MULTIVARSABLE CONTROL OF WEB PROCESSES
A thesis submitted in conformity with the requirements for the degree of Master of Applied Science Graàuate Department of Electrical and Cornputer Engineering University of Toronto
@ Copyright by Gaby Saad 2000
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In loMng memory of my father, George Saad
Multivariable Control of W e b Processes Gaby Saad
Master of Applied Science
Graduate Department of Electrical and Cornputer Engineering University of Toronto 2000
Web-handling machinery abound in industries that process long, thin material such as nIm,paper, textiles and even thin metals. Ail the processing is done as the materid is rewound into a roU.
Closed Ioop control i required to regdate the line (web) speed, and the tension of the web in the s various processing stations. These s p d', ions are met using actuators that essentiaiiy 'pullnon the web to create the desired tension. UntiI recently, industry has relied exciusively on the classicd PID controller that is tuned online by aa operator.
This thesis takes a novel approach-it studies the appticability of recent advances in optimal frequency domain control techniques, namely H control, to web processing. Vanous models of the ,
winding process are developed and used to design N controllers. These are experimentdy verified , on an industriai machine at the University of Toronto.
1would Lüre to thank m y supervisor Bruce Rancis for all the academic, financial and moral support
he provided as a mentor.
It goes without saying thst 1am indebted to the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council
of Canada for aU their hanual support for the past two years, and VRP Web Technologies for providing me with an interesting experimentai testbed for my education in the area of controi engineering.
Iyvespent sorne great times here in Tomnto with the wonderhl group of people that make up the
Systems Control Group. 1 am especially grateful to Shahriar Mirabbasi for making m y transition
to SCG as smooth as possible.
This past year has been especiaily tough-1 wodd never have survived it without the constant support of Ken Pu, Weixuaa Liu, Karak Shaw and Walid Cheaib.
Most importantiy however, 1 thank my parents and family f r being the wind beneath my wings. o
1.1 The VRP/Rotoflex web machine 1.2
............................. Rom r d web dynamics to the scope of this thesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.1 Orgaaization of this thesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
....................................... Mathematical tools to mode1 the web . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Teasion variation i the contact region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . n Modeiing tension variation in a fiee span . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2 Modeling and Current Control Technology of W e b Procesees
2.1 W e b dynamics 2.11 2.1.2 2.1.3
biler dynamics 2.2.1
Umoundroilers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Interaction between the web and the roiIers
Overall mode1 for N-span web systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 2.3.1 Reduced order mode1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.4 Control of web processes: Industrial practice
...................... Centrahed contml . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3 Modern ïikequency Domain Multivariable Design
3.1 Notation and mathematical prelirninaries
and system n o m
Some usefulmatrix identifies
. . . .3
... . . . .. . . ... . .2. .. .. ..... . . . .
3. . ... . . . . . . . . . . ... .. . . .. ... .3
.. . .. . Deeigningthecontroiier . . 51 T The effect of radius change . ... . .. . . . . .. .
A Guide to control design with matlab
. .. .. . ... ..... .... . .. . ... . ... . . ... . . .... . . . . . . . . .2 Future directions in web research
. . . . . .
4. . . .2.. . .. . . .. .. . . . .
4 Control of W e b Processes
4. . .. . . . .. . . . .
Lineas matrix inequalities and semidehite programming
.... .. .. . . ...1. . . .. .. .. . .. . ...1 Reduced order web mode1
4. . .. ... . .. . .. . .. 42
Gain-scheduied control .2 F'ullorderwebmodel . . . . . . . .. . .3.. .. ..stability . . . .. . . . . . .
3.2... Extensions of the basic theory . ..2...2
413 .. . . . .
. . .1. .. .. . .. . . .. .. . .... . ... .. . . .. . . . . . . .. .. . . . . .. . . . . .
4.... . ... ..... . . ... ... .. . 48
.. . . . ..3.1
Nominal performance of the L I system .2
. . . .. . . . .. The bounded real lemma . . . . . The Linear Matrix Inequaiitiea Way . . .. . ... . . . ... . . . . .. . . ..1 3.. . ... ... . . . . . . . .. ..... ... . . ... . ... .. . .. . . .. . . . . .. ....1
a. . .
How good is the modei?
4. .. . ...2 9&. . . .2. . . . 73 .. . . . .
.. .. . . . . . .. .. . .4
4. . . .. .. . . .. .. . . .... .2
3. .. ... ...... . 60
Single shaft control: a modular methodology
Nominal controk design
. . . . .. . . .
5.. . .. . .. 72
4.. . . .. . . . . ..... ..3.. .. . . . .. .. .1 Defining the plant
A.. . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. .. .. . .
3. .3 Design for the NI-order mode1
. . 75
5 1 How do our controllers fme-advantages and disadvantages of 'Hm control .1.
Summary of Notation and Terms
A rouer that accumulates material A r o k that gives out materid A r o k that simply supports a web span Two transport rollers pressed against each other to ansure no-slip contact A r o k that is actuated using a motor A rouer that is not driven The portion of web between two rollers Also caiied the Belt Equation-it is an inequaiity that reIates the tension drop across a roller A swiveiing platfonn that corrects the lateral sway of the web Direction paralle1 to web's Iongitudinal direction A device that measures web tension A rouer that cm be displaceci to change span length and hence control tension Sideways motion of web dong the length of the roller Transverse vibration of the web
Driuen Roller Passive Rol ter
R t e Span
h a d Cell Dancer Roller
Web Weuve Web Flutter
If unspecified. p=2 The p n o m of signa3 x. If unspecified. If unspecïfied p = oc Singular values of system G
Maximum aingulat value
Radius of roller without web (for transport roiiers r = ro) Radius of mUer (with or without web on) Inertia of bare roller Inertia of roller with web on External torque appiied to rouer Total kictiond torque on rouer Static fkiction torque Damping coeûicient Anguiar position of roiier Peripheral speed of rouer Web's density Web's linear density (dong machine direction) Web's modulus of elasticity Web's cross sectional area Web's width (lateral direction) Web's thickness Tension in web Span length Stress in web Strain i web n
Signals and Systems
Signah or Systems (depending on context) Linearized signais Laplace transf'orm of signal y Trader matrut of system G The pnorm of vector x. p=2 The p n o m of a system G.
The web ia pulied fiom the unwinder to the rewinder via its tende force (this i an interna1 force that is generated while the s machine is operating).
A schematic diagram of the VRP/Rotoflex machine is shown in Fig. film and textiles. 1.Chapter 1
The term web is nsed to describe any long. each of which both requires a certain tension level in the material and also affects the tension
in the web. printing pressas and so forth.
A simple example of a web process i a magnetic tape reader: The web in this case i the tape itself. thin. Other examples of web handling machinery include textile manufacturing processes. Moreover. These changes in industry have placed a high demand on more accurate
control of the web's motion and tension. In a rnanufacturing industry.1. A magnetic head s reads the information on the tape as it is conveyed from one end to the other. s s
which i transported fkom one mUer (the unwinder) to another (the rewinder).
. continuous and flexible materid such as paper. W b procedng rnachinery is used extensively in industry because it is a cost e effective method of material h d l i n g and processing. manufacturers are running web processing machines at ever increasing speeds. the web typicdy undergoes various processing stages. to increase throughput.
The web tension is measuseci using a strain-gauge based load ceil. The radii of the winders are measured via ultrasonic sensors. Each of the three active roilem is equipped with a shaft encoder to measure its angular speed.1.ii
passive and help support the moving web. These are separateci fiom the respective winder by a passive rouer to make sure that the angle of wrap (subtended by the
material on the traasducer) remaias constant throughout the winding process. Ll). yet more cost-dectively) the tension. the web machine at the University of Toronto consists of
three driven rollers the two winders and the S-wrapped nip section. On some industrial machines.
The VRP/Rotoflex web machine
In reference to the achematic (Fig. There are two of these tension tramducers. ie
The steeruig guide is uaed to correct the lateral sway of the web during machine operation.1: Schemstic of the machine at the University of Toronto
11 . which in hirn rotates the guide and forces t ha web to vaer t o m & the proper lateral position (much lk a steering wheel tunu. brakes and clutches are used to control (more poorly. The remaining rollers are a. A light sensor is used to deteet the edge of the material. a car left or right).Section 1. one in the rewind zone and the other in the unwind zone. The VRP/Rotoflex web m&e
while web flutter i its transverse vibration.Sëction 1.37. Figure 1.
AU processing i done via a digital signai procesaing board. weave is generated when a roll i initidly poorly wrapped or when s
. The MTSC &O implernents a Syatem State Controlln. both open and closeci loop. The MTSC gives the user the c a p e to impiement various control schemes.2. weii modeled. Ekom red web dynamics to the scope of t b the&
Contrer of the machine ie implemented via VRP's Multiple Tension Speed ControlIer(MTSC).The MTSC consists of four shaft control modules ptoviding torque commands to the motor drives. three tension control modules. For instance. because they are numerous and complicated. 351 for a broad discussion on all aspects of web processing). These s &ts are undesirable becaiise they Iead to a poorly wrapped end product.2 depicts two of
the typicd anomalies of web motion. two diameter modules and a reference speed module. The interaction between the roiier and the web further complicates the modehg because the physics of the contact region is neither hilly understood nor weii modeled.
Figure 1. and caanot be. The dynamics of the web are described by a set of highly nonlinear partial differentiai equations that govem the motion of aU elastic bodies. s
1 2 Ekom real web dynamics t o the scope of this thesis . which govarns the overall operation of the m c i e for ahn. The mechanismg that lead to weave and flutter are not. That being said.
The web is an example of a continuum and this makes it dinicult to obtain a good and simple mathematical model for the system.
The behaviour of the web during the winding process i complex (the interested reader i referred s s to [36.2: Flutter and Weam during machine operation
Web weave is the sideways motion of the span. it is important to derive a simple model that at least approximates the behaviour of the system. example the startup and shutdown procedures.
ample litereture that
deah with weave [45. The sensitivity function S = (1.
This thesis studies the application of 3. e = Sr. Whst is H 1 '.24].39] and fuzzy control
Figure 1. Web Butter i analogous to the vibrating string problem. with a nominal tension. the control objective is to
.2. we shodd try and make S as mail as possible. giVM a portion of web between two rollers (a fke span). A novel l
attempt at LQG control wae mada in [7. Some attempts have been made in more formal decentralized control techniques [56. Most methods
s ologies however are based on a moddar control design process. however. The e f k t
of a disturbance d on the output y i aLso given by S. the controi problem of the
multivariable plant is reduced to a number of SIS0 control problem. m g i n g f h m the mundane
to state of the art (an excellent overview of web tension control i given in ). and i amenable to dassical vibration analysis. by feedfomrd control otherwise it is simply ignored. It i clear then that for good tracking and s s disturbance rejection.3 shows the typical one degree-of-keedom control syatem. when possible.38.Section 1.471 and web flutter contrd [29. We wül focw on longitudinal (i. that is.30] whereby the mode1 was obtained by recent techniques
in subspace identification. s
This thesis will not adcimas the aforementioned problems. then it
behaves iike a taut string.
There is a wedth of literatnre o n the control of longitudinal tension.. optimisation to web control.
machine àirection) tension dynamics. and a controller K in the standard codguration. consisting of the fsmily of
+ A. These design tediniques are d bmed on mode18 derived h m physicd principles. 10.e. that i. h m d web dpamics to the scope of thLs thesis
rollers are not mounted perfectly p d e l . There is.3: One degree of freedorn controller
Figure 1. The coupling between the subsystems is reduced. s that is.(P+ A)K)-L maps the reference signai r to the error signal e.
. This technique is called open loop shaping. Clearly. &om real web dpamics to the scope of this thesis
choose K so that S has a desireci shape.Section 1.
s The goal of t h thesis i to show how the ideas of optimal frequency domain control techniques can be be applied to solve an industrial control problem. The R
over aii frrguencies. and i denoted by s
n o m i the maximum value. without resorting to shaping PK?
2. if we wish to shape S to be bounded 5
nom above by M. And that.2. is what Tloo optimisation ig all about. Robustness s i incorporated into the design by pre-specifying quantities such as gain rnwgin and phase margin. for al1 Çequencies w .
Consider the constraint shown in Figure 1. That is. n o m of the transfer function WS. Can we attach an optimality criterion to the control design process?
. instead of deaihg with the dosed loop tramfer function. How can these ideas be extended to znuitivariable systems?
It is not dear how a given choiœ of K &ects the shape of S since the sensitivity function is a nonünear function of the controuer. s
T i begs the following questions: hs
1.4 illustrates the bode plot of a SISO system G(s).1) that 11WSlloD 1. we want
which is the same as requiring that
Setting W :=
h.5 where the transfer function forrns an upper bound for
the set of acceptable sensitivity functioas SCjw). b it possible to shape the closeci loop traflsfer fwiction immediately. in a nutsheil. One way to deal with the problem is to design based on the open loop system. open loop shaping i typicdy done using lead lag compensation. Figure 1. attained by the bode plot. we shape the quantity PK. then we have to study the 3L. a c o n t r o k K can be design& so that the s s product PK has a desirable shape-one that would ensure that S i small. s
IIClloo. Since the mode1 P i typically available. That is.we see fiom (1.
For SISO systams.
Figure 1. Rom real m b dyntllpl*cs to the scope of t6is thesis
.2.5: The ')loo n o m of a transfer function
n o m of a transfer function
Figure 1.4: The N .
and can be extendeci quite naturdy to deal with gainscheduiingypartial pole placement. Rom real web dp-CS
to the scope of this thesis
121 . The designs are based on both the reduced and f i l order models. The models that are
derived assume that there i no s& s i in the web. T i technique proves to be Iess restrictive on the system's structure than the classical hs solution obtained in the late eighties. I Chapter 3 we review the fairly recent formulation of H control in the context of linear matrix n '. It i therefore necessaty to impose a logic based controlîer that determines when s the web i slack. inequalities. s both a IheaOaed model and a reduced order model (for stiff web) will be derived..Section 1.
Organhation of this thesis
We discuas at length the procedure that i used to obtain a mode1 of a web machine in Chapter 2. and mixeci-objective controller synthesis. and if this condition is not met the controiier is no longer valid. and command the motors in a different fashion when that happens. The results il
WU then be compareci to the existing controller.2.
This thesis is an appiication of recent advances in process control techniques. and we end the chapter with a g e n d discuagion on curent control technology such as the one used in the MTSC. s
Chapter 4 delves into controller design and implementation on the research machine at the University of Toronto.
coasisfs of six independent quaritities. this is not practical. which are then reduced using simplifying assumptions. The equations we derive are combined
to form a model for the o v d system. We
end this chapter with a discussion on current control philosophy. We first study one
dimensional tension dynamics of web.
2 1 Web dynamics . One may
proceed to express the constitutive relationships for the elastic body and impose the continuity and
compatibility constraints to obtain a set of highly noaiinear partial dinerential equations . namely thtee normal stresses and three shear stresses.Chapter 2
Modeling and Current Control
Technology of Web Processes
This chaptec outlines the physicai principles used to model web processes. For the purpose of analyais and control design.
Every eiastic body abject to external forces has a 3x3 stress tensor associated with it.
. then rouer dynamics. W e therefore mort to simpiifjhg assumptions that wiU Iead to a more tractable formulation of the plant model. The
tensor associateci with the web in a fkee span is a function of both position and t h e .
if experiences a contact force s
from each of the rollers it embraces. where rns is the total m s of & as S. however it is p r a e t i d to assume. These are used extensiveiy to understand the physics of web motion. the net outflow o momentum jbrn the CV. A system S of particles subject to a net by
extemal force FM behaves according to the relation F = mscrs.Section 2. Newton's laws may be rewritten to describe the dynamics of a region of space.
Conservation of Momentum: The net edernal impube applied to a contml uolume. we are concemed with the dynamic properties in dinerent regions o space (the variou frae spans) and not the t h e ewlution of the properties of soma portion of f
Conservation of Mass:
The mte of
accumulation in a control uolume (CV). anù as i the acceleration of the centre of m s .i no relative motion between thern) and regions where slip s occurs. kt egual to the sum of the net rate
mass inflow into the CV and the nate of mass genemtion uithin the CV. s ein (characterized by rolling contact between the web and rouer).
. in the case of web handüng machinery. T i form of Newton's laws i convenient to s a s hs s anaiyae systems whose kinematic and dynamic properties we are interested in. foiiowed by an exit region of slip. IIouever. th. There need wt be a d a t i v e ordering of t h e stick-slip regions.
Mathematical tools to mode1 the web
Web dynamics are g o ~ e ~ n e d Newton's laws of motion. The dynamics of the contact region is compIex.
The fundamental principles of Control Volume Anaiysis are the Iaws of conservation of mass and
momentum. and modem day theories in tribology and contact mechanics suggest that there exist microscopie regions in which the web usticks" to the ro11er (i.. and the momentum genemted f
wàthin the CK
212 . that the contact zone may be q ü t into three distinct regions as seen in Figure 21 There i an entry r g o of relative slip.
Tension variation in the contact region
As the web i transported h m the unwind roll to the rewind roll. as Brandenburg  postulates. foliowed by a stick zone .e.. This procedure is known as Control Volume Analysis and is described in ali textbooks on mechanics of continua..1. is equal to the m m o the net change in f momentum in the CV. Web dynm*c9
How then can someone determine whether slip or stick-slip contact will prevail? This is done via a
simple model of kiction. the fictional force is then taken as a constant. argues that if tension varies at a sutnciently slow rate.
It may also be possible that the stick zone completely vanishes. The greatest possible tension &op aaoss the rouer occurs when the entire wrap angle i chazacterized by a condition of slip-it signals the point when control over the s s state of the system i lost. the existence of either a stick-slip or a pure slip zone is a function of the normal force. Exit * Exit srip
Figure 2. If one uses Coulomb's simple friction model. (where /3 i the wrap angle. .Section 2. the weli-known belt
~. upstream of roiier n). C u o b s model of friction assumes that static friction exists in a system olm'
if the applied force (torque) is las than some saturation value. Indeed. N. then the entry region of slip vanishes. and T the tension in the web s s . Web dmcs
s . If this limit i surpassed.e*@r (Capstan's formula).
and the appiieà torque.
. This assumption is welI founded if the web's high frequency dynamics are ignorecl. The friction is then identical to the applied
force (torque). p i the coefkient of kinetic fkiction. is applicable and its derivation can be found in ail standard texts on the mechanics of materials .1: The Contact Region
Brandenburg furthe. s Practically speaking? it is imperative that the no-siip condition prevail so that there i traction between the two surf'es and the tension in the web can be controlled. which is a function of the normal force of contact and the co&cient of static friction. with a s vaiue of pN.
I [ Unstrctched Wcb
Figure 2.. Engineering strain. tension) to the cro8§ionalarea For elastic materials.
analysie i iIluated in Figure 2. The stress. its linear density becornes
.2: The control volume used
It i a k t that there is a direct relationship between the force appüed to an elastic material and s the resuiting amount of stretch. the percentage increase i length). where E is Young's modulus o elasticity. is defîned ap the ratio of material extension to the original length in the material (i. enclhg at the point of contact of the dowmtream roller. as defined i Section 211 The control volume used in the n .Section 2.e.. Web dynamites
213 .. a portion of the web material of mass m and initial length Io.3: Linear demity of the web
* Defining the linear density of the unstretched web as A. o = Ee.3. the tension and the stretch are dizectly proportionai.1.L the n
ratio of internal force in the material (Le. c. f
Consider. Assuming that the web is perfectly elastic. as in Figure 2...2. it indudes the region of embraee of the upstream roiler and the s
hee span. o.
Modehg tension variation in a fhe span
T obtain the Misential equation that describes the variation of tension i open *ans. we make o n use of the hw of conservation of ma=.
Figure 2. = so' we see that once it is stretched to a length of 1 = lo + At.
The web enters the frea span with a linear velocity of wn-i m/s and exits at wn m/s.2)
i rather unidormative. It cm. Note that in Figure 2.
We begin by noting that.2 is the most g e n d expression of one dimensional mas continuity in a free span.4. the location x dong a span starts just beyond the slip zone of the upetream r o h . the continuity equation i simply given by s
Equation 2.1' then represents the preceding i ' span).4: Magnifiecl view of the control volume
We see in Figure 2. be massaged to a useful form upon introducing hirther s
simplifying assumptiona. and thus (2. the m s of the web in a span i negligible (compared to the as s uUernal stress in the material).
The distribution of linear density dong the Iength of the span is generally cornplex. The net mass infiow is simply
The rate of mass change i the control volume i given by n s
whae we have ignored the slip zone since its length i negligible compared to the span Iength. We shall also place the superscripts + and . howavar. Web dyn-CS
Figure 2.. The subscript n wiii be attached to d properties of the nt&span ( n .
We c m now apply the law of conservation of mass (continuity equation).5 and note that it n
. Consider the control volume shown i Figure 2.Section 2.4 a rnagnified view of the control volume taken around span n of an N span system.1. s Since no material was magicaily iqjected into the span (hence rate of mass generation is O).respectively. in general.to denote properties at x = O carid
x = I.
where A is the material's cross sectional area).JA = EÉ.Section 2. There is a skin hictional force. Web Motion
Skiu Friction with air
Figure 2. W further assume that the material i e s
fairly stifï. which we wiil asaume to be distributed unifonaly across the face.5)-(2. f.2).
which implies that
Although the behaviour of different webs under load varies &om material to material. we h d that
G n fn -= ..acting
on the face of the web as it moves across the air. and after some aigebraic manipulation. we begin by making the standard assumption that the elastic deformation is Hookeian (Le.1. we get
. Under those assumptions.
applies. if we consider a dinerential contml volume.= constant. then under the msumption that the fiction i s
d o r m l y distributed.
r.1) leads to
Combining (2. on = T.5: Force d y s i s on a the control volume
A straightforward momentum balance in the control volume gives
Indeed. (2.. Web dmcs
starts just beyond the slip zone of the upstream rouer.
we direct the interested reader to [46. 46. Web dyn-CS
where T:v represents the awage span tension (i.6 shows the kas span between an unwinder. and a transport rouer.6) usually appeam when a web machine incorporates a dancer roil for tension regdation. and we cm drop
the superscript. The Iength of a span connecting a winder with a transport rouer i a huietion of the winder's radius. Moreover. the tension at midspan). Appendix C.
Figure 2. The web must be tangent to both these rollers. This in turn means that the tension is the same throughout the span. s The foilowing i a derivation of the length of the fixe span between a winder and a transport rolier. and shall be omitted. then (2.e. It is l important to note that this neglected term aLso accounts for tension generation when one presses against the web as it is moving. and as such enters the equation as a disturbance. T i exercise i not relevant hs s to this thesis.
Fùrthemore. if we neglect the 65ctionai force (i. we recover the
continuity equation as it appears in the Litaratuce [52. s Figure 2. a routine application of Newton's laws would give an exact expression of how the span length changes in the presence of a dancer.Section 2.
TT.6: Length of free span between roiler and unwinder
.3) simpünes to TL = . In this case. 541:
The term imrolving &ln in (2. 44..e set f = O).1. if we assume that the span length remainri constant.
Rearranging (2. We shall denote the downstream and upstream tensions by Tnci and T respectively If a rollet i dnven. but hs although it may be cornplex to calculate the stress profile in the contact ama. . whose inertia i constant. T i h hard to compute as we desaibed earlier..
. is also the moment that is appiied by the web on the roUer. W can take this one step further by assiiming that the e materiai is pdectly rigid under tension. and applyhg the law of hs conservation of momentum. Otherwise it i passive . the totd fiction force can be easily determind as the difference in the tensions of the web upstream and downstream of the roller.. There and . we see that the net force on a CV containhg the contact region must
be zero.5). with radius r. which of course is a direct consequence of the contact forces behreen the two d i s c e s . and since V = $în.6) to
and assuming E = oo Unplies that wn-1 = wn
Figura 2.The idnite stiffness assumption
W e b processing machines typically handle materials that are very stifF. it is r e f d to as an active roller. The externiil forces
that act on the roiler are the applied torque Un. this justifies the use of the small strain mode1 (2.
Thus for transport roller n. auch as paper. Of course.. the net force on such a CV is the difference of the outgoing and incoming
tension and the net contact force. the equation of motion is &en by Newton's s
Since we are more interested in the iinear (tangentid) speed Vn of the rouer. s s
and is calied an idler. and inertia J.. any Wctional torque F it experiences. T i result holds tnie since the web is assumeci masaieas.7 depicts the forces acting on roller n.
direction of motion
Figure 2 1 Forces acting on roller n .10)
for a rewinder and an unwinder. on the othet hand whea we deai with the unwind zone. (or is Iost) and this point chimges with tirne. one m u t be csrrhtl when applying the law of conservation of momentiiill that the Ioss of inertia of the system is due to the web being removed h m the winder. its radius changes. T i hs
change can be appraximated by a linear funetion. respectivelyt. For Jn. that is.
.9) may be re-expressed as
where Vn is taken to be the linear speed of the roller at the point of contact with the web.:
(2. n the radius demases (inmeases) by the thidmess of the web &er one revolution of the roiIer. the upstream tension i the wrap tension which is trarisfered through the zone.2. Thus (2. Arbitrarily selecting the initiai angular position 'The unwinder feels no ttpstmam tension applying a retarcüng turque. V repments the point on the winder where the web enters .. s 'It may seem rather peeiil*r that the tpm "1.
A rewinder has no doWflStTeam tension. h a not been diffkrentiated.
As a winder loses (or takes in) material.Section 2. while an unwinder has no upstream tension*. and hence inesth is not 'lest'. Also. This happeas i a step fashion.
It i wry l M y that the maas center i now offset h m the axis of rotation. it i possible (frequent if tension control i poor) that s s the end roll is not perfectly round.2. is the bare shaft radius. The expression for the winder's moment of inertia i not exact since the roll no longer takes s the shape of a hoilow cylinder. when diffkrentiated. and a i s
. or the s formation of air pockets between the dXerent layers of web.
where W i the widt h of the web. and the moment of inertia of the actual web that is wrapped n. s s
As the materid is wound into the rewinder.
Ti phenomenon has the foilowing repercussions (some of which are lesa detrimental) on the rouer hs
mode1 presented in (2. and defining rno to be the initial radius of the roi@ and e the web's thidmess.
we have.9): 1.
which. J. This i due to many factors such as materid creasing. gives
The moment of inertia. Rouer dyriamics
of 8 roller n to zero. The result is a winder which is more
eiliptic than cirdar.Section 2. Suppose Mg represents the weight of the roll. Thus. thus adding an s s additional torque to the force balance..
3. the measumnents no longer give an accurate value for the torque applied by the web on the rolk. for a winder i comprised of two components: the moment of inertia of s the shaft on which the roll rests. 2. p i its derisity. and rn. J . If the radius sansors are used in the controiler.
Having established that the slip zone occurs as the web leaves the r o k (and not upon entry. These "disturbances"are not completely independent of the state of the system. . W n g our attention back to the term
h in (2.01 m/s. as the spool radius increases. recall that i enters the tension equation (2. w.
4. . R o k dynamks
the distance between the mass centre and the centre of rotation. at euery instant.2. a simple caldation then shows that +w would be in
the order of 0.. we may write.
hence the disturbance frequency is smaller. The no-slip condition fiirther guarantees that the iinear olr acceleration of the web matches the tangential acceleration of the roiler (at the point of contact). the eccentricity of a poorly wrapped roll wiIl increase as the radius inmeases.8).10). thm i = .15(1+ 0 0 sin 8). or that would violate traction). For instance. we note that its variation during the winding
process has both a slow trend (conespondhgto the slow change in overall radius and inertia) and
a f a t more destructive trend (correspondhg to the fast change in the roll profile).Section 2. R e f d g t o (2.6) and is
pre-multiplied by the web stif6iess.
Suppose that 1 = 1. That i . leading to a diaturbance that is higher in amplitude. is equal to the . the rate of radius change is slower.r T L T .2. The radius variation results in smaü changes i the span length.(8) = 0. s the velocity of the web as it leaves free span n matches the tangential speed of the downstream r l e (which is given the same subscript). = V. This change is (as are items 2 and 3 listed above) periodic in nature. Also. the size of the radius wiation also hcreases. . rt = 0.1 Asauming that the web moves at lm/s.2
Interaction between the web and the roliers
In view of the analysis in Section 2 1 2 the velocity of the web. and noting that changes in span length and radius are
md. peripheral speed of the roller. since the machine is
typicaIly run at a constant speed.. then this disturbance
i force cm be c a i d t e d v a Mga sin(@).
. letting B = O represent the
angle in which the mass centre is verticdy below the centre of rotation. These changes are also n
periodic in nature. Though smad.04 and r. On the other hand.
. inertia.N starting with the unwinder.
Web properties.(.c starting with the rewinder.. We do this to conform with the convention that i currently used by VRP. . the terms r. The rollers are labelled n = O. s
There is no slip between web and roUers..
The web is very stifF.
There are no laterai stresses developed in the web. such as cross-sectionalare% density and elasticity.
Overall model for N-span web systems
. temain constant throughout the material and for aiI tirne. ... A.N starting with the unwind zone.. 1.) a
Figure 2. O m d modd f8r N-span web systems
23 . and its elastic model i Hookeian. . . and the correspondhg tension wiil be denoted by T (For the actual experimental machine. and fictionai torque of rouer n.Section 23. s
The web thickness i small compared to the shaft radii. F represent the radius. input torque I. that is. and the spans Ta and Tbshail represent the rewind and unwind zone tensions respectively. we shaii Iabel the rollers n = a.8: N-span web systern
The following summarîzes the assumptions made to derive the model:
The web is assumed to be massless. The spans are numbered n = 1.8 illustrates a typical N-span machine. b. . the model is one dimensional. As before.
shall be given lowercaae cbaracters (e.
[Vo . VN T~ . Although a span's length stays roughly constant throughout operation.Section 23 Overd modd for N-span web systems . ..
. During the control design proceus. Al1 setpoint values shall be given
an overbar symbol. its rate of change may be appreciable as we saw eariier.
The afommentioned assumptions lead to the following set of nonlinear Merential equations that describe the dynamics of the web aystem:
The state of the system is taken to be the vector z =
i given by u = s
. except for the traction force with the rolier..g. for instance the reference tension is denoted by T ~Deviations fiom the setpoint .
h input vector e
Li and IN are also
states of the system..
these values are t y p i d y @ed The radii are measured and can therefore be used to adapt the contro11er during machine operation... u~]'. ~
TO. un. Although technidy.
Throughout this thesis. r N ..rN].. The teare regarded as disturbances in the tension equations. T represent speed and tension respectively). we treat them as independent parameten. we shail adopt the folIowing convention.
There ie no Mctional force acting on the web.
13) appears in (2.-i~n-l d e d temion tmwfer in iiterature. we find by adding the equations i (2. is the damping coefficient.T~. ~ dt
Removing al steady state values and recognizing that i linehed tension equation:
<< EA.15) that n
1 + C -(In.Section 23 O ..)(Vn
Vnrn..~ n(Vn vn) = ) dt
+ . the tension dynamics d u c e to Vn-1 = Vn. and assuming thare is no diange in span length. We s h d assume that the
static fnction is compensated for the by the input totque. = % = .=O
d modd for N-span web sysfenu
The fiictional torque Fn i comprised of a static friction component which we denote Fn.= VN = V .
we end up with the foiiowing
v. that i Unreelly means Un+ Fn.
n (EA -T. s
The ody other nonlinearity i (2.+ EA-C..1) + EA-ln dt d un-1) + R . and a s
viscous component equal to
Reduced order mode1
We saw earlier that if we take the limiting case when EA = m.13d) where there are terms involving the product n
of f emion and speedEquation (2.. is
231 .l ~ n .13d) can be reeqressed as d ln-(Tn rn) (EA.
where 4.Rewriting the velocity equations a s
and noting that &.
c represeat the rewinder.13). The differential equations for a two span web system' are given by
' s we wanied earlier. nip and A unwinder roLIers. Control of web processes: ludustrial practice
Equation (2. s
Uaing (2.15). we aiso flnd that the tensions are given by
2. this equation is applicable only if thete i no slack in any of the tension zones.Section 2. b.4
Control of web processes: Industrial practice
We now use Equations (2. Note.16) simply modeis the rigid mode of (2.
It i cielear from the preceding sections that the tension dynamics are a huiction of the difFerence s in peripheral speeds of the upstrearn and downstream apans and the tension tmnsferrd by the incoming web.l i
. and Ta !the rewtnd and anwind zone tensions. that as in the case of the full ordar model. we now adopt the foliowing notation: the subscripts a.13a) to motivate the control design procedure that is used in industry-
These techniques are implemented in the MTSC used in the machine at the University of Toronto. howem.4.
threading all three driven rollers.Control of web p r o ~ e s hdustrid practice :
where Tarepresents the wound on tension.19) we find that
with Da= Jalas2+ J' + bal& + (bava +~ : E A ) T i is the most general expression of how the .19) we set
t ~ h e r e three hear speeds in the given model that are very close to each otber because of the high materiai am stiniress. which in tunr a k t s the tension in the unwind zone. C1e.4. b $
This modal motivates d o u s cmtrd schemes that could be used to regdate the machine speed. the equations that describe the rewind tension are thus given by
Combining (2.. and the two zone tensions. cornecta these three sections. make up the web system.18) and (2. In the Laplace domein. inmeashg Ta ha9 repercuesions on the speed of the nip section.Ta). the nip section and the unwinder together with
zone b. the rewinder togethar with zone a. Vb
Figure 2. and suppose the control law is given by Va = K. .
For example. interconnacted.
.= V.irl~the design is incapable of rejecting the e f k t that either of these two quantities has on the tension. T and the nip speed P . sny torque applied to the nip affects the tension in both the upstream and downstream zones.Section 2. The system has three torqw inputs. Thare ara three dynamic systems that. Notice that the control signal U' is generated by the tension error.h s span tension is reiated tu Ua. Ta. LIi for i = a.
Now suppose in (2. consider the subsection that consists of the rewinder and the rewind zone. and this i what i9 hown as the machine apeed s
.(T. Typicaily a aip is chosea as the rnasttr speed. and T).9 iiiustrates the control structure used in the closed loop Tension/Torque mode of operation. aad thme outputs.c. torque applied to the rewind shaR is not intluenced The
and 6u.6. Indeed. The web.Yb:
by either the nip speed or the unwind tension.. On a similar note.
whose time constant and steady state gain are dependent
on the overall machine speed. a change in the desireci machine speed is less detrimental to the rewind tension performance.4. is not an independent control signal.21) is a f h t order lag element. 6v.). and vb shouid be O. and Kav i the speed s controlk for the rewinder. Ti lesds to the cascade controller structure known as the hs closed loop Tension/Speed mode. s
Zn addition to the aforementioned feedbads solutions. by applying the necesaary
. where Ka is a tension contmller designed b
the control input is iduenced by both the tension reference and the machine speed reference. To remedy the steady state gain variation.V.
d on (2. The o v e r d torque input is then given by Ua= K (K. Since contrary to our assumption. Control of web processes: Iadmtrial practice
Figure 2.Section 2. T i is Uustrated in Figure 2. we must use an additional controller to regulate it. This mode clearlly has an advantage over direct torque control since
.10. as an auxiliary control input. hs
Equation (2. and usa it to design a controiier to regdate the tension. 6va is simply the required ciifference between the rewinder's speed and machine
speed to maintain a setpoint tension. indwtry also implements feedforward control
to achieve perfect control.41).( f a . the PI gains are typically scaied Mth the desireci machine speed. that
i . the idea is to invert the plant. to Tais
We may treat 6v.9: Web tension control in closeci loop Tension/Torque mode
At steady state. The trander function fiom 6v. Simply put.
and set the PID gains for the speed controller so that the desired speed response i achieved.4. It requires considerable experience to do this tuning well. and tune the gains of the tension controiler. and the unwind
controller mirrors that of the rewinder.9 and 2. one proceede as foilows . rethread the roilers with the web. Rom a practical point of view.10: Tension control in ciosed loop Tension/Speed mode
torques to accelerate the miIers. Control of web processes: hdwtrial prectice
Figure 2. This mode i necessary if no feedback is used (that is. To set the controiler gains. open loop control does not provide stable error dynarnics to mode1 uncertainty and disfurbances that affect the tension.1
The nip wlocity is regulated with a PID loop as shown in Figures 2. First remove the web h m the machine. s Next.Section 2. the plant is controlled s in open loop) and is illustrateci in Figure 2 1 .10.
. . provide tension to the system and compensate for friction. and i invariably used in conjunction with a s feedbaek controuer.
Tuning the controUers i a different matter altogether-there is no magicai recipe that indicates how s
. we have only considered the rewind
section and the tension there & & s
the nip speed.
Clearly. the afarementioned control schemes are decentraiized in spirit. This strategy of course overlooks that the disturbance i in fact a function of the state of the system (which makes it a s feedback problem).11: Combining feedforw~sd and feedback control to regulate the span tension
2. Still. it is attractive to use a modular design methodology because this would Iead to a more portable controller.1
In the absence of feedforward (inverse) control.4. as weU as what the appropriate disturbance mode1 candidates would be.9.4.
i & Consider for example the scenario of c
loop Tension/Torque control iUustrated in Figure 2.Section 2. The decentralized control philosophy handlea this problem by simply treating the error in nip speed as a disturbance to the rewind zone tension dymmûcs. Control of web processes: h d u s ~ a l practice
Figure 2. and the interconnections between the subsystema Iead to performance degradation.
Operating the machiDe in Torque/Speed mode gives the designer p a t e r flexibility with regard to
rejecting the disturbance of a change in machine speed. This le& to questiom regardhg the robustness of the controller. any deviation of the nip's peripheral speed would lead to a change in the tension of the
rewind zone. On the other hand.
. ta ensure good performance. one may conduct a SIS0 analysis of the model and design an appropriate controiler.20). and there i no n s teason to assume that a modular control design strategy i good by any standard.4. the gains are chzuiged online until
the system responae i deemed acceptable.Ultimately. s
I d t y . the coupling between the subsystems is poorly rejected. a web machine does have pmnouced coupling asnong its subsystems. Experiments s seem to show th& without a feedfonmudcomponent to the overall control law. Resorting to the model (2.Sectôn 2. ControI of web pro ce me.^: Indwtnal pzactice
the gains should be seiected. To that end. the designer m u t negIect the interactions betneen the sub~stems.
1: The standard representation of control systems
M s contml systems can be represented by the block diagram in Figure 3.Chapter 3
Modern Frequency Domain
Figure 3.a controiler structure K i nxed a priori. a search for the best possible performance would be restricted to the output
. Moreover. The overall system operates in closed loop by feeding back the measured
outputs (y) to the controller. s and is made to work for the partidar application by tuning various gains. i not equipped with a useful measure of performance. That h. reference signais and noise. This procedure. though practicai.1. The plant admits ot
two inputs: the exogenous signai ( w ) that includes disturbance. The fidelity of the controiler ia measured by the output z.
Industrial processes typically use PID controllers. and
controlled inputs (u). since the controlier s structure is fixed.
The pnorm of a (vator) signal z(t). is given by
where Iz(t)1 can be any vector norm. then the corresponding control is said to be optimal. .
Notation and mathematical preliminaries
Signal and system norms
Given an n-diiemional vector x. one must dbthgubh betareen the different responses that b
resuit îrom a set of cadidate contmiIers. The quantity lxlp gives an indication of what the length of the vector i. W saw that the goal of Rm optimisation i to design a e s contmiler so that the frequency response of the ciosed ioop system is bounded above by a funetion that the designer deems acceptable. We shail deal exclusively with hear finite-dimermional systems. The
space of ail measurable signais. Moreover.
A system G maps input vector signals w to output vector signah z. then the objective would be to design K
such that the Sizen of Tm is s m d .Section 3. aad the mapping WU henceforth be rderred to as T . if the size of the mapping i the srnailest over al1 s
permissible disturbances. defined on 1 with a finite pnorm is denoted &(I). a briefovemiew of the reiationship between 31.control and ciassical kequency domain control techniques. in the introduction. In this chapter we describe how such controllers may be designed.
311 .1) maps the exogenous inputs w into outputs z.particular.1. represents the output error and w the plant disturbances. Notation and methematid preliminaries
signals that may be generated by a dcl= of admissible control actions. though we shall restrict ourseIves to the Euclidean nom. defineci on some i n t d 1. A system C with date vector x may be realized by a state-space
. If r . the In Euclidean norm is the case when p = 2. The dosed Ioop plant (depicted in Figure 3.
31 . its pnonn is given by lxlp = Izil~)Lk.
T measure the performance of a system.
II II s h d represent the infinity n o m of the trandier function.
The above systern norms have a remarkable property that may be derived by simple l'ctiond
analytic arguments . Of particular interest are the spaces R3C2 with n o m
and 7Z')loo with n o m
The term & ( j w ) in (3. s
The t r a d e r ma*
+ D. That is to Say that the nom. which war introduced in the context of closed loop shaping.A)-% s )
The set of d rational. the m-nom of the system gives an upper bound on the 2-norm of the output. D). T i viewpoint inls hs
is usefd i developing computational machinary to solve the 'Hm control problem. i simply the square root of the maximum which s eigenvaiue of & ( j w ) ~ ( j u ) . given any C2
signal of unit nom. unle88 otherwb s p d e d . Notation and mathematid p r M i u i e s
description (A. C. rnay aiso be interpreted as the worst possible amplification of an input s g a ' Bnonn. proper and stable tramfer matrices (systems) & ais0 form a Wace. given an impulsive input. It turns out that.The term a [ ~ ( j w ) in ] (3. that i.1. n
For the remahder of this thesis. which we write as
of G i given by ~ ( s = C(sI .
. On a similar note. T i leads i hs to the dennition of the Hardy space RRP as those matrices whose pnorm is finite. the 2-nom of a transfer
m a t h provides an upper bound for the 2-nom of the output.Section 3.B.2) Lo the complex conjugate transpose of dw).3) is the maximum singular value of GW).
One of these methods draw a close connection between 'Hm control and the more traditional LQG control.
Over the past three or so decades. .20]. The Linear Matrix Inequalities Way .
If X is al80 invertible. several solutions have been given to the H '.' B ' > O . hs
w). the condition can be reduced to an equivalent pair of conditions. This i equivaient to the condition that ail eigenvalues of II are positive.
and A .6. square. partitioned matrix H =
[t. For s a partitioned matrix H as above.
321 .2. T i thesis. ... The Linear Matrix laequaiities Way ) .a syatem that is excited by an impulsive disturbance
T i problem can be solved by a simple application of the calculus of variations (an extension hs h s of dinerential caldus to function spaces).Section 3. n
32 . optimisation csn be cast in the same h e m & when used in mnjunction with game theoretic techniques [28.
The derivation of these formdae can be found i .. The problem of W.E]
witb C inverti&.
Some usefid matrix identities
Matrix Inversion Formula
Given a symmetric.B C . d&e X = A l3c-l~~. 312 . The goal of LQG design was to h d a control law u that minimises llzllz for a system with nonaam initial conditions (or equivalently. 251 for the details on this technique.symmetric matn* H i said to be positive d e f i t e (denoted H > O) if X'HX > O for s crll nonzero vectom x.
The bounded real lemma
control problem. then
X Control. T e interesteci reader i referred to excellent texts such as [34. '1 ControI.
The Lia. B. the system G is stable and llTtull < 7 i/ and onfg if 3P > O such that
Before we give the proof of the boundeà real le-.
W e begin by deriving conditions that an LTI system must satisfy so that it is stable and Roo n o m i less than a pre-specified lemi 7.such that IleAtII 5
Thus we have
Rom Schwam's inequaliw we see that
we need the following result.
Lemma 1 Given the state equation x = Az + Bw un'th A stable.
R ControL . input vector w and output z. . assume that x ( 0 ) = O and that 11 Bll = 1. T this end.. D)
Theorem 1 (Bounded Real Lemma) For any 7 > O. with state s o representation (A.Mat& InqualitIles Way .
will adopt the (more recent) appmach of linear mat& inequaiities to solve the 7(.
problem. suppose we are given a system G. if w f L2. T e response x ( t ) h corresponding to some w ( t ) i  s
The stability of the system impliea that there exist positive constants ki and k2. then
Without any loss of genetality. C.Section 32 .
. starting at x(0) = 0.. t
Proof of the bouaded seal lemma:
(e-) Tnequality (3. (3.6) implies system stability from Lyapunov theory and the Schur complement formuia.
One can always select a t h e t 2 such that W > tz the above inequality is bounded by c/2. The Lheat Mah?x InequirIities Way .
Pre. Section 32 ? ControI.6) is quivalent to 7 1 < O and
Multiply the latter by y and set Q := yP to get
Let w E L2be nonzero but arbitrary and let x denote the correspondhg state. we caa always select tz such that [s(t)l < E for t > t*.. s
On a similar note.and post-multiply the above with d w' and d
[ ] E l ' respectively
+ x'Q(Az + Bw) .l) entry in the oRL: i A'P + P A which has to be negative.
Thas given c > O. which completes the proof. Spdcaiiy.
De&Ung V ( x )= dQz.72w'w + t'z < 0.
By the Schur complement argument. the (1. we may rewrite the above equation as
. we can always h d ti such that the above integral i bounded from above by 4 2 . hence the s
s system i stable. for any r > O.
to be positive deflnite for a w. This leads to llzlll
< rllwllz and therefore
llTNill 7 T get a strict inequaIity.6).Section 32 ?&. and t h in turn implies that llTIGv 7.l. Theiefore. The LiBear Matrix inequafities Way . it must not have any zeros on the imaginary &. has no uncontroiiztbleor unobservable modes on the imaginary s
axis. a s standard resdt in network theory [l.ng statespace representation:
@CA[-C'. although (3. x(m) = O (Theors
. It lnl< we IeI foUows that C := 7*l. 11 < (*)
The proof of necasity i rather lengthy so the h e details will be omitted.
The system a. we dehe s
where r > O. however. That i . pages 111-41. It is.. the condition IIT'II < 7 impiies that there exists a positive definite soltition P the Riccati equation
. d S
turn meam that the Hsmiltonian matrix
where R = T21 D'D* has no eigenvalues on the jw-axis [20.
W e begin by augmenthg an additional output to the cloeed loop system. we note that perturbing 7 to 7 .. ControL .6) typically takes on the form of an equation
rather than an inequaiity. Since lTvl 7.
Since A i stable.D D ' '
1T i in hs
For O. the realization of 9. Note that H is simply the state mat* of O. 201. can dways find a sufnciently s m d r such that ITI < 7.
Since A i stable and w E 4. b c > O) preserves inapuality (3.A J ~ C'D
B y21.e (for a sufiiciently s . adrnits the fo110wi.(ju)Te(jw) > O Vu.T.
8) leads nat u r d y to IJT. hs
The system G interacts with its environment through its input and output variables.8). the validity of the converse is not as transparent. II < 7 . [40. 4 1 T i connection will be outiined next. It is an expression of the natusal tendency of a systern to lose energy through ita resistive dements. The proof of necessity was required because although (3.
Turning our attention back to (3. More recently. . ne see that for p = y u f w . Inequality (3.. storuge function. Willems formalized the concept of power and energy. . which together give a me88ure of how much power (anergy supply mte). such that for (il2 timw to. T i is formalized in the foliowing definition.t'z. if the sum of the initiai energy stored in the system and the energy supplied to it over a period of time is larger than the energy stored at the end of that period.
. In the 1970's. In view of Definition 1. Appendix C) Condition (3.Section 32 ?fa .9) impiies l. it is clear that a systern T that satisfies the infinity n o m botmd must ais0 be dissipative with respect to p = q w ' w . T i s hs energy may either be stored or dissipated. w and z.d i .z ( t ) )dt i the amount of energy that is supplied to the system during the s
time interval ( t a . t i ) . The Lhear MatriK h q u a l i t i s Way
(see for example. It may also be expresaed in difhential
iorm as ~ [ x ( t ) ] p(t)
. a comection was drawn between ?Cm
control and Wiems's dissipativity theory [Il. and comsponding states q and xi.P) < 0. hs
Deflnition 1 (Dissipative Systeme) A heur dyamic systern G with supply mte p is said to k dbipative with respect to p if then d t s a podtive definite function V ( s )= ~ P X called the . The quantity p(w (t). i supplied to it.. 1.
Aithough the proof of sufficiency of the botmded real Iemma is straightforward.
. p. then some energy must have been dissipateci. ControI. we recover a dissipation inequality. s and appiied it to control system analysis . and t l . Cledy.
The storage function represents the energy stored in the system (such as kinetic or potential energy). that of necessity
i admittedly not so intuitive.
Simplifying and applying Sehur't3 complement formula then leads to BRL(G.10) is dubbed the dissipation inequaiity.
where g i a wnvex barrie function that i infinite for BU x t hat violate F ( x ) > 0.
Matrk Inequalities Way
32 .Section 32 ?lm Control.
(3.xn are the elements xi&
of a real vector x.
Linear matrk inequalities and semidefinite programming
A Iinear matriz inqudity (LM)i an bequality of the forme F ( x ) 2 O.11).. symmetric matrices Fo.~ V iteratively until xk converges). It ia possible to convert (3.. F ( x ) 20. The set X i convex.2 . whereas 5 is known to lie in a X
because z is linear in the decision variables. The Lin. s ~ where O 5 a 1. The decision Pc variable x is constrained to lie in a set X defined by the LM1 F (x) 2 O. W shall e use BX to denote the boundary of the constraint set..then so is crxi (1 a)x2. end where x i .11) i not amenable to the l o d minimization techniques that are standard in calculus s (i. To be minimized ia a h c t i o n a l z = d x where c and x are vectors in i . . the problem i s min z = c's
set. The revised optimisation problem takes the form min L = 2
+ pg[F(z)]. whose min-
c m be
found by solving
= O.. Let 5 denote a minimizer of (3.
The term semidefinite pmgmm refm to a constrained minimization problem over P. and p is a scaüng s s factor... E X.e..
. then it i a f& that (see Figure 3.12) is an unconstrained conuez optimisation problem. Summarizing. L(X~)
The minimizer s(p) of (3. if s l . being bixed. solving
. Remarkably. hding x that leads to the vsnishing of the derivative of the objective function) because the cost is linear. Equation (3.. and the prob1e1n i one in constrained optimisation.o %(pk)= 1 s . or numerically using Newton's method (i.V ~ L ( X ~ ) .12) necessarily lies in the interior of X.e.2 for an ilIustration of this) iimp.11) s into an unconstrained optimisation problem by prescribing an infinite cost to ali points outside the feasible set X. where F ( z ) = Po + s
zi for some given real.. The optimisation problem in (3.. that ia. given a sequence of scale factors pk that converges to zero.F.
where the & +
. .x2 5. where for simpiicity. we approach the minimieer (5. A logarithmic barrier function g = . The Linear Matrix hequslities Wsy . as the scale factor p (5 s i reâuced. subject to the constraint O xi. and 4.6).5)..11)
was converted to the sequentiai unconstrained optimisation problem given in (3.
Figure 3. Any symmetric matrix can thus be written as P = aifi a 2 4+a3P3. where we seek to find P
> O that
satisfies (3. Clearly.
The problem i stated as s
The space of symmetric 2 x 2 matrices i s spanned by 3 independent matrices.Section 3 2 *Hoa Control.log[xix2(5 . consult [16.. which we denote by Pi.
To see that this is indeed true. we consider a system with dimx = 2. For a more
~ ~ O ~ O U S treatment
of this subject.xi) .x2)] i used. consider the following example.2: Here we minimize the cost z = . s
This is the essence of interior point techniques.
We now turn our attention back to the bounded real lemma. The latter turns out to be a convex constraint on the set of positive definite matrices.12).26].x i x2. The constrained optimisation problem of (3.
the gradient and Hessian for the barrier function O ( x ) = .log det A is a strictly wnuex jbnction on the set of positive definite Hermitian matrices.
Rom a computational point of view. th& i the system (A.TkfiF(x)-'.
T e conetraint set of (3. hs
Theorem 1 fumishes us with an ineqdty that needs to be met for a system to be stable and achieve
a prescribed performance levelr.
In the Newton iterations.Section 3. i = 1. Indeed the bulk of the research that took place early tbis d e d e was concerned with 6nding &tient dgorithms that move towards the optimum dong the central path.log det F ( z ) are given by g i ( z ) = . one does not have to have the exact value of the minimuni for
a given pk..n and Hi. = ' E ~ F ( X ) .. ) i known a priori. then so does their convex combination.2.
before reducing the latter's value.j respectively.n for . and one mey reaàily verify that for eny
two vectors qi and 92 that result in a positive definite matrix. . One such function is viable from the following theorern.
Next..' F ~ F ( X ) i . ...~ = 1. pages 46671.
For a pmof of this see [21. ?ioD ControL The Linear Ma&X kiequalities Way
ai's represent decision mhbles..
Theoram 2 The function f ( A ) = . C.13) can thus be rewritten as h
The decision vector is taken to be q = [
. we require a baprier function for the constraint set. that is a function that i convex and s
idhite everywhere except the feasible region.
. and their extension to semidennite progrma is explaineci in detail in ..
T i section follows . B. The most &ective aigorithma are the primal-dual interior point techniques. Our goal is to s D s
and after a little rearrangement. we
. the positive defiaite matrix P.
2 .1. Bu..e. Let the plant admit the following minimal state r-ation
L .determine the closed Loop system matrices in which the control dynamics GK are embedded. and let w E P n a f HPPl and y E W. Let
be a state representation of a controller of order k.6) is nonlinear in the variables of interest (i. = O since that simplifies the ensuing math. we must insist that the (A.
The closed loop system matrices are thus given by
Applying the bounded real lemma to the closed loop system.
To ascertain that a controlier exists. be both stabilizable and Cy) detectable. Thus
(3. and the controk parameters)+
Cousider an nth-dimensionalopen Loop plant as s h m i Figure 3.
where we have sesumed that D.
. and ~ Plugging (3. it turns out that existence of 8 to
satisfy (3. This i known in the literature as the separution s lemrna Equations (3. and aRer some mat& manipulations.find that there mu& arist P > O such that
The advantage of formulation (3.17) rnay seem no easier to satisfy.17) ia that the controller parameters are now isolated.Y E PX*.S > O €IPXn.19) into (3. they may be partitioned as
where R.18) do not depend on the controiler parameters. see ).17) is equident to
where W pand WQdenote tuo matrices whose columns span the null spaces of P = [BI O
and Q respectively (for a proof of t h . Although at b t glance condition (3.M .18). however.
Since P and P-I
are positive definite. they entail both P
and ifs inverse. N E I P ~ X. we end up with the following theorem (an explicit derivation can be fond in [ 8 ) l].
Y E PX* s t (3. For k = n..19). Remarlrably. Our ultimate goal i to determine P > O that satisfies ( ..20). o controltw for the system gium in ( . . given symmetric matrices R. which in tum n
can be found by solving a second semidefinite pmgram.Section 3 2 R Control. N E wXk X .R-' 2 0.20) is satisfied. 7 . if (3. aelect a matrix N that satisfies NN' = S . then we c m dways find a controk with the same order as that of the plant. (3.RS) 5 k. The Linear Matrix hequaüties Way .19)if rank(I . the details can be found in [l?].
One may also derive expiicit formuiae for the controlier parameters which are computationally more dicient.RS can have r d of at most n-that is. we must find R and S that also satisfy the raak condition. 4 mn be found if and only i then aUt synmetïic matrices R 31) f and S satisfbn'ng the follouring eystern of inequalities:
Application of Theorem 3 to 'Hm control produces a pair of positive dannite matrices (R. . Setting X = I and comparing the remaining three entries in the matrix inversion formula.
In order to reconatnict P E
> O. we can
find matrices M .20c).
. S > O that also satisfy (3.T i algorithm is implemeated hs
in the function hinf loi in Matlab's LM1 toolbox.
as given in (3.
Theorem 3 (Existence of ysuboptimal Controllara) Giuen a performance leuel 7.17)becornes affine i the controiier parameters. and that a w this condition is trivially satisfied because I . To find reduced order controllers. S) that
s 31) satisfy (3.
Now that a P has been detenaineci. we find that M = -RN and Y = I + NtRN. by the
scxalled completion lemmu.
y are polynomial terms. and any mismatch between the model
and the r d system would lead to an undesirable response if c represents a mode that is close to
the Maginary axis.Section 3. If the stable poles are sufkiently
far from the Maglliary axis. d.
eqwlizing pmperty -that
Although the factor c cancels out in this transfer huiction. For instance.pole placement. The idea
i to impose an additional constraint on the location of the closed loop poles. B [ T . Extensions of the basic theory
33 . see (141. in the standard feedbaek configuration. Then we have to
h d P > O that satisfies (3. mnke the response sluggish. The closed loop system
i then given by s
nxcxz c(nxl+dxy). x.6) and
+Onemay constrain the closed hop poles in convex regions of the complex plane. this i sensible since the best controller should try and malce the dosed loop s system as close to identity as possible. Note that no such cancellations occur to unstable poles inherent in the aystem since that would violate interna1 stability. consider a SIS0 system consisting of a plant P = 3 and controiler K = 7 . the poles
associated witb if still appear in the system's intemal model. this phenornenon poses no real threat to performance. suppose s
we require that the d component of all the closed loop poles be less thad -a.
One solution to this problem is to pre-process the exogemus signals with a filter whose poles are
chosen to be the lightly damped modes of the plant model (this i done only in the controiler design s process and is not actually implemented).3. c. From
[42.49]. To see t hat this i true.
. the equalizing property resulte in a controiier that WC&
a physical perspective. This solution simply adds states to the o v d system
and resdts in an ullflecessarily higher order controller. On the othar hand slow poles which reappear in the closed loop system.
The linear matRx inequality approach provides a more elegant solution.
Extensions of the basic theory
The optimal controller satisfies the
quencies. As shown in the model's stable poles. s where n. ( ~ w ) ~ 7 over all fies =
innocent property wreaks havoc when designing for a reai plant.
and manually switch between
controllers designeci at the grid points. and the performance of the controller is bound to degrade.. Extensions of tbe M c theory
332 . Shamma and Athans  for instance show that for
sufficiently slow parameter variation..
The techniques outlined in the beginning of t b chapter apply to linear time-indant systems.
Polytopic parameter dependent systems Consider a plant C(p) whose state representation depends afEnely on a time-varying real-vaiued hs parameter vector p = 011.
There is little formal design methodology that synthesiaes contro11em with an a priori guarantee
that the dosed loop system WU be stable. The vertices of the
polytope are given by
. consider a system that depends on two parameters. As will be shown..3.. s
For example. a controller that interpolatesbetween the operating conditions
remains stabilizing.p. and a LUiearized mode1 is used for the purpose of controller design. leaving questions as to what is the best way to switch between the controilers..v.. Of course. the system tem trhen said to be linear paremeter varying (LPV). One can approxbate a nonlinear plant by a f d y of linear models parametrized by the operating condition. one may &O grid the parameter space..) .vr. this technique is nomally cornervative at the price of making the solution computationally elegaat.Section 3.E].. that is at any given instant t
The symbol Co represents the conuez hull. R d systems are always nonlinear.
(where r = 2 9 ) ..
Using the linear matrix inequality approach to 'Hm design provides a solution to the gain-scheduling problem. pi and pz. The validity of the modd is only local about the operating region. that i the set of ali convex combinations of VI. though.where pi E [h. . T i defines a convex polytope with vertices
VI. . and perhaps even becorne tuutable as the operating conditions change..
it c m be formed as a convex combination of the vertices
The parameter dependent system then lies in the polytope of system matrices given by
(4. Constraining V to be a quadratic fiuiction of x only. For an L I T
system.3.leads to a conservative test of stability known in the s literature as quadmtic stabüity.
In thhi contact. s
Stability and performance of linear parameter varying systems
Centrai to the development of the bounded real lemma was Lyapunov's stabiüty theory. x # 0 It is a fact that Cor noniinear systetns . then test guarantees stability for an a r b i t r d y fast rate of parameter variation. then the existence of a positive definite function V ( x . the existence of auy positive definite function of the state that is monotonically decreasing dong ail possible system tmjectories (except at the origin) i sufecient s to establish stability.
. stability ia equivalent to the existence of a quadratic Eunction (previously cded the storage function) V = d P z . Ci.
with v < O for x # O and p. such that v < 0. that i V = z'Pxf. Extensioas of tbe basic theoqy
Given at Borne instant a panuneter p(t). establishes the stability of the LPV system. for G@)to be stable. (that admit a unique solution). Di) i a state representation of the system at vertex i.
In a gimilar manner.Section 3. Bi.p ) . the notion of Rm parformance may be extended to LPV 8ystems. with P > O. As long as the parameter varies in at least a piecewise continuous fhshion (to ensure the differential equation admits a solution).
16)-(3. such that oRL(G@)? ) < O for al& P permissible values of
P. Equations (3.Section 3.
The solvability conditions for a controller are then givea by the following theorem.given
is said to have quadrutic 31. Extensions of the basic theory
Detlaition 2 (Quadratic 'Hm peflormance) A pofptopic pammeter dependent system G @) .. The matrices Bu. we consider a plant G@) with representation
D.3. the aforamentioned matrices would be constant. ytm one needs to test the d d i t y of the bounded real lemma only at the vertex points. Cgand
Dw are assumed not to vary so that W pand WQin (3. T y p i d y .18) do not depend on p. the above
assumption poses no real limitation. performance 7 M m the exogenous signal w fo the output z if then
&b a m t i urz
P > O.19) are applicable to the gain-scheduled case. and at least in this context. To synthesize contmiiers. if the plant's actuators and sensors are parameter indepandent.22) where the pammeter lies in the polytope
The statement of Dennition 2 provides the condition under which a given system achieves quadratic
Since the s s e matrices depend f f i e l y on the varying parameter vector. independent of p. and their dynamics are incorporated in the modei. then due to convexity.
Theorem 4 (Convax solvability conditions for gain-rcheduled controllers) Caven the pamrneter dependent system (3.
4. This i true for a number of reasons: s
1 The design methodohgy guards against arbitrarily fast parameter variation rates. a controller is calculated at each vertex.19) as explained previously.
s Given any admissible puameter. in the case of the two parameter example outlined above. For instance..this is done after the initial optimisation. Given a P that guarantees quadratic Ra performance over the entire polytope. we showed that
we do not need the controlier parameters to calculate P. t h m b t synmetric matrices R and S satisfing the jollowing system of inequolitzes:
To design a gain scheduled controller.. we must Bnd R and S satisfying (3. R e d that in the previous section. . Thus. suppose that
the vertex controllers are given by K.23). fiom which a storage function P can be determineci wing (3. Extensions of the bssic t h e q
then them & B un polytopic conhller that guomntees quadmtic R perfownance if and only if .
. = 1 .. the control action used i simply an interpolant of the vertex controllers.3. we end up with a polytopic parameter dependent controHer.Section 3. then the control action at that instant is giwn i
It shouid be ciear fiom the development that controllers synthesized using the above methodology wilI be conservative. The storage function ensures stability for aU plants in the given polytope. 2. A fixeci storage h t i o n i used. One may d o w the storage fiinction P to be a parameter s
the controller may synthesis pmblem then becornes non-conm. and thus more diflicult to solve.
There are other Ra related techniques for controk scheduiing that allow the varying panuneters to enter the p h t mode1 i a fractional way.
. and exploits the n hs technique of robust design. They are however addresseci in .3. However. Exfemions of the WC theory
These 'shortco~' be put in the context of linear matrix inequalities. T i technique is discussed in [32.4].Section 3.
that industry has taken an a n d interest in the possible use of observers to estimate tension. This is true because the bad celi itself i a d y n d c system (it may be modeled as a mass resting on a stiff s spring). The a h is to describe the
techniques with which a controiier can be designed by applying it to the two span system available
here at the University.
There are good reasons to deal with the reduced order model-it describes the behavior of web processing weU at I w fiequenues. Until such time when observers
. after which we treat the full order model.Chapter 4
Control of Web Processes
T i chapter appliesH hs '. that i web with an infinite s s s modulus of elasticity. the use of load cells ro o meapure the span tensions set serious limitations to the controller's performance. It is for this reason. amongst others. For materials that are typically used.
4 1 Reduced order web model .
optimisation to the control of web processes. it ie therefore difficult to discern be-n the plant's aad the sensor's contribution to the measurements at higher fkequencies. The methodology can easily be extended to treat machines wit h more spans
by using the modeis given in Chapter 2.
We derived in Chapter 2 a model that i applicable to stB material. W e begin by detailing the design procedure based on the
reduced order model. The implication of this assumption i that the peripheral speeds of aU rollers
are the same.
i These disturbance are not exogenous. O. nip and unwinder are now labeied a. represent the Tb
rewind and uwind zone tensions respectively and u i the m c i e speed) the equations are given s ahn
in state form by
The quantities . unround roiis) and web steering.1 summarizes the values of the various parameters in the system. The term 6 . Dejak and are inciuded i his thesis* n
Extensive identification has shown that the dynamic friction terms in the real machine are d d l y nonliaear in nature. We
neglect the static m i o n terms. represents the dXerence between the actud load torque on the nip and the one predicted by the load d . although the torque inputs may be used to compensate for them.
'These values are obtained via identification of the three bare rollers.16) and (2.Section 4. Ta. unbalanced rolis (for example. The experiments were conductecl by S. and 6 rcpreaent disturbances to tension which arise fkom processes such as 6 6
machine vibration. Reduced order web modei
replace the more traditional load celi.
The equations for a general Aï-span system are given i (2.1. The model in (4.1) uses the b a t linear approximation for the fiction.17). and we indude thern here just to point out that they remit in discrepancies between the mode1 and the actual system. it seems reasonable to work with a model that does give a
good enough description of the plant at small fiequencies. they are dependent on the system's state. For a 2-span Bystem n (where the reninder. c respectivdy.
.0395 0.00387 0.02336 0.4 0.59 0.03223 0.
0.15 1100 0.
Jc Bare shaft inertia (kgm2) bc Viscous darnping coefncient (Nm s) Staticniction torque (Nm) T. Reduced order m mode1 b
Bare shaft inertia (kg m2) ba Viscous damping coefficient (N m s) Static friction torque (Nm) ra Radius (m) Jb Bare shaR inertia (kgm2) bb Viscous damping coefficient (N m s) Pb Static friction torque (Nm) r b Radius (m)
.0415-0.01745 0.6 0.15 0.1: Machine and web properties
. r.00393 0.00606 0.168 1. Radiug (m) p Web density (kg/m3) W Web width (rn) e W b thickness (m) e
Table 4.Section 4.
h e d i a t e l y upstream and downstream of the nip section there are undriven rollers.
There is a discrepaney between the mathematical model and the physical system. Thie is most visible in Figure 4.
Uncertainty in the model parameters.1) attributes any dinerences between the measured and simulatecl values of
speed and tensions to the disturbances 6 .
The filtered tension measurements are used for the simulation. db. less than desirable resuits. The experiment w s conducted under féedback control. The mathematical model captures the details of the axperimental data rather weli in both spans as can be seen in Figure 4.. It may of course be argued
that the controiler filters the driva inputs which in tiun rnay not be rich enough to excite some
modes of the system.1. Figures 4.1. the tension mode1 is a lot more forgiving to inaccuracies in the friction model. The state space representation of (4. where clearly the model does not desaibe the speed response of the web &e. = O. and hding the optimal controller for that configuration.
The vaiidation experiments were conducted under feedbadc control. n d y . some tension i developed in the material to both overcome the s
fkictionai forces and accelerate the undriven rollen. = O.2
Nominal performance of the LTI system
We start the design process by M
g the d u e s of the radii. the ody visible change being some offset in the steady state value.1 and 4.2 compare expeiimental data with the model for &.
How good i the model? s
The model given in (4. As the
web traverses thesa idlers.1. open loop experiments are consistent with the identified
reduced order model.lm i given by s
. We begin by showing that a blind application of R design may Iead to .2. .
4.1) when r.Section 4. There are several fadors that attriiute to the discrepancy. R e d u d order web model
and dV. and 6 a the control signals m e used to drive the simulation.
1 R e d u d order web model
(b) Unwind Zone
Figure 4.1: Cornparison of mathematical model and actual data for the nip section. Note: The simuiated plot i intentiody displaceci by 1 N downward in order to make the plots more s 0 visible*
.2: Cornparison of modded and a c t d tension in both the rewind and unwind zone.Section 4.
y&. i a weli known f a t that to track some reference signal.€ y whose energy we seek .. which has been scaied with respect to its mBximum value because the tensions and speed have different scales. A block diagram
of the control aystem is shown in Figure 4...3.2) with the output filter* s
+Thisi the celebrated internai model principle. Note or that since we wish to tradc step signals. the tension measurements are noisy. so that the performance
to minimhe. To that end.3. a model of that signal needs It s to be incorporateci into the controller? This specification ain be captured by incorporating the
referenee model into W. Consequently.~~]' its output. and smoothing filters are used.
The plant P i formed fiom the series conneetion of the web model (4. s 'This fitter was implemented on the machine h m the outset.Section 4.. we penaiize the frequency content of this error signal using a shaping
The control objective i to track the desired output trajectory s
optimal in the H '..
is sense. Furthemore. we cannot use the former technique since this violates the solvability conditions (given in the theoretical development).1. whose model W an integrator. T~/T.. We ignore the dynamics of the tension semors which have highly osciiiatory modes associated with them (as one may easily ver@ by applying an impulsive input to them). u/%. and y = [T~/T~.
. we define the enor signal e = y. alternatively adding it into the loop as we have done in Figure 4. denotes the system's state. Reduced order web modei
rhere z = vfq.
and also the maximum input should be limited so as to make sure that the drives do not saturate. The
. one needs to Limit the input's
bandwidth to ensure some degree of robustness. In a typical machine.Section 4. and is given by
which corresponds to a maximum tension of 130N and 1118Ximur. The Latter constraint does not translate to anH '. and solve a mheà sensitivity optimieation problem.
The scaie faetor R normatizes the reference aignal r = [pa
G] to 1. We therefore penaliae the control effort via a shaping filter Wu. a suitable weight is
The physicd motivation behhd th* weight is as foiiows: the zero at the origin forces no penalty
on steady date input (a dnve that iir unable to meet this requirement is cleariy a bad choice).1. the response becomes almost instantanaus at the price
of unreasonably high torques.
Without any penalty on the plant input.3: Block diagram used for contmller design.n speed of 5m/s. For this parti& machine. Reduced order web madel
Figure 4. Note the setpoints are scaled to their maximum value. requirement. and th* is where it is necessary to adapt the weight to make sure it provides a good controUer.
given by W. The weight is chosen to be diagonal in structure and each entry is used to specify. with a Gequency equal to the frequency of rotation. the more dinerentiating action the
input weight imposes.= 1013.
The goal of the optimisation then is to minimize the quantity
where S i the sensitivity function given by S = (I+GK)-' (the quantity KS i commonly refmed s s
to as the input aensitivity function.Section 4-1. we consider the adverse &ect that unround rollers have on the tension response.. We impose no bandwidth limitation on the error &ght because we penaiize the integrai of the emr which naturally roils o f at high frequencies. The disturbance rejection s pmblem can also be placed in the context of sensitivity shaping. and it can be uaed to prescribe robustness in the design). Ieads to a remarkably fast response in the zone tensions and speed. The quanttities Ci and c2 specify the shape of the filter around the disturbance fkequency that is to be rejected. That i. f One nzay of course hope to achieve higher performance by using a dynamic weight.
Suppose. the better it perfotms at sinmoida1 disturbance rejection. such a disturbance is periodic in nature. both transmissions are given by the sensitivity function. this was unnecessary for this particular machine. one must then include in the weight W. The i because . To reject such disturbance. we have intentionaiiy removed the terms 6 and cibthat appear in (4. the bandwidth of that particular channel. The M h e r off it is phced h m the irnaginary axis. the filter
where w is the fiequency of the disturbance.
The error weight.
. W u c e d order web mode1
pole at s = -10 then represents the cutoff fiequency which gives a fIlEiXimum bound on the input constraint. The sharper and higher the
filter. in some sense. but that would violate the solvabiiity conditions.3. s the influenceof output disturbances on the output is the same as that of the reference signai on the error. As claimed in Chapter 2. For the machine at the University of Toronto. Any specification on disturbance rejection may be incorporated into the weight W. we found that the conditions did not warrant the inclusion of this term.1).
In Figure 4. but in our
experience. for example. Ideaily?we would use a £ilter with purely imaginary poles.
1. Reduced order m b model
Using the problem setup iilustrated in Figure 4.The time constant i approxhately s 0.5 illustrates the system's response to a 0. The reason
tThis sampling freqtiency and dkretiaation technique i usecl for the implementation of a1 controllers designed s l for the web machine at the University of Toronto. and wae determiaed ushg Matlab's hiaf&i[l9] s ~ function that solves the LMI presented in Cbapter 3. the system taLes about 5s to settie. we do not advocate this design because of the poor response in speed. Although the response time is very fiut.6m/s step change in machine
Figure 4.4: System response to a ION refarence step in Ta.3.Dashed: reference signal.
.4 illustrates the response to a ION step reference in Ta.2) and dticretbed using the bilinear trmform.38.
Figura 4. and the theoreticai simulation doeely resembles the experimental output. with a sampling fiequency of 400Hkt. Thin Solid: experirnental resdt. A description of the code used to design the controller ie deferred ta the Appendix. Thidt Solid: simulation
s Although the response to a step in Fai good. The resuiting controlier i 1 2 order. Figure 4.Section 4.5N.which i well below the industrial standard of regulating the tension to with 10% s of the setpoint. The design was made on the continuous time model given in (4. The amplitude of the noise is 0. a controiier was synthesised using the weights given.
One poseible solution i to solve the 'Ho.Section 4.1. -10. we have placed the closed loop poles at s = -10. -10.BK. Although this solves the probiem weli both i simulation and practice. the open loop pole s at s = -0.5: Response of the system to a 0. The state feedback gain Ka does not prevent pole-zero canceilation.
Instead of avoiding the pole-zero eancellation. we apply a state feedbadc control to shifk the slow pole forthsr away fkom the imaginary axis (see Figure 4. it simply e m e s that no parasitic mode lingers on after performing the optimisation. we fînd the n foilowing technique leads to alightly better performance.optimisation with pole placement lw s
Figure 4. giving the following
state feedback m & a
The r d t i n g controuer (exciuding the integrators) may be represented by the staterepresentation
(AK. Reduced order web modd
for this i the pole-aem candation effect that was discussed in Chapter 3.
For this design. 9 03x3 ) g i m in (4-6) and (4. The same enor and input weight is used
as before.7) CK
.16 reappeani in the c l 4 loop system because of the modal mismatch. leading to a s o puasitic mode.6m/s step change in speed
ail signais track their respective setpoint change-there
is no parasitic s o mode that lw
deteriorates the performance.1.
a change in Faha9 Little d e c t on either Tbor u. a change în fi does not
deet the tension i the upstream and downstream zones-a n
feature that is much harder to corne
by using a modutat approach.2s and 0. As
expected. More importantly though.
. Reduced mder web model
The response of the system to step changes in Po.
The response times to tension and speed steps are approximately 0.9 n
respectively.5s respectively.8 and 4. for example.Section 4. The plots also i b t r a t e decouphg between the signals. Tb and V are shown i Figures 4. 4.7.
The reduced order modei is &st order.Section 4.there i a s change of Iess than 10%i the pole aver the entire operathg region. the tensions are s outputs that depend dgebraically on the torque inputs. For a machine that handles a spool of radius 15cm.1. T i should corne as no surprise n hs since material i simply being trandemed. The pole of the h z e n open loop system is located at
which changes as the radii change. and the overail inertia does not diange considerab~~t. Recd that the state equation i given by s
This says that the diff'ential equation that describes the machine speed depends on the inertia and damping of the oumll system. and its only state i the machine speed. the i e t a does since it not only depends on the mass of the web but also ~ h nri
The effect of radius change
As material is transferred from the unwinder to the rewinder. the linear mode1 of the plant changes. s
f ~ l t h ~ thegmass does not change.6: Problem setup with date feedback
As a resuit. R e d u d order web model
Figure 4. there is performance degradation that depends on the radius of the spool.
2. Reduced order web model
1.Sethiin 4.7: Response to a step change in Fa
4.2 O O
Figure 4.4 .8: Response to a step change i Tb n
m (s) e
3. Reduced order web model
Section 4.5 Time (s)
3.9: Response to a step change in ü
0. Reduced order web model
the iasrtias of the idlers hdp regulate the measured tensions. with both f e e d f o m d and feedback components. 4. when the
machine is in operation. though it may prove to be superior for lazger machines.4
Single shafk control: a modular methodology
Universaliy. each error signal (e. the reeponsiveness to a change in Tais tàster at a d e r radius. however. For machines that pmcess larger spools of web. The technique of gain-scheduling.Section 4. involves a strange combination of the radii and inert ias. = 15an (these are the minimum and maximum spool radii). practice in industry is to design controilem loop-by-loop. a change in the input torquea is partly diseipated in the idler rollers.11)... though simple.
s expariments show that there i Little degradation in the performance over the entire operating region
(see Figure 4.
The reduced order model. the torque required to maintain a c r a n tension i Miment. It does. wouid prove to be too cornervative since it deals with systems where the parameter entera affinely. A controller may be designed for each of the extreme cases ra=4. design approach is overkill. the control action used i an interpolant of the two designs. Figure 4. though effective. A description of the various control schemes was given in Chapter 2. Recfuced order web model
The more dominant difference occurs because at difièrent radii. except s drives a single motor (e. and less torque is required to move the r o k . for some feedfomd components. At the request of VRP Technologies. we have designed single shah & contmUers-that i.Ta) the rewinder). a simpler scheduüng scheme may be used. eti s the controiler was designed for a radius of lOcm and as one might expect. The diference in the speed rsgponse is hardly visible.3 depicts the change in performance over the dinerent r d . Fortunately. T i strategy offm no clear
advantage over the fuced radius design for the smaii machine at the University.g. Conversely. and this should also be expected since the overall damping stays fairly constant over the
entire region of operation. @ .
The real machine L a lot more forgiving to changes in d u s because of the unmodelied dynamics. bighüght some of the advantages of using the H centraIized approach. The model useci for each loop poses no limitation to control design.1.g.15cm and r.1. so that the ' . T i matches physical intuition since the inertia i hs s las.
. That is. and at every s hs instant.1.
= 1 c 5m
(a) Simulated response to a 26N step change in Ta
@) Simulateci respoase to a im/s step change in u
Figure 4. = lûun and Daahed Line: r. Line: r.10 Effect of radius change on the system's performance. Dotted Line: r = h m . Soiid .
Dotted: ru km. Reduced order web rnodef
0.1. Solid: r.Thick: ru = IOcm.2
1. e 1 c
Figure 4. Dashed: 5m Reference Signal.8
1.11: The respoase to a 10N tension change over the entire operating region.8
Also. For instance.(ü u).9) perfectly decouples the nip motor fiom the rewind and unwind zones..1) are given. we may define
is. Nevertheles. exact charactes of vb is not known a priori. we find that the tensions defined in (4.
M r some dgebraic manipulations. First. r
T = . b
(4.11) as a basis for control design.va a 1
1 and T = -.
. IO). This f e e d f o m d signal decouples the nip motor fiom the rewind and unwind zones. in tenns e
of ubt by
The signal vb is used to regdate the speed of the nip-that
then 4 = K.11)
These algebraic manipulations are overly sirnplistic..v.Section 4 L Reduced order m b mode1
The modular Noo approach &O has indisputable advantages.
i neverthelem d e r to do-that is. y shouïd not be affected by either T or Tb. s Wh8t follows describes the procedure with which a moddar control design cm be done. it can more easily be ported to
0 t h machines that have dinerent configurations. we use equations (4. and thus these fdorward terms are never perfect in practice. tuning the controIle. the operator needs to worry about o d y one loop at a t h e . Although the . it may be treated as a disturbance to the tension equations given in (4. If the "load compeasation" defined in (4. The tension measurements are filtered. since it depends on the closed ioop system.
and likewise with Uc.10). though not tupnkey. d t i n g in a very simple equation for Taand Tb. if Kv represents the speed controller.namely. and U .
Suppose that the torque at the nip ie given by
where 6 is used to control the nip's velocity. The torques U. j may be used to compensate for the remaining terms in (4.
The data set shown here comesponàs
to controllers designed for ru= 4cm and rc = 15an.1 * Reduced osder web model
Figure 4. The modular approach is also more sensitive to radius change.. 4.5m/s step change to 5 are shown in Figures 4. the plant P consists of the simple model (4.13. Note that no feedforward component was incorporated into the signals U.12 was used to design controllers for both the rewind and unwind
tension zones. while that of the unwind zone i 0.14 and 4. For the tension controiier. hne this is to be expected since the torques they exert on the nip are cornpensateci for. On the other
hand.10) may be d r written as ( e ignoring the last two terms in each of the equations)
. T i cornes a no surprise. Ti i because aithough the interactions become less pronounced.Section 4. The same setup was used to design a speed controller. and leads to very poor performance. a change in the set-point speed is felt directly in the tension respomes.58. respectiveiy. and
CI.11) in series with the filter F ( s ) = to a 15N step change to
A. The t h e constant for the rewind zone contmLler
i a p p r h a t e l y 0. C a g s in the setpoint tensions have Little effect on the speed response.The responses
and Pb and a 0. since the s s hs s
controller designed for T assumes the nnwinder is heavier than it r e d y is.12: Setup for rewind tension controiier
n The setup shown i Figure 4. To see how an adsptive tension controller may be designed.15. b
A gain scheduied contmller b readily designable for the moduiar approach owing to the simplicity of the model.2s. the controiiers no longer hs s
track the reference signals owing to the radius changes. note that (4.
Figure 4 1 : Response to a 15N step change to fa .5 Time (s)
1. Reduced order web model
5 Time (s)
0.14: Response to a 15N step change to Pb
Figure 4. Reduced order web modei
5 Time (s)
I i 1
0.1.15: Response to a 0.5
.5m/s step change to 8
1. Reduced order web model
12a). . b given by uo =
K(= .F then
4. This linearisation was performed in Chapter 2 and Ieads to
P o o
o o p
. though distinct.2
Full order web model
The full order noniineau model of a general N-span syetem was given in (2.Ta).
A linear parameter varying model is readily derived around an operating machine speed R. The peripheral speeds of the rollers.U order web mode1
Suppose the rewind tension controiler. designed according to the model (4. l5z.2. the equations are given by
The quantities ka and kb are the efl'tive stifniess of the rewind and unwind zones respectively. the a c f d con troll^ L given by raKa. E its modulus of elasticity and li the span length.13). s a
The modulus of elasticity is no longer assumeci infinite.Section 4. For a two span
system. however. are very dose s
to each other.
and can be found by
where A i the materiai's cross-sectional m . it i a m e d large so that the s
conesponding strain i small.
N order web mode1 I
s where we have recagnized that Va, & cc; (because the merence in these quantities i s m d ) ,and E >> Ta, kfl'. The A matru in (4.14) varies as a function of the spool rad5 and the operating
Nominal controlier design
We begin the control design procedure by fiezing the value of r. at 10m, and the operating speed at lm/s. For values of &,kb > >ûûOON/rn, the reduced order model conthues to do vefy well. Indeed, the added compiication of resorting to the full order model are not warranted in terms of performance improvement. As the materid becomes more elastic, a nominal control design baaed on the i n f i t e s t f i e s s assumption i no longer stab%zing§. s
We design a controller based on the full order model where ka = kb=400N/rn, la = ib =Im and
the remaining parameters in (4.14) are the same as those given in Table 4.1. The parameter r, is fiozen at a value of ra=lûcm and the operating machine speed ia taken to be lm/s. The controller
designeci in Section 4.1.2 destabifizes this plant.
Figure 4.16: Block diagram used for N order controller design 1
Figure 4.16 illustrates the block diagram used for control design. A good choice of weights i s
h"X'ati not to say that no controiier exists that i designed based on the reduced order that also works for the s s full order model-
Section 4.2. E order web model W
W = z13 and Wu= 0.0513. The plant P consists of the model (4.14) in series with same output . ater that appears in (4.3) is used here. The matrix R is given in (4.4). The control problem is solved with the additiod constrauit that the closed loop poles X satisfy ReX < -1.5. T i hs
condition ensures that no polezero canceiiation, near the imagmarY axis, occurs in the design. The resulting controllet is of order 13, and the response of the system to changes in Fa, and fj, q
applied simultaneously are shown in Figure 4.2.1. Figure 4.17: Responsa to step changes in f",
% and Tb
4.2. lW.l order wieb model
Removing the pole placement constraint r d t s in a controiler that is seemingly better (in tarms of
time constants aad decoupling between the three outpute). It is however not robust to changes in the s s e panmeters and h m not advocated The minimum achievabie 7, however, does occur ytm for a cancelling controller, ao that enswing a certain degree of closed loop stabüity (the value a) cornes at the cost of increazhg 7. By placing l a s penalty on the plant input, it is possible to make the responee times of Figure 4.2.1 faster. The input weight, however, has been chosen to puantee that the plant input signal i at least realizable by the motors that are cunently installecl in the s machine at the University. The biggest challenge in designing a controller foc the hl order model il i ensuring that the input signal i in fsEt practically achievable. s s
For a range dradü around the nominal value of r. =10an, the controller continues to be stabilizing. However, starting with ra =4m, we h d that a couple of closed loop poles appear at X = 5 f 124 and hence the resulting systeni is unstable. T i design i therefore not robust to a large change hs s in the apoolb radius. Although the probiem may be cast in robust performance design fiamework,
we look into the technique of gain-scheduling to find a solution.
We begin k t by redefining the inputs in the followhg way:
Recd t hat this is necessary becauae the algorithm for gain-scheduled control design requires that the matru B be parameter independent. From (4.14), it is clear that there are two parameters t h t r d t in a time varying speed, namely, the operating speed and the radius of the rewind spool (for a given system, the other raàius can be uniquely determined). A design is conducted about an
operating machine speed of lm/s. Although there is only one varying parameter in the system, it enters the state equations in a nonlinear f a o n , and hence the theory of Chapter 3 i not applicable. One way to get around this s f 9 technicality i to d&e four varying parameters, m = s = $, pa = and p~ = f that are computed online baseci on the radius measurements. Adrnittedly, this will lead to a cornervative design, but at le& it provides a formal solution to the plant variation problem.
18: Block diagram used for full order controiler design
The control setup given in Figura 4... s s n . suppose the parameters take on the values p i . The same weights are used for the control design.Section 4.3. the response of the closed loop system when the i radius i ra=4cm i shown i Figure 4 1 .
. vis 1 of the parameter polytope are formed in the following way:
At some instant t..K l6 in the . resulting in a 1 3 order controller for each of the 16 vertex systems.+ Define the parameters cri
for i= 1.. .. Rdl order web modd
Figure 4.4 as foliows:
= The gain scheduied controller K is then formed fiom the
e.2. . The gain-scheduled controller is stabilizing ~ ~ for d values of pennissible r d .2..18.9 Suppose the vertices vl
[ . In particular.p.
order web mode1
Figure 4.19: Response
Section 4.2. That is.
. t ha designs are robust to variations in the operating speed. EUI order web model
There is littledect of fieeaing the value of the operating speed. both in the fked and gain-scheduled controiler designs.
and a feedback controller is med to correct for
i m o d e h g mors. Reduced order model: The web i assumed to be infiniteiy stiff so that the whole machine s
runs as one rigid body. Curent controi technology
de& with the coupüng using leedforward control.
T i was the hs
k t attempt at designing
a true centralized controiier. namely 'W.
. The twespan web machine consists of three roileni coupled by the web. d recent research efforts in control of web processes have adopted the
modular methodology. thus introducing flexible modes to the s model. control.
particular. Full order model: The web i assumed to be elastic. we use an optimal Grequency domain control design technique.
Both models are time-varying because of the nature of the winding process.Chapter 5
The thesis studied the application of recent advanceci control design methods to an industrial
two-span web-handling machine. In fact. Two models were used for the purpose of control design:
so that the knowleâge is not easiiy transferable to a machine operator. we made the foilowing observations:
1. and the information from the radius sensors is unnecessary.1. the rnodular approach requires the radius measurements to get good performance. the controller is optimal with respect ta an optimization criterion. A scheduling scheme s is not necessary in that case.Uers f w a c i ~ ~ ~ t saiid disadvaatsges of 'Ha control ges
5. the centralized design h more insensitive to the radü of the spoois when the total radius of the initial spool i srnail. Thus if the radius measurements are erroneow. sophisticated software tools axe
. The moditiar approach can never deal perfectly with the coupling between the three rollers. The operator no longer has to go through a series of physicd arguments to juatify what action muet be taken to reduce the coupling between the systems-that is a byproduct of the design procwis. as they were in the machine at the University. The r e m n is threefold.
which does not describe exactly the true physical plant* Ultimately.
T i is because when "load compensationn i applied. the controiler is optimal with s respect to a particular choice of weighting fiinctions. in terms of design and implementation.1
How do our controllers fare-advantages and disadvantages of
X control . however.
tension measurements rather than actual tensions. the controller is optimal with respect to a specific plant model. Fi.
The notion of UoptimRlityni hard to seil. the controiier's performance was judged on the response of the actual physical plant-and that provd to be good with respect to the currently applied control technique.ü and has good transient behaviour (fast response tirne. it is hard to achieve even a basic requirernent such as tracking. How do ouc contn. decouples the d e c t of the three sections we. the feedforward si@ hs s
measurements are noisy. there are fundamental limitations to the centralized control technique. On the other hand. and M y .the theory is mathematicdy intensive. T i is unavoidable because the Ioad cells' hs
Thus our design technique has the foUowing merits.
2. Once the systemTsparameters are identified. As compared to the rnodular design approach.
On a negative note.
Using the reduced order model. there is little effort in obtaining a controller that performs well in terms of a cont roller t hat achieves tracking. and no overshoot).Section 5.
The controller was not designed s to be robust for aii possible spool r d . and the resulting controller i invaiidated. the controuer 1 designed baeed on the reduced order model is no longer stabiliaing. We reiterate that the controiler i only valid if the web is s s taut. Kow do our controIIers f e a v n a e and d i s a d v a n t ~ ')Cm control m-dstgs of indispensable in the design proeess. At the same t h e . there is a very thin line between when the web is alack and when it i not. the operator must
design a aew controiier that i appiicable to more flexible material. This i because of the s very nature of the controller-the torque applied to each of the motonr depends on al1 the error signals. requires that the material is not slack. in web-handling. It s is t h d o r e rather n a t d to reiy on the cascade control structure that is currently used-that is. the c o n t r o k thus depends on fairly accurate radius mewurements. On the s other hand. robustness had to be earned. and the error in tension simply generates a desired speed ciifkentia1 that is achieved by the windece. This problem is not prevalent in the modular approach because a operstor needs only to n worry about one loop at a tirne*
The mast important (and poesibly detrimental) shortcoming of the centraliaed appmach i rooted s in the nature of the mode. as opposed to the reduced order model.
Regardlem of the practical applicability of the Ra approach.
. the modular appmach hs
is valid whether the web i taut or not because the plant model is valid in either case. all the roilers are speed controUed. in this case.assumptiom. We opted to design a Linear parameter varying controller to amount for the radius changes. The LPV controlier is stabilizing and provides good performance for all possible spool raciii. the centralized model that we use. contmller tunllig i not turnltay-it s
is not possible
s to change one parameter to tweak the performance one way or the othet. othmise the model does not deedbe the process.Section 5+1. Findy it i axtremeiy M d t to debug the controlles should something go hdamentaily wrong. In this case. T i concept is fundamental. the thesis does give an indication of what modem control techniques can provide to an industriai process. The thesis &O treats the N order web model. and hence any controlier we design. In cornparison to existing technoIogy. t here are inherent problems associated with the new approach. there were clear advantages to usingformal design techniques. As a result. Secondly. As the material becomes more elastic.
relying instead on black box models may a c t u d y prove to be beneficial.
This fact has certainly motivated a wealth of reseaxch into the design of tension obsewers-not only
beause that would lower the cost of the machine^^ substantially. in which it is possible that the
contact region is completely characterized by slip. and hence a controiler that passes itself as "optimal" may be far nom that. For instance. better performance. In fact. In that case. the system becomes unobservable. every industrial tension controlier typicdly Glters the tension output using a filter with a time constant of at Ieast 100ms. effective strategies are deveioped for tension estimation. if in the near future. fiture ckstions in web researcb
5. Currently the problem s with designing good observers i the presence of the idler rollers.cking i experimentd verihation s of these models.These technicalities make the modei imperfect.
The k t d e in control engineering is that a controUer i as good a the actuators and sensors s s that are used in the system. however. what component of the measured tension is r e d y informative and what may be attributed
to load ceU dynamics. For
More crucial though is a need in industry to develop good identification routines. an obsemerbased controller holds promise for even better performance. what is la. more complete actuator models and so forth. and therefore. There ia ample
"modehn of web procesaes in the literature. but also because the controllers can be designeci with a higher bandwidth. The load cells that me the tension have their own dynarnics.Section 5.2
Future directions in web research
There are fundamental limitations in web processing. a control engineer needs to know the exact impact of ignoring the idlers.
It generates a state space model of the reduced order model in series with the output filter defined in (4. The syntax
is as follows:
The function i given beiow.pi)
. Anything after the % sign is a comment.3). s
function Csys] = funweb(ra1
X Web properties
rho 1100. U = 0.l
Defining the plant
The function funweb accepts aa an argument the radius of the rewinder spool. prW2 pi*rho*Y/Z.
% Density X Width
X Thicherr/(O. The control design nles requin the LMI control
toolbax[l9]. e -0 .168. The symbol>> s
signines commamis that are executeà in matlab.Appendix A
Guide to control design with matlab
AU matlab code i written in verbatim.OOOlS/(lzpi) .
rb = 0.0867.
X ra: radius of rewinder (argument to filaetion) X rc: radius of unwinder.I.
X Daaping Coefficientr X Rewiader ba = 1/254-4878.01746. X Nip inertia X Unwinder inertia JOc 0.
X Bar8 shaft radii = 0. Jc $Oc + prW2*(rc. bb = 1/166.l.
% Inertia of winders with spool on Ja JOa + prW2*(ra.
. Definimg the pplent
% Bare shaft inertias JOa = 0.03223 .3219. # Revinder i a e r t i a Jb 0.
XrC FORMING 'f A r
X C-matrix cTa = (-ba* (Jc*rba2+Jbrrc"2)+Ja+rba2*bc+bb* Ja*rcn2)d a . R a = 0.023363. calculated from ra using the fact that the t o t a l cross sectional area i s consemed $6
rc = sqrtccts-ra-2) .15. -4 rO"4).Section A.0395.
[cTa. Unuinder/Rewinder radius
% Nip radius
% Minimum and maximum radius of spool mx 0. X Nip bc = 1/258.cTbI .0415. X Unwinder
STATE REPRESENTATION OF PLANT %XX'X'rC'tL den = Jcwa*2*rb02 + (Sb*raœ2+Ja*rba2)*rca2. -4 ~ 0 ' 4 ). / cTb = (bc*Craœ2*Jb+rb^2* -ba*rba2*Jc-bb+ra62*Jc)/den.
The syntax is as followa:
>> ra = 0.c. S.6.Tb-max = 130N. s function [Cont . The argument of this
huiction is the radius of the rewinder spool.
X Extracts state space [a. %F=l/(O.2
Designing the controller
Once the plant i defined.2. . 130) ) . and it returns the optimal Raocontroller.
X Scaling the output to its maximum valua X Ta-mar. F) .
X Dverall open loop plant sys = smult (web-aig.1 . V-wm = Sm/s refi = ainv(adiag(130.a = ItissCweb) .ksf .PclJ ksf
X Define the open loop veb system web funttebcra) .
A.ls+l) Filter = daugCF. 1 . This implements s the pre-state feedback to shift the slow polefi away fiom the imaginary axis.4. a controlier can be designed using the function uebsf.2. Filte-ef
i). the output feedback gain and the closed loop trader matrix.
. >> [K.
The functioa i included below.b.PclJ = websf (ra) .Section A.
D~rrninp controfler the
X Defining the output f i l t e r F=pck(-10.0).
b.eye(3) .r).iiu) .KJ = hinfimi(Paug.
X Augment the plant P sith above ueights Paug = &t(P.d) . -101) .jie:r-G*. 0 .
X Synthesize L i n f i a i t y controller uaing the linear matrix % inepiulities approich: go minimum achievable g m a K.C.~u.Wu.sdiag(W.ueb).130]) . j i e . V_max. j.6. -10. X Form general system interconnection: X The plant P ha8 -three reference inputs -tu0 outputs : integral of e r r o r Cie) x X and plant input (KI X See block diagram i n Chapter 3 f o r an i l l u s t r a t i o n of this X The output P i r the generalized plant.
X Define the weights X Error veight W = daug(lO. b . X Output feedback gain that mst be applied in the machine ksf = ksf* (ref *c) *-1. r ] = s c o ~ e c t ( ~ r ( 3 ) ' .
X The scale factor matrix (correrponding t o T a m .[-10.S3.2.
[g. 0 1 *01.
% P l a n t input weight l t i s y s ( ~ t f ~ . W K a .
X Nev A-mattix. a f t e r applying s t a t e feedback.Section A. and X new web mode1 a = a b*ksf .# of controller outputs] p .c.lO.eye(B))). and r is a two entrg vector X r[# of controller inputs . X Integrator matrix: l/s 1-3 53 l t i s y s (zeros(3) .eye(3) .l i l ) .zeroe(3) ) .Tb_max ref = diag( [130.01s/(0*1s+1) Wu = sdiag(Uu.
. Designhg the controiier
% Find state-feedback gain t o place ail pole8 at 8-10 kaf = place (a.lO) . web = ltisys(a. X Transfer function: ~1 X Wu(s) = 0.controller a m. K>K:ieJ.
To design a controller with an
A.K) .smult(S3. and the plant model is different.t maximum values) . ref i = siri+(rdiag(i30. Design for tbe fuu-order model
X Form cloaed loop system with inputs being the reference values and P s ~ o ~ û C t ( ' r ('3.'':-a Pcl = slft(P. The sampling fiequency of the research machine i 4ûûHz.D)can be found as follows: s
Given a controller K.6. ilaname) that automatically generates ie f the C-code in the file f ilenme .h.KrG. and outputs the control signals that are applied to the motor drives.double* u) . *.)GK. except that the weights used are Mixent.K)) .
Once the controiier is determineci.h that defines the function controller(double* e . we have writt m a utility f l t OC(K . The discrete tirne state representation (A. the scaled tensions and speed.
X Plot step response mlot (Pd.r. Suppose 8lso that we wish to place the poles left of a = -1.Section A. and the controk i an n x m transifer matrix. it has to be discretized. and the control effort 'G:Kt . then the s foiiowing commands generate the c o n t r o k K:
.wëb) . The function inputs are the signals that are paased to the controlier.3
Design for the full-order model
The matlab code for full order model foiIows that of the tcduced order model exactly. K = 8113P1t(refi8S3.130) .B. That is the commaad
generates the file controiIer. the % integrator and the controllel: found above.
X Geaerate actual contiauous time controller as the seriea comection % of the scale factor (to acale error w . 'st ') . suppose the generaüzed p h t is given by P. C.
Design for the firll-order model
The afioremmtioned routine i performed by the h c t i o n webfo. The gain-schedded controller s requires the definition of a polytopic plant P. the following matlab fimction designs a gainscheduied controller:
>> N-in = 3.r) .K] = hinfg88.
The routine simg8 (KI then simulates the reeponse of the gain-scheduled controller. X Number of controller inputs and output8 >> r = IN-in N-out] . N-out = 3.
.3. >> Cg.Section A. Once this i avaüable (see the file webgs for the s matlab irnplemention of the idem in Chapter 4).
T Baqar and P. Self-scheduled ' . Aplcarian anà R. Beer and E. Adam. C o n t d and Dyramics. Control Engineering Pmctice. May-June 1995. Network A n a l w and Sylthesis: A Modern Systmu Themy Appmch. Multivariable identification of a winding
process by subspace methods for tension control.
 P. 1973. 23.Bibliography
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