Textile industry one of the oldest and largest sectors of light industry, producing fabrics, textiles, knitwear, and

other articles from various types of plant, animal, and chemical (artificial and synthetic) fibber. The textile industry occupies an important place in the production of social product and the satisfaction of personal needs. The industry includes the following divisions: initial processing of textile raw materials, fulling and felting, and the production of cotton fabrics, linen fabrics, wool fabrics, silk fabrics, nonwoven materials, hemp and jute, netting, textile clothing accessories and notions, and knitwear. Textile products are used in the manufacture of clothing and footwear and in other sectors of industry, such as the furniture industry and machine building.
Table 1. Fabric production in the USSR in 1913 and 1940 (million sq m) 1913 1940

Cotton ............... Wool ............... Silk ............... Linen ...............

1, 817 138 35.4 121

2, 715 155 67 272

The production of textile goods began in antiquity. The cultivation of cotton and the hand production of yarn and fabric were known in India, China, and Egypt many centuries before the Common Era. The textile industry was the first sector to take up machine production, giving rise in the second half of the 18th century to the industrial revolution. In Russia, in addition to cloth mills and capitalist production, there were many small domestic enterprises producing wool goods. Such enterprises belonged to gentry landowners and were based on serf labor. ―Cloth production,‖ V. I. Lenin wrote, ―is an example of that specific phenomenon of Russian history—the employment of serf labor in industry‖ (Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 3, p. 471). In the early 18th century many large wool, flax, and silk mills were built in regions where the population had long engaged in domestic production of linen fabrics; the wool mills produced cloth, and the cotton mills manufactured primarily sails and linen. The cotton fabric industry arose in Russia much later than other sectors of the textile industry, and it developed on the basis of linen weaving. Relatively large cotton mills for cloth production appeared in the second half of the 18th and early 19th centuries. In prerevolutionary Russia the textile industry was one of the chief sectors of manufacturing. In 1913 it accounted for 20.5 percent of all industrial output and approximately 32 percent of consumer goods output. The industry was located primarily in the Central Zone of European Russia; here were located the factory of the Society of the Manufactory of Vikula Morozov, the Company of the Bogorodsk-Glukhov Manufactory, the Industrial Society of the Nosov Brothers, the Musi-Guzhon Silk Mill, and the
Table 2. USSR textile industry output for the principal fabric types in the period 1950–75 1950 1960 1970 1975

Cotton (million sq m) ............... Wool (million sq m) ............... Silk (million sq m) ............... Linen (million sq m) ............... Knitted underwear and outerwear (millionarticles) ...............

2,745 4,838 6,152 6,635 193 106 257 197 439 675 516 583 643 707 740 778 1,146 1,508 1,230 1,417

Table 3. Fabric production in the foreign socialist countries (millions sq m) Cotton Wool Silk 1960 1975 1960 1975 1960 1975

Bulgaria ............... Czechoslovakia ...............

185.0 338.7 26.2 48.0 8.7


453.1 547.9 74.1 84.2 70.8 102.9

Table 3. Fabric production in the foreign socialist countries (millions sq m) Cotton Wool Silk 1960 1975 1960 1975 1960 1975

German Democratic Republic ............... 416.6 473.2 147.1 106.7 68.2 120.6 Hungary ............... Poland ............... Rumania ............... Yugoslavia ............... 246.5 351.4 30.8 36.2 28.4 54.5 604.0 952.7 108.7 181.3 103.8 193.3 248.3 591.1 29.8 78.1 25.3 88.8 257.0 375.5 45.8 66.1 19.4 39.5

Prokhorov Manufactory. The St. Petersburg area and Astrakhan and Saratov provinces were also important centers of the textile industry. There was no textile industry in Middle Asia or Kazakhstan—the primary sources of raw material. The development of the textile industry was held back by a shortage of raw materials and by the industry’s dependence on imports. The major textile enterprises were equipped primarily with imported machinery. Domestic machine building satisfied only slightly more than 20 percent of the demand for machine tools and machinery. The production of knitwear and textile clothing accessories and notions, silk winding, and the primary processing of flax and wool were just beginning as industries. Textile industry workers labored under extremely difficult conditions, and child labor was widely used. After World War I and the Civil War of 1918–20, production volume dropped sharply. During the very first years of Soviet power, new factories were built and old enterprises were brought back into operation. By 1926– 27, the following factories were in operation: the Lakin and Pioneer factories in Vladimir Oblast, the F. E. Dzerzhinskii Weaving Mill in Leningrad, and the F. E. Dzerzhinskii Krasnaia Talka Spinning Mill in Ivanovo. The total production of cotton, linen, wool, and silk fabrics surpassed the 1913 level. During the years of the first five-year plan (1929–32), 13 cotton, three linen, four wool, and several other textile enterprises were launched. Under the second five-year plan (1933–37), construction was completed on the first phase of the Tashkent and Barnaul cotton fabric combines, the Dushanbe Textile Combine, the linen combines in Smolensk, Orsha, and Kostroma, a cloth combine in Semipalatinsk, a silk-weaving mill in Nukha, and other textile enterprises. As a result of increased production capacities, the production of cotton fabrics in 1940 significantly surpassed the 1913 level (see Table 1). The production of knitwear increased from 8.3 million articles in 1928 to 186 million in 1940. During the prewar five-year plans, the textile industry became established in the Union republics of Middle Asia and Transcaucasia, and a new sector of textile industry emerged—the production of nonwoven, fabric-type materials. During the Great Patriotic War of 1941–15, the textile industry in the territory temporarily occupied by fascist German troops suffered great losses, and many enterprises were ruined. Under the fourth five-year plan (1946–50), the textile industry was rebuilt, and its output surpassed the prewar level. After the war all sectors of the textile industry developed significantly. Cotton enterprises were built in Kamyshin, Engel’s, Kherson, Barnaul (a second combine), Dushanbe (second phase), Cheboksary, Iartsevo, Omsk, Gori, Krasnodar, Alitus, Kalinin, Alma-Ata, and Bukhara. New woolen enterprises were built in Minsk, Briansk, Ivanovo, Krasnodar, Tiumen’, Chernigov, Chita, and Chernogorsk. Silk enterprises were built in Krasnoiarsk, Naro-Fominsk, Kalinin, and Leningrad. Linen enterprises were established in Zhitomir, Rovno, Velikie Luki, and Panevėžys. Enterprises producing knitwear were built in Cheboksary, Ufa, Pinsk, Ogre, and Kursk. The introduction of new production capabilities and highly productive equipment and the transition in enterprises to the new system of planning and economic incentive helped increase the production growth rate for fabrics and knitwear. The development of the textile industry in the period 1950–74 is shown in Table 2. In 1975 the USSR led the world in the production of wool and linen fabrics. The growth in textile output is supported by a corresponding increase in the production of textile raw materials. In prerevolutionary Russia, which produced one-fourth as much cotton fabrics and virtually no knitwear, approximately 50 percent of the cotton fiber used was imported from the USA and Egypt. The USSR now

supplies all its own raw material needs and exports more than 500,000 tons of cotton fiber. At the same time, the qualitative composition of textile raw materials has also changed. Plants manufacturing artificial fibers have mastered the production of new types of materials, including acetate silk, Lavsan, and Nitron. Considerable attention is being devoted to improvements in the quality and expansion of the range of textile goods through the introduction of new types of fabrics and knitwear, the use of colorfast and bright dyes, and the careful finishing of fabrics. Further increases in production and quality improvements are made possible by the technical reequipping of textile enterprises, the introduction of new machinery and progressive technology, and the mechanization and automation of production. Spinning-and-twisting frames, highly productive carding and pneumatic spinning machines, and pneumatic rapier looms and other shuttleless looms are being introduced in the textile industry. Scientific and technological progress in the sectors of the textile industry and the rising qualifications of workers are promoting an increase in labor productivity. The average production of yarn per worker per hour increased 140 percent in the cotton fabric industry between 1940 and 1974; in the wool fabric industry the increase was 250 percent, and in the linen sector it was 130 percent. In the same period the average production of gray cloth per worker per hour in these sectors increased 120 percent, 140 percent, and 130 percent, respectively. As of 1975, the textile industry in the USSR is served by ten scientific research institutes and five planning institutes, employing more than 7,000 specialists in various fields. In order to train production specialists and designers for the textile industry, textile institutes have been established in Moscow, Leningrad, Ivanovo, Tashkent, Kostroma, and Kiev, and several technicums have been opened.
Table 4. Fabric production in the capitalist countries in 1975 (millions sq m) Cotton Wool Silk

*1974 France ............... Germany Federal Republic of ............... Great Britain ............... Italy ............... Japan ............... USA ............... 900 900 400 900 1 900 4000 170 100 180 250 320 100 370 420 401 280* 3000 6500

The textile industry is also developing successfully in the foreign socialist countries. Fabric production is being increased in these countries through the use of the domestic potential of each country and through comprehensive cooperation between countries. Table 3 shows the level of fabric production in the socialist countries. It is estimated that the production of cotton fabrics in the People’s Republic of China in 1974 was 8.34 billion running meters. Among the capitalist countries, the textile industry is most highly developed in the USA, Japan, Great Britain, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, and Italy. Production figures for various fabrics for 1975 are shown in Table 4 on page 549. Among the developing countries, production of cotton fabrics in 1974 was 7.95 billion running meters in India, 275 million running meters in Egypt, and 495 million running meters in Iran (1972–73, including fabrics made from synthetic fibers).

The Apparel Industry consists of companies that design and sell clothing, footwear and accessories. Product categories include everything from basics, such as underwear, to luxury items, for example, cashmere sweaters and alligator-skin handbags. Traditionally, Apparel companies are wholesalers, selling large quantities of goods to retailers, which mark up items and sell them to consumers for a profit. However, it's become more difficult to draw a line

Retail Operations There are a number of reasons why Apparel companies establish retail divisions. are popular among shoppers. Brand names. Sales volume. One license can cover many products. Retailers stock up on merchandise before shoppers hit the stores during the peak back-to-school and holiday periods. Instead of just designing and producing clothes and filling wholesale orders. manage inventory. Production is often outsourced to developing countries. Retail stores are typically more profitable than their wholesale brethren. The wholesale market is seasonal. however. and their influence is diluted further at the boutique level. By selling its own merchandise at retail. style or value. Brand-name items and private-label goods compete against each other for shelf space throughout the business cycle. companies with retail operations also have to find store locations with good potential. Because of the seasonal nature of the wholesale market. it's better to compare sales on a year-to-year. where labor costs are inexpensive. most Apparel companies now have both types of operations. a company owns licenses to manufacture goods under particular brand names. In tough economic times. this strategy can be risky. Apparel companies design and produce/source items that they sell to retailers. . consumers might turn to similar private-label goods to save money. basis. those familiar offerings with a good reputation for quality. rather than sequential-quarter. such as ties and shirts. an Apparel company may only have the rights to produce specific items under a brand. supply chain efficiency. without worrying about competing labels. specialty shops and discounters. such goods are often more profitable for the seller. and will market and advertise these lines. but not pants or sleepwear. Gross and operating margins are the best gauges of a company's health. A clothing company possessing a broad lineup of well-known brands has a competitive advantage over its peers. This is not always the case. general and administrative (SG&A) expenses determine profitability. and selling. Apparel companies have some control over branding and merchandising at department stores.between wholesalers and retailers. an Apparel company can cut out the middle man and increase profits. Wholesale Business Wholesale business is what separates Apparel companies from those in the Retail (Special Lines) category. relative to those of the United States and Europe. However. Having stores dedicated to a single brand gives a company control over a line's image and identity. Though they are less expensive than branded items. and avoid big markdowns. Private-label goods are found in department stores and discount chains. Often. In some instances. sourcing costs. Dedicated retail stores allow a company to highlight its own merchandise. including department stores.

Shoppers want to quickly find what they are looking for on line. including markdowns and promotions and SG&A expenses. clothing is an area where people can easily trim outlays. These sales do not entail expensive storefronts and related staffing and. Product mix also plays a roll in determining profitability. Fashion trends change frequently. The headdresses are things like the turban and are still being worn today. Investment Considerations The Apparel Industry is fragmented and highly competitive. Sales-per-square-foot is another important metric that measures how efficiently a retailer utilizes its floor space. Too. Although clothing is a basic need. but some dark colors were being added to the new styles giving more variety to choose from. but during periods of economic uncertainty and contraction. Market analysts review total year-to-year sales to identify trends. These turbans are made by fabric that was not sewed together but is one piece of material. a weighting toward accessories is favorable. and . As with wholesalers. Apparel companies need to be nimble and highly efficient to survive in this cutthroat industry. During the 1930's women's fashions started to become more stylish and fashionable. the success of retailers is visible in their reported gross and operating margins. Later in the nineteenth century a new Style of clothes that fit the body tight started to become very popular and India began to add this in their fashions. especially since consumers are increasingly Web-savvy and have access virtually anywhere. The India women accepted the fashion change more than the men did. Retail margins are influenced by several factors. general merchandisers and foreign companies bring more competition to the sector. India clothing went through a lot of changes in the nineteenth century. thus. and demand fast processing and shipping.The Internet is another important platform for retailers. When times are good. The colors of clothing were mostly bright and colorful. Consequently. India men continued to wear Headdresses that had been worn by them for so long. Tracing history it would seem this has always been case with men's headgear. There are a number of major players. Apparel sales at the retail level tend to be highly seasonal. but there are also countless niche stores and private companies that cater to specific demographics. Accessories' one-size-fits-all nature involves lower costs than do fitted clothes. people have wide discretion as to when they update their wardrobes and how much they spend. with the majority of revenue booked during the holiday and back-to-school periods. For instance. apparel sales are usually brisk. given their high margins. but still keep a lot of tradition around. they focus on "comparable-store" sales. Direct sales via the Internet can be a boon to a company. Notably. In the 80s the elders were affected by how much TV had caught the attention of. Apparel stocks are economically sensitive. Having the right product is also essential. and companies need to adapt to varying consumer tastes quickly. During this same decade India clothes for men also went though some changes but they still held onto their traditions. are more profitable than traditional business. which indicate the year-to-year performance of locations open for a year or more. Even with the changes India was making they still kept their traditional fabrics they had always used. They still wore their veils and wore they traditional clothing at ceremonies and festivities.

baby boy clothes. A broad array of baby apparels made from excellent quality clothings is available in variety of colors and designs which are accepted and liked by a large group of people. infant clothing. baby sweater. These clothes are both beautiful and durable. and designs are always cute in terms of beauty. Veils are still being worn by the women in India today and may always be a big part of India clothes and culture. baby nappies. This is when they started accepting change a little better. baby suit. baby care products. baby diapers. They are available in fine packaging.    Baby Accessory Baby Bibs Baby Boy Clothes o Baby Care Products          Baby Clothes Baby Diapers Baby Girl Clothes Baby Nappies Baby Nightwear Baby Romper Baby Suit Baby Sweater Baby Wear . etc. baby nightwear. baby bids. Our collection of baby apparels is designed as per the latest fashion trends in today’s market. and the India clothing became more fashionable. All of these items are prepared keeping complete comfort in mind. Also these baby wears are designed keeping complete comforts for babies in mind. In today's fashions India styles are still changing. Apparel Category Baby Apparel We are engaged in supplying and exporting of a wide range of baby apparels which are the perfect clothings for babies and infants. toddler clothing. Our broad range of baby apparels includes baby accessories. baby clothes.made an impression on the new generation. fashion and finishes. These baby appeals provide extreme care to infants with the safety they require. the western cuts have been introduced to the Indian fabrics and have made a beautiful and elegant fashion statement. baby girl clothes. They are so tiny and adorable.

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Our range of traditional garments includes folk dresses. designer dupattas. lehnga choli. ghaghra choli. especially worn next to the skin. Undergarments are worn for a variety of reasons.   Jumpsuits Sports Caps Gym Wear Traditional Traditional clothing Clothing imparts unparalleled amount of charisma on wearer’s personality. pooja rituals. lungi. These garments are worn under outer garments. It is an important ethnic feature of the community. ethnic clothing. . designer suits. etc. designer sarees. kurta payjamas. colorful turbans. dhoti. We are offering an exquisite collection of undergarments for male and female both to successfully meet any diverse or distinct kind of need of wearers. People always prefer to dress up themselves in traditional garments on various auspicious and special events such as wedding ceremonies. designer sherwani. On these occasions traditional clothing provides indeed a unique look and enhanced appeal to wearer’s personality. and other many other social events. They are also used for modesty or erotic display. Bandhani.           Bandhani Chania Choli Dhoti Ethnic Clothing Folk Dress Ghagra Choli Kurta Pyjama Lungi Sarongs Turbans Undergarments are a very important piece of Indian garments used as innerwear. chaniya choli. We are offering an exclusive range of male traditional clothing and female traditional clothing.

Beautifully designed rain wear looks very classic and are strong and very practical. rain pants. long underwear. lingerie. socks & stockings. designer bikinis. These garments are designed as per latest fashion trends keeping mind in comfort for wearers. vests. Rain wear generally refers to a range of waterproof clothing which is worn in monsoon season for the protection from getting wet. camisole. innerwear. designer vests. panties. brassiere. underwear. texture and colors to choose from. Our range of undergarments include briefs.          Brassiere Briefs Camisole Curves Shaper Innerwear Lingeries Socks & Stockings Underwear Vests Rain Wear Rain wear is a piece of clothing which is worn in rainy season. string. They are available in various designs. Also they are fancy and can provide enhanced look to wearer’s personality.      Rain Boot Raincoats Rainsuits Umbrellas Waterproof Clothing . rain boots.These garments are basically prepared from find quality cotton fabrics. designer lingerie. Today other fabrics are also used as preparing undergarments. curves shapers. Our range of rain wear and accessories includes raincoats. etc. short underwear. rain suits. styles and sizes. We are offering an exclusive range of rain wear outfits which are available in different bright colors. and many other types of waterproof clothing. boy shorts. umbrellas. thongs. They are made from different kinds of waterproof and durable fabrics.

high-neck sweaters & pullovers. cotton shirts. Our collection of summer wear for ladies includes cotton skirts. We make available them at affordable prices. They are available in various designs. cotton tops.Summer Wear The warm weather of summer provides the ideal opportunity for you to get out your favorite shirts. etc. leather jackets & blazers. jerseys. formal sweater. overcoats. We are also offering winter wear garments for kids and children. woolen payjamas. suits. cotton sarees. Winter wear garments are worn for the purpose of keeping body warm during winter season.   Cardigans Cashmere Sweater . These summer wear outfits are designed as per the latest fashion trends. designer pullovers. silk shirts. leather garments. woolen mufflers. men’s shorts. leather pants. pashmina shawls. coats. cotton suits.     Casual Wear Cotton Shirt Printed Shirt T-shirts Winter Wear Winter means cold squeeze in atmosphere and it is imperative to cover your body as much as possible but it may ruin your glamour. ladies sweaters. woolen garments. frocks. pants. etc. etc. t-shirts. capri. We have an array of summer wear for all ages . blazers. kurtis. cotton trousers. and colors. ladies winter wear. casual wear. jackets. men’s winter wear. designer sweaters. skirts. down garments. We are offering an exclusive range of summer wear collection to meet comfort and specific need of people. trousers. Our exclusive range of winter wear collection includes casual winter wear. Our range of summer wear for male includes casual men wear. We have collection of summer wear for women and male both. fleece. bright and cheerful colors to reflect a fun. cardigans. summer and light garments to stay cool in the summer styles. mufflers.kids. You will want wear light. We are offering a wide range of winter wear for men and female both. styles. cotton shirts. cotton t-shirts. fur garments. ladies pullovers. caps. knitted garments. knitwear. sweaters. t-shirts. teens and old ages. silk dresses and more.

              Down Garment Fleece Fur Garments Hoodies Hosiery Products Jackets Jerseys Knitted Garments Knitwear Pullovers Sweater Woolen Garments Woolen Berets Woven Garments Blended Clothing We are providing blended fabrics in different designs and attractive colors. We are also offering various options regarding color. It is popular among people for its softness and tenderness. It is the world’s most popular type of fabric. Cotton is a soft fiber that grows around the sees of the cotton plant. They have been used throughout history to enrich the appearances. Cotton Clothing Cotton fabric is soft and comfortable. Blended fabrics made available by us are highly appreciated by our clients. and breathable . We are providing a variety of blended fabrics which is capable of successfully meeting any type of need and to suit all budgets. tender. They are worldwide used in garment and apparel industry. They are completely capable to impress anybody that looks at it. while manufacturing of blended clothing. The fiber is used to spin into thread and used to make soft. design and sizes of the weaving process. They are prepared by using latest weaving technology. Blended fabrics come in a wide variety of sizes. It is used for almost every type of clothing. styles and colors to choose from. In addition to be attractive blended fabrics have also established themselves to be very useful.

bags. We are offering organic cotton clothing. textures. trouser & shirt dress materials. etc.textile that is called cotton fabric. thread embroidered dress material. capri pants. colors and patterns. Apparels or garments made from denim fabrics are very popular in today’s fashion trends. Today. fancy gents dress materials. silk dress materials. handmade cotton clothing. It is a rugged cotton twill textile in which the weft passed under two or more warp of threads. woolen dress materials. suiting & shirting dress materials. Denim clothings are used to prepare various kinds of garments such as jeans. designer cotton clothing. We are offering a wide range of denim clothings and denim products at affordable prices. . cotton dress materials. denim clothings are widely well-accepted and demanded in garment. ladies suit dress materials. We are offering quality dress materials in different designs. designer dress materials. We are offering various kinds of dress materials in various designs and colors at affordable prices. wedding dress materials. Dress Materials We are one of leading suppliers and exporters of different kinds of dress materials of high quality. line dress materials. Denim is a type of cotton clothing. shorts. salwar suit dress materials. dresses. Denim denim clothings Clothing are exclusively prepared from denim fabrics. gents suit dress materials. etc. trousers. We are offering a wide range of cotton fabrics available in various designs. denim dress materials. We are offering quality range of dress materials at affordable prices to suit our customers’ needs and budgets. These Today. shirts. viscose dress materials. jackets. textile and apparel industry. printed cotton clothing. We are offering fancy ladies dress materials. Designed in compliance with latest trend. patterns and colors. hats. colorful cotton clothing. denim clothing is considered as the most impressive and exclusive range of clothing materials available. our dress materials are prepared with quality fabrics which are quality tested for thickness and stitch before being dispatched at clients end. shoes. etc. Denim jeans are fashion statement of youngsters including ladies and gents both. Cotton is considered as backbone of textile industry. We are offering cotton clothings and fabrics at affordable prices. Today is cotton fabric is among highly demanded fabrics in garment and apparel industry worldwide.

dry cleaned. The appealing and sparkling appearance of silk never fails to mesmerize you. patterns. linen gents attire. We are offering a wide range of silk clothing. line suiting & shirting dress materials. Nylon fabric is widely used in apparel and garment industry to produce vibrant range of nylon garments and apparels. designer linen outfits. nylon gents wear. silk clothing and stain clothing. Silk Clothing Silk is a natural protein fibre which can be woven into textiles. It can be machine washed. We are providing an innovative range of nylon garments and clothings at affordable prices. linen pants. They are known for comfort they provide. nylon sports wear. Our nylon fabric product range includes nylon t-shirt. nylon rainwear. Our range of silk clothings. etc. Nylon Clothing Nylon is one of the most commonly used polymers. The most popular form of silk is obtained from the cocoons of the larvae of the mulberry silkworm. They are known to attract less lint. It requires comparatively low maintenance as compared to other clothing materials such as cotton clothing. linen baby & child wear. line t-shirt. fabrics and garments are widely accepted and well-liked.Linen Clothing Linen is a fabric made of natural fiber. linen salwar kameej dress materials. linen ladies wear. nylon jackets. etc. nylon trousers. Linen clothes have well established themselves in textile. linen wedding attire. and fashion industry. linen dresses. All these products are designed as per the latest fashion trends and available with us at affordable prices. line trousers. nylon track suits. We are specialized in offering a wide range of nylon fabrics that are known widely for their attractive designs. There are many benefits of line clothes. garment. steam washed and hand washed. nylon socks. nylon baby or child wear. nylon brief. apparel. and vibrant colors. nylon ladies thong. Our exclusive range of linen clothing & garments include linen shirt. nylon shorts. nylon pants. We are offering a wide range of line clothes at affordable prices. silk garments and silk fabrics available in various designs. patterns and styles. . So it is very easy to maintain the cleanliness of linen clothes. nylon ladies wear.

Wool fabric is generally collected from sheep and goats. designer woolen garments. It is expected that. woolen salwar suit fabrics. post-MFA. wedding silk sarees.Our range includes designer silk clothing & fabrics. designer silk skirts. ladies cardigans. woolen men garments. silk fabrics and silk garments at affordable prices made from high quality silk fabrics. colored silk shirts. winter woolen chester. woolen jackets. most tariff distortions would gradually disappear and firms with robust capabilities will gain in the global trade of textile and apparel. yet strong and very durable. embroidered silk clothing & fabrics. fancy woolen garments. woolen caps. etc. The fabric of woolen clothing never burns over a flame but only smolders. Our range of woolen clothing and fabrics includes woolen shirt fabrics. fancy silk clothing & fabrics. colored woolen garments. bridal silk sarees. woolen shirts. boys silk garments. woolen trousers. woolen innerwear. pullovers. knitted silk tops. designer woolen garments. We are offering silk clothing. Wool fabric is soft. So winter is the only season when woolen clothings are at high demand. Woolen Clothing We are offering a wide range of woolen clothings and garments made from quality wool fabric that gives warmth and attractive appearance in the personality of wearers. etc. sweaters. designer stoles. Introduction The Multi-Fibre Agreement (MFA). colorful silk clothing & fabrics. woolen mufflers. silk tops. woolen pants. The prize is the $360 bn market which is expected to grow to about $600 bn by the year 2010 â€― barely five years after the expiry of MFA. silk kurtis. embroidered silk sarees. 2005. embroidered silk sherwani. ladies silk clothing. girls silk garments. expired on 1 January. woolen ladies garments. designer shawls. men silk clothing. designer silk dresses. Wool clothing keeps body warm and comfortable in winter. fancy silk garments. that had governed the extent of textile trade between nations since 1962. silk salwar suits. Widely popular cashmere sweaters or shawls are prepared from goats found in Kashmir in India. An important question facing Indian firms is whether their capabilities and their diverse supply chain are aligned to benefit from the opening up of global textile market? . designer silk sarees.

 This supply chain is perhaps one of the most diverse in terms of the raw materials used. Another feature of the distribution channel is the strong presence of ‘agents’ who secure and consolidate orders for producers. The British colonization of India and its industrial policies destroyed the innovative eco-system and left it technologically impoverished. processing sector. there are clusters emerging in the National Capital Region (NCR). According to our estimate. ginning facilities. Exports are traditionally executed through Export Houses or procurement/commissioning offices of large global apparel retailers.90 per cent. diversification of its product base.1. and Ludhiana employing about 3. In 2004-05. weaving and knitting factories and garment (and other stitched and non-stitched) manufacturing that supply an extensive distribution channel (see Figure 1). dhoti. However. of the total production from the weaving sector. once again. The distribution channel comprises wholesalers. its export value to US $50bn and employment to 12 million by the year 2010 (Texmin 2005). only 30â€―40 units are large in size (as a result of long years of reservation of non-exporting garment units for the small scale sectors â€― a regulation that was removed recently). About 40 per cent of fabric for garment production is imported â€― a figure that is expected to rise in coming years. salwar kurta. spinning and extrusion processes. etc.The history of textiles in India dates back to the use of mordant dyes and printing blocks around 3000 BC. 41 per cent was . The sector aspires to grow its revenue to US $85bn.100 bn of which about 81 per cent comes from the domestic market. the textile and apparel sector employs 35. Mumbai. It is estimated that there exist 65. While these firms are spread all over the country. The value of Indian garments (eg. The diversity of fibres found in India. and its emergence. Today.0 mn people (and is the 2nd largest employer). Tirupur/Coimbatore.000 garment units in the organized sector. The weaving and knits sector lies at the heart of the industry. saree. Bangalore. It is only recently that large retail formats are emerging thereby increasing variety as well as volume on display at a single location. This textile economy is worth US $37 bn and its share of the global market is about 5. intricate weaving on its state-ofart manual looms and its organic dyes attracted buyers from all over the world for centuries. This supply chain supplies about 70 per cent by value of its production to the domestic market.) is around Rs. of which about 88 per cent are for woven cloth while the remaining are for knits. distributors and a large number of small retailers selling garments and textiles. as an important global player. The Textile and Apparel Supply Chain The Textile and Apparel Supply Chain comprises diverse raw material sectors. Independent India saw the building up of textile capabilities. about 46 per cent was cotton cloth. the total value of production in the garment sector is around Rs.200â€―250 bn. technologies deployed and products produced. generates 1/5th of the total export earnings and contributes 4 per cent to the GDP thereby making it the largest industrial sector of the country.050â€―1.5 mn people.

spindles and 0. Strong production clusters like Tirupur and Ludhiana have led to growth of accessories sector as well. government incentives and demand for low cost. mts.meters of which about 82 per cent was using cotton fibre. They also represent very distinctive supply chains. 950 mn kg of blended yarn and about 1106 mn kg of man-made filament yarn every year. Most of the woven cloth comes from the powerlooms (chiefly at Surat. suffers from outdated technology. unit prices and production quantity. textiles with geographical characterization (e. Handloom production is mostly rural (employing about 10 million. has on an average 4. mts of cloth and employed about 4.sq. sq. Weaving. deploy 34. In 2005. Bhiwandi. high volume. was traditionally done by composite mills that combined it with spinning and processing operations. household weavers) and revolves around master-weavers who provide designs. there were 425. wool and silk and 13 per cent was blended cloth.24 mn. others gradually closed down.792 registered powerloom units that produced 26.947 mn. Mills.437 mn respectively. Knits have been more successful especially in export channels. has largely a domestic focus and is growing rapidly. rotors producing 2270 mn kg of cotton yarn. The spinning sector is perhaps most competitive globally in terms of variety. albeit slowly. Three distinctive technologies are used in the sector â€― handlooms. sq. mostly.385 mn rotors while the SME units produce their yarn on 3. Spinning is done by 1566 mills and 1170 Small and Medium Enterprises (SME).29 mn spindles and 0. standard products (especially sarees and grey cloth) moved the production towards powerloom factories and away from composite mills (that were essentially full line variety producers). The handloom sector (including khadi. there remained 223 composite mills that produced 1434 mn.5 power looms per unit. Though cotton is the fibre of preference.119 mn.  In 200304. Most of these mills are located inGujarat and Maharashtra.   Weavingsector is predominantly small scale.g. Handloom production in 2003-04 was around 5493 mn. NCR. raw material and often the loom. and incurs high co-ordination costs. It produces. Spinning sector is technology intensive and productivity is affected by the quality of cotton and the cleaning process used during ginning. The hosiery sector. Worsted and non-worsted spindles (producing woolen yarn) have also progressively grown to 0. Over the years. man-made fibre (polyster fibre and polyster filament yarn) is also produced by about 100 large and medium size producers. of cloth. Chennai).757. silk and some wool) serves the low and the high ends of the value chain â€― both mass consumption products for use in rural India as well as niche products for urban & exports markets. While some like Arvind Mills or Ashima transformed themselves into competitive units. .383 workers. on the other hand. chiefly.100% non-cotton including khadi. powerlooms and knitting machines. cotton and silk sarees in Pochampally or Varanasi) and in small batches. chiefly located in North India. using powerlooms..604 mn and 0.

processing. (Except for garments. often. The remaining are independent process houses (or part of composite mills) that use automated large batch or continuous processing and have an average scale of about 20.The processing sector.397 units are hand processors who dye cloth or yarn manually and dry in open sunshine. however. Its share in global shuttleless loom. Competitiveness of Indian Textile & Apparel Industry India is one of the few countries that owns the complete supply chain in close proximity from diverse fibres to a large market. jute (10985000 bales). small and. While production .e.000 m of cloth daily.7 mn kg) and man-made fibres (1100. 1. all data in this section was obtained from OTC 2004 and Texmin 2005. finishing and printing is mostly small in scale. un-registered units. handloom and knits) and higher power tariffs. 3009 mn kg of cotton was grown over 7. dyeing.e. Indian strength in spinning is now well established â€― on unit costs on ring yarn. i. India contributes about 23 per cent of world spindles and 6 per cent of world rotors (second highest in the world after China). and a panoply of finishes. In 200304. Other fibres produced are silk (15742 tonnes).69 % of Indian looms). diverse count sizes. Significant qualities of cotton.e. About 82. jute in eastern and wool in northern India. silk in southern India. silk and wool fibres are also imported by the spinning and knitting sectors. Indian firms are ahead of their global competitors including China. Of the remaining (and these use automated and semi-automated equipment). There is. is only about 2.8 per cent of world looms (and is ranked 9th in the world). Cotton grows mostly in western and central India. cloths of different weight and weave. fragmented. This advantage is further accentuated by cost based advantages and diverse traditions in textiles. wool (50. Same is true on some woven OE yarn fabric categories (especially grey fabrics) but is not true for other woven segments. The competitiveness in the weaving sector is adversely affected by low penetration of shuttleless looms (i.65 mn kg). openended (OE) yarn as well as textured yarn. It is capable of delivering packaged products to customers comprising a variety of fibres. Fifty five per cent of total investment in technology in the last decade has been made in the spinning sector. Cotton remains the most significant raw material for the Indian textile industry. the unorganized nature of the sector (i. however.. The largest amongst these would dye and finish about 5000 m/day. a recent trend of investment in setting up hi-tech. stand-alone mid-size weaving companies focusing on export markets. technology and facilitating policies..5 per cent or 10.785 mn acres.) Managing such a complex supply chain requires coordination through excellent managerial practices. low investment in technology & practices especially in the powerloom.. India also has the highest deployment of handlooms in the world (handlooms are low on productivity but produce specialized fabric). This permits the supply chain to mix and match variety in different segments to deliver new products and applications. 2076 are independent process houses.

and its competitiveness gets compromised severely.6). 1.. Some of the Chinese large firms have 1. high average defect rates in production process (which also leads to increase in effective labour and power costs). 16 days of sales as work-in-process inventory (the highest for garment firms) and an average of 30 days of sales in raw material inventory (the highest for spinning firms) (Chandra 2004).25 times denim (and 2 times gray fabric) capacity and about 6 times more revenue in garment than their counterparts in India thereby affecting the cost structure as well as ability to attract customers with large orders. Trade data of post-MFA performance reveals some interesting trends â€― Indian firms registered a 27 per cent growth in exports to US (against China’s 52 per cent) during the Jan-April 2005 time period. reservation in the garment sectors) including tariff distortions between the organized and unorganized sectors have now been systematically removed by policy initiatives of Government of India and have opened avenues for firms to compete on the basis of their capabilities.. Europe. Challenges facing Indian Textile and Apparel Industry Textile supply chains compete on low cost. accurate delivery and flexibility in variety and volume. China. (Texmin. The central tendency is to add capacity once the order has been won rather than ahead of the demand. average % of orders on time is about 80%. Indian firms are typically smaller than their Chinese or Thai counterparts and there are fewer large firms in India.) It is expected that India will soon replace Mexico as the second largest apparel supplier to the US. processing technology is primarily manual and small batch oriented with visual colour matching and sun drying.and export of man-made fibre (and filament yarn) has increased over the years. Indian industry still lags significantly behind US. and on an average. Apparels & accessories constituted 78% of global exports to USA (FICCI 2005). Add to this.5 times higher spinning capacity.  Lead times across the sector continue to be affected by variability in the supply chain â€― defect rates average over 5%. Most of this growth has been in textiles while apparels show marginal gains. Similarly. Taiwan etc. poor ginning (most equipment dates back to 1940s).g. Customers go where they see both . Several challenges stand in the way of Indian firms before they can own a larger share of the global market: Scale: Except for spinning. contamination of cotton with consequent increase in cost (as it affects quality and requires installation of additional process to clean and open cotton fibres before carding operations). (India is still a relatively small yet growing player in the global apparel market. all other sectors suffer from the problem of scale. 2005. etc. the coefficient of variability of average order size for spinning firms is about 2.) Indian textile industry has suffered in the past from low productivity at both ends of the supply chain â€― low farm yields affecting cotton production and inefficiency in garment sector due to restriction of size and reservation. variance in order size across firms is high (e.  Some of the hurdles (eg. This leads to inconsistency in conformance quality. high quality. hank yarn requirement.

figure in the list of imports from India that have gained in these early days of post-MFA. however. is not well entrenched. becomes imperative if we are to grow beyond 5â€―6% of global market share as these are areas that are projected to grow significantly. This kind of investment would require. Large capacity typically goes with standardized products.4% increase over the previous year).capacity and capabilities. Indian synthetic industry. book capacities. 2004). (c) there is an acute shortage of trained operators and supervisors in India. however. high throughput times. it will have to have bigger firms producing standard products in large volumes as well as small and mid size firms producing large variety in small to mid size batches (the tension between the organized and un-organized sectors will have to be addressed first. low WIP and consequently cost. 1400 bn by year 2010 to increase its global trade to $ 50 bn. Customs must provide a turnaround time of ½ day for an order before Indian firms can they expect to become part of larger global supply chains. The Technology .8mn operators in the apparel sector (assuming a 80:20 ratio of investment between textiles and apparel). Synthetic textiles comprise about 50 per cent of the global textile market. though). Skills : Three issues must be mentioned here : (a) there is a paucity of technical manpower â€― there exist barely 30 programmes at graduate engineering (including diploma) levels graduating about 1000 students â€― this is insufficient for bringing about technological change in the sector. home furnishings etc. manage warehouses and logistics of order delivery. 2005). low variability in process times.000 supervisors and 1.000 supervisors and 2. These firms need to develop the managerial capabilities required to manage large work force and design an appropriate supply chain. It is expected that Indian firms will have to invest close to Rs. by our calculations.2% increase) (FICCI. Indian firms have to dramatically reduce cycle times across the entire supply chain which are currently quite high (Chandra. Innovation & Technology: A review of the products imported from China to USA during Januaryâ€―April 2005 reveals that the top three products in terms of percentage increase in imports were Tire Cords & Tire Fabrics (843. Nonwoven fabrics (284. Cycle Time : Cycle time is the key to competitiveness of a firm as it affects both price and delivery schedule. nano-textiles. The real bottleneck to growth is going to be availability of skilled manpower. Penetration of IT for improving productivity is particularly low in this sector. Indian firms need a strong deployment of industrial engineering with particular emphasis on cellular manufacturing. (b) Indian firms invest very little in training its existing workforce and the skills are limited to existing proceses (Chandra 1998). Cycle time reduction is strongly correlated with high first pass yield.1% increase) and Textile/Fabric Finishing Mill Products (197. Then there is the need for emergence of specialist firms that will consolidate orders. None of these items. Entry into newer application domains of industrial textiles.05mn operators in the textile sector and at least 112. about 70. JIT and statistical process control to reduce lead times on shop floors. For the size of the Indian economy.

Institutional Support : Textile policy has come long ways in reducing impediments for the industry â€― sometimes driven by global competition and. In addition. Boucle A knit or woven fabric made from a rough. Firms need to make their supply chain leaner in order to overcome these disadvantages. few areas of policy weakness stand out â€― labour reforms (which is hindering movement towards higher scale of operations by Indian firms). However. Brocade A heavy. Canvas A strong. the mid or higher ranges are over priced (i. the new market will be won on the basis of capabilities across the supply chain. credit for large scale investments that are needed for upgradation of technology. In conclusion. . competitive strategies are developed by sector level firms and its their individual and collective initiatives that secure higher market share in global trade. jacquard-type fabric with an all-over raised pattern or floral design. knotted boucle yarn. Cambric A fine thin white linen fabric. While one has to be ever vigilant of non-tariff barriers in the post MFA world. power availability and its quality.. Ignoring the domestic market. and development of manpower for the industry. in the long run. These are problems facing several sectors of industry in India and not by this sector alone. there is little evidence that this deployment in technology has accompanied changes in the managerial regimes â€― a necessary condition for increasing productivity and order winning ability. knotted surface and is often used in sportswear and coats. Domestic Market : The Indian domestic market for all textile and apparel products is estimated at $26 bn and growing. While the market is very competitive at the low end of the value chain. However. The fabric has a looped. The Free Trade Agreement with Singapore and Thailand will allow overseas producers to meet the aspirations of domestic buyers with quality and prices that are competitive in the domestic market. customs clearance and shipment operations from ports. Firms are not taking advantage of the large domestic market in generating economies of scale to deliver cost advantage in export markets. closely woven cotton fabric. high retail property prices and high channel margins in India will restrict growth of this market. at other times. Policy will need to facilitate this building of capabilities at the firm level and the flexible strategies that firms will need to devise periodically. will peril the export markets for domestic producers. exquisite. by international trade regulations. curly. ‘dollar pricing’). durable.e.Upgradation Fund of the government is being used to stimulate investment in new processes.

The fabric. or manufactured fibers. If the crepe effect is the right side of the fabric.Cashmere A luxury fiber obtained from the soft. Embroidered An embellishment of a fabric or garment in which colored threads are sewn into the fabric to create a design. Iraq. The pattern has areas of design that are very dense. thick fibers woven into the base fabric. Chambray A plain woven fabric that can be made from cotton. produce the highest quality cotton fabrics. Crocheted Loose. summer sweaters. Chintz A usually glazed printed cotton fabric. silk. Fibers that create the texture. The floating yarns are made with low twist and may be of either high or low luster. Crepe back satin A satin fabric in which highly-twisted yarns are used in the filling direction. Most commonly used in sweaters. Elastin A protein that is similar to collagen and is the chief constituent of elastic fibers." Chiffon A plain. and the pattern is often outlined with heavier cords or threads. this textured fabric is recognized by irregular-sized. one color predominates on the fabric surface. The longest staple fibers. whose name comes from the French word for "caterpillar. Due to the twill construction. and dresses. Used for light. containing highly twisted filament yarns. suits. Crinkled Forming many short bends or ripples. woven. Fibers are typically 1/2 inch to 2 inches long. synthetics and blends-that have a crinkle. soft. can also be made from rayon and other manufactured fibers. cotton. Crepe Used to describe all kinds of fabrics--wool. rayon. Denim True denim is a twill-weave. are thicker and heavier than those used in shantung. It incorporates a colored warp (often blue) and white filling yarns. China. cotton-like fabric made with different colored yarns in the warp and the weft. airy. silk. shawls. fuzzy yarns stand out around a velvety cord on this fabric. Charmeuse Trade name of silk and silk-like fabrics that are characterized by a shiny. Embroidery may be done either by hand or . open knit made by looping thread with a hooked needle. longer than 1-1/2 inch. extremely sheer. Dupioni Similar to shantung. satin-like appearance Chenille Soft. lightweight. natural fiber that grows in the seed pod of the cotton plant. but is most commonly cotton. Chantilly lace This lace has a net background. and soft silk fabric. and the pattern is created by embroidering with thread and ribbon to create floral designs. Cotton A unicellular. crimped or grained surface. and India. Mongolia. including the Pima and Egyptian varieties. fleecy undergrowth of the Kashmir goat of Tibet. Iran. the fabric is called satin-back crepe. used mainly in evening dresses and scarves. coats.

Knit Fabrics made from only one set of yarns. Gingham A medium-weight. Wool gabardine is known as a year-round fabric for business suiting. twilled. but uniform back. courses run crosswise. silk. rayon. Fleece A soft. Gauze A thin. bulky. often made of silk or from such manufactured fibers as polyester. while others have their yarns running across the width of the fabric. worsted fabric with a slight diagonal line on the right side. Gabardine A tightly woven. Knit fabrics are held together by looping the yarns around each other. trimmings. This attachment provides versatility in designs and permits individual control of each of the warp yarns. Faux fur Artificial fur made from synthetic material. Intarsia A colored design knitted on both sides of a fabric. These fibers are blended together to give a particular look. soft. flat face. deep-piled knitted or woven fabric. fabrics of almost any type or complexity can be made. plain-weave fabric with a plaid or check pattern. apparel. or manufactured fibers. heather. Flannel A warm. Wales are the ridges that run lengthwise in the fabric. and a more textured. Knitting creates ridges in the resulting fabric. may also be used to describe the fabric made from heathered yarns. Thus. Jacquard Woven fabrics manufactured by using the Jacquard attachment on the loom. Jersey fabrics may be produced on either circular or flat weft knitting machines.) The term. End-uses include curtains. Fagoting an embroidery produced by pulling out horizontal threads from a fabric and tying the remaining cross threads into groups of an hourglass shape.machine. Heather A yarn that is spun using pre-dyed fibers. with a crepe surface. Jersey The consistent interlooping of yarns in the jersey stitch to produce a fabric with a smooth. End-uses include dresses and blouses. Foil A thin piece of material put under another material to add color or brilliance. finely-ribbed. sheer plain-weave fabric made from cotton. wool. silk. or other manufactured fibers. and surgical dressings. Some knits have their yarns running along the length of the fabric. soft fabric made in tightly woven twill or plain weave and finished with a light napping. knitted Formed by interlacing yarn or thread in a series of connected loops with . Faille A glossy. (For example. silk-like woven fabric made from cotton. black and white may be blended together to create a gray heathered yarn. Georgette A sheer lightweight fabric. Brocade and damask are types of jacquard woven fabrics. all running in the same direction.

or polyester. knits. thus creating the ribbed effect. wool. Net An open fabric. Matte Lacks luster or gloss and has a usually smooth even surface free from shine or highlights. or crocheted fabrics. nylon. Ottoman A tightly woven. or waste yarn. Fabrics made with micro fibers are soft. breathable and durable. fine cloth made using carded or combed. Marabou A thrown silk usually dyed in the gum or a fabric made of this silk. but wrinkle very easily. Leather Animal skin dressed for use in clothing. usually made of cotton. and the spaces between the yarns. Organza A crisp. Any time you see this fiber listed on a label. sheer. crisp finish. Pearlized Given a pearlescent surface or finish. lightweight. movement. plain-weave. Nylon The first completely synthetic fiber developed. Linen fabrics are very cool and absorbent.needles. the heavier filler yarn is completely covered by the warp yarn. Lame like glotique A woven fabric using flat silver or gold metal threads to create either the design or the background in the fabric. Lace An ornamental braid for trimming. Peau satin A heavy twill weave drapeable satin fabric. made of silk. Lycra A DuPont trademark for its spandex fiber. knitted. unless blended with manufactured fibers. Mesh is available in a variety of constructions including wovens. linen or cotton yarns. laces. Mesh A type of fabric characterized by its net-like open appearance. rayon. lightweight plain-weave fabric. The ribbed effect is created by weaving a finer silk or manufactured warp yarn with a heavier filler yarn. slightly lustered surface. Leatherette Simulated leather. nylon has superior abrasion resistance and high flexibility. which is created by connecting the intersections in a woven. The fabric has a crease-resistant. The fabric is used primarily in evening and wedding apparel for women. Lawn A light. In the construction. ribbed fabric with a hard. Known for its high strength and excellent resilience. expect comfort. Linen A fabric made from linen fibers obtained from inside the woody stem of the flax plant. Linen fibers are much stronger and more lustrous than cotton. with a medium to high yarn count. made of silk or a manufactured . or crocheted construction to form a mesh-like appearance that won't ravel. Micro fiber Generic term for any synthetic fiber finer than silk. and shape retention that won't wash away.

The design is usually a random pattern rather than floral. usually the filling. The result produces a puckered stripe effect in the fabric. voile. Low absorbency allows the fiber to dry quickly. Sequined Ornamented with a small plate of shining metal or plastic. This knitted fabric is used for complete garments and for such specialized uses as sleeve bands. Re-embroidered To outline a design (as on lace) with embroidery stitching. In the production of seersucker. Ribboned Ribbon lace is made by stitching ribbon onto mesh or net fabrics. similar to flax. delicate-looking. sweater waistbands. faille satin. and royal satin. neck bands. characterized by a ribbed effect. Typical examples of satin weave fabrics include: slipper satin. Poplin A fabric made using a rib variation of the plain weave. Rayon A manufactured fiber composed of regenerated cellulose. Lightweight sweaters in rib knits provide a close. and used for bridal gowns and evening wear. and special types of trims for use with other knit or woven fabrics. cotton linters. rib-knit fabric made with a pattern of openings. Satin A traditional fabric utilizing a satin weave construction to achieve a lustrous fabric surface. Pointelle Very feminine. moleskin. resulting from slubbed yarns used in the warp or filling direction. bridal satin. some of the warp yarns are held under controlled tension at all times during the weaving. Ramie A bast fiber. End-uses include dresses and suits. Polyester A manufactured fiber which has high strength. Ribbed To form vertical ridges in knitting.g. Rib knit A basic stitch used in weft knitting in which the knitting machines require two sets of needles operating at right angles to each other. Sheer Any very light-weight fabric (e. and high abrasion resistance. Usually . or other vegetable matter.. plain-weave fabric. derived from wood pulp. taken from the stalk of a plant grown in China. sheer crepe). paste.fiber. georgette. Satin is a traditional fabric for evening and wedding garments. Picot A row of woven loops along the selvage of fabric or lace. or gem quartz. Rib knits have a very high degree of elasticity in the crosswise direction. Shantung A medium-weight. Seersucker A woven fabric which incorporates modification of tension control. while other warp yarns are in a relaxed state and tend to pucker when the filling yarns are placed. body-hugging fit. The construction is characterized by having a slight ridge effect in one direction. excellent resiliency. Rhinestoned To attach a colorless imitation stone of high luster made of glass. crepe-back satin. chiffon.

Tri-acetate A manufactured fiber. It is produced in much greater quantity than cuprammonium rayon. and is made using a needlepoint technique rather than embroidery. Tri-acetate is less absorbent and less sensitive to high temperatures than acetate.g. Viscose The most common type of rayon. or vicuna. with loop pile on one or both sides. but has a lower cut pile. the other commercial type. including the hair of the Cashmere or Angora goat or the specialty hair fibers of the camel. . It provides a crisp hand. usually cotton. plain-weave fabric with a slight ribbed appearance in the filling (crosswise) direction. Sheers mostly feel cool. Twill A fabric that shows a distinct diagonal wale on the face (e.has an open weave. llama. Velvet. It resembles velvet. For formal wear. Spandex A manufactured elastomeric fiber that can be repeatedly stretched over 500% without breaking. tricotine). It is also very strong and absorbent. with relatively good wrinkle recovery. the term "wool" can also apply to all animal hair fibers. the patterns vary from geometric to floral. Wool Usually associated with fiber or fabric made from the fleece of sheep or lambs. taffeta is a favorite choice. It is woven using two sets of warp yarns. gabardine. cut-pile constructed fabric in which the cut pile stands up very straight. Tencel is made from wood pulp that is harvested from replenished tree farms. denim. Velvet A medium-weight. lightweight. but other fibers are also good choices. Similar in appearance to organdy and organza. like acetate. plain weave cotton-like fabric. Venice lace This lace often has a high profile. is commonly made with a filament fiber for high luster and smooth hand. closely-woven fabric with a thick pile. Taffeta A lustrous. A heavier weight lace. Velour A medium-weight. which. Silk taffeta gives the ultimate rustle. medium-weight. the extra set creates the pile. and will still recover to its original length. made with high twist yarns in a high yarn count construction. with lots of body. Suede Leather with a napped surface. alpaca. a luxurious fabric. is made by modifying cellulose.. It is one of the finest textiles. Voile A crisp. It is soft and has a brilliant sheen. So it's environmentally sensitive and it's washable! Terry A woven fabric. It can be made using either a plain weave or a satin weave construction. beautifully draping rayon fabrics. Tencel A trademark of Courtaulds for a high performance fiber used to make soft. Silk It is obtained from cocoons of certain species of caterpillars. It can be hand or machine washed and tumble dried. Each pattern is attached to the others by bars made of thread. However.

the important part of comparison. There are an enormous number of varieties of crepe. diamond-shaped. fluted fabrics: fabrics with transverse ribs. Satins Fabrics which usually have a shiny look. Gauzes. Composite or fancy weaves These are various weaves combining the three above-mentioned types. Chiffon. with a dry and rustling feel. . Brocades and Lamés: In these fabrics. we can only give a few main types. The following chart gives a complete information upon different types of fabric at a glance. giving the fabrics a particular appearance considerable suppleness. They can be treated as moiré fabrics by crushing during finishing. More important is the comparison of fabrics. Twills The way in which the yarns are woven produces an effect of diagonal ribs and grooves. Identifying fabric is important. and in which the points where the warp and the weft intersect are hidden. Silk toilles. grosgrains. diagonals. of varying thickness. There are also damasks. organdie. its characteristics and the uses. tartans. quilted and eloqué fabrics. voile. This fabric is usually shiny. Poult and faille: soft. including crepe de Chine. spaced out to make the fabric transparent. herringbone. Jacquard velvet. It is also called a Jacquard fabric. Moroccan crepe. thick taffetas with clear cross-wise ribs. Furnishing fabrics: double damasks. piques: fabrics with straight vertical ribs. so that the fabric has a smooth. characterised by yarns which are cut off at the same height. satin crepes with a weft made from twisted yarns. ie. etc. lampas. crepe georgette. surahs. the simplest way of intertwining a warp and a weft yarn. Pattern-weaves The pattern-woven fabric carries a pattern which is created by the interplay of the warp and weft yarns. brocades. doublefaced radzimir satins. The main fabrics using this type of weave are the serges. It gives information about the weaves of the fabric. bayaderes. pongees shantungs (heavy fabrics with an uneven grain) and tussah are also part of the taffeta group of fabrics. Reps. grenadine: a light. matt fabrics made from fine twisted yarns. yarndyed. Velvets: The luxurious fabric par excellence. Taffetas This is another word for basic cloth. with their common manufacturing techniques and particularities.Main Types of Fabric Because of the wide variety of silk fabrics. etc. regencies. Crepes: a group of fabrics made up of yarns which have been highly twisted before weaving. Jacquard velvet etc. charmeuses (heavy satin crepes with a very soft feel). Lyons satins. and fabrics are known as Jacquard taffeta. This makes us know the true quality of a fabric by differentiating it from its substitutes. very fine-grained. Ottomans. brilliant surface and seems to be made of yarns laid side-by-side. There is a wide range of satins : duchess satins. forming a surface resembling fur. the pattern is partially or totally made up of gold and silver threads.

Shirts. also women's lightweight. and and high luster. Cotton and wool shrinks more than polyester and nylon. light Knit wear . very fine. lustrous and put in some very expensive and soft. curtain. Camel hair Twill or plain Canvas Cashmere (Kashmir) Challis Chiffon Plain. interlinings. trimming fur and Soft. some blankets Light weight. Various weaves. . sweaters. sheer. etc. women's suits. it is used Crinkled and puckered for dresses of all types. Mostly plain but various weaves. Also used in (fine) overcoating. scarves. Depending on weight. women. smooth finish. silky. Uses Clothing. linings. lightweight. Figured onJacquardloom. soft and wooly feel. dresses. upholstery. sports coats. Various weaves and knitted. including surface with rough feel long dinner dresses. Plain weave. and sportswear. Carpet. Used as replacement of wool. very strong. Smooth. Fabrics Acetate Acrylic Alpaca Angora goat Angora rabbit Beaver Broadcloth Weaves Characteristics Soft. particularly the Closely woven with tailored type in plain colors. linings. lightweight. which shows the comparison of only the characteristics of few fabrics. weight. silk-like. water retention is very high in cotton and the lowest in polypropylene. fabric garments. automobile cloth. shiny. and Evening wear. crisp feel and durable. and warm. Long. blouses and transparent. soft. Fur coats. lingerie. very long in cotton and vice versa in polypropylene. coats. Crepe Damask Men's and Women's suits. Sheds dirt. neckties. summer wear. material in various weights. coats. All knits.Another table is given at the bottom. silky and very and women. For example. suits. knits and weights. for children and and fluffy. Plain. Knitted into sweaters for men Soft. All weaves but mostly plain or twill. Hair canvas is an interfacing Mostly rugged. Fine. Women's and children's dresses Soft and very and blouses. Same with the drying time taken. uniforms. extremely warm sweaters. blouses. Durable. Plain. Various weaves and knitted. hosiery and transmission belts. sweaters. Reversible fabric with woven pattern. dresses. Coats. kimonos. oriental rugs. Lightweight. and sportswear.gloves. topcoating. scarves. and and appearance.

rayon and some synthetics Uniforms. flatter wales that Twill. and sweaters. slip Closer. body and Plain. outstanding durability. sports Herringbone Twill. durable. Mohair knitted. dresses. It Georgette is sheer and has a dull face. suits. work clothes. Shrinks if coats. suits and Usually twill. industrial uses. raincoats. socks and Nylon It is elastic. star. glossy. upholsteryfabrics. jackets. wool and has varying coats. top coatings. Soft.right hand filling giving a mottled bedspreads. braids. heavy and lighter weights. Boys suits. Dull finish. Comes in sportswear. and many Drill gabardine. Gabardine Steep twill Inclined to shine with and men's shirts. . Made in a variety Blazers. covers. work clothes. uniforms. felt hats. upholstery. with a napped surface that partially cancels the weave. unless underlined. pile fabrics. Twill . slipcovers. of weights. Clear finish. Houndstooth weave. knitted or both abrasion chemicals. It is imitated in Douppioni Plain. twill qualities. coats. caps. not pre-shrunk. L3/1. wiry. and suitings. may be L2/1 or Denim look and used only for draperies. skirts. It is usually created in Suitings. wear. Linings. brown or dark gray warp with a white or gray Pants. and Flannel some plain. Sags shirts. suits. Men's and women's tailored Wears extremely well. resistant to Women's hosiery. firm. Weaned into an irregular Broken twill check of a four pointed sportcoats. Irregular with many slubs. Does not shine or hold a crease. woven lingerie. dress materials. tightly woven. with wear. Hard to press properly. It is characterized by it's crispness. sportswear.Originally had dark blue. easy to wash sweaters. Plain or twill or Smooth. uniforms. Very strong.

hose. It returns easily to it's original shape and is non-absorbent. sheer. millinery. Dressy type of fabric. aprons. stretching. Vary. . Plain. strong and resistant to creasing. Fine. It crushes or musses fairly easily. crisp fabric. It¹s drapability and dyeability are excellent and it is fairly soft. artificial flowers. millinery. It is lightweight. mildew and abrasion. or a Plain. dresses. Dresses. sometimes has a silvery sheen. blouses. it a basket-weave look. shrinking. Rather heavy. depending on blend. Summer jackets. Made with tightly twisted yarns. skirts. summer formals. blouses. It is readily washable and is not damaged by sunlight or weather and is resistant to moths and mildew. underlinings for delicate. Light or medium weight. Clothing. shirts. It has a very wiry feel. summer suits. It is fast drying. Warp has two fine yarns which travel as one and Plain variations one heavier softly-spun usually basket 2 x bulky filling which gives 1. trimming. lightweight. permanent crispness obtained with chemicals. Rayon does have a tendency to shrink but does not melt in high temperatures. sheer materials.Organdy Organza Oxford Polyester Pongee Rayon and is quite lustrous. Crispness is due to a finish with starch and calendaring which washes out. It is resistant to moths and is Collars and cuffs. Men's shirts mostly. and sportswear. it is easily pressed. but Plain. resistant to some dyes. Evening dresses. Wrinkles badly unless given a wrinkle-free finish.

and degrees of stiffness. A rather pebbled effect. and pressed on a velvet board. knots. Athletic wear and foundation garments. Has a rough texture with many slubs. sportswear. dresses. robes. It resists deterioration from perspiration. Voile Plain. Usually has a lustrous surface and a dull back. not affected by ordinary household bleaches and chemicals. Satin Satin. Dresses. Made in many colors. The textures vary considerably. slips. detergent and body oils. with a plain or satin ground. Better qualities are mercerized to give a higher sheen. evening wear. Dull lustre and rather stiff. varieties. strong. Slips. millinery. waistcoats. Sheer and very light weight. lining fabrics. weights. pajamas. blouses. ribbons. blouses. coats and suits and ensembles. Dressing gowns. loosely woven. The pile is characterized by uneven lengths (usually two) which gives it a rough look. They have a crispness and stiffness. It is characterized by it¹s strength and durability. Velvet Pile. It is coarse. Has to be handled with care. water resistant. or sometimes knitted. velvet may be crush resistant. and drapes well. dresses. To obtain a top quality fabric. . Velour Thick. In heavier weights. and jackets. It is smooth with a sheen on its surface. Eveningwear. Tussah Usually plain but also in twill. It is lightweight and flexible. plush pile. The two lengths of pile create light and shaded areas on the surface. In lighter weights. Dressy evening wear: suits and coats. coats. Spandex Taffeta Usually plain with a fine cross rib. qualities. at home wear. Lustrous and smooth with the sheen in a filling direction. dresses.Sateen Sateen filling-face weave. and bumps. and uneven. made with an extra warp yarn. capes. very Dresses.

Coir Fabric . In sheepskin leather.The warmth. Hemp Fabric . Voile drapes and gathers very well. soft. Fashionable cloths. home furnishing and fashion accessories are some of the .It is eco-friendly with good strength and durability. It is used as apparel.Wool highly twisted yarns are used. sheep. China. Europe.Wool means warmth. It is obtained from stems of plant. angora goat and angora rabbit and camel. USA. Today. reptile. Australia and Iran are the important exporters. accessories. dirt and wear and tear. Wool as a clothing was discovered some twelve thousand years ago. coir fabric is used as a substitute for peat because it is bacteria free and free from fungal spores. It is resistant to wrinkle. It is widely used as bags and sacks. lamb. Jute Fabric . elastic and weather friendly. kangaroo. Leather Fabric . It is renewed by moisture Clothing. furniture. horse. goat. and well known for it's warmth. It is the perfect fabric for controlling soil erosion. pig. It is very resilient and resistant to wrinkling. softness and durability of hemp fabric is rarely found in any other fabric. shoes. goat. seal. it is obtained from sheep. deer. It is very versatile with UV protective and insulative quality. The finest comes from Italy and the leading producer is China. blankets. It is firm. and walrus. It is an environmental friendly fabric and fully bio-degradable. calf. Fabric Characteristics Cotton Wool Polyester Polypropylene Nylon High High Low Lowest Medium Water Retention Long Long Short Shortest Short Drying Time Low Low Low Medium Heat Conduction (Wet) High Medium High Medium Medium Comfort Level (Dry) High High High Low High Low Shrinkage Medium Medium High Medium High Durability High High High Low High Colour Choice Low Low High Medium Medium Paddling Suitability Medium High High Medium Medium Camping Suitability Wool Fabric .It is known for its resilience and durable quality. Commercially it is obtained from cattle.The fabric which never ages. winter wear. softness and strength. and home furnishing. New Zealand. China and Pakistan. Brazil and USSR are key players in exporting leathers obtained from bovine. In horticulture. The major exporters of goatskin leather in the world are India.

innovation of jute. India is leading jute manufacturer in the world. Linen Fabric - It is the fabric of luxury. Lustrous, beautiful and elegant. It is antibacterial and antifungi with a property of UV protection. It is being used for more than 10,000 years. Egyptians made extensive use of linen. It is obtained from flax plant. Ramie Fabric - A summer fabric with air-permeability and moisture-absorption quality. It is obtained from ramie plant, a tall shrub grown in South-east Asia. China is the leading producer of ramie followed by Brazil, Korea and Philippines. Fabric Blends- are one which is made up of two or more different types of fibres twisted or spun together. Blending adds to the quality of the final product.

Cotton is a soft fibre that grows around the seeds of the cotton plant, a shrub native to the tropical and subtropical regions of both the Old World and the New World. The fibre is most often spun into thread and used to make a soft, breathable textile. Cotton Fabric is noted for its versatility and its natural comfort. Cotton cloth has been used since primitive ages dating back to about 3000 B.C. Today, the main uses of cotton is in the form of garments, home furnishings, and industrial cloths. Cloth made of cotton is more comfortable, durable and suitable to resist all kinds of weather. The comfort quality of the cotton is due to its twisted or coiled shape. It traps air within the fabric structure and help for a thermal insulation process, resulting protection from heat in summer and cold in winter.

For the fabrics strength, absorbency quality, capacity to be washed and dyed, cotton has become the principal clothing fabric of the world. It is obtained from a bushy plant scientifically known as Gossypium. The fruit (boll) part of the plant is used to make cotton fabric. There are four main types of cotton namely American Upland, Egyptian, Sea Island and Asiatic. In the world production of cotton, China is the leading followed by United States, India, Pakistan, Brazil, Turkey and Greece. Today, production of cotton is one of the major factors in world prosperity and economic stability.

Process of creating the Cotton Fabric
Cotton fiber undergoes several process to reach the stage of final cloth. The processes are as mentioned below: Ginning Ginning is the method of separating the cotton fibers from the seedpods, and sometimes

with the sticky seeds. This is done in the cotton field with the help of machines. Spinning Spinning is the succeeding step to ginning. This process involves the making of yarn from the cotton fiber. The cotton yarns are made of different thickness in this stage. Weaving Weaving is the most important process in the making of cotton cloth. In this process, two yarn is placed to make warp and weft of a loom which successively turn them into a cloth. Fabric finishes and treatments After weaving the cotton fabric passes through different processing stages till it reaches to the state of final product. The stages are mentioned below, but it is not necessary for the fabric to undergo all the process for e.g. grain bags cloth are used unbleached.
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Singeing - This process burns off the fibers sticking in the goods. Desizing - This process involves removing the size material from warp yarns in woven fabrics. Scouring - The cleaning part of the fabrics are involved in this process. Bleaching - The fabrics are bleached here to make it more whiter and lighter. Mercerizing - In this process, the fabric is immersed in alkali to make it more strong, shining, durable, shrink free and stretch free. Dyeing - This process involves the changing of the fabric color by the treatment with a dye. Finishing - In this process, the fabric is treated with some chemicals or other useful agents to make it qualitatively more better, for e.g. cotton is made sun protected by treating it with UV protecting agent.

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Characteristics of Cotton Fabric
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It is soft and comfortable. It has good strength. It is easy to handle and sew. It drapes well. It is flame retardant. It is machine-washable and dry-cleanable. It is hydrophilic, which means that cotton have excellent absorbing capabilities. Garments made of cotton absorb perspiration, thus keeping one more comfortable. Cotton wrinkles easily. To resist this, cotton is being blended with many other natural or synthetic fibers. The blending of cotton also gives a bouncy and elasticity property to the cotton.



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100% untreated cotton fabric has pleasant matte luster. It is hypoallergenic, which means it has a low tendency to cause allergic reactions.

We can cater to all types of Cotton Fabrics for various industries. If you have any kind of sourcing requirement in bulk please send us an enquiry and we will send you the best quotations from genuine suppliers.

Uses of Cotton Fabric

Cotton Apparel / Garments - Garments made of cotton are very soft, comfortable and weather friendly. They are either 100% or blended with some natural or synthetic fibers. Normally all types of garments are made of cotton fabrics; formal, casual and even industrial clothing. Cotton Home Furnishing - Cotton home furnishing is preferred because of the fabrics strength and durability characteristics. A good example of cotton home furnishing is rugs or durries, draperies and curtains, bedding products, etc. Cotton Handbags and Luggages - Due to strength, cotton handbags and luggages are more widely preferred. The heavier cotton fabric is used in these kind of products. Cotton Canvas - Medium to heavyweight cotton fabric is used in range of canvas products like shoes, tents, tarpaulins, etc. Apart from these, cotton fabrics are also used in medical and surgical products, bookbinding cloths and tobacco cloths.




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Yarn Production
Modernization efforts have brought major changes to the U.S. textile industry. Equipment has been streamlined and many operations have been fully automated with computers. Machine speeds have greatly increased. At most mills the opening of cotton bales is fully automated. Lint from several bales is mixed and blended together to provide a uniform blend of fiber properties. To ensure that the new high-speed automated feeding equipment performs at peak efficiency and that fiber properties are consistent, computers group the bales for production/feeding according to fiber properties. The blended lint is blown by air from the feeder through chutes to cleaning and carding machines that separate and align the fibers into a thin web. Carding machines can process cotton in excess of 100 pounds per hour. The web of fibers at the front of the card is then drawn through a funnel-shaped device called a trumpet, providing a soft, rope-like strand

Ring spinning frames continue to play a role in this country. yarn is produced directly from sliver. use compressed air currents to stabilize the yarn. which is mechanical twisting. By removing the mechanical twisting methods. Drawing speeds have increased tremendously over the past few years and now can exceed 1. are becoming more widespread. air jet and Vortex. The roving process is eliminated. air jet and Vortex are faster and more productive than any other short-staple spinning system. but open-end spinning. In open-end spinning.500 feet per minute. Ring spinning machines further draw the roving and add twist making it tighter and thinner until it reaches the yarn thickness or “count” needed for weaving or knitting fabric. Other spinning systems have also eliminated the need for roving. These systems.called a sliver (pronounced SLY-ver). with rotors that can spin five to six times as fast as a ring spinning machine. Roving frames draw or draft the slivers out even more thinly and add a gentle twist as the first step in ring spinning of yarn. Cord is plied yarn twisted Fabrics . Ply yarns are two or more single yarns twisted together. As many as eight strands of sliver are blended together in the drawing process. The yarns can be twisted many times per inch. After spinning. as well as addressing the key limitation of both ring and open-end spinning. the yarns are tightly wound around bobbins or tubes and are ready for fabric forming.

knitting and braiding. Drapery. Nonwoven Fabrics Nonwoven fabrics are made by bonding or interlocking fibers or filaments by Mechanical. one continuous yarn forms courses across the fabric. Quilting. Blended. Fibers are spun and then directly dispersed into a web by deflectors or with air streams. These bales are then scattered on a conveyor belt. Three-dimensional braiding is relatively new and was developed mainly for composite structures. They are formed by crossing a number of yarns diagonally so that each yarn passes alternately over and under one or more of the others. Today this process is mostly automated for mass production. hygiene and household uses. Crochet knitting machines have replaced large numbers of traditional braiding machines. There are two major varieties of knitting: weft knitting In weft knitting. Braiding yarn in knitted the interlocking the warp in course corresponds and warp knitting. For making Staple non-wovens. each row is called a course. Fabric Manufacturing Techniques The traditional methods of manufacturing fabrics are weaving. Wool and synthetic or man-made fabrics like Acetate. cut to a few centimeters length. In it. Chiffon. sanitary and surgical applications. Braiding can be classified as two and three-dimensional braiding. . A braid is a rope like thing. which is made by interweaving three or more strands. and put into bales. Vinyl Fabric to name a few. In it. Two dimensional braids are produced through circular braiding machine and rotary machine. Carpet backing and underlay. in view of the increased demand of textile for technical and industrial use. Other than the traditional fabrics. Aluminized. Home Furnishing. Polyester Fabrics. Some of the innovations in speciality fabrics have indeed brought revolution in the textile industry. It is done by intertwining of yarns in whatever direction suited to the manufacturer's purpose. The term fabric has its origin in the Latin term fabrica meaning a workshop. Medical. Hemp. Rayon. Filtration. Cotton. The more unconventional method include bonding fibers by mechanical. It means that which is put together like building. They are used in Interlinings and apparel. Both staple and spunbonded nonwovens would have no mechanical resistance without the bonding step. the most prevalent method of fabric construction is knitting. The Spunlaid non-wovens are made in one continuous process. rug or other types of woven textiles. The lengthwise yarns which run from the back to the front of the loom are called the warp. Spunlaid is also bonded either thermally or by using resin. Laundry & carry bags in Hospitality industry etc. or lengths. It can also be categorized on the basis of its usage for making Apparel.the horn gear and cartesian machines.forming symmetric loops or stitches. Meltblown nonwovens have extremely fine fiber diameters but are not strong fabrics. Carbon. When the loops run across the fabric. each row is called a wale. A loom is a device for holding the warp threads in place while the filling threads are woven through them. Nylon. Ramie. Braiding is one of the major fabrication methods for composite reinforcement structures. Speciality Fabrics Along with quantity and quality. Needle punched felt for backing of PVC floor covering. fibers are first spun. a series of yarns form wales in the lengthwise direction of the fabric. Tarpaulin. Silk. in a diagonally overlapping pattern. it evolved as a fabric made by narrow width looms. Two-dimensional braid structure can be circular or flat braid. Velvet etc. Flame Resistant. Awning. Industrial wiping cloths. Of late. Upholstery among others. Jute. Linen. Organza. Fabric can be classified based on various criteria.Fabric refers to any textile material made through weaving. Among these are included Abrasive. Automotive applications. it can be classified as natural fabrics such as Cashmere. Thermal. Home furnishing and household products. Denim. The fabrics follows a meandering path . and the fibers are spread in a uniform web by a wetlaid process or by carding. two distinct sets of yarns called the warp and the filling or weft are interlaced with each other to form a fabric. In warp knitting. A wale can be compared with weaving. braiding or plaiting and bonding of fibers. Knitting After weaving. the textile industry is continuously emphasizing on the "functionality" of fabrics in this era of Global Competition. usually at right angles. On the basis of fiber used for manufacturing. Book cloths. Narrow. A to the filling. Nonwoven Fabric has gradually gained importance in various industrial applications along with medicine. Satin. Weaving Weaving is described as inter-lacing. personal care. The crosswise yarns are the filling or weft. a two dimensional array of interconnected 2-D circular braids is created on two basic types of machines. Fiberglass. strips. From a domestic art of making laces. Acrylic. knitting. or weft. chemical or solvent means. Curtains. Georgette. of two sets of threads to form cloth. Chemical or Solvent means. When loops run lengthwise. Shoe Linings. These nonwovens are either bonded thermally or by using resin. many speciality fabrics have also gained importance. Lastex. thermal.

military. and improved outward visibility. Polyester blended with cotton. low weight. They are mostly formed by needle looms using materials such as cotton. and PVC Mesh are water-repellent and colorfast. molten metal or high-pressure steam. bed covers. vinyl-coated fabrics. motor sports. They enhance the performance of firefighters and industrial workers etc. Its qualities include high tensile strength. Carbon Fabrics Carbon Fabrics made up of carbon atoms is unbelievably strong. made from molten glass is strong. Blended Fabrics Blended Fabrics are made of different types of fibres twisted together. elastic. drapery and for industrial purposes. tape. Silk blended with wool. filtered sunlight. and other competition sports. At the same time they provide ventilation. They include any trimming. polyester. ribbon. they do not exceed 4S cm in width with 2 selvedges. Fiberglass Fabric Fiberglass Fabric. They are largely used to decorate dresses and can also be attached to curtains.Aluminized fabrics Aluminized fabrics are specifically designed to provide protection from extreme heat. fibre glass among others. Ramie blended with acrylic results in softer fabrics easier to care for and more comfortable. making them ideal for the purpose. and impervious to many caustics and to extreme temperatures. cording etc. durable. by helping them withstand extreme temperatures. jute. lace. etc and in industrial applications Mens Clothing     Mens Shorts Mens Sleepwear Mens Suits Mens Sweaters Mens T-Shirts Mens Trousers Mens Coats Mens Jackets Mens Jeans Mens Shirts       Womens Clothing     Womens Coats Womens Jackets Womens Jeans Ladies Frocks Ladies Tops Ladies Trousers Womens Capris         Womens Knitted Wear Womens One Pieces Womens Shorts Womens Skirts Womens Sleepwear . satin. velvet. Fiberglass fabrics resemble silk and cotton and are used for curtains. Narrow Fabric Sometimes referred to as 'small wares' . and low thermal expansion due to which it is in great demand in aerospace. nylon. Awning fabric The awning fabrics like woven acrylic.

Kids Clothing     Kids Jackets Kids Bottoms Kids Caps Kids Coat Kids Hats     Kids Other Dresses Kids Sleepwear Kids Top Infant Wear     Baby Sleepwear Baby Tops Baby Jackets Baby One Pieces Baby Other Dresses Baby Pants      Baby Wear Materials Kids Bib Kids Diapers Clothing By Fabrics     Knitted Clothing Leather Clothing Blended Fabric Clothing Crocheted Clothing Denim Clothing Embroidered Clothing         Natural Fabric Clothing Satin Clothing Speciality Fabric Clothing Synthetic Fabric Clothing Twill Clothing Woven Clothing Clothing     Beachwear Belt Bermudas Bibs Blazers Anoraks Apron Baby Suits Bathrobes      .

   Blouses Bra Briefs Fashion Clothing     Swim Wear Wedding Wear Beach Wear Inner Wears Maternity Wear Rain Wear   Industrial Clothing    Industrial Wear By Material Industrial Wear By Products Industrial Wear By Usage Sports Wear    Sports Accessories Sports Clothing Sports Protective Gear Animal Clothing           Horse Bridle Horse Halters Horse Harness Horse Saddle Animal Blankets Harness Sets Horse Boot Leather Equestrian Leather Harness Saddle Pads 6 Fibre to Fabric 6.1 Introduction You all know that food. you need a house to live in. You eat food to survive and protect yourself from diseases. clothing and shelter are the three basic needs of life. Why do .

You will see that it is made up of smaller threads or hair like strands. z define a yarn.84 :: Home Science 6.Staple fibre Long fibres .3 Fibres Do you know what fabrics are made of? Take a cloth and pull out a thread.you wear clothes? You wear clothes for protection against climate. This single hair like strand is called a fibre. Hence. z use the burning test to identify various fibres. What do you see? These fibres are very small. Pull out one of these.2 Objectives After reading this lesson you will be able to do the following: z describe and classify fibres. Short fibres . Classification of fibres Instead of a cloth. z state the characteristics of fibres. z explain the methods of fabric formation. you would see a variety of fabrics there. Try and pull fibres from a fibres from a nylon fabric. Untwist to loosen this thread. you can classify fibres into two groups. Do you wonder what these fabrics are made of? How you get variety in fabrics? Why are some materials warm. These are called staple fibres. and also to show status. for modesty and beauty.Filament fibre Fibres can also be classifed on the basis of their origin. See the following box. A fibre is a hair like strand from which all fabrics are made. The material that you use for clothing is called fabric. If you go to a shop to buy fabric for your dress. 6. now pull fibres from a ball of cotton. Such fibres are called filament fibres or simply filaments. some soft and others rough? Why do some materials go bad after washing while others remain the same? In this lesson you will find answers to these and other similar questions. These are long fibres. .

Wool. Rayon. Nylon.g. Rayon.g. Polyester. cotton. Fig. Cotton is obtained from seed of the plant. silk. nylon.g. etc. Fibres from such sources are called natural fibres. polyester. e. e. Cotton can you think of any such fibre? That is right.Plants and animals Man made fibres . from plants and animals. 6.g. e. Now can you say what is the second way to classify fibres? See the following box. Silk. Wool.Chemical substances For your understanding we are putting the two classifications together in the figure given below:Fibre to Fabric :: 85 FIBRE On basis of length On basis of origin Staple (short) Filament (long) Natural Man-made e. Jute. Nylon. Jute.g.g. These are called manmade fibres. wool. Some examples of fibres from natural sources are cotton. Silk 1. jute is obtained from the stem of a plant and coir is the outer covering of coconut. Cotton. They are rayon. Acrylic Jute. Vegetables animals e. Polyester Cotton. that is. e. e.g. acrylic (cashmilon) etc. Some are well known and useful to man. Natural Fibres (i) Vegetable Fibres These fibres are obtained from different plants. jute and coir.1 (i) Animal Fibres .Natural Fibres: Some fibres are obtained from natural sources. Natural fibres . Man-made Fibres: The other type of fibres are obtained from chemical substance. Cotton Jute Wool Silk Polyester Acrylic.

(iv) Silk is prepared from the stem of a plant. Man-made fibres are generally filament fibres. Wool can also be obtained from the hair of rabbits and camels.These fibres are obtained from different animal sources. polyester. Don’t get disturbed. and acrylic. Another animal fibre you all are familiar with is silk. It is the secretion of an insect called the silk worm. Classify the following fibres as man-made and natural: (i) Nylon (ii) Wool (iii) Cotton (iv) Silk (v) Polyester (vi) Rayon (vii) Acrylic (viii) Jute 3. Complete the following chart by classifying fibres on the basis of origin and length. 2. Can you name the fibre we get from sheep and goat? That’s right.4 Identification of Fibres . Man-made Fibres When you go to the market to buy fabrics. (ii) Filament are short fibres. State whether the following are true or false and correct the false statements: (i) Fibre is the basic unit of all fabrics. 6. (v) Polyester is a staple fibre. Synthetic is another name for manmade fabrics. we get wool from their hair. you must have heard from the shopkeeper that it is a synthetic material. INTEXT QUESTIONS 6. Fibre (a) Origin (b) (c) (d) (e)86 :: Home Science 2. The first man-made fibre is known as rayon and was produced in the latter part of 19th century.1 1. Other examples are nylon. (iii) Jute is the outer covering of coconut.

5 Yarns Do you remember pulling a thread from a cloth and opening it? Yes. Burns with uncrushable ACRYLIC away sputtering beadFibre to Fabric :: 87 6. Once fibres are identified it will help the buyer to choose as per requirement. and not be cheated by salesmen. Does not catch fire Shrinks away from No definite smell Hard.BURNING TEST This test helps to identify fibres. Answers to all these points will to help to identify the fibres. thicker and . Yarns are made up of a number of fibres twisted together. Smell after burning. How the fibre catches fire. That thread which was made of fibres is called yarn. Ash left behind.For the burning test:Take out a yarn from the fabric. melts flame. Fibres are thin and small and cannot be made into a fabric directly. 1. So they are first converted into yarns which are longer. Does not hair crushable bead continue to burn NYLON. FIBRE INFLAME TYPE OF FLAME SMELL ASH COTTON AND Catches fire continues to Smell of Light feathery RAYON easily burn with a bright burning ash yellow flame . you found hair like fibres. Type of flame. Check the following. Procedure:. 3. 4. Burn one end of the yarn either with a match stick or burning candle. 2. POLYSTER easily. paper SILK AND Does not catch Burns with a yellow Smell of burning Black WOOL fire easily flame.

.. a charkha or a spinning machine...... (iv) Spinning increases the strength of yarns.. You can try spinning and making a yarn yourself...... (ii) Staple fibres are used to make a yarn. Write the missing steps in the process of yarn formation: Fibre . A yarns is a continuous strand made up of a number of fibres which are twisted together.. State whether the following are true or false: (i) Yarn is made of a number of fibres.. At the yarn stage itself.(iii). The spinning process helps to hold the fibres together and makes the yarns strong. Can you name some more mixed fabrics?88 :: Home Science INTEXT QUESTIONS 6. two types of fibres are mixed. Spinning can be done by using a takli (spindle). BLENDS You all must have heard of fabrics with names like terecot and cotswool....... Here the fibres are not only twisted but also pulled out or drawn... pulled out and twisted together to form the yarn.... 2.... Take some cotton and start pulling out a few fibres.. You will see that a yarn is formed.2 1. Yarn. finer and smoother yarn. (vi) Smoothness of a yarn depends on the twisting of the fibres..... Blends are made from more than one kind of fibres. Even the filament fibres are twisted together to form a stronger. We use these yarns to make fabrics..(i).(ii).. smooth and fine... YARN MAKING The process of making yarns from fibres is called spinning.. (iii) Spinning is a process of making fibres. and terewool of wool and terene... While pulling also twist... ....... These are the names of mixed fabrics... (v) Twisting increases the strength of the yarns.. Cotswool is a mixture of cotton and wool...stronger....

There are many types of weaves used to make different kinds of fabrics like cambric.when two sets of tapes are interlaced with each other at right angles.(vii) Blends are made from different fibres.6 Fabrics The term ‘fabric’ doesn’t need any explanation because you all know what it means. popline.7 Weaving Weaving is done by fitting one set of yarns on the loom which forms the length of the fabric. Weaving is done on looms. Common weaves used for most of the fabrics are: (i) Plain weave (ii) Twill weave (iii) Satin weave (iv) Plain Weave .Similarily a fabric is also made by interlacing two sets of yarns at right angles. These are called the warps. This whole process of interlacing two sets of yarns at right angles to make a fabric is called weaving. So we can describe it as: Fabric is the material that is used to make clothing or household articles. denims. etc. 6. velvet. are called wefts. satin. matt.Fibre to Fabric :: 89 The yarns can be interlaced in many different ways. These different ways of in terlacing of yarns is called weaving. Hand operated looms are called handlooms and power operated ones are called power looms. Weaving is the process of interlacing two sets of yarns at right angles to each other to form a fabric. The other set of yarns interlaced at right angles with the warps. 6. You all must have seen the seat of a chair or a charpoy made with nylon or cotton. These are made with tape . towels.

The other method of making a fabric is: KNITTING Pick up a sweater and any other woven fabric and compare the two? Yes. For example. you can make other garments also. You must have seen your mother knitting sweat-90 :: Home Science ers with needles. Examine a gents’ baniyan or vest.(i) Plain weave It is the most simple and inexpensive method of weaving. In the case of satin weave. etc. Reflection of light from these yarns give a shine to the fabric. in case of a sweater. the warp and weft yarns alternate with each other. you will see that every time you make new loops from previous ones the length increases. Fabrics made by this weave are stronger as compared to plain weave. each weft yarn goes over one warp yarn and under the next warp yarn. silk. the weave of fabrics like mulmul. Besides sweaters. as is shown in the figure. (ii) Twill Weave We can change the way of interlacing yarns so as to get many different designs. If you try to do it yourself. These fabrics are made by the plain weave. there are long lengths of warp yarns between the wefts. the yarns used for making this weave have lesser twist as compared to the yarns used for other weaves. If we get a diagonal line effect on the fabric. that is. Jeans meterial are made by the twill weave. T Shirts. Fabrics like denims. All these together give the fabric a soft. smooth and shiny appearance. cambric. Examine. there is interlocking of loops. Moreover. (iii) Satin Weave Satin weave fabrics differ in appearance from twill weave fabrics because the diagonal line of twill weave is not visible. organdy. In this case. Can you tell how it is made? Knitting is interlooping of one or more set of yarns. then we call it the twill weave. . Knitting is also done on machines. As a result the warp yarns are seen more on the surface of the fabric.

...... Widthwise yarns are known as ...When compared with wovens. .... and .... Length wise yarns are known as . Match the following statements: (a) Polyester (i) Strongest fibre (b) Nylon (ii) high moisture absorption (c) Wool (iii) Can not tolerate hot iron (d) Cotton (iv) Longest natural fibre (e) Silk (v) Poor heat conduction 2.......... twill weave fabric... 6...... (ii) Wool sweaters conserve body heat...Fibre to Fabric :: 91 INTEXT QUESTIONS 6.... 5.. 3... .. Note: these can be collected from tailors.. The three basic weaves are ..... knitted fabrics are more stretchable and can therefore be used for undergarments.............. prove a great help in the selection......... fabrics are stretchable. and knitted fabric.... ACTIVITY Collect one sample each of plain weave fabric. satin weave fabric..... .8 Characteristics of Fabrics Now let us look at some of the properties of the various fibres which.... use and maintenance of fabrics. 4... socks...... 1.......4 1.... short pants for sports. and paste them in your record file......... State whether the following statement are true or false: (i) Cottons have a smooth look... Fabrics are made by ..3 Fill in the blanks with suitable words..... etc. because they allow freedom of movements along with a close fit....... They are also used for T-shirts....... if considered... INTEXT QUESTIONS 6.. 2........

(iv) Nylon ropes are used by mountaineers. (ii) Which of the following fabrics does not take stains easily? (a) Cotton (b) Nylon (c) Wool (d) Silk (iii) Which of the following fabrics is a bad conductor? (a) Nylon (b) Wool92 :: Home Science (c) Rayon (d) Cotton (iv) Which fabric is made of staple fibre? (a) Cotton (b) Nylon (c) Polyester (d) Silk (v) Which is the strongest fibre? (a) Cotton (b) Nylon . (v) Polyester is good for making towels. Choose the correct alternative to answer the following questions: (i) Which of the fabric is most suitable for summer? (a) Cotton (b) Nylon (c) Silk (d) Terelene.(iii) Silk shirts get dirty easily. 3.

g. polyester cotton wool. rayon e. nylon jute silk used in the process of SPINNING to give .g. e.9 What You Have Learnt In order to make it easy for you to remember.g.(c) Rayon (d) Wool (vi) Which fabric has a dull surface? (a) Nylon (b) Polyester (c) Silk (d) Wool (vii) Cotton is most desirable fabric for making undergarments because it is : (a) Absorbant (b) Dull (c) Shinning (d) StrongFibre to Fabric :: 93 6. here are the main points of the lesson: Properties have FIBRES are classifed as NATURAL MAN MADE STAPLE FILAMENT Veg. Animal e.g. cotton e. e.g.

How do you get yarn from a cotton ball? Explain the steps with help of a diagram. (a) Length (b) Staple (c) Filament . How will you classify fibres on the basis of their origin? 2. Why do we all prefer cottons over nylons in summer? 6.11 Answers to Intext Questions 6. though both are man-made fibres? 3. 4.1 1. How will you make a fabric and how will you get different designs? 5.YARN through KNITTING WEAVING Gives FABRIC Length Appearance Absorbency Conductivity Strength Straighteening Drawing Twisting consists of Plain Twill Satin94 :: Home Science 6. What is the difference between rayon and nylon.10Terminal Exercise 1.

twill. (ii) (d). Weaving. (iv). (i) T (ii) T (iii) F (iv) F (v) T (vi) T (vii) T 6.3 1. (b) (i).Jute is obtained from the stem of the jute plant (iv) F .2 (i) Straightening (ii) Drawing (iii) Twisting 1.4 1. Warp 4. Weft 5.Filaments are long fibres (iii) F . satin 3. (e) (iv) 2. (iii) F (iv) T. (a) (iii). (v) F 3. (iii)(b) (iv)(a) (v)(b) (vi)d (vii) (a) Fibers Yarns & Threads Companies Directory Fibers   Yarns Natural Fiber Synthetic Fiber    Threads Material Yarn Yarn By Fiber Yarn By Making Process       Cotton Thread Craft Thread Crochet Thread Acrylic Thread Bedding Thread Braided Thread . Man-made: (i). Plain. (v). (i) (a). (viii) 3.from secretion of the silk worm (v) T 6.(d) Natural (e) Man-made 2. (d) (ii). (ii) T. (i) T (ii) F . (iii). (i) F. Knitting 2. (vi). Knitted 6. (c) (v). (vii) Natural: (ii).

      Elastic Thread Embroidery Thread Nylon Thread PTFE Thread Plastic Thread Polyester Thread Textile Machinery Companies Directory Textile Spinning Machinery     Ring Spinning Machine Spinning Preparatory Machines Texturing Machines Winding Machines  Yarn Twisting Machines Textile Weaving Machinery     Fabric Weaving Machines Warping Machine Water Jet Loom Weaving Looms Textile Knitting Machine     Fabric Knitting Machines Flat Bed Knitting Machines Warp Knitting Machines Weft Knitting Machines Textile Finishing Machinery     Embroidery Machine Finishing Pretreatment Machines Mechanical Finishing Machines Sewing Machine     Textile Drying Machines Textile Dyeing Machines Textile Makeup Machines Textile Printing Machine Textile Packaging Machinery  Fabric Folding Machine .

 Fabric Labelling Machines Textile Testing Equipment    Fabric Inspection Machine Fabric Testing Machine Yarn Testing Machine Textile Machine Accessories      Finishing Machine Accessories Knitting Machine Accessories Spinning Machine Accessories Textile Machine Repair Weaving Machine Accessories Textile Processing Machinery     Crochet Machines Knitting Machines Label Making Machines Quilting Machines        Textile Finishing Machines Textile Spinning Machines Textile Stretching Machines Textile Winding Machines Tufting Machines Weaving Machines Zipper Making Machines Textile Working Machinery Equipment & Accessories   Attaching Machines Cloth Cutting Machines   Embroidery Machines Industrial Sewing Machines     Laundry Dryers Sewing Machines Needles Textile Folding Machines Zipper Making Machine Leather And Footwear Machinery  Footwear Making Machine .

then if a fine fabric shirt will not look good. but also the finish. herringbone etc. feel and durability. easy to iron properties and colour . good fit and durability of the shirt. It is heavier poplin and pinpoint fabric. Manufacturers are focusing on quality of shirts these days. This fine fabric is lighter than the oxford fabric. Fabrics Used Formal shirts are made from a variety of high quality fibers to ensure. Twill: is one of the most fine fabrics available for making men's dress shirts. stability after washing. Some of the fabrics widely used are: o Oxford: This is one of the most widely used fabrics for manufacturing men's formal or dress shirts. re-enforced buttons and undergo rigorous quality checks. softer the shirt. Pinpoint Oxford: This is another popular type of fabric used for making dress or formal shirts. Woven Fabrics: There are a variety of woven fabrics that are used for making formal shirts for men. it is important to focus on the finish of the fabric. These fabrics are woven twill. The fabric is also thicker and heavier as compared to other fabrics. Wrinkle-free cotton shirts are being made these days on a large scale for making certain that the garment does not ruffle throughout the day. Thread Count Fine quality shirts have a direct relation with the thread count.fastness. Manufacturers all across the globe use high quality fabrics. corporate wear and can be worn on different formal occasions. Always insist on the thread count and finish of the shirt. comfort. Pure cotton shirts tend to crumple easily and give a "already worn" look. If the finish is bad. The fabric is also used for making customized formal or dress shirts. The overall quality of the shirt is not only dependent on the thread count. Manufacturer provide special finish to these shirts fir giving a soft handle. Herringbone broadcloth: is also used for making superior formal shirts. . The fabric is as light as a pinpoint fabric. These shirts have re-enforced stitching. These fabrics are fancier when compared to other fabrics. Poplin: It is also widely used for making quality and light men's formal shirts. a woven twill is little coarse.Formal Shirts Formal shirts for men are made from the finest quality fabrics and are available in different patterns and styles. Stress is also laid on the color fastness of the garment. The fabric is available in both plain and woven ribbed effect. Cotton: formal shirts are made from either 100% pure cotton or cotton-polyester blend in 80/20 ratio. higher the thread count. These shirts can have both full sleeves and half sleeves. Twill has a high cotton content and is used for making men's formal and casual shirts. Blended cotton shirts are wrinkle and stain resistant and are much in demand. advanced technology and machinery for making superior and premium range of formal shirts. These shirts are suitable for business. It is available in smooth finish and is plain. The fabric is heavy and has an elevated woven pattern. o o o o o o Fabric Finish When selecting fabrics for dress shirts. These dress shirts are luxurious and have a smooth feel. The fabric is light and smooth in feel. Shirts made from this fabric can be worn on both formal and casu al occasions. It is also in demand because of its look. Tough a simple twill has smooth finish.

corporate wear and can be worn on different formal occasions. Blended cotton shirts are wrinkle and stain resistant and are much in demand. Woven Fabrics: There are a variety of woven fabrics that are used for making formal shirts for men. This fine fabric is lighter than the oxford fabric. good fit and durability of the shirt. but also the finish. The overall quality of the shirt is not only dependent on the thread count. These shirts are suitable for business. Manufacturers all across the globe use high quality fabrics. . These shirts can have both full sleeves and half sleeves. The fabric is also used for making customized formal or dress shirts. Always insist on the thread count and finish of the shirt. then if a fine fabric shirt will not look good. Twill: is one of the most fine fabrics available for making men's dress shirts. herringbone etc. The fabric is light and smooth in feel. Stress is also laid on the color fastness of the garment.fastness. If the finish is bad. Twill has a high cotton content and is used for making men's formal and casual shirts. The fabric is heavy and has an elevated woven pattern. Pure cotton shirts tend to crumple easily and give a "already worn" look. softer the shirt. These fabrics are fancier when compared to other fabrics. Manufacturer provide special finish to these shirts fir giving a soft handle. a woven twill is little coarse. Shirts made from this fabric can be worn on both formal and casu al occasions. These shirts have re-enforced stitching. stability after washing. Wrinkle-free cotton shirts are being made these days on a large scale for making certain that the garment does not ruffle throughout the day. advanced technology and machinery for making superior and premium range of formal shirts.• Footwear Making Machine Formal Shirts Formal shirts for men are made from the finest quality fabrics and are available in different patterns and styles. Fabrics Used Formal shirts are made from a variety of high quality fibers to ensure. It is heavier poplin and pinpoint fabric. The fabric is also thicker and heavier as compared to other fabrics. It is available in smooth finish and is plain. it is important to focus on the finish of the fabric. comfort. Some of the fabrics widely used are: ○ Oxford: This is one of the most widely used fabrics for manufacturing men's formal or dress shirts. Thread Count Fine quality shirts have a direct relation with the thread count. The fabric is available in both plain and woven ribbed effect. Tough a simple twill has smooth finish. Cotton: formal shirts are made from either 100% pure cotton or cotton-polyester blend in 80/20 ratio. feel and durability. The fabric is as light as a pinpoint fabric. Manufacturers are focusing on quality of shirts these days. Herringbone broadcloth: is also used for making superior formal shirts. higher the thread count. Poplin: It is also widely used for making quality and light men's formal shirts. Pinpoint Oxford: This is another popular type of fabric used for making dress or formal shirts. It is also in demand because of its look. re-enforced buttons and undergo rigorous quality checks. These dress shirts are luxurious and have a smooth feel. easy to iron properties and colour . These fabrics are woven twill. ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Fabric Finish When selecting fabrics for dress shirts.

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