salone was the rear wall of the 1ppolici house.. . important according to even for modest dwelland structurally efvaults wall of the salone were located ings in an area of f requeue Boods. was of the type we have indicated. Schematic plan o] cellar and scbematic reconstruction of plano j. Francesco di Giorgio earle Martini. le camcrc da lerro. more modest verin a fair number of houses. Zevi. neither does it reach any further at the ground-plan entire substructure comparrmenrs bad. but also a neat example archi tecture.) only six bays (fig." sirnilarities towards Fer- the Casa Rossetti architect for and by the ." The shape of one of these windows may b~ discerncd ill the [rescoed niche and figure of Mcrcur)'. indicating again that the Ippoliti windows. in the attic. The heighl was 2 I5 of these walled-up windows em.. TI.' Nel pianoo nei piani 51] pcriori : una.5)." « Ill. luce dall'esl~n\O la cucina. serie eli piccol i vani tra cui si d isrinlin salorco non molro salvo vasro olte servi . to the Ippoliti house was examples of this ill the third bay because." andie . to the - . from the street 9 line than the inner wall of the rear loggia. cornunica Call una scala che spesso nou prcndc bienri bucaro guono del piano above the cellar stairs and stay within placemeur SLlspect that the entrance t-eady pointed out.'..

1°4°-1°46.er the death in J load the transferin 1540. This bottom register with an eye to the door are raised up to function and the statue of Mercury.l)_ " The [acadc was constructed of brick and sru(co. QO of two bays has destroyed of the single building The facade Although cluded window appears Ippoliti parrly dou btedl y spaced at uneven latera lin tcrva Is (fi g.gnalO voussoirs horn Brarnante's Bruschi. d. Bari. whidi ontaiucd Giulio's stud io. With this in mind the oran open arch of the plano at the street "weak" level. where he lLved since 1527. z. Casa Rossetti. third bay. tracted marion urban continuum. pp_ 87-88. quando la casa del Pippi nel t 800. mgs find a continuance system which perfectly sions of the Facade what difficul t tal equ ilibrium. Arnaldo were nccessit arS!Ol]" ill been filled up. Bramant e arcbitett o. rhe building Giulio burgher 20 in Giulio's letter of 23 April Via {'oma. It was the consequence the rustico order Mantua. storey: above which lead logically each segment Typical their burger smoothly rise as disrunning ys a r the extreme ri gh t. 26). a 11 d the year 1800 in rhc opposite" corner. and this he the old apparently of the house may have been delayed of Federico finished Gonzaga prior to a Iacr which tends to the id~a that he is filled. rrovossi in varj luoghi di qucllu fabbrica scriuo sorro linronaco questannu 1544. 18. l. building the in as a relatively "heavy". In this way the inhouse facades And this streets in repetition. The facade scheme. Today appreciate.'> D'Arco. I V<:11tH? a bay the left.It to late it in a bay system which p\-cviousJy unknown set his house apart them . expression 8 th01. III depth it did not extend further back from the street than about 12 meters. the facade's this is someoriginal to- the flat. Giulio Romano ai seruigi di Federico Il» CO"l. is 10 ria.chich he reo even spacing the second interlocked courses of the along with the of solid open- Both rustica Lion and the bay system 38 was thus ra rher modest. OUT note 4. 7) \We ha ve record of w hen Gi ulio first occu pied he did \X1ork on both the interior his new house but rhere arc good indications not do so immediately.I1 that of the sidewalk. concern was the-facade. unrusticated house facades besides having for the later addition are multiplied broken in such a way that the irregularities units are absorbed into an undesigned and built countered to the left of center. and did nor include the present FACADE. proclaimed both his pro[lJS ticated.920.to superimpose a facade 'which at once distinproof hJS guished his house from all others vided a succinct architectural The facade and is topped than effort and economical and 0 in Mantua. by a classical entablature.'" Ttl J 800 the date 1544 was inscribed ill the new inronaco at the' upper Je!t-halJd corner of th~ f acade. Hartt heavy work bisyrnmerrical.:Iuding the oculi in the frieze. These f actors make it difd to a hi own to his property ill the Contrada pusterl. r r : ". these features. In the letter the only reFerence made 1:0 the building concerns the groundfloor rOOTn.corni" the Famous house now Via Poma 18 ([)'Aru'. ha ving no rear loggia. Palazzo rh isway. The ground .1. in Mantuan vernacular houses dld stuccoed in Manruan through not archi- Ciulios principal transformed construction.aga. ing behind a thin veneer of masonry. 'Vrfe have found Masking the from no evidence cine! and individual another. in part [rieze. rises in tw storeys. rustication fabric of the pianterreno and the filled arcade the bu.. he masked suggested that until vim in the because of Ciulio's aH. continuously units but stood flat one again'S! facades for his ha ving undertaken any major internal 10 'V. 1490 (a{ler Zevi) city. A pp. Ferrara.. Absent save for the smooth Conforming Mailman bough [ in only about two ba f) are any decorative but broken use in . fession as an artist. Ciullo piano n 0 bile rea d a I most as a Only the lunetand self-suseaining tes containing that the arcade ganization arcade system. elooation of this low-lying district level is lower of the 6. and the cellar and ground-floor of the older buildGiulio sought along the streets..' er wall rise pier-I ike sup ports f 0 r the arches in the piano nobile. 10. P: x:.floor is sg uatrer rhe piano nobile owing (0 o o r-""I 000 0 0 n /""'0 0 f-- 0 IiI before 15}8 (""""I of the street level during the sixteenth thwart flooding in an 7..l. where by a passageway and to a narrow It .bThe letter wn~ published by Pier a Carpi. III . During 1800 the year 1544 intonaco ficult to accepr. These techniques The notion of simulating probably See derives Capr ini. a set of rigorous.. This effect is enhancstucco masks above the windows this visual order his making spacing to have in the strongest disposition the facade done when pass! b le terms. was [erring rooms Giulio states were SUppDTl without \'alllt~t! the niche over the door suggest the entrance ap- be re-adjusted. Sornv Istori. however. of rooms prethe ed by the largeness of the windows. wirh windowsills of marble and window t'l1lbrawrd' pears as a transposition: 'wbile has been placed former location has [Ilus appears bove it appears of eerracorra . l.1ghr. Mantua. of the windows. Irs wid rh was meters. of good quality Manrovano.!!1l.'ji. bu Vasari's under of rhcse cellars. so that one actually steps the' house. the wall surrounding the internal could decora rion and the facade seems to ha ve been protor a number of years. tccturc. cd by the lad. his residence is given as "in cont ret a ~. Manlua .'()(.continuous uncompromisingly articuwere in all essential respects to the typical residence. Th e mai n en trance the house stood at the spot of the present and was connected rear stairway ably containing symmetrical: trically to to radicall y. This creates balances the horizontal indivi- herem lack of symmetry was made to disappear indeed Mantua.and the carefully is precisely ". simu lta neous Iy d ra wing a tren tiou to t be niche of GiuJio's decision and to to role as a base or raised srringcourses windows foundation piano nobile. Doc. [1'1'o[ili House. GiuUQ rn a y be r~- of the ba Y containing house behind that it was probably 544. probtwo storeys art a rtic.llb GIUL-IO'S HOUSE: THE 1539 is the building Architecturally in low the groundfloor bURnali. 1969. and its As the portal place in the aover speaking 01 another house. visually as sup- of the facade Giu lio treated its funcfor rhe elements beabove pOrts. The a rches of !he to in the upper windows. and to a raising century cornice (fig. Today the ground-floor down when entering tional rh. .. r. was awere unirs door placed eccenits windows is the case in many of rhe older ingrandita as a whole.thac 110 the ressoration of rhe bouse was found inscribed the house rcferr of the facade. ill Giulio" tcst atncnt.

by the mid-century. There but taking it a srep further. able to remove (. Of great Florentine and Roman the in this synthesis over the entire surface. Exploiting above all the inherent contrasts provided by the combination of rugged groundBoor rustication stories. exemplified Ia chis way Giulio's new architectural restex- tectonic directly strucmre.9). botteghe.in turn made it possible any of the standard elements facade of the classical orders. 1969. related the groundfloor to the bugnati were. up into piers If in the the the combination so-called to minimize pub]. them. rusricared facades had been a distinctfor over a centhe Floseof diof AlOnly enquadrare from the developof the PaJin a of clearly and Michelozzo through rustication ive feature rentine parared rninishing berri's rejected and formerly independent tury. Giulio chose to emphasize in his Maccarani coherence powerful curred. It is characccrizcd by reduced classic decoration.lS the facade and then became differentiated and arches. his position.:c/. S'lTUCIUre. preoccupied with articulating the I'olcade as The wallof rustication 8. to ing elements. The overwh lming importance ness of half-excavated a Ruman acqueduct. Florentine structural achieved appears building rniliarity It is in 'this sense that 9· Rome.8). C0(l11C(. began solution. unadorned apertures It is 110t d if ficule to see in t he held tight er sense. Returning Giulio a wall-mass. ered contrast design as a whole. hut two important changes have OcThe first is that.regular dence pression bays in rustica.. '519) systems in Brarnanre's House of the classical in The facade of them alrecalls a rhe work 1:0 Caprini.wl find them. this correspondence of the indi v idual in Mantuan society. Giulio Romano. WJ1at Fronrinus planning mental called and values. there. which could be opened importance and W1\S mass is emphasized for him to eliminate decorative Maccarani importance his OWIl by the extension completely he attempted orders. We have already the reasoning soirs Over the suggested something of the of the possibil-ities of Bramaute's Yet as early carani. (a/ter La/mi. W. and paired cation 112 it oea The idea of of the groundfloor. many of its frequendy noted "irrationalities" make great- the necessary irs Fearu res in are dominating tern. F-lllearly development (If For an illuminating the chief purveyors of monumental values iu arclutecrure.'> Since Brunellesdii palace relief stories ascending tures arc absorbed of mutations had consisted from street level ro from massive supports to rhe arid. of Raphael house Giulio facades. skeleton. The result in which If we seek the archirectura 1 sources for Giulio's dcsigu known We and independence achieves is a facade possessing the wall-mass into the surface. foundations. of Florentine facade palazzi Although unorders. nine 'windows. synthesis based Giulio formula. the Basilica of Treves. Giulio "row actively house" reof vernacular as an and his to give his hcade the groundfloor There is still an extremely between piano nobile. And the second is the deliberate hierarchy must look outside Mantua. to rhe hen vy rusricariou has been gath- appear as a series of pier-like supports for to the thin double pilasters on the second storey. and (he Aurelian WaU" as "one of the greatest creative periods ill Roman archirecrurc. Mac- using rustication practice. showed 11 unironnity jected of architecrural this kind design. 79-9Z.:c fautiliRoman by the tectonic laws of the bugnati courses. necessaria. and the tectonic and esthetic In The Palazzo Caprini the logic of the rusrico order 'J half-columns separated of the piano vertical by open nobile rested di_portiolls of rustiTn terms of rectly over corresponding discussion of the adoption '1ad rustica facades in Floreoce sec jurgcn Paul.1'" evaluation of the "period of the Basilica of Maxcntius.. with smoothly and their articulated followers scheme until in his Palazzo OLl together. pub]. This. despite the presence orders. which adequa re expression occupation. Brarname. at the level of the meza. grid of classical members was used bearing ment azzo walls. Individual con-trade. in turn lead on of the canonic of uniry prominence reading a "blank" order of Framesabovo de-emphasis of the greater a new kind classical feaA progressive reveals a series to purely framwe ag. of himself. Rome. J 549) but only partiall y.r- Giulio's reduction of the cla ical apparatus brings to mind Axel BoethLu. Casa Pippi. involved in the raising VOIIS- came. monu- Its background is the functional I 13 . renee. members above greater and the a new conception as well asa of che town classical home in Mantua. cal decoration the visual new facade decorative (fig. For in the is used facades. model and appreciation of antique of classifor Giul io. structurally derive facade pre-Renaissan. Florentine rhe use of the classical architects had Rome did the Albertian system bear fruit.io in Florcnr. Der Palazzo Vcr.d by economic homogeneities. For ill architectural tenus the lack of indi viduality present in the continuous ranging of burgher houses at Manrua reflected a subordination of the individual ro his group or class. distingLiishe.fig. Palaz zo Nt accarani (after Lltrer. the Curia of Dioclceian. Caprin. an srchirecrual as 1522-23. and the piano of '"I independently he found to develop the structural facade in Bramante's and probably from Giuijo's nobile arcade di rectly recalls the simple strength With the elimination qualities alone became. from delineate which is an effect never palace rather for an entire reall}' upper explored Casa Pippi design rustication in Florentine to the SangaUo ta rian archi tecture. Understanding Giulic's facade in this way. a like- door. Palazzo Palazzo Rucellai.

but there is no real proof for the statements by Cadioli that ir is Greek and char the restoration work was done by Primaeiccio.. .." A. or The windows Ali of these features were orrgillally painted.). 1n his Voyage de Mercure. and their' frames could he treated as purely entablature. Paris. sculture ed aro~.rc. Madrid. '763.!' r. ! 960.gua/hal. . could be expanded contrast and colate piers. It is likcl y rhat the marble fragment is antique. Torrno. H).. Pippi.9. 90 L Cadioll w rorigly claims [hat Vusari S~ ys the restora rion of Ibe sraruc is by Prima riccio. and completed ill rerracctta and srucco 1). for them. J as the niche figures of antique consists of a marble fragthe torso and thighs gods which Polidoro cure allowed Ciulio to treat nonfunctional accordingly.e! feptI) jN Cicero's words).ury.en'Hc . A1\~ Arbor.. perfect a self-sustain porting lively in the rustication clements example. roir.'oE'S ICONOGRAPHY. as Vasari says rbe Iacade had been "rutta l a vorara di stucdii coloriti. Vasari-Milanesi.I.IS By adorning bis house wid) a restored statue tua.\s. THE FAC. Drawing st atu. ed. ). " 1\'1<11\\ua.1 R.s}lellO delle piuure. 18)6.\ half-columns. 1940."11 These decorari ve elements deserve more than a passil1[: frieze of garlands.r. . mem1011 ordinated eighteenth because This they were applied 10 which was res- .« of . 7'1) who saw t har 10 Mercury's "az ioni. i fic". such nobile windows. Escorial after an amique but has been overlooked invested decorative a. and rhe notion 1hat the 1'r. or applied wall itself. r j r f.il€cu<.!' The figure of Mercuryt? ment forming tored (fig. 'E. Icl. as an indicator of srrucor purely are masks over the piano by modern commerua- Lent Renaissance facade decorations in fresco.Mer. 11 cinco I'd "lui sirnboli chc escono dnlie larghi Fauci dei rnasdieroni sovraposti ai Ironrespizj delle appenllre della t acciara . chlamys and caduceus were also added.T I '". Thinking the piano nobile as ing' arcade. 1(' orccdric.1. The antique model according to which the marbl torso was fashioned into a statue of Mercury is recorded in a drawing antique of Manto cur- d'un Francois en ltalie. Slaiue of Men::ll. seems to have reasoned the keystones provided particular. taste and interest Formally in beautifying demonstra. enabling of hcJping pilasrers or actual necessiry produce .8 Os Desenhos d«s anti. It Giulio provided a public his wealth. 1.. by Francisco da Hollands (fig.ry over dooruia y r z. Some Aspects of Roman Ard. Lande remarks that "sur Ia porrcc une bene scarce qui annonce !~~ (<liens de cclui qui l'habiSusani 371) but it was G~('tano tNuovo of the piano sufficiently the dismissal nobile arcade coherent ill style of the facades of Roman (thermae. in retrospect. was recognized by many the classical and century observers. 54. 'i Govanni Cadioli. Descrlzione delle pltucre. [769.tion is easy to overlook these social implications the figure is related sculture ed archiretuere di Malliova e contorni.que vio Franciscr.I i /1. The Golden.\. de ln. the width of the windows right up to the edge of rhe supin decorative strips. V. D'O[land a plntor Portugues (I J39-t 540)..l'·. tica l requirements support utilitarian architecture erc. . c. Mantua. e". frieze and cornice. The ram. a series of 'J resulr diarrn of style (sUt1VilaS qluledam. p.' (VI'II. that the facade by Giu Iio according and early nineteenth an iconographi- As for Giulio cal program. The figural deco- ration of the facade consists of three main features: the statue of Mercury 114 over the entrance. 115 tno. _ ~\ 1. and the tors. Francisco dOlHolland". HOI)" of Nero. qualita ed incombenze artriblliwgli dal Paganesimo ulludono le erpe. . insulae.40. B 0 l' I h j U 5..

pl. Once owned b Guarino d" Verona.:v of this metby Ambrosius ttl a bookplate in rhe large woodcut must therefore in the third (fig. For a concise maraCtrrrz:l(ion of how Mercury W.~~r:t. 1?P. 206-. and Marc-Rene Jung. u."ill"m L~den "orne" ber alie. the windows of rhe pirmo masks from whose gaping ~ IN S CRTPTI ONES SACROSANCTAE . j )9.lgC of A ulus Gellius' No Ctes Auicae (printed by AudrcJ. T. the lOt 1m' ~''''_'f.4.. .l •\ r • Ll-l ~ • mou ths issue Stucco represen ta tions of rho arrribu tes From left to right we can distinguish flowers: bees and birds . III this story whom they depicted with to relates how the celtS gave the attributes to cr'-Mercury a tongue the ears of Hercules. rhe following d1aius lead These motifs to to r I ~\ lMr'. Lucian were . and A direct transposition aphor is represented M. artistic was a courtly Mercury his patron - over the Wide range of rt\ami- the decorative motifs bay of Giulio's both the '4 Aplan. ~ drawing of Hercules as the Deit y of Eloquence from the circle of Raphael is illustrated in K. The storv it WOL\!d precise expla'nuions as a nee-antique botteg« sign used for commercia I su ccess.howevc_r. Roman merchants worshipped him as the god of gold and profit. .'. 11 (19)9). It at once marks the entrance to Giulio's the house and gives notice that it.'avll~~IO. II): "035 burgerlichc Publikum urn l47C sah zum Kiinsrler wic xu einern rcchnischcn Klln'c' sruckmacher empor. JeS "-. master of intellectual by Giulio as a talisman for the Renaissance rhology planetary ambassador vermon. . Geneva.. on srreetcomers business. :r. E. Suter» and Me/a!J(:1iO!. "o~ \ VETVS-fATIS I)" 11. .UgUSI Bibliorhek at '\'lfolfE. Holbcin-t. ZlI verka ufen ha r .' ! ! . 1-1\1 ubn. Tn [his sense statue in Mantua and before their places of one could unci [stand the of w hich . Guclf. this metaphor of speech by putting of the mask these stands behind known vera] to bay. originally the bay which COil-wined door and the statue of Mercury. Parker. Moreover. JUS! there wi!ll BN Lucian further described Giulio 111 uf Ciulio Romano the God of Eloquence honey. Ge amrnei te Schrif/e7l. 13." for Iurthcr material on this uncommon unage 11\ the Renaissance see Edgar \'({'fld.rn.he right.s additions. all the arts were In rhls sense rhe statue work. '9j6. Cambridge. III real ways Ciulio thus scrvand which distilled the open mouth another the Visitor or to 0""'1' passer-by Mercury presides what ed the Duke as Mercury did Jove. p. 7 Aug. Polidoro da C.0 T 969."d erb! ld er und S 17"'. 13)." Sec also . PI ane IOI.A. j)4.rkstJtt mal r u nd hild h auerr.k. CXX IV. L"ip~ig-Ikrviewed the attribute in the firsc bay of Giulio' does nor furnjsh. derived ci:'ln'~ Heracies-s. in Antiquity. T9T6 although the)' must all derive from common associa rions with " Tlw n:l3s1. Wolfg. 116 and or zodiacal of jove. Catalogue of tbe Collections of Drllwing. 86. l~ The title p. his He was the sonand ilJprofessions= of eloquence lill. J.lW 4fruIi1! M. mask and pel-haps a ehla mv ". like Nestor."y windo. The birds which accompany and more common or "flying" flowers. . Titlepag« oj Irtscriptiones . which are referred major decorative In the lunettes element above 0 to in the second (f 01 the Casa Pippi Facade.AGNJFlCO vmo RA YM V'liEK) EVGGERO nOMINO INV1CTlS ~a. 260. 314 r. CWt Pip pi.1' with respect to artists in the late Quart rOLClll~ sec Aby Warburg.109 v).. 15}.cury O1.. Panofskv and F. "Herculc' ~11d Or phcus : 'Two Mockheroic Designs by Diirer. 56. Ingobudt.d. as having a tongue made concrete the second bees in arid around bees may allude to ed from Git11io. and they had erected statues of hlJ11 in appropriate the fora.s Cratandcr). On Mercury '<1$ patron of inrcllecruni meric metaphor.6heen ch century a n d it was removcd only during the Sack:of Mantua 111 1630' Vh . 1961. in . Strassburg.rg l nssiuuc. Mercury to It was under Mercury's believed to sign [hat. In th is res peer ita p pea rs to function heraldically. motifs: helmeted head of ... Hercule dam liZ Iitdrature [rancais« did XIII" siecle.i/del. and this Rome. pierced by fine gold chains connected hi followers. the remaining motifs.. CXUX." presided a n d intellectual identification Heracles be the source for of Mercury cal. relates that the Celts believed should be old. 1'1.("- Ho- [9 S. a llcs kan n u nd hat: rler hill' ten i11 sei ner We. performing a quasi-iconic role which recalls that of cult statues placed over chapel and church doors. The .sc. house. See "Hcraclcs" in vol.n·k of l\!1e.. . der untcr dent Ze... the codex cnrcred the Gonzaga Library ]11 till' la te .' IOJ4rn~l ~f the ·War/JJ<. Saxl. 'J en the last tWO bays to .' Lucian also recalls that Homer have provided Wrote that the Troof the mask Heracles of seem that z.mg Milde for rhis information. {. l nscriptiones sacrosenctee veuateu«.21 S.hence of an. by A. 1966. . jan councillors appears to word".. 63-71. rr ansl. ') Apiarrus and Arnantius. the Celtic work which is entirely representing the exegesis of a painting god of eloquence . which it is likely emanatthat rirlepage of Apian 's tarnous Inscriptiones Lucian's H'r. shows Ogmios with the' iuscriprion "Typu EJoqucntiac." house.L nobill? are a series of Mercury. London. I 17 . csp.~r'H1j . as there was of Federico Gonzaga whom Homer with Jove.T'. J964. Basel.1'r (hi. prof".are grateful to Dr. 7J if.. Hannon.ithen des 1'1 " neten Mercuri us gcbo ron.1. £4) of Oil 1j che cia Caravaggio painted on the Quirinal at RQllle/9 btl tiL goes beyon d th em because it is both a real statue and antique. [ols..C'C Alessandro Marabot. B 1I \ place til myand especially it was Mercury's significance. T.M rcury from whose tongue lirrle three pairs of ears (fig. . here. J51 r. snakes. in large part from'Ludevoted Ogmios. As if (0 underscore its value and importance... J1. 1 of the Loeb edition of Lucian.1 with flying bail'.. patron whim was pre-eminent. pl. the statue is eleva red in isolation over t be door.) I. IIOte 26..nblittt'l (Cod. are later d..tini.. 2"'. ha ve llounshed. Oxford.wry "Heraclcs" is contained ill a 11£theen-ccntury codex of Lucian now in the Herzog A. that of "winged" had voices Iike in the !irst half of rile Cinquccento have many seem meanings n10Sf was . p. in ti)(I Asbmoifa'l Mlj. ManNul. It is mainly Mercury's powers of eloquence.

I! 5. a system which can be reconstructed on the b.. '9 cr. Casa Pippj" rag tlJai! of salone the en ri re concept Bramallte reminiscent. the fihh bay's mask has snakes.\. Doric pilasters arc Peruzzi's HIlLI placed to divide the walls into three fields each.. is depicted ill place of rhe present door. original the only decor re- room in which some 01 Giulio's x 8. -and rhc sixlb mask holds what. which has in the Cort ile del Bd vedere. figs. piano nobile. rriparri re painted recesses had been systematically Panigola in Milan. 15 'H.. an appropriate that Giulio by eloprincipal is perhaps metaphor his pic!ttr. rhe by the Ii replace.iOll wi til dements of actual architecture beams.d iv isions uorc (hilt one repeats the attribute of be e. we ms Y of the salone possesses a Bra~ for example. Brnmante arcbitetto.6. The long east wall coruaini Ilg has its wide central serliana field occupied round arch Sa/a delle -prospettiue in rhe Farnesina. muy be Mercury's chlam-ys: As for (be rwo masks in U)(' evcnrh and cighrb bays. The narrower central window two north lateral wall. Bruschi. which also coil about M~rcu ry's caducexs.Jo meters) is modern. Much a system but the simulated by painted architecture work Features must: surely replace used by Ciulio. windows ami the fireplace. four mouths counccrcd I() rhe tongue of the mask by to hnve been based upon dre imagcry found in the third bay but cannot be logically rcla t cd co the ['owe rs of Mercury: '7 L. 1). iron . while on the west wall we find it a painted whose forms the lOp of a deep niche. The Formal and thematic ideas \V hieb were carried over into the of the upstairs salone. 11.cian.. MarJI1U1.57 organized architectural of the present THE SALONE.. Occupying the salorie (le. Furthermore.d 16.s found :)Iready in the second bay. 67. "8 See Hartt. whidl may have had a till tbe niches. that chose his role at the Manruan on Olympus. 0f stringcourse. wa II.hains. endwall 15. fresco of MerCl. to that everything as of "a 'wise man who achieved persuasion Force'!. of rhe Giulio's but later additions. which are 1101· height of the doors runs a prominent The /inta architecture manresque severity.1 eloqnentia for the mercurial formula put on the facade. this planet.. pairrrcd cOlltain" with tlying hair. Common applied wi th by in his frescoes in the salone of the Casa to the salone Panigola. The mask in the fQ\lnh bay For example.." Therefore.Mcrcury>li. which may allude to the air and 10 Mercury's ~'W!·ftflight. a full half ofthe (fig.sis of surviving decoration. while the other. and our figs. decorations The srrength I ragrnents of the original and unity of the salone of its mem. the salone in Ciulio's house is the interest in recreating an idea of the antique tab lin« 1rl'<9 . Above . the Casa Ukening of Mercury COUrt to to the sign of Mercury. . from rbe scaling-up possible the north wall bers to their greatest such as ceiling Upon size and rheir strict of I/n sslonc co-ordUl<l. quence and compare his an.-appt'3rs . 489-501. a low continuous ocle. Both this niche and ehe fireplace are flanked by narrow vertical fields. Casa Pip pi. has its four walls 16).-) 011 result. As the residence of an artist whose craft is traditionally Pippi stands associated under Giulio applied Itt with. we find on the facade fresco decoration mains:".

strides a forceful . we shall attempt as well howUntil more as provis- wJli~h follow reconstruct some of its missing portions about rhe pt'ogram. SOIa I. G':uli. that to the niche occu pied by Mercury. Since Giulio's this wall . has already favor )0 Ph. Jlis place in one of the tWO destroyed The second abJy Hercules.porte were on-e from and the wall spa es above part of the decorarive t the windows whole. The room is dominated must have contained by the marble niche opposite Jove. 18). elusive in our opinion. sta tues. Palazzo del Te. Stl~dy [o« Mers and. From floor to ceiling each of the walls is partitioned by full-scale architectural me1)lbers within which are placed niches. whose scale and proportions and Mercury. of both combining His prominence lie's Sal« del CwuaUi in the Palazzo of his judicious set above the srringcoursl3. Fieri ve rel ids in bronze.r observations infummtioll about ever. Because it is unlikely he must have fields. 92. [96~.. the most logical left of the east wall.IS to die right of figure tenrbut which we bronze wall surfaces as a solid and dosed type strives to confirm system. however. rhrce Stucco reliefs over the fireplace. of 18. this system large Jigu res in marble. Gere.goJ"ies: 0. As the pose of Mercury resembles that of the sculpture analogies ou the with found facade. FP 109. a marked emphasis upon the wall as it is articulated by pilasters. in closest POSl rion for proximi ty eelte. .'1 the British Museum.g.there was no need for the doors in its two end bays which. 1)6) rccognized the purpose of this study. ional.y identified (fig 19)' Two by Hartt aspects Hymen. only recesses which reinforce (fig. 120 iconography But it w JI somewhat that Hercules Drawing. and his importance also be remembered in the made in the DepMimer!l of Print : and ideas with. Dilsseldor]. no. Opposite the fireplace. campa.1 . both curved and rectangular.o Romano. irescoes. These two approaches of a solid sud conrinuouswall-mass. cat. Among the most conspicuous rated areas in the room is the long rectangular over the mantlepiece. deny the wall as a limit. marble and Mercury standing fields with in niches on the dOOIS (Londo?!. Hartt (1. Circle. Kunst museum. Pouncey. Giudel Te serves a. Pouncey and l talian Drawings J A.6 (Landesblldsielle Rheinland) north wall. London. and Gerc. a study have been in the field to the ex- Mars whidi has already been connected with the la/rme by Harte. the idea sculpture: Mine. Because of this alone from main rOOI]) in the house and the center or its social archi- sculpture decorations exposition and relief (fig. cycle remain~ be- directed would by Giulio for the Gonzaga and PQPU lariry his presence. Raphael aml Hi. Mantua.. There are no illusionistic deeply excavated Giulio openings through the walls.a/one may be taken as a kind of penultimate The identity be inferred of one of these missing figures may in the Brirish Museum and fat' niche figures of Mercury be surprising would iF he were the ri rual. om remarks is uncovered. rr. 7". and fictive panels of relicts.. 12. wall of tbe Sala dei Cavalli. Hercules treme all ar Giulio's hOLlse within absent the Ogmios it the facade. He effecri vely dwarfs the bronze statues and Venus which fhnk him. rel are The to The niches of ones in bronze.d with painted and smaller in the Sala delle prospettioe a good example at the Famesina. the second rhau exploited separately. srringcourses. as one gathers he full y ex tan ccn tra I sections all the east an d undecofield west wajls. Aller Jove. we believe.:tJlCe wall decorations divided of painted recture may be roughly into two principal from a drawing In our view. [he next most prominent figures are the.igns RellaissaLTCe DOW distinguish him: his lighted quently combined fill".o. so Mars shows close formal the fresco figure of Minerva. no.where But more serio us lacunae are house origithe fireplace stands . Mercury enthroned Neptune Minerva 17· in the spacious the fire- place. Drawing by fa op o Strada. 17)' The Casa Pippi . The lateral aining Minerva similarly on the cast COH- wall. We must first bear :1 t mind that the sopra. R(mais. the frescoes will have to be taken III as otfe. Brilish MU5etUn) Mentua. )-40.rvareplaced large Mars.\1 the arrhitecrural seen one hand the paiuting which V<lS" of fierlv(' spaces art! of rncrnbers through hand and on the other to ihe orgal1 ization of our second category of illusionistic wall painting. nally ended with Iound on the east wall.I.. was probpictorial in missing in other ativel. The first are more freas e. scaled marble match those muse ha ve had rwo his appe-arance imagery would salone.cause of the loss 01 important In rhe paragraphs \0 pieces of tile ensemble. of the salone principally. figu re propo e ro see as a represenra tion of Prometheus it. the small bronze Apollo.

"Il mho di PrOJl1eIeO nel l'nrre vencz. and Securitas (right) as she does in another hind sccuruas libation. The presence of the enthroned Jove an d the other gods establishes Mount place starting Now great Olympus.:I: Barn. daz .Jaffe.' Emporium. Venetian Metamorpbosess» (22 show Michae] . Olll. be raises the question of the mythic !lOt in eerpret til c enti re cycle as 'I n ('X posi lion origins of creati viry and th~ fountla. d. '(0).. The first concerns and directly opposite Jove. CdS<! Pip pi. ]." LXI (195 il). ior dr. 2. I. A study for [his relief is in the Louvre (uo . The two images present the principal H from these in Antibenefits '. 79. Metamorphoses.with a torch the divine nre to his ina.1~" bu. The painted relief to the lefl: of the fireplace is an . . Venia.i. might stgliai the consequent possib le to of civilization whether rhi. he of Ovid's transferring point for h is trip down to mankind! '. )'509 of the chi. Th. before of a temple. ·.i s pa IIel is illl.I). j 5 r) specifically mentions Giulio's interest "sopra turto de lle mcdagl ie. . y)-'. Sa/one. abo vol. XL.nott. of the W. 60). to of man.• hy cin klein Iewer!e anrz iinden. a narrative episode in fictive sta-tuary which uses the entire room as a backdrop. cnm. 5-59. while agriculture.t from Ovid. 1-4. Vasari (Y. [resco of Prometheus by Tibaldi and Lodovico Carracci in Ilo!ogll~ ("Th\· Myth of Prometheus: Tl.iana del cinquecenro.1.in wer dcn. N.149.r!!. II.. l. Diirers sduifilicher NlIch!ap. 23)' Bethe statue pouring a and fifer.1 111<1rchiug that these TO (." (Hans Ruppridi. "Rubens and Giulio Romano ell J...." The Art Bulletin.s. Saggi "La Libreria e memortc toward the streetside Olympian With his eyes \xrhat we are l" Arre " iconologia. Roman of a god. Gil.lurch . Maetingly. by GiuliQ. the frieze o· over the is a stucco reliefs on the east wall (fig. bringer sponsible of fire and the god re- giving the 'Ins the human editions WqS the first and arcbetypal as 1479 the illustrated artistY' Prometheus From as early 50 jr ~II merung mit kiinstlicher pessrung dartzw thiit.fig.mney. prom~[bel<s and the [jegjn>1il!. gives Prometheus Prometheus ignificance fOI' to rorrnula don of the artist as Prornccheus . Rome.2<).'g.lWhl~ our attention to this remarkable paS5. " . 45· 19· s ibid. Kri ·tinaHerrmann-Fiore. yeb wiill irlg tambourine drummer prDmineut player and to the right . in tlre British M.'·. I. 11. 22) from of A n nona a nd Ceres frescoes to repeat the messages rhey carried quity. Prometheus was also placed among t he st"!U~i of gods ~nd 111M'oeo on the balustrade of Sn. 46. studies afhr this relief and other works 11l11sic-mab. I pls. gan!>.:Ull .vhich suggests an iconographic relationship. of his Mt' co brin~' _ J ch msi n.vhich Giulio transposed directly from the reverse The the reign of Neror+. (13 .aw~~ gesdli. .1 Raggio ]'. few~t: (br..ub~~I.l1io thus devised rises a column her stands the focus of the action as and the acrual f uncrioniug fire- a source for his fire and a a J1gure uf maker race.lliegorica \ represen ration of a coin (fig. To the left we find . I9Z. to As the mythic earth. V (1967). .:. 4 (1958). no ..han d fresco con ta ins a sac rificia 1 seen e deri ved J~ hOtll rwo or more antique coins. and his vigorous fireplace averted from movement wall. Coins of the Roman. in Venice. Directly the depiction fireplace a Roman panel containing related to of the adoration of imp era torn. Fu rtherrnore. so mag mit der Iz"il . Taking coin of Nero's supporting a victory given is a representation of Prometheus' heroic Grime of stealing Olympian fire. see.lsionistlc~ I!)' rwo smaller stucco reliefs along the (Ianks the foreshortened lateral to the left a dane- lO. 20). The conceit. Giulio appears to have w-anted the architecture panels extend into the Settings of the painted scenes on the wall.ni!llatc figur(. welt lewchr. London. architecture dawn as to awl it "'arfare (fig. torch. frescoes and stucco relief on the east wall of the snlone : A~mona and Ceres Worship of the l mperator [center]. 307 enr. 11l7).(5 noticed with reference to Inter t!xall. [966. arches appear where once again.7. 818 (r96_\)..sJf sitting before a burning. aud N.). rraming > L "The idea of associating the fir~ of Prmn"t\lt'\lS with a fireplace was evidently a favorite One in Emili .and Courtauld Institute.<p to the Eighteenth Century. pl. I.ers would appear adoration of the be entering the more he made a fact scene.' [ournal.hn' tus.. was undoubtedly Giulio. for il. Casa Pip pi. II. ) 00. fig.C('1(rita. pi." Olg. Empire." be separates the room's himself by his action and aim dell'art e. figures. Ivanoff. would S<'CIl! tious of culture.Al brcchr Durer found an by who like- ned the improvement and spread ing a new ligh t to the world: rc . asro un ding (Ieji).6..g of Cioilization.. Berlin.S Survival and MC'talllorpho~~.1..nsovinu'v Mar dt stoti •• ?J. esp. 41.illlul11 Manruae Principcm Fraciscurn GOZ. a few years aflcr Ciulio frescoed the salone of his house. ..·. StUCCO The whole scene is backed by the pilasters his compositions directly coins.pJ~ t 9. away from the Library cinna.'. altar precisely H. '-77.. l' The edition of T493 is dedicated "Ad illusu."l' rigln. :mj'l!!llCI. Two other aspects of the decorations to confirm this idea.C1g. Wit are gmleful to Dr. nclle q uali spese assn i cia na ri e moho tempo per :IV me cognizjonc . p.

i [1 For this he is punished. 24) or hierarchic al. ru rsus Lacio reg n a" ra pc r arva Sarurno quondam.The Prometbeus BOllml of Aesch.t is who ordaius all things for: good Prometheus cannot bur . l discorsi . than their the This did ac tit: celeb ration of roman itas gi ves the e importance: relatively house is condiminutive ~l1gg'csts ilia personal cerned th size would t have been a part of the original house... SOP"" Ie m('ddg1i~ et ahl'c anticaglie . Prometheus Bound and Prometheus Unbound. religion . (j). cycle as a fii. of a new man. the divine of Hermes Prometiwu. he represents of creabe underrole: like enter24. 7S9 defies them in order own creations. magnum cadi ventura sub axem. 91) j. This brulg. Ca rryi IJg more than merel y a message of the gods. Neronian Coin with Securltas (a/I. . :'IllCr rnudi rcvtrcd in his own proviLlcC .. Augustus Calf ar. hand ever his head. Giulio fronralizcd jov~ and retained tl. no. A1Lel1. T 3.hehougeJ9. an d. \\7eckJ~. Prometheus robbed them of rheir di vine prerogative and brought their ingenium to hi. pp. . As he rushes away with his eye directed downwards.s.. in ~2. 011 that wal]. from the Aeneid (VI. relieved only be.1 cannot be acci dental: belwfits. G~orge. and Mercury arc turning to look at between them.[lus and: the Fragment> of ilr« Prometheus Unbound will.Dt"gc of mankind.clicm and notes.II. with his left hand to the rightl7. foresbcrrening the large have well fined to consider Jupiter position. 1 S9f.ind of severemuseum but as an Olympian fragmentary. 69 t. hie est. We are inclined vers-ion for the seated silhouette. Mercury Mercury. supcrcr Garamanras er Indos profcrer l7 A ~wdy of imper-ium . rhe swift among and the prominent figure:. own whimiscal creation rordi. "At the outset an enemy [Aeschylus] rebelling at Rome. Their central and ccllecdon of painted 6gmeswas ser ill response [(1 ta iner. at peace witl: the other god. Probably this WaS performed not by Heraclcs. the same Prometheus uppear. '. iNtrod. '1. b lJX modified his gesl III ~ from (he heraldic 1CJ the personal.lf-will ann and disturbing the order of the uni verse. Another possibil iry 'is that Gilllio'. " by the of the gods..9 AdS. Although of the arts and the eventual it is clear that such an istori« must nccrn the origin ellernplary triumph of Roman culture. locus of these glO!stures?The central field 011 the rear the hubris. and e1oq uen tins like Prometheus.s listed as the owner of the property ad iacel1t ro the right of T. Zeus .-~kJlowJedge this . .ggcstc·J "dies By May 1800 is finally scaled by hi.' Rome. ribi quem prornitti saepius Cludi1.'r brand. Ca5a Pip p]. or in his rebellious and to the spread jV1AMURINI deed to the em~l. . and it might ha ve been in ehis field that another figure (perhaps Juno) once stood in fresco. aurra condor saecu I:-t q u. rransl. em of the rulers. lnot~aJ of theatrically brandishing nil oli . C stage lcr an istoria. Hersey SL. non. In . now conraius a dClOr watt which cannot stood as opposite the artist is the resourcefu 1servant. 549. III .linst advil.one or D10re pieces of real riq uiries brought DuK.l$· In the late eighteenth came right . an uphill bartle to Olympus.. Volrure nrasrali. D!vI ~entl. l~' Prof. t ru III suggest. their to eleva red Inca tion at the hearth their moral and of Giulic's he take> from to give pow er and to lesson of ci vic virtue origins should be considered in connecticn aud widl che particular to Zeus and their "official" Roman content artist his family connection 36 Compare to 79)): Ihe key passage ." (! . F. N eronian C oln.abundance and peac with ill. Mercury dominates the facade of Giulio's house. Mal1tu~. . jre$(O oj jl1piter the salone on the well wall 0/ the revolt and the compulsions and Prometheus aspects may perhaps of rhe artist's 01 Roman civilization pu b I ie worship reliefs a greater 0 I: ..ln the Theresian catasto of 1784 immediately and pose this figure would we not ask whether towa rd the north both Minerva wall. liberation from bonds.llc. meanwhile. rightly dated "towards the end of Giulios life:' but its ccunectiori with the salone fresco has been questrhis sheet an «arlicr 10 terms ioned. each other or at a point in a quiet gesnH'C of peaceful openess.J. Vasari remarks anfrom the rh3 t the bouse was "furnished In this way. nOStrl~ & London. between hie Caesar et ornnis Iuli the gens iulia36• But the axial tile worshipped imperaior \]. Ago)"tinl. ami his repent- Housz. his we salone decorations. hie vii. j2l I -77: Pouncey and Gcre.hould be read are an d hand century the Casa Pippi into the hands of the figure of Jovc.which find their fullest expression the irn per-a tor. bur by Hermes. He looks and gestures about the Prometheus Jove ought glance to in the British Museum (no. as a deirv 1')f hurnun ~ll\IlII'C.eJs. W ccklein's in trod uction is sr .11' Zeus' command.~ Vasari-Milancsi. accord- the iconographic Prometheus progrilm.. perhaps. ing co some. culprure.ation.'. After what we ha v« observed figure with in the directed its implied same way) three-dimensional Jove's field of action.11erni Ilenti r lowers its left that Aeschylus' trag- useful.. it is true. tifE' and spirit intervention his of relationship makes defiance.. to but flg. D. of divine power Hercules..he executed version. ()f its Mambrini family.. The acceptance of a vicar ious punishment involves ance submisson in atonement and humiliari For his own guilt n. \Xt'har is the niche. another spark to transgressor..he is not static already of Jove (fig. Ceres (af ter If A. the 6gure 1101'1 it.. t the end. V. with numerous from Rome and received we should begin to luok upon this room not as a l. as the messenger of trickster moving rh rough all sp heres. 159~) 2J._1J. concerning i1ied whole. down to As Hercules Prometheus earth.·r Agostini) There. and he reappears Jove. their a urhor u y ill a spirit of se. The lesson role relates Pro- seems den r: Mercury the social instability metheus man THE in his ambivalent of the artist's inter'pretalion of the.t>ith nnona arui. he fin ds a contrasting fi ~IIre ill Prometheus.c ki~hting.\Llre It should be noted That .. fights brings a "gams!. all and the coles al Jove from Jove derive al] earth ly to our second obscrvacion UIl- progenies. Car.p:ltion of ci \-'lliz..

h"l pJrlqllc r<:cllrJlnltth see 1)"1\reo. it is immediately e'lidel1t that we are furnished with valuable information about continuous Pozzo's would pre-i Soo changes.t is dear that the Marubrini restoAn inscription door IVLIJ. <"nw". Facade enlarged and renovated by Paolo Poz zo. enlarge and modernize his [lew residence " r ithout sacrificing irs original appearance-c. 'J. PO.Stllllicn L. the reference ter to the addition :. closure of In the D'Arco plan We see the necessary H Some djfficutLi~s arose because reading D' Arco's ground-plan 10 give a key or an explanarion of II.. make a passage-way the rear of the house. rio. XYI. HU Bl RR. X ~_. For this work Mambrini availed himself of the services of Paolo POZ:lO.. a new which will open into the middle of the courtyard. which was published by D'Arco+. bOll.llau" cit"! T~ lid P". For a biogx:1 phy of Paolo Pozzo 104-1 were we to aSSU.« From the plall ...-lld. !he plan shows thar by 1800 the Casa Pippi was Hanked on the right by a contiguous structure whose ground-floor srrcctside wall had tWO windows and a fireplace.~'HIV5 P r th M. III1I~\"' M is .l (If 10.. .. and Pozzos additions an. Comparing the plan with om reconstruction of Giulio's reworked Ippoliti house. 1800 modest of archirectural commissions.Xl 1I1. 25· C1. l st.l.. separate wardly 4J <l\Ladl.. in a plan of the house which was "T'h i~1 In 1)dcn t If . perhaps a work- the one that . I Lions" by Giulio Romano. XXX1. 2 (197"). CrOUIIIJplclI) (4ef4il. conveyed in a letter written by the architect on T May 1800 to his patron.cyen's incerpre1.uidebooks Giulio's L11 Pozzo's letof two new windows." /otr. ."011 Vcrh.11t J Historians. zS. make ir clear that only the facade of and not the building and additions. and all house was extended.1 lin~ ft':V10' I It] • _ cd III I EJ 'WoJ!. originally sent two tion of ent rancs old house number "r695 ''. XX 1l (197' 1 ~67-'9' -" 1'." bistoriscben [09 /l'iil!ei/lm11t II J(~ . That this strucrurewas not built by Gi. D'Arco's grounriplan makes distinctions between three kinds or walls: those CXistlJlg ill I l!-:. and he had to build a new side to 14. by (fig.o's work (". fulfill the owner's wishes that Histonans. the Street.' doued. In this relocation work Pozzo was required to destroy an original wall parallel wall to to this period of time the house remained unaltered. au d '" e P a Iazzo (~. . 45 l llustrations of the lo~ ia may Adolfo Venturi.<7. 26. Even more precise evidence work is contained engraved and published documenting D'Arco» p.. and the enlarging in height of the facade windows "in terrene".!e have consulted D'Arco's manuscript (AdS. distinction Different colors were used alrer auons be found in between rear till' various seems safe to assume that this plan follows ing drawing by Pozzo. 0' Arco's plan.·d circulnr restoration be remiss new windows on the racade.45 too must not ha vc been Giulio's M41'UFIC. Elevation "/WI" D"AI"(o.50 fabric Pippi itself. J acopo Stnlc!g.·cl:n.1:l7J>:Q del Tc.lI[ Il:tllgc~d:lldJt( e of the Society /lrcbit. r. pp. because it portrays ill detail portions of the.aions in JSOC Lorenzo Mambrini had decided to repair.. \Y. ~ftcr D'Arco sho<wing ait('r .zo's work for Mambrini is.ulio is proven by the markings denoting that POLZO relocated its windows.ori« (no p"~gJl1ntlon). Casa Pippi. and gave' it a new facade.. In it Pozzo rnenrions three work items only: the addi- 4 Oil the recessed marble linrcl . Tsioria. II II \! years of occupation of the Casa Pippi death. uG ..1lJ~ W:l. 0 testifies PIPl'1.l d P ..[h ~1. those destroyed by Puzzo are diagona ll y hatched.. Pozzo added that he hopes the designs he made for this 'work.11e that and we during The lengthening of the facade appears to have been the main reason for moving the door. fRU'Tt ration was far more extensive than I'OLZO'S letter would lead us to suspect.'\ Above this inscriptioll marble !>1.' D'A_.. 25)' i tl'~ No' C )11 [ e ~l<4. most of Mantua+'.J. to accept even the sent CO Mambrini.. Mantua.\ 1?71 be corrected (1974)· in om rorthL·om }.i" dell'ert e it alian«. Pozzo's in our work at rhr P. Slo. .> are cross-hatched.. the architect who had just spent twenty years restoring the Palazzo del Te but who bad lost his official position as sea te a rchi teet duri ng the ru rbu 1en t French occupation eminence. LA\lj\. _ W. It was accessible through Giulio's house as well as by the rear loggia./stitUI('5 in Florenz. a second reason was rhat it could be made to lead "to the middle of the rear loggia. II. <1lffer~\)t hacchings used in his place. ." mcnrcd nrricle "The along with the Jetter but now lost..q~illg of the [ac d .rtud of tbc Socielj' ol. r-.. Despite his former Pozzc was now forced.D'Arco) which contains t:he neatly drawn plan in he failed prepared for clear for the engnwcr. Ilg. to Mambrini's ROMANL LT "!]h. Fonda ." '. he "sa ve all the symmetries and decoraPozzos it was lazzo del 'I(' zu Mantua. The fact that the rear Loggia was symand metrically designed 'to accord with boch the Casa the structure to its right means that it work. house which were destroyed ill 1 oc.roo.\~GHITET. The scope oi Poz.IJ-: u From D'Arco. destroyed its fireplace. 37. AZOIS MDCCC. Over from Giulio's 2. X I.<a PiPJli.

s= therefore monument. as recorded ening.47 Pozzrr's stands \'('ORK ON THE FACADE. Second 1S the heigh!' at" the flattened arch.8 renewed scholars was so subtle and thorough since. the Pozzo portal reproduced has nOI itself was built by Paolo original gree to which feature. ibid. ever of the house behind the first bay wa not endos<.40 The present heighr and Ieneseracion of the stairwell seem to ha ve resulted from yet more recent changes. states that when Pozzo began his work tempo even those who had known the delle arcate apri Giulio alla ports :1. and vau lts. IT. \\. where the author states: "Am bcsren hat mir darin d.~. its nincteent h-cenrury dtaracrcr has hCCl1 noted by E.D.lanO was ehc destruction cognition as a true invention of Ciulio of qualifications for the greater \X't! sugIppoliti of the The deof more spacious.Eugelhan's Reisen in l tnlien. their vaulted replacemenrwi-j.. dencc of the plan he drew and the dnClllllCnts he published in order to insist that origil1ally the CalC) Pippi had consisted of only five bays. beyond the limits of the filled In conclusion) * we should perhaps remind ourselves that Giulio occupied of the nearly Jive hundred his house for only a few years a building has been is a g. pre- has been walled passage and a new one open- ed ill t be chird bay The old entry but led directly to the srairs. PErina. B~twc~n these and the present ()1'~1l windows ncar the roof 10 deserve to be recognized teenth-century work. that Pozzo of the orig- openings to the west which iudicatc the rear popion of the present as nine- dow designs. Tbe ea rliest mention ot the . dl~regal"dilld [be evj.. l\:ianrua.no w awkwardly problem strained separated. Again he to destroy ones.ioll>ll subterranean strengthr or which in fact two (01Un1l15 were installed the cellar stairs. von ohcn erleuchrcte Treppcnhaus und del S. 27). 74: IS/Mia. Only calion betray indistinguish- and minor deviations in the grooves of rhe rustisubtle difference the place of the former third bay. ][. D'Arco. t the cenn'r hat before roz~w's new one meant Pozzo built a new one being occupied by the doot. Cam Pippi.d until aft. s. .-I8 But Susani had featu- res Were . j 9) The remains of several sets of windows may be found iu the stair well.Ulj. bad but we also know by 1800 was working for a patron aspects who did not in the deft: and concise compositions want just a restored residence. could have pertained to either the Ippoliti or Giulio's houses..). First is the width of the door.Wtlp of walled-up h:1VC O!lCC aperto which goes slightly lures which also seem the stair we 11. L. must ha ve had to strip off the inronaco inal facade and to .. in our ·estimation. n. arti.)[ {ell) zweitcn Stookwerk gcfall~I1. hO\'iever.ghtest bulge in the wall portal of wall surface in the fabric and decoration able.. is posas in the uniform. but others. the l110dellhlg of che two added above 47 masks is not precisely but the frieze later Despite be largely the work of Giulio. over for exaO. is perhaps 10) most remarkable today about the facade are virtually as it ~6 See :) photograph of the stairs considered in Hai-rr." (p.1:~irwctl we have been able to End corucs from J. All of these features of Pozzo.". been established.1110 dallc ingiurie del [a rnassirna parte logorati. which not only necessitated greater width several awkward transitional steps to the ceiling of the enrr yway.R. sible to see that [CSt. none of which .214. Berlin. 50011 (1fter 4~ i. for instance. Portal after Pozzc's restoration The local guidebook tradition suffered claims that his work that and renogreatly ally large number and shape of the small voussoirs. 1961. well-lir modern staircase directly from the new corridor. (: lJtll~ .. I S. Maran. under sance in the D'Arco plan.1. Nuouo prospetto.. precisely distinguish seem to us to be modifications solution lacking which They make for a portal all of Giulios rusticated was scrupulously Giu lin's house that Pozzo vated ponal faithful. To solve this corridor been correct in 18 I g when he STated Pozzo there were only six bays. 1n our estimation only with the strictest rh is feature deserves reROI1. . window lip the fifth. :. Se eral but a stately door and win- restorations. Archaeologjca for a previously ssut portal old bouse were left in doubt about its original Opel] ccllar under 11][. 2'14. E. This interpretation ed by Marani & Perina. Pozzo this work Renais<1 much atrention and nororierj. as to certain details . lIZ repeal- <\~ch above it. the entrance course-pediment (fi g. of rhe same quality seems entirely it is clear It.1.' . thus destroying the tectonic clari ty we think Giulio mcanr his facade to exhibit. 11. .SOo. tia lly enlarge rear accessible gested above that the design of the original house was responsible present entrance Ciulio's entrance width was able to subsran- (be stairs by extending them into the of the former euu·y passage."s~a sovraposta 1:1nicchia the facade decorations "er. In doing this he nor only replicated Pozzo's decorative features for his new bays. What (fig.l.ltrcnantc forma finestrc.a door ju the third bay and the open i11 g of one in 1evid ence con I:i rms rh is move.. 48 D'Areo. & ell. but with the door's appears to have called for the unusu- "' I n cinquv 50 SUS.10 has rehouse as the stringto die connew more old walls and to raise new Pozzc's how carefully single portion ceived >15 PozZQ replicated of rhe facade.rc-srucco the entire surface of the enlarged house. bay and we have shown how the Pozzo. Accompanying of the narrow. Jllmllml.+S8.49 Difficult questions through he middle of the house. that these connecting tWO form.er . and only an extremely in surface texture new window separates some of the old and frames in the piano nobile. fi'. Gaetano Susani. At the level of the piano nobile are l \VO barred Although Har tt the stairwell q.1$ come to mind. 10 is rhar old and new section (he Ii.1pk walls required addit. functioned 'VR~ iight must have completely achievement that it has coofused its transformation. Le arti.

Hisroirc ct. 546 put the Casa Pippi as an example econom ical <'HId 10an d the decor." a lease of life for . das Heinrich ner Thronbesreigung gin von Valentino» durdi gemaG seiner Philibert dem Rang Austattung. zu Sir Anthony Blunts Delorme- II * und del" Strahlkraft herausragenden zosischen sende Darsrellung der vonrefflichen sels ' konnte heute Baul>llllSt seines ]lonschcIl Leben> z. iohaunes Langner bcigetragcn. Vo lk er Hof fm ann Philibert Delorme und das SchloB Anet* Das Schlof Aner.whether designed by Ciulio RQmano or not . . Ausgabc Paris Paris j du dd. das idl im Okrobcr )969 an der Bib] iorhcca Herrziana ZUI Diskussion gestcllt habe. Pozzc's au d on the Student's ncrisr archi..1JJd Ciulio's the rourist's r -bearns. z Anthony bliographie. nach sei- delt werden. LOI)do~ Blunt. seinen die gleicherrnafien Philibert den SchloGbau Delorme. Dichte seiner Arehitekreu. neue. gehort der Pracht Ikonologic franerbauen Archirektur.u!5_rundc.i lion gave the hou and .' all the symmetries ~ C For the very same of' the present" building . portion sa VI.\ vor itin.Zur Klaruug "iniger FraDieser gen haben vor allem Professor Dr. dcr Herzode Poi tiers). bctrefi en: Raudbemerkungen Monographie-.u den der k lassiscben Eine Studie liegt cin Expose 7. u mfasROllS- des Schlosses auf der Gruodlage Monographic Pierre Desire als wiinschenswert erscheinen - Dr..standing ! 011 the site.1 on of Mailman in effect. IIIa ny more to come. Pier~e D<lsire Roussel. Don auch eine Delorrne-Bi- luer indes sollen nur ein paar Einzelfragcn 130 behan- 13I . . t.nsfmm. de lOrrne. As we wrire this sev"esrherically COl1- which are by the famous architect. of the Ip. (. ilool'ing. description rcau d'Anct. property Giu lie's tramformation was eminently amplification. Anti. Gesemtansicht «us der X aoaliersperspektlve. (genan11t Delorme seiner der n.may be legally altered without the permission of the provincial super inreudenr of histone buildings. bald Diane lie~.1956 87 j. But the work death checklist syllabus in J done between monuments of Manno reasons cealed poliri tal "to 5 38 . Erich Hubaln und Sehopfungen uberhaupr.1nothcr current OUe century possibly various hal f. Its renovation regard cannot residence.1tiom mento of Giulio's with but needs co be carried eral rooms appropriate" ill the house <Ire receiying parquet over new but during almost five hundred years of unmtcrrupled lise and. Philibert 1963).eCtllre. we hope. while trvil'\" . Zcichntmg Ducercea« (British M u$eum). wre seiner F'. for the be a rijJristina_ rra.

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