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DEFINITION OF FOOD Edible or potable substance (usually of animal or plant origin), consisting of nourishing and nutritive components such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, essential mineral and vitamins, which (when ingested and assimilated through digestion) sustains life, generates energy, and provides growth, maintenance, and health of the body. 2. DEFINITION OF NUTRITION Nutrition is the sum total of the processes involved in the taking in and the utilization of food substances by which growth, repair and maintenance of the body are accomplished. It involves ingestion, digestion, absorption and assimilation. Nutrients are stored by the body in various forms and drawn upon when the food intake is not sufficient. 3. DEFINITION OF DIET The customary amount and kind of food and drink taken by a person from day to day; more narrowly, a diet planned to meet specific requirements of the individual, including or excluding certain foods. 4. DEFINITION OF BALANCE DIET A diet that contains adequate amounts of all the necessary nutrients required for healthy growth and activity. A balanced diet is one that contains all the ingredients needed for our body to healthily continue its day to day functions in the most efficient way.

5. DEFINITION OF PICA An abnormal craving or appetite for nonfood substances, . For example, dirt. Pica is a classic clue to iron deficiency in children. It also occurs in zinc deficiency. Pica is also seen as a symptom in several neurobiological disorders, including autism and Tourette syndrome, and is sometimes seen during pregnancy. Pica is a Latin term for magpie, a bird that gleans all sorts of things for its nest.

6. DEFINITION OF NUTRIENTS A substance that provides nourishment for growth or metabolism. Plants absorb nutrients mostly from the soil in the form of minerals and other inorganic compounds and animals obtain nutrients from ingested foods. 7. DEFINITION OF MACRONUTRIENTS Nutrients that the body uses in relatively large amounts - proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. This is as opposed to micronutrients, which the body requires in smaller amounts, such as vitamins and minerals. Macronutrients provide calories to the body as well as performing other functions.

8. DEFINTION OF MICRONUTRIENTS any dietary element essential only in minute amounts for the normal physiologic processes of the body, including vitamins and minerals or chemical elements such as zinc or iodine. Also called microelement trace.

9. DEFINITION OF PHYTOCHEMICALS Chemicals naturally found in fruits, vegetables, nuts and legumes that may have a positive impact on your health. Some of the best known photochemical are carotenoids, such as beta carotene, lutein,lycopene and zeaxanthin. Flavonoids are another classification of phytochemical, and include compounds such as quercetin, anthocyanins and hesperidin. Other phytochemicals include limonene, indole, ellagic acid, allium and sulphoraphane. Also Known As phytonutrients 10. DEFINITION OF ANTIOXIDANT Any substance that reduces oxidative damage (damage due to oxygen) such as that caused by free radicals. Free radicals are highly reactive chemicals that attack molecules by capturing electrons and thus modifying chemical structures. Wellknown antioxidants include a number of enzymes and other substances such as vitamin C, vitamin E and beta carotene (which is converted to vitamin) that are capable of counteracting the damaging effects of oxidation. Antioxidants are also commonly added to food products like vegetable oils and prepared foods to prevent or delay their deterioration from the action of air. 11. DEFINITION OF ORGANIC AND INORGANIC SUBSTANCE An organic compound is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon and hydrogen; therefore, carbides, carbonates, carbon oxides and elementary carbon are not organic (see below for more on the definition controversy for this word). The study of organic compounds is termed organic chemistry, and since it is a vast collection of chemicals (over half of all known chemical compounds), systems have been devised to classify organic compounds An inorganic compound is a chemical compound that is not an organic compound. Traditionally, inorganic compounds came principally from mineral sources of nonbiological origin. Most known inorganic compounds are however synthetic and are not obtained directly from nature. According to contemporary definitions, inorganic compounds include all compounds containing metals and metalloids. Although most carbon compounds are considered organic, cyanide salts, carbon oxides and carbonates are usually considered to be inorganic.

12. DEFINITION OF CALORIE A unit of food energy. In nutrition terms, the word calorie is used instead of the more precise scientific term kilocalorie which represents the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of a liter of water one degree centigrade at sea level. The common usage of the word calorie of food energy is understood to refer to a kilocalorie and actually represents, therefore, 1000 true calories of energy. A calorie is also known as cal, gram calorie, or small calorie. The small calorie or gram calorie (symbol: cal) approximates the energy needed to increase the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 C. This is about 4.2 joules. The large calorie, kilogram calorie, dietary calorie or food calorie (symbol: Cal). Approximates the energy needed to increase the temperature of 1 kilogram of water by 1 C. This is exactly 1,000 small calories or about 4.2 kilojoules

13. DEFINITION OF FOOD GUIDE PYRAMID Food pyramid or Food Guide Pyramid, diagram used in nutrition education that fits food groups into a triangle and notes that, for a healthful diet, those at the base should be eaten more frequently than those at the top. At the base of the pyramid are breads, cereals, rice, and pasta, with a recommendation that 6 to 11 servings be eaten daily. On the next levels up are the vegetable (3 to 5 servings) and fruit (2 to 4 servings) groups, followed by the dairy group (2 to 3 servings) and a group including meats, eggs, nuts, and dry beans (2 to 3 servings). Fats, oils and sweets are at the apex, with a recommendation that they be eaten sparingly.

14. DEFINITION OF SERVING SIZE

It is the suggestive size your food should be based on so many calories per day depending on how old you are and your size and weight. The portion of food used as a reference on the nutrition label of that food. Also meaning as the recommended portion of food to be eaten. The National Cancer Institute defines a serving as: One medium-sized fruit (such as apples, oranges, bananas, pears) 1/2 cup of raw, cooked, canned or frozen fruits or vegetables 3/4 cup (6 oz.) of 100% fruit or vegetable juice 1/2 cup cut-up fruit 1/2 cup cooked or canned legumes (such as beans and peas) 1 cup of raw, leafy vegetables (such as lettuce and spinach) 1/4 cup dried fruit (such as raisins, apricots, mango)

15. DEFNITION OF RECOMMENDED DIETARY ALLOWANCE (RDA) Quantities of nutrients in the diet that is required to maintain good health in people. RDAs are established by the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Sciences, and may be revised every few years. A separate RDA value exists for each nutrient. The RDA values refer to the amount of nutrient expected to maintain good health in people. The actual amounts of each nutrient required to maintain good health in specific individuals differ from person to person.

16. DEFINITIONS OF HYDROPHOBIC AND LIPOPHILIC Hydrophobic Meaning water fearing". Hydrophobic compounds do not dissolve easily in water, and are usually non-polar. Oils and other long hydrocarbons are hydrophobic. Lipophilic meaning having a strong affinity for lipids. Literally 'fat-loving'. Applied to molecular entities (or parts of molecular entities) having a tendency to dissolve in fat-like (e.g. hydrocarbon) solvents.

2. ELABORATE MORE ON FACTOR THAT AFFECT FOOD CHOICES SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS In a family where there is no regular income only essential foods may be bought, only once a week and from local shops and markets. Where there is a higher income a family might shop more often and at larger supermarkets. INDIVIDUAL ENERGY AND NUTRIENT NEEDS The amount of energy, carbohydrate, fat, protein, vitamins and minerals needed differs between different age groups and between males and females. For example, women of child-bearing age should consume extra amounts of folate and foods with added folic acid during early pregnancy to decrease the risk of fetal neural tube defects, example. spina bifida. Energy needs also depend on activity levels. Athletes will have much higher energy requirements due to their high level of physical activity.

HEALTH CONCERNS Diets which exclude many foods due to a persons health concerns or for medical reasons need to be planned carefully. For example, people who are lactose intolerant cannot eat some dairy products and so must make sure that they eat other foods which are good sources of calcium, e.g. soft edible bones in fish such as tinned salmon or sardines. However, they can consume hard cheese, as it is low in lactose, and also yogurt in moderate amounts, because the bacteria in yogurt helps digest the lactose.

PHYSIOLOGICAL FACTOR; FOOD AND MOOD Studies have proved that some people eat more when they are happy just for cheer up and on other side dieters may also overeat as a way of shifting responsibility for their negative mood from uncontrollable aspects of their lives to their eating behavior. This is because of hyper or hypo secretion of the hormones secreted by the hypothalamus which are responsible for the senses of hunger and satiety. CULTURAL OR RELIGIOUS PRACTICES Ethical and religious practices, such as avoiding meat, may limit the range of foods people eat. For example, a strict Vegan will not consume any meat products. They should choose non-meat food sources which are high in protein, iron and vitamin B12. It affects like Muslims do not eat pork and Hindus do not eat beef and Buddhists do not eat eggs and so on. GEOGRAPHICAL FACTORS Such as where people live and the range of shops situated near them may influence their choice of foods. FOOD AVAILABILITY Most foods are grown in a particular season of the year, e.g. strawberries are harvested in summer. These are called seasonal foods. Buying foods when they are in season will often ensure the food price is lower. Technology and the importation of food, however, has allowed food to be available all year round. Frozen foods such as vegetables are a great alternative to fresh, if they are unavailable.

FOOD PREFERENCES Not everyone likes the same food, but some foods are particularly popular or unpopular. The taste, texture or appearance of foods can affect people in different ways. People should choose a balanced diet with a wide range of foods they enjoy by choosing from the 4 main food groups of the eat well plate FOOD ADVERTISING Advertisements encouraging people to choose certain foods often appear on the television, internet, radio, posters, magazines and newspapers. Point of purchase information and product placement are strategies often used to provide information to consumers. This can assist people in making healthier choices.

TYPES OF INFORMATION Nutrition panel and ingredients lists can provide information on food. Information about the nutrient content of food from a food label can be helpful when planning a balanced diet. Recipe and cookery ideas, and information about how to use less familiar ingredients, can make it easier to put healthy dietary advice into practice

PHYSIOLOGICAL FACTOR; FOOD AND MOOD Studies have proved that some people eat more when they are happy just for cheer up and on other side dieters may also overeat as a way of shifting responsibility for their negative mood from uncontrollable aspects of their lives to their eating behavior. This is because of hyper or hypo secretion of the hormones secreted by the hypothalamus which are responsible for the senses of hunger and satiety. ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS Scientific intervention in the food chain also causes concerns for some people. Genetically modified (GM) ingredients changing a plant, animal or microorganism's genes or inserting one from another organism. These foods are labelled so people may decide to choose non-genetically modified food products. People may also choose foods labelled as organic. The word 'organic' has come to have the meaning of foods grown without the use of inorganic fertilisers, or pesticides. Food sold as 'organic' must come from growers, processors and importers who are registered and approved by organic certification bodies, which are shown on the food label. OTHER SOURCES OF INFORMATION Supermarkets and food manufacturers, charities and other groups also produce information on what we should be eating. The most common source of information for many people, however, is the media, i.e. internet, newspapers, radio, magazines and television programmes. It is important that advice is clear and consistent so that people are not confused about what good nutrition means.