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“Effect of Internet Addiction on Mental Health”
Submitted By: Deepesh Shukla B.Sc. Vsem
Submitted to: Dr. Anuradha Kotnala Senior Lecturer Deptt. of Psychology
Department of Psychology
Dev Sanskriti Vishwavidyalaya
Gayatrikunj, Shantikunj Hardwar (UK)
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I’m heartily indebted. To PARAM PUJYA GURUDEV and VANDANIYA MATAJI for their subtle blessings on me. I express my respect and gratitude to our respected Chancellor Dr. Pranav Pandya ji and our dear Shaill JiJi. I would especially pay my cordial gratitude to my Guide Dr. Anuradha Kotnala who had been guiding me through out this project work. I’m deeply indebted to Head and Staffs of Dept of Psychology who continuously guided and encouraged me and gave their incalculable suggestions for initiating this project. I would like to thank my friends and subjects who have always supported me and co-operated in the conduction of the project work. I thank to all and express my deep sense of gratitude towards them. I would like to acknowledge DSVV for providing me the time and opportunity to Study “The Effect of Internet Addiction on Mental Health of Adolescents.”
Deepesh Shukla B.Sc. 5th SEM firstname.lastname@example.org
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Introduction Need of Study Literature Review Problem Hypothesis
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Need of Study:
Original motivation My interest in this particular field of the human-computer interaction was stimulated when observing student colleagues using the Internet (Google, Yahoo, WWW, email). I was wondering if heavy use of the Internet could lead to addictive behaviour and loss of Mental Health. During my lectures in the last semester I got interested in the method of doing statistic evaluation with questionnaires and I wanted to evaluate, if there are people who show signs of Internet addictive behaviour and loss of Mental Health and how it differs from general Internet behaviour. As the usage of the Internet is growing rapidly each year, Internet addiction has become a problem among some users. There is an emerging public health concern over the increase in Internet usage, particularly among adolescents. Research has demonstrated that excessive Internet use has substantial negative effects on psychological, emotional and social aspects of an individual’s wellbeing and mental health. In regards to human development and behavior, the Internet is important to adolescents and is a means for socializing, education, information access, entertainment, shopping and communication. Given that so many adolescents are reliant on the Internet in several areas in their life, it is vital to be aware of the impact that Internet use has on adolescent behavior, mental health and well-being. Internet addiction is a contemporary problem brought about by easy access to computers and online information. Individuals addicted to the Internet can develop many types of disorders. In extreme cases, persons addicted to the Internet may be destructive to themselves, their families, and their place of employment. Corporate executives need to have a better understanding of Internet addiction because employees with Internet addiction can be highly counter- productive as well as cause other legal problems. This study examines research trends in the area of Internet addiction and Mental health. It provides management implications for policy development and planning.
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Specifically, this study identifies the leading researchers, institutions, specialization, and information dissemination outlets for Internet addiction research in the last quarter of the lOth Century to the present. This study should be of interest to educators at academic institutions, students interested in institutions offering Internet addiction courses and programs, and researchers specializing in online addiction studies. Clinical psychologists, behavioral counselors, psychiatrists, clergy, and addiction therapists will find the results of this study useful. In particular, corporate attorneys dealing with addiction cases, human resource specialists seeking rehabilitation facilities for addicted employees, health related policy makers, computing consultants, and risk assessors of insurance companies will find the results of this study to be valuable. Internet addiction disorder (IAD) is a modern day addiction. Persons with IAD can exhibit symptoms, suffer drawbacks, and face consequences that are similar to individuals addicted to alcohol, gambling, narcotics, shopping, and other compulsive behaviors. One way to describe persons infected with this disorder is that they find the virtual environment to be more attractive than everyday reality. Their daily lives are dominated with their need to be online. Sadly, this addiction is affecting millions of People and their families in every aspect of their life. The primary areas affected include school, family, work and relationships (Young 998). As early as in 1976, the year after the Internet came into being, the American Psychological Association (APA) had anticipated that the Internet would potentially lead to addictive behavior among users. The psychology community was asked to develop policy guidelines for counseling persons who may become addicted to the Internet (APA 1976). Compared to other known forms of addictions such as gambling and alcohol, public awareness about Internet addiction is still in its stage of infancy. However, a number of specialists have studied the Internet addiction problem and have offered a number of definitions and reasons for the behavior. First, Internet addiction can be defined as an impulse disorder. Some of the characteristics of this problem are similar to those of pathological gambling. For instance, Orzack conducted a study in 1999. She found that people who are susceptible to Internet addiction
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are people who are easily bored, lonely, shy, depressed and suffering from other addictions (Orzack 1999). Orzack's findings are not new. A year earlier, Young had identified seven other reasons to this list and had actually called the problem Internet Addiction Disorder(IAD). The remaining seven reasons are marital discontent, work related stress, financial problems, insecurity, anxiety, struggle in life, and limited social life (Young 1998). As an impulsive disorder, there are two major types of treatments that are available to help persons who may be Internet addicted. The treatments are cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and motivational enhancement therapy (MET). CBT is found to be more popular than MET (Onack 1999). Second, it can be viewed as a psychiatric disorder. Based on this point of view, a new field of research called "Internet Psychotherapy" has emerged (Stein 1997). This view recognizes Internet addicts as patients. The suggested method of treatment involves the formation of newsgroups and discussion groups. In this form of treatment, members of relevant psychiatric disorders act as a support group to reduce Internet addiction by giving online suggestions and treatment procedures (Huang; Alessi 1997). Third, Internet addiction is a behavioral problem. This is because there is a strong correlation between persons involved with Internet addiction and chemical dependency. Studies have confirmed that people who are having chemical dependency problems tend to spend more time per week online chatting than the "non chemical dependent" users (Scherer 1997).
Review of Literature
1. In the Stanford study (2009) - Aboujaoude, clinical assistant professor in psychiatry and behavioral sciences and director of Stanford’s Impulse Control Disorders Clinic said is the first large-scale, randomsample epidemiological one ever done—the researchers conducted a nationwide household survey and interviewed 2,513 adults. Because no generally accepted screening instrument exists for problematic Internet use, the researchers developed their questions by extrapolating from other compulsive and addictive conditions.
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The researchers found that 68.9 percent were regular Internet users, which is consistent with previous studies, and that:
13.7 percent (more than one out of eight respondents) found it hard to stay away from the Internet for several days at a time 12.4 percent stayed online longer than intended very often or often 12.3 percent had seen a need to cut back on Internet use at some point 8.7 percent attempted to conceal non-essential Internet use from family, friends and employers 8.2 percent used the Internet as a way to escape problems or relieve negative mood 5.9 percent felt their relationships suffered as a result of excessive Internet use
Aboujaoude said he found most concerning the numbers of people who hid their nonessential Internet use or used the Internet to escape a negative mood, much in the same way that alcoholics might. “In a sense, they’re using the Internet to ‘self-medicate,’” he said. “And obviously something is wrong when people go out of their way to hide their Internet activity.” While the numbers indicate that a subset of people might have a problem with Internet use, Aboujaoude stressed that it’s premature to say whether people in the sample actually have a clinical disorder. “We’re not saying this is a diagnosis—we still need to learn a lot more,” he said. “But this study was a necessary first step toward possibly identifying something clinically significant.” Aboujaoude said the next step is to conduct comprehensive clinical interviews on a large sample of people to better identify clinically relevant markers for problematic Internet use, and to better understand whether this phenomenon constitutes an independent psychological disorder. 2. On October 2007, a Sun-Herald (Sydney) article referred to Facebook as ‘Stalkbook’ and ‘Crackbook’ (Dasey 2007). Not only did the article state the claim that Facebook ‘enables people to
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monitor and track what you are doing without you being aware of it’, but also claimed that people ‘find it addictive and spend endless hours trawling the site’. 3. More recently, Shapira, Lessig, Goldsmith, Szabo, Lazoritz, Gold, and Stein (2003) proposed a revised classification and diagnostic criteria for problematic Internet use. Furthermore, Black, Belsare and Schlosser (1999) pointed out that Internet Addiction Disorder (IAD) seemed to have high comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders. Because of this, the criteria need to be unique so that it can evaluate the validity of Internet abuse as a distinct disorder. Shapira et al. discussed the concept of ‘positive addiction’ (Glasser, 1976). However, the concept has been questioned, as the criteria for positive addiction do not resemble many of the components of more established addictions, such as tolerance and withdrawal (Griffiths, 1996b). Moreover, in terms of Internet dependency, negative consequences have been reported along with the amount of time spent online. Internet dependency has most commonly been conceptualized as a behavioural addiction, which operates on a modified principle of classic addiction models, but the validity and clinical usefulness of such claims have also been questioned. 4. Similarly, Rotunda, Kass, Sutton and Leon (2003) utilized an instrument they simply called the Internet Use Survey. It contained three formal components that explored: a) Demographic data and Internet usage, b) the negative consequences and experience associated with Internet use, and c) personal history and psychological characteristics of participants. Components b) and c) included several items from DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling, substance use dependence, and particular personality disorder (e.g., schizoid). Their sample consisted of 393 students, 53.6% females (n = 210) and 46.4% males (n = 182). The age range was between 18 and 81 years old, with a mean of 27.6 years. The average use was 3.3 h a day with 1 h for personal usage. The most common usage was e-mail, surfing the web for information and news, and chat rooms. The negative consequences included 18% of participants reporting preoccupation with the Internet, 25% sometimes feeling excited or euphoric when online, 34% admitted to
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going online to escape other problems to some degree, and 22.6% reported socializing online more than in person. Staying online longer than planned and losing track of time were also found to be common reports. Factor analysis revealed four main factors. The first was labeled ‘absorption’’(i.e., over-involvement with the Internet, time management failure), the second ‘negative consequences’ (i.e., distress or problematic behaviour such as preferring to be online than spending time with the family), the third “sleep”(i.e., sleep pattern disruption like scheduling sleep around online time), and finally “deception” (i.e., lying to others online about identity, or how long they spend online”). Internet-related impairment was conceptualized based on user absorption and negative consequences instead of frequency of usage. The authors concluded by stating that to assume frequent Internet use was excessive, pathological or addictive was potentially misleading as it ignored contextual and dispositional factors associated with this behaviour. 5. Dr. Young (2001) gathered around 400 case studies, as well as a number of family members and relatives living with net addicts, and presented her results at the American Psychological Association Conference. Common warning signs (in the following abbreviated as Young) according to Young are: 1. Compulsively checking your email. 2. Always anticipating your next Internet session. 3. Others complaining that you're spending too much time online. 4. Others complaining that you're spending too much money online.
6. Greenfield (1999) estimated that six percent of the Web users are addicted to the Internet. This study was patterned after theories on compulsive behavior.
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7. Kraat (1999) surveyed 169 people from 73 Pittsburgh households before and after one or two years of Internet usage. He reported that teenagers who withdrew from social contacts were using the Internet as an escape from reality. 8. In a much bigger study—the Virtual Addiction Survey (VAS)— Greenfield (1999) conducted an online survey with 17,251 respondents. The sample was mainly Caucasian (82%), male (71%), with a mean age of 33 years. The VAS included demographic items (e.g., age, location, educational background, etc.), descriptive information items (e.g., frequency and duration of use, specific Internet usage, etc.), and clinical items (e.g., disinhibition, loss of time, behaviour online). It also included ten modified items from DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling. Approximately 6% of respondents met the criteria for addicted Internet usage patterns. Tentative post hoc analysis proposed several variables that made the Internet attractive: intense intimacy (41% total sample, 75% dependents), disinhibition (43% total sample, 80% dependents), loss of boundaries (39% total sample, 83% dependents), timelessness (most of the sample replied ‘sometimes,’ most of the dependents replied ‘almost always’), out of control (8% total sample, 46% dependents). One of the additional areas that was examined was whether ‘Internet addiction’ shared the same characteristics as other forms of addiction, including substance-based addictions. Early analysis revealed numerous symptoms, which Greenfield viewed as being consistent with the concept of tolerance and withdrawal in dependents, including pre-occupation with going online (58%), numerous unsuccessful attempts to cut back (68%), and feeling restless when attempting to cut back (79%). Despite the large sample size, only a very preliminary analysis was conducted. Therefore, results should be interpreted with caution. 9. Pratarelli, Browne and Johnson (1999)- Another attempt at formulating a set of diagnostic criteria for ‘Internet addiction’ was made by them. Factor analysis was employed in this research to
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examine possible constructs underlying ‘computer/Internet addiction.’ There were 341 completed surveys with 163 male and 178 female participants (mean age of 22.8 years) recruited from Oklahoma State University. A questionnaire consisting of 93 items was constructed, 19 of which were categorical demographic and Internet use questions, and 74 dichotomous items. Four factors were extracted from the 93 items, two principal and two minor factors. Factor one focused on problematic computer-related behaviours in heavy-users of the Internet. This factor was characterized by reports of loneliness, social isolation, missing appointments and other general negative consequences of their Internet use. Factor Two focused on the utilization and usefulness of computer technology in general and of the Internet in particular. Factor Three focused on two different constructs that concerned the use of the Internet for sexual gratification and shyness/introversion. Factor Four focused on the lack of problems related to Internet use coupled with mild aversion/disinterest in the technology. The data collected in this study supported the idea that a mixture of obsessive-like characteristics were present in some individuals in terms of their Internet use and that they prefer online interactions rather than face-to-face. Although this study utilized a more statistically tested instrument in measuring ‘Internet addiction,’ some of the factors extracted did not seem to indicate components of addiction in general. 10. Dr. Mark Griffiths (1998), a psychologist at the University of Plymouth in England, studied "Internet addiction" in more depth. He says that of 100 people who responded to a question about the overuse of on-line services, 22 reported a cocaine-like "rush" and 12 said computer chat lines helped them to relax. He believes that new technology is an addiction, which has behavior patterns like gambling or overeating. 11. Young (1998) conducted a study about usage patterns and online addiction on 496 responses from Internet users. Eighty percent of the self identified addicted persons had 38 hours of online per week
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for non- office purposes.
12. Anderson (1997) studied the effect of Internet addiction on college students. In a study of 1,200 undergraduates, he found out that one third of them had academic problems traceable to heavy Internet usage. 13. Brenner (1997) devised an instrument called the InternetRelated Addictive Behaviour Inventory (IRABI), consisting of 32 dichotomous (true/false) items. These items were designed to assess experiences comparable to those related to Substance Abuse in the DSM-IV. Of the 563 respondents, the majority were male (73%) and they used the Internet for (a mean average) of 19 h per week. All 32 items seemed to measure some unique variance as they were all found to be moderately correlated with the total score. Older users tended to experience less problems compared to younger users despite spending the same amount of time online. No gender differences were reported. The data appeared to suggest that a number of users experienced more problems in role-performance because of their Internet usage. Brenner concluded that the skewed distribution was consistent with the existence of a deviant subgroup who experience more severe problems due to Internet use. He also claimed there was evidence of tolerance, withdrawal, and craving. The major limitation to the study was that it was not clear whether items in the IRABI really tapped into behaviours that indicated real signs of addiction (Griffiths, 1998). 14. In a study, Lam and colleagues (1997) examined an adolescent sample of 1618 high school students aged 13-18 years. The authors investigated the association between Internet addiction and selfinjurious behaviors. The outcomes revealed that the odds ratio for adolescents with self-injurious behaviors was 2.0 (95% CI: 1.1-3.7) for those who were classified as moderately and severely addicted to the Internet when compared with a normal group.
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“I keep six honest serving-men (They taught me all I knew); Their names are What and Why and When And How and Where and Who”
(Kipling, 1902/1988, p. 3)
A research problem is the situation that causes the researcher to feel apprehensive, confused and ill at ease. It is the demarcation of a problem area within a certain context involving the WHO or WHAT, the WHERE, the WHEN and the WHY of the problem situation. There are many problem situations that may give rise to research. Three sources usually contribute to problem identification. Own experience or the experience of others may be a source of problem supply. A second source could be scientific literature. You may read about certain findings and notice that a certain field was not covered. This could lead to a research problem. Theories could be a third source. Shortcomings in theories could be researched. Research can thus be aimed at clarifying or substantiating an existing theory, at clarifying contradictory findings, at correcting a faulty methodology, at correcting the inadequate or unsuitable use of statistical techniques, at reconciling conflicting opinions, or at solving existing practical problems.
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Figure 1 illustrates this interrelatedness by providing a conceptual map of the problem-based research cycle indicating the centrality of the research problem for the research endeavor. The next few sections examine the relationships between the problem driving the research and the other aspects of the endeavor.
Definitions of Problem
According to Kerlinger – A problem is an interrogative sentence or statement that asks what relations exist between two or more variables. According to Townsend - A problem is a question proposed for solution. According to Mc Guin – A solvable problem is one that poses a question which is related to our inadequate knowledge and through experimentation we search solution or answer.
IDENTIFICATION OF THE PROBLEM
The prospective researcher should think on what caused the need to do the research (problem identification). The question that he/she should ask is: Are there questions about this problem to which answers have not been found up to the present? Research originates from a need that arises. A clear distinction between the PROBLEM and the PURPOSE should be made. The problem is the aspect the researcher worries about, thinks about, and wants to find a solution for. The purpose is to solve the problem, i.e. find answers to the question(s). If there is no clear problem formulation, the purpose and methods are meaningless.
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We should keep the following in mind:
Outline the general context of the problem area. Highlight key theories, concepts and ideas current in this area. What appear to be some of the underlying assumptions of this area?
Why are these issues identified important? What needs to be solved? Read round the area (subject) to get to know the background and to identify unanswered questions or controversies, and/or to identify the most significant issues for further exploration.
The research problem should be stated in such a way that it would lead to analytical thinking on the part of the researcher with the aim of possible concluding solutions to the stated problem. Research problems can be stated in the form of either questions or statements.
The research problem should always be formulated grammatically correct and as completely as possible. You should bear in mind the wording (expressions) you use. Avoid meaningless words. There should be no doubt in the mind of the reader what your intentions are.
Demarcating the research field into manageable parts by dividing the main problem into sub problems is of the utmost importance.
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PROBLEM OF DISSERTATION
Purpose of this dissertation is to find out that in this century people are really getting addicted to Internet and this addiction to Internet is making them mentally ill or not.
Problem: “Does Internet Addiction Effects Mental Health.”
Variables of the Study: Independent Variable Dependent Variable - Internet Addiction - Mental Health
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Formation of Hypothesis
A hypothesis is a tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables. A hypothesis is a specific, testable prediction about what you expect to happen in your study. For example, a study designed to look at the relationship between sleep deprivation and test performance might have a hypothesis that states, "This study is designed to assess the hypothesis that sleep deprived people will perform worse on a test than individuals who are not sleep deprived." Unless you are creating a study that is exploratory in nature, your hypothesis should always explain what you expect to happen during the course of your experiment or research. Remember, a hypothesis does not have to be right. While the hypothesis predicts what the researchers expect to see, the goal of research is to determine whether this guess is right or wrong. When conducting an experiment, researchers might explore a number of different factors to determine which ones might contribute to the ultimate outcome. In many cases, researchers may find that the results of an experiment do not support the original hypothesis. When writing up these results, the researchers might suggest other options that should be explored in future studies.
Definitions of Hypothesis:
A testable statement of a potential relationship between two or more variables is called hypothesis
-Mcguin: Experimental psychology, 1990,p,27
A hypothesis is a conjectural statement of the relationship between two or more variables. Hypothesis are always in declarative
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sentence from and they relate either generally or specifically variables to variables.
-kerlinger: foundation of behavioral Research, 1986,p, 17
A hypothesis is a tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables. -General definition A hypothesis is an assumption that serves as a tentative explanation
A hypothesis is a specific, testable prediction about what you expect to happen in your study. -General definition
Types of Hypothesis:
Hypotheses can be classified in terms of their derivation (inductive and deductive hypotheses) and in terms of their formulation (research - directional and non-directional and statistical or null hypotheses).
RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS (Directional)
It is a relationship between variables and indicates the nature of the relationship. If A is valid, B follows... If you hit a child with a chain, he/she will cry. Schools in which pupil-teacher relations are open/friendly will have less unrest than comparable schools where pupil-teacher relations are closed/tense.
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Some examples of directional hypothesis are: (1) It is hypothesized that the co-educated students are more interactive and smarter than the non co-educated students. (In this example ' interactive and smarter than' shows the direction predicted) It is hypothesized that students who have firm career goals achieve higher GPAs than those who do not have firm career goals. Girls perform better than boys (in this example 'better than' shows the direction predicted)
"You are wrong, there is no relation; disprove me if you can" (Kerlinger, 1973) The null hypothesis is the belief that the independent variable in an experiment will have no effect on the dependent variable. There is no difference between pupil-teacher relations in unrest schools and pupil-teacher relations in comparable schools which experience no unrest. NB
An important requirement for hypotheses is TESTABILITY. A condition for testability is CLEAR and UNAMBIGUOUS CONCEPTS. A research hypothesis (unempirical research) has to do with relationships between empirical phenomena. The concepts in a research hypothesis must posses single references (indicators) or denotations to identifiable phenomena in reality.
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A central theoretical thesis refers to hypotheses in more theoretical studies.
Statement of the Hypothesis:
A Null hypothesis about the dissertation publication was formulated for testing in this study. Hypothesis was used to determine if there was any effect of Internet Addiction on Mental Health.
The hypothesis is as follows:
“There is no Significant effect of Internet Addiction on Mental Health of Adolescents.”
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In any Research work Variable plays a vital role. A variable is something that can be changed, such as a characteristic or value. Variables are generally used in psychology experiments to determine if changes to one thing result in changes to another.
Any measurable attributes of objects, things or being is called variables.
-D’Amato: experimental psychology, 1970, p-10
The Dependent and Independent Variables
The independent variable is the variable that is controlled and manipulated by the experimenter. For example, in an experiment on the impact of sleep deprivation on test performance, sleep deprivation would be the independent variable. The dependent variable is the variable that is measured by the experimenter. In our previous example, the scores on the test performance measure would be the dependent variable.
Extraneous and Confounding Variables
The independent and dependent variables are not the only variables present in many experiments. In some cases, extraneous variables may also play a role. This type of variable is one that may have an impact on the relationship between the independent and dependent variables.
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There are two basic types of extraneous variables:
Participant Variables: These extraneous variables are related to individual characteristics of each participant that may impact how he or she responds. These factors can include background differences, mood, anxiety, intelligence, awareness and other characteristics that are unique to each person.
Situational Variables: These extraneous variables are related to things in the environment that may impact how each participant responds. For example, if a participant is taking a test in a chilly room, the temperature would be considered an extraneous variable. Some participants may not be affected by the cold, but others might be distracted or annoyed by the temperature of the room. In many cases, extraneous variables are controlled by the experimenter. In the case of participant variables, the experiment might select participants that are the same in background and temperament to ensure that these factors do not interfere with the results. If, however, a variable cannot be controlled for, it becomes what is known as a confounding variable. This type of variable can have an impact on the dependent variable, which can make it difficult to determine if the results are due to the influence of the independent variable, the confounding variable or an interaction of the two.
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Description of Independent Variable
It is a global network connecting millions of computers. It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private, public, academic, business, and government networks, of local to global scope, that are linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless and optical networking technologies. The Internet carries a vast range of information resources and services, such as the interlinked hypertext documents of the World Wide Web (WWW) and the infrastructure to support electronic mail. More than 100 countries are linked into exchanges of data, news and opinions. Unlike online services, which are centrally controlled, the Internet is decentralized by design. Each Internet computer, called a host, is independent. Its operators can choose which Internet services to use and which local services to make available to the global Internet community. Remarkably, this anarchy by design works exceedingly well. There are a variety of ways to access the Internet. Most online services, such as America Online, offer access to some Internet services. It is also possible to gain access through a commercial Internet Service Provider (ISP).
History of Internet:
The Internet was the result of some visionary thinking by people in the early 1960s who saw great potential value in allowing computers to share information on research and development in scientific and military fields. J.C.R. Licklider of MIT, first proposed a global network of computers in 1962, and moved over to the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) in late 1962 to head the work to develop it. Leonard Kleinrock of MIT and later UCLA developed the theory of packet switching, which was to form the basis of Internet connections. Lawrence Roberts of MIT connected a Massachusetts computer with a California computer in 1965 over dial-up telephone lines. It showed the feasibility of wide area networking, but also showed that the telephone line's circuit switching was inadequate. Kleinrock's packet switching theory was confirmed. Roberts moved over to DARPA in 1966 and developed his plan for
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ARPANET. These visionaries and many more left unnamed here are the real founders of the Internet. The early Internet was used by computer experts, engineers, scientists, and librarians. There was nothing friendly about it. There were no home or office personal computers in those days, and anyone who used it, whether a computer professional or an engineer or scientist or librarian, had to learn to use a very complex system.
Addiction: I got your attention
World Health Organization (WHO) define it as: Addiction, drug or alcohol. Repeated use of a psychoactive substance or substances, to the extent that the user is periodically or chronically intoxicated, shows a compulsion to take the preferred substance, has great difficulty in voluntarily ceasing or modifying substance use, and exhibits determination to obtain psychoactive substances by almost any means. (WHO Lexicon, 1994) The above definition specifically refers to the use of a psychoactive substance (e.g. narcotics), that periodically or chronically intoxicates the user. This form of addiction is in direct correlation with the disease model of addiction (Jellinek, 1960; Parr, 1959; WHO, 2004), but does not take into account the ‘behavioural’ aspect of addiction (Alexander, 1985; Griffiths, 1996; Peele, 1975; West, 2006), which doesn’t necessarily involve the ingestion of psychoactive substance or intoxicate the user e.g. gambling (Griffiths, 1995). One definition that does take into account the ‘behavioural’ side of addiction is Robert West’s definition, a Professor of Health Psychology at the University of London, who suggests that: Addiction is a social construct, not an object that can be uniquely defined. According to the proposed theory, addiction can be usefully viewed as a chronic condition to the ‘motivational system’ in which reward-seeking behaviour has become ‘out of control’. (West, 2006, pg.174)
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The above definition refers directly to abnormalities within a person’s ‘motivational system’ which is related to specific personality traits that may exist before addiction takes place such as a tendency to become anxious or depressed. It also involves a habitual process that incorporates the user’s social and physical surroundings. In (Freeman, 92) is an article about addictive behaviors: Addiction is defined by Bratter and Forest (1985) as a behavior pattern of compulsive drug use characterized by overwhelming involvement ... with the use of a drug and the securing of the supply, as well as a tendency to relapse after completion of withdrawal". The authors state that the difference between use and addiction is quantitative rather than qualitative. Addiction is not determined in terms by quantity alone, but more over, is additionally determined in terms of the effect on the individual in his or her social context. The main difference between abuse or problem use and addiction is in the context of the life situation: Abuse or problem use: the person "must use", there is an increasing involvement in a compulsive manner; uncontrollable consequences occur but abuse continues nevertheless. Addiction: the person "must no stop using"; overwhelming involvement with a substance or a behaviour is carried compulsively into the person's daily life. Day to day patterns or routines of living are disrupted with use, with securing a supply and with a strong tendency to relapse after completion of withdrawal. There is no general model for addiction. There are three different models for addiction described. The disease model focuses on addiction as illness, the adaptive model looks at is as a way of coping and the way of-life model emphasizes life-styles or roles. Common signs of addiction include (following abbreviated as CSA): 1. Preoccupation with a substance, relationship or behaviour 2. A loss of control over the use of a substance or a pattern of behaviour 3. Concerns expressed by others about the loss of control and the effects
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4. Continued, persistent use of a substance or involvement behaviour in spite of negative consequences.
What is Internet Addiction?
Internet addiction disorder (IAD) or more broadly, Internet overuse, problematic computer use or pathological computer use, is excessive computer use that interferes with daily life. These terms avoid the distracting and divisive term addiction and are not limited to any single cause. IAD was originally proposed as a disorder in a satirical hoax by Ivan Goldberg, M.D., in 1995. He took pathological gambling as diagnosed by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) as his model for the description of IAD. It is not, however, included in the current DSM as of 2009. IAD receives coverage in the press, and possible future classification as a psychological disorder continues to be debated and researched. Young (1999a,b) claims “Internet addiction” is a broad term that covers a wide variety of behaviours and impulse control problems. She claims this is categorized by five specific subtypes: Cybersexual addiction: Compulsive use of adult websites for cybersex and cyberporn. Cyber-relationship relationships. addiction: Over-involvement in online
Net compulsions: Obsessive online gambling, shopping or daytrading. Information overload: Compulsive web surfing or database searches. Computer addiction: Obsessive computer game playing (e.g., Doom, Myst, Solitaire etc.).
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However, Griffiths (2000a) has argued that many of these excessive users are not “Internet addicts” but just use the Internet excessively as a medium to fuel other addictions. Since Internet Addiction is often compared to compulsive gambling the criteria of compulsive gambling similar with other addictions are listed to: Compulsive gambling (Freeman, 92, (p212-224)): Similarities with other addictions include (in the following abbreviated as CSG): 1. Preoccupation with the abusing behaviour, 2. Abusing larger amounts over longer periods of time than intended,
3. The need to increase the behavior to achieve the desired effect, 4. Repeated efforts to cut down or stop the behavior,
5. Social or occupational activity given up for the behavior, and 6. Continuation of the behavior despite social, occupational or legal problems.
According to Maressa Orzack, director of the Computer Addiction Study Center at Harvard University's McLean Hospital, between 5% and 10% of Web surfers suffer some form of Web dependency. Another supporter, Jeremy Greenfield, Ph.D. of the Center for Internet Behavior conducted a study with ABC News.com in 1999 and is author of Virtual Addiction. He believes that some services available over the Internet have unique psychological properties
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which induce dissociation, time distortion, and instant gratification, with about 6% of individuals experiencing some significant impact on their lives. However, he says it may not best be seen as an addiction but rather as a compulsion. Greenfield claims that sex, gaming, gambling, and shopping online can produce a mood-altering effect. According to the Center for Internet Addiction Recovery (whose director is Kimberly S. Young, a researcher who has lobbied for the recognition of net abuse as a distinct clinical disorder), "Internet addicts suffer from emotional problems such as depression and anxiety-related disorders and often use the fantasy world of the Internet to psychologically escape unpleasant feelings or stressful situations." Over 60% of people seeking treatment for IAD claim involvement with sexual activities online which they consider inappropriate, such as excessive attention to pornography or involvement in explicit sexual conversations online. More than half are also addicted to alcohol, drugs, tobacco, or sex. In 2008 Jerald J. Block, M.D., Hilarie Cash, PhD, Kim McDaniel MA, argued that Internet addiction should be included as a disorder in the DSM-V. Block observed that diagnosis was complicated because 86% of study subjects showing IA symptoms also exhibited other diagnosable mental health disorders. A 2009 study suggested that brain structural changes were present in those classified by the researchers as Internet addicted, similar to those classified as chemically addicted. In his essay Internet Addiction: Does it Really Exist? Mark Griffiths states that “the way of determining whether nonchemical (i.e., behavioral) addictions are addictive in a no metaphorical sense is to compare them against clinical criteria for other established drugingested addictions”, and although his data is dated, and may no longer represent average internet use accurately, Griffiths comes to the conclusion that the internet does meet that criteria for addiction in a small number of users.
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Scientists have found that compulsive internet use can produce morphological changes in the structure of the brain. A study which analyzed Chinese college students who used the around 10 hours a day, 6 days a week, found reductions in the sizes of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, rostral anterior cingulate cortex, supplementary motor area and parts of the cerebellum as high as 10-20%. On the other hand, increases in the density of the right parahippocampal gyrus and a spot called the left posterior limb of the internal capsule were also found. It has been theorized that these changes reflect learning-type cognitive optimizations for using computers more efficiently, but also impaired short-term memory and decision-making abilities—including ones in which may contribute to the desire to stay online instead of be in the real world.
Description of Dependent Variable
Mental Health: There is no health without mental health
Mental health it is all about how we think, feel and behave. Mental health describes either a level of cognitive or emotional wellbeing or an absence of a mental disorder. From perspectives of the discipline of positive psychology or holism mental health may include an individual's ability to enjoy life and procure a balance between life activities and efforts to achieve psychological resilience. Mental health is an expression of emotions and signifies a successful adaptation to a range of demands. Mental Health refers to a broad array of activities directly or indirectly related to the mental well-being component included in the WHO’s (World Health Organization) definition of health: "A state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease". It is related to the promotion of well-being, the prevention of mental disorders, and the treatment and rehabilitation of people affected by mental disorders.
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Mental health is not just the absence of mental disorder. It is defined as a state of well-being in which every individual realizes his or her own potential, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to her or his community. In most countries, particularly low- and middle-income countries, mental health services are severely short of resources - both human and financial. Of the health care resources available, most are currently spent on the specialized treatment and care of the people with mental illness, and to a lesser extent on an integrated mental health system. Instead of providing care in large psychiatric hospitals, countries should integrate mental health into primary health care, provide mental health care in general hospitals and develop community-based mental health services. Approximately 25% of people in the UK have a mental health problem during their lives. The USA is said to have the highest incidence of people diagnosed with mental health problems in the developed world. Your mental health can affect your daily life, relationships and even your physical health. Mental health also includes a person's ability to enjoy life - to attain a balance between life activities and efforts to achieve psychological resilience. According to Medilexicon's medical dictionary, mental health is "emotional, behavioral, and social maturity or normality; the absence of a mental or behavioral disorder; a state of psychological well-being in which one has achieved a satisfactory integration of one's instinctual drives acceptable to both oneself and one's social milieu; an appropriate balance of love, work, and leisure pursuits". According to WHO (World Health Organization), mental health is "a state of well-being in which the individual realizes his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to his or her community". WHO stresses that mental health "is not just the absence of mental disorder".
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WHO explains that especially in low- and middle-income countries, mental health services are very underfunded - both human and financial. Most resources are channeled into treating and caring for mentally ill patients, rather than on any integrated mental health system. Countries should integrate mental health into primary health care (general practice), provide mental health care in general hospitals, and improve community-based mental health services, rather than just providing care in large psychiatric hospitals. The importance of maintaining a good mental health is crucial to living a long and healthy life. Mental health when good can enhance, when poor prevent, someone from living a normal life. According to Richards, Campania, & Muse-Burke (2010) “There is growing evidence that is showing emotional abilities are associated with prosocial behaviors such as stress management and physical health” (2010). It was also concluded in their research that people who lack emotional expression lead to misfit behaviors. These behaviors are a direct reflection of their mental health. Self- destructive acts may take place to suppress emotions. Some of these acts include drug and alcohol abuse, physical fights or vandalism. Also without emotional support, mental health is at risk. According to a study done by Strine, Chapman, Balluz, and, Mokdad, “Inadequate social and emotional support is a major barrier to health relevant to the practice of psychiatry and medicine, because it is associated with adverse health behaviors, dissatisfaction with life, and disability” (2008, p. 154). By receiving emotional support your health can increase and prevent mental health disorders. Support systems are a valuable asset and those whom do not have social and emotional support are more likely to lead to disorders. This support can lead to “an increase personal competence, perceived control, sense of stability, and recognition of self- worth and can have a positive effect on quality of life”(Strine, Chapman, Balluz & Mokdad, 2008).
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Definitions of Mental Health:
1. Mental health is defined as the successful performance of mental functions resulting in productive activities, satisfactory relationship, the ability to adopt the change and can cope with adversities from childhood to hate life. 2. According to Strange: Abnormal Psychology, 1965 – “mental health is no more than a description of learned behaviour that is socially adoptive & allows the person to cope adequately with life.” 3. “Mental health includes a number of dimensions: self esteem, realization of one’s potential, the ability to maintain meaningful relationship & psychological well being.” – Horwitz & scheid : Handbook for the study of Mental Health, 1999 4. “Mental health is the adjustment of human beings to the world & to each other with a maximum effectiveness and happiness. It is the ability to maintain an even temper an alert intelligence, socially considerate behaviour & a happy disposation”- Kart Menninger : the Human Mind, 1945
Characteristics of Mental health:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Self Realization Adjustment Productive activities Happiness Self esteem Clear life Goal Clear Philosophy of Life Emotional stability, Maturity Integrated Personality Satisfactory Relationship Autonomy Good physical health
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Characteristics of Mental Health:
Self Realization – Mentally healthy person has confidence in his judgment and abilities and view setback as problems to be solved rather than an occasion for the display of anger and emotional outburst. Adjustment – Man is a social animal he is born & bought up in a society. In the process of social adjustment normal reaction to feeling appears to be essential for mental health. Productive Activities – The main goal of mental health is to provide opportunity to the individuals to develop his potential to the maximum so that he can be able to do productive activities. Happiness – Happiness means that the goal of mental health is to develop a positive attitude towards life and work so that individual may lead an efficient life by utilizing maximally his potential abilities. Self Esteem – Feeling of self esteem is important in mental health. A person must be able to accept himself as a person of worth and to give himself respect. Sense of Responsibility- The person who is mentally healthy has a sense of responsibility and is sensitive to the needs of others and attempts to satisfy those needs for the welfare of others. Clear life Goal – Mentally healthy individual has a clear concept of his life goals. He directs his efforts, energy and creativeness towards the attainment of these goals. Clear Philosophy of Life- A well adjusted person has a sound philosophy of life. He lives in the world with the sense of active
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social participation & commitment. Life is worth living it has a meaning.. Satisfactory Relationship – Harry stack Sullivan defined a human being as the totality of his real and imagined relationships. Satisfactory social intercourse is a prerequisite not only for a person’s mental health but also for his very humanity. A mentally healthy person is the one who has good social relations. Good Physical Health – As the proverb goes a sound mind can only exist in a sound body. Psychology emphasizes that the physical health of the organism is important in its adaptation to & survival in the world. Integrated Personality – Integration means a balance of psychic forces of the individual a unifying outlook on life and resistance of stress. Autonomy – A mentally healthy person can take his own decision and regulate from within & independently.
The intrinsic value of mental health
Mental health contributes to all aspects of human life. It has both material and immaterial, or intrinsic, values: for the individual, society, and culture. Mental health has a reciprocal relationship with the well-being and productivity of a society and its members. Its value can be considered in several related ways: Mental health is essential for the well-being and functioning of individuals. Good mental health is an important resource for individuals, families, communities, and nations. Mental health, as an indivisible part of general health, contributes to the functions of society, and has an effect on overall productivity.
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Mental health concerns everyone as it is generated in our everyday lives in homes, schools, workplaces, and in leisure activities. Positive mental health contributes to the social, human, and economic capital of every society. Spirituality can make a significant contribution to mental health promotion and mental health influences spiritual life (see Underwood-Gordon 1999). Mental health can be regarded as an individual resource, contributing to the individual’s quality of life, and can be increased or diminished by the actions of society. An aspect of good mental health is the capacity for mutually satisfying and enduring relationships. There is growing evidence that social cohesion is critical for the economic prospering of communities and this relationship appears to be reciprocal.
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SAMPLE AND SAMPLING
TYPES OF SAMPLING
i. PROBABILITY SAMPLING Simple random sampling Systematic sampling Stratified sampling Cluster sampling/one-stage ii. NON-PROBABILITY SAMPLING Quota sampling Judgment sampling / purposive sampling Snowball sampling
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“Traditionally, the sample is always better than the stock you deliver to the store.”
While conducting a survey, it is very difficult to study the whole universe of problem because it is both costly, time consuming and complex as well as financially not viable. It is convenient to pick up a sample out of the universe proposed to be covered by the study. But the sample should be representing the universe as a whole. Sampling is a method to make social and several techniques have been developed or pickup some representative sample of the whole universe. It is a portion of scope drawn form a larger population. Sample is a subset of a population. A random sample is a subset where every item in the population has the same probability of being in the sample. Usually, the size of the sample is much less than the size of the population. The primary goal of much research is to use information collected from a sample to try to characterize a certain population. As such, you should pay a lot of attention to how representative the sample is of the population. If there are problems, with representativeness, consider redefining your population a bit more narrowly. For example, a sample of 85 smokers between the ages of 13 and 18 in Rochester, Minnesota who respond to an advertisement about participation in a smoking cessation program might not be considered representative of the population of all teenage smokers, because the participants selected themselves. The sample might be more representative if we restrict our population to those teenage smokers who want to quit. Researchers usually cannot make direct observations of every individual in the population they are studying. Instead, they collect data from a subset of individuals – a sample – and use those observations to make inferences about the entire population. Ideally, the sample corresponds to the larger population on the characteristic(s) of interest. In that case, the researcher's conclusions from the sample are probably applicable to the entire population.
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This type of correspondence between the sample and the larger population is most important when a researcher wants to know what proportion of the population has a certain characteristic – like a particular opinion or a demographic feature. Public opinion polls that try to describe the percentage of the population that plans to vote for a particular candidate, for example, require a sample that is highly representative of the population.
“A sample is a similar representation of the larger whole”
-Goode & Hatt
“It is a small piece of the population obtained by a probability process that mirrors, with known precision, the various patterns and sub classes of the population”
- Balalock & blalock
Sample is a selected part which is representative of the whole
Sample is a part of the population selected such that it is considered to be representative of the population of the whole.
-Reber & Reber (2001) Sampling
Sampling is the process of selecting units (e.g., people, organizations) from a population of interest so that by studying the sample we may fairly generalize our results back to the population from which they were chosen. When a researcher undertakes a research he has to decide basically two important things namely; what will be the scope of his study and secondly what will be his population or universe, ‘population’ refers to ‘all those people with the characteristics which the researcher wants to study within the context of a particular research problems’
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For an example- a population could be all students of college, all patients of hospitals, all prisoners of prison. In statistics and survey methodology, sampling is concerned with the selection of a subset of individuals from within a population to estimate characteristics of the whole population. Sampling is the process of selecting units (e.g., people, organizations) from a population of interest so that by studying the sample we may fairly generalize our results back to the population from which they were chosen. Let's begin by covering some of the key terms in sampling like "population" and "sampling frame." Crucial Concept: Sampling is the process of selecting research participants from the population.
Sampling may be defined as the selection of some part of an aggregate or totality on the basis of which a judgment or inference about the aggregate or totality is made. It is the process of obtaining information about an entire population by examining only a part of it. The process of selecting sample from the population is called sampling.
Sample selection: In the presented research work we have
selected sample from QUOTA sampling. Advantages of Sampling
It involves a smaller amount of subjects, which reduces investment in time and money. Sampling can actually be more accurate than studying an entire population, because it affords researchers a lot more control over the subjects. Large studies can bury interesting correlations amongst the ‘noise.’
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Statistical manipulations are much easier with smaller data sets, and it is easier to avoid human error when inputting and analyzing the data.
Types of sampling
Sampling is of many types but on the basis of population it can be classified in two types. 1. Probability Sampling 2. Non probability sampling
A probability sampling method is any method of sampling that utilizes some form of random selection. In order to have a random selection method, you must set up some process or procedure that assures that the different units in your population have equal probabilities of being chosen. Humans have long practiced various forms of random selection, such as picking a name out of a hat, or choosing the short straw. With probability sampling, every element of the population has a known probability of being included in the sample. A probability sampling method is any method of sampling that utilizes some form of random selection. In order to have a random selection method, you must set up some process or procedure that assures that the different units in your population have equal probabilities of being chosen. Humans have long practiced various forms of random selection, such as picking a name out of a hat, or choosing the short straw. These days, we tend to use computers as the mechanism for generating random numbers as the basis for random selection.
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Types of probability sampling
I. II. III. IV. Simple random sampling Systematic sampling (interval random sampling) Stratified sampling(may be proportionate or disproportionate) Cluster sampling/one-stage
The difference between nonprobability and probability sampling is that nonprobability sampling does not involve random selection and probability sampling does. Does that mean that nonprobability samples aren't representative of the population? Not necessarily. But it does mean that nonprobability samples cannot depend upon the rationale of probability theory. At least with a probabilistic sample, we know the odds or probability that we have represented the population well. We are able to estimate confidence intervals for the statistic. With nonprobability samples, we may or may not represent the population well, and it will often be hard for us to know how well we've done so.
The non probability sampling which is also called judgment sampling is based on the personal judgment. Elements included in a judgment sample are result of the navigator’s expert judgment as to their representativeness. Consequently the probability of each element being included in the sample is not known.
With non-probability sampling, we cannot specify the probability that each element will be included in the sample. Also known as accidental sampling.
Types of Nonprobability sampling:
I. II. III. Quota sampling (Used in this Project work) Judgment sampling / purposive sampling Snowball sampling
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Crucial Concept: A quota sample is an attempt to make a sample representative by having the same proportions of different groups of people in the sample and in the population. A mode of sampling which is used to select a person or group of persons to participate in a research is called quota sampling. This is done by personally interviewing all interested applicant and selecting some appropriate candidate for a specific reason. This type of sampling comes under non probability sampling which is used to select people on a random basis. Quota sample is a much used technique of selecting sample groups from different origin with slightly different demographic features, because most of the researches are done only in a particular geographical area. It is very important to select people for a sample group only from this area to be assured of the fact that all the data which is obtained after completing the research must be according to the demand of the researcher which should be clearly stated in the hypothesis part of research article. The non probability sampling is a method to select sample of people equally from each classification of the society of a particular region. in quota sampling the selection of the sample is made by the interviewer, who has been given quotas to fill from specified subgroups of the population. For example, an interviewer may be told to sample 50 females between the age of 45 and 60. Definition A sampling method of gathering representative data from a group. As opposed to random sampling, quota sampling requires that representative individuals are chosen out of a specific subgroup.
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For example, a researcher might ask for a sample of 100 females, or 100 individuals between the ages of 20-30.
Advantages of Quota Sample
It is an improvement over the judge sampling. It is an easy sampling technique. It is most frequently used in social surveys.
Disadvantages of Quota Sampling
It is not a representative of sample. The method still leaves a lot of freedom to the interviewers to pick people. This can lead to unintentional selection bias. It has the influences of regional geographical and social factors
Size of sample For present study total 40 samples, 20 addicted Internet users and 20 non addicted users from DSVV campus were selected. They were selected by Quota sampling which belongs to non probability sampling.
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In present dissertation researcher used “Mental Health Scale” to measure the “Mental Health” of subjects which is prepared by Dr. Kamlesh Sharma, Dr. Bheemrao Ambedkar Shodh Sansthan (Indore). This questionnaire contains 60 items.
There are 60 statements in the scale. Every statement has alternative responses “yes”, “indefinite” and “no” the subject has to choose only one alternative response. The scheme of scoring it as below on positive statements 2 marks for “yes”, 1 mark for “indefinite” and 0 mark for “no” and for negative statements adopt just reverse marking 2 marks for “no” 1 mark for “indefinite” and 0 mark for “yes”.
Positive and Negative Statements: Statement
Positive- 1, 2, 6, 10, 11, 14, 15, 17, 19, 21, 23, 26, 28, 29, 30, 32, 35, 38, 39, 42, 43, 44, 46, 48, 50, 53, 55, 58, 59, 60 = 30 Negative- 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 12, 13, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24, 25, 27, 31, 33, 34, 36, 37, 40, 41, 45, 47, 49, 51, 52, 54, 56, 57, = 30
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Interpretation of Raw Scores:
Classification of Mental Health Girls Boys
Very Good Good Moderate Poor Very poor Reliability:
78 and above 66-77 54-65 42-53 41 and less
80 and above 68-69 56-67 44-55 43 and less
The reliability of Mental Health scale by Test-retest (interval of 2 months) and Split-half reliability coefficient was found .86 and .88 respectively.
The validity coefficient was calculated by comparing the scale with Mental health check list of Pramod kumar was found .79.
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In this chapter we record the result obtained from this statistical analysis of response. The analysis of data requires a number of closely related operations such as establishment of categories, the application of these categories to raw data through coding, tabulation and then drawing statistical inferences. The unwieldy data should necessarily be condensed into a few manageable groups and tables for further analysis. Thus, researcher should classify the raw data into some purposeful and usable categories.
In statistical analysis applied ‘sd’ and ‘t’ testing the stares for the analysis were obtained on the basis of responses of two groups Internet Addicted (N = 20) and Non Addicted(N=20) with the help of Mental health scale. To ready the result of this work we constructed Null hypothesis then apply ‘t’ test for result.
Number Of samples
Level of significance
Internet 59.84 Addicts Non 80.79 Addicts
6.63 8.17 2.38 38 8.80 0.01
So it is clear from result table that, mean of Addictive users and Non Addictive users are 59.84 and 80.79 respectively, and SD of Addictive
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users and Non addictive users are 6.63 and 8.17 respectively. In table 38 ‘df’ at the level of ‘0.01’ value is ‘2.72’ which is below from tvalue. So my result is highly significant at ‘0.01’ level. That proves my Hypothesis wrong and makes sure that Internet addiction effects mental health. My results proved that Internet addiction is harmful for mental health of Adolescents.
90 80 70 60 Axis Title 50 40 30 20 10 0 Non Addicts Internet addicts Axis Title
Graphical representation of the mean of Internet Addicts and Non Addicts of selected sample
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Interpretation and Discussion Conclusion of results
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Interpretation and Discussion:
DISCUSSION Purpose of the present study is to know the effect of Addictive Internet use on Mental health, by which we can know how risky is addictive use of Internet. There are several limitations involved in this study which must be addressed. Initially, the sample size of 40 is relatively small compared to the estimated 47 million current Internet users (Snider, 1997). Therefore, generalizability of results must be interpreted with caution and continued research should include larger sample sizes to draw more accurate conclusions. This study aimed to examine the effect of addictive use of the Internet on the mental health in a population of young people in DSVV, India. The results suggested that pathological use of the Internet is detrimental to the mental health of these individuals. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, there was an increased risk of depression for those who used the Internet addictively. This result suggests that young people who are initially free of mental health problems but use the Internet addictively could develop depression as a consequence. This study is unique in terms of its ability to demonstrate the mental health sequelae of addictive use of the Internet for young people who were initially healthy to begin with. Results of this study demonstrate direct effect of the addictive use of the Internet on the mental health of young people. The results obtained from this study directly implicate the prevention of mental illness among young people, particularly in developing countries such as India. The results of the study indicated that young people who use the Internet pathologically are most at risk for mental problems and would develop depression if they continued the behavior. As we understand that mental health problems among adolescents bear a Significant personal costs as well as costs to the community, early intervention and prevention that targets at-risk groups with identified risk factors is effective in reducing the burden of depression among young people. Hence, a screening program for pathological use of the Internet could also be considered in all schools to identify individuals at risk for early counseling and treatment. As in all studies, there are strengths and weaknesses in this study. This is a population-based study that includes a random sample of
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students. No significant differences have been found between respondents and no respondents, suggesting a representative sample. The use of a standardized and validated assessment instrument for the outcome measure minimized some measurement biases. Moreover, because this is a cohort study, results provide further information on the effect of pathological use of the Internet on adolescent mental Health. This exploratory study provides a workable framework for further exploration of addictive Internet use. Individuals were able to meet a set of diagnostic criteria that show signs of impulse-control difficulty similar to symptoms of pathological gambling. In the majority of cases, Dependents reported that their Internet use directly caused moderate to severe problems in their real lives due to their inability to moderate and control use. Their unsuccessful attempts to gain control may be paralleled to alcoholics who are unable to regulate or stop their excessive drinking despite relationship or occupational problems caused by drinking; or compared to compulsive gamblers who are unable to stop betting despite their excessive financial debts. This paper suggests that there exists an increased risk in the development of addictive use the more interactive the application utilized by the on-line user. It is possible that a unique reinforcement of virtual contact with on-line relationships may fulfill unmet real life social needs. Individuals who feel misunderstood and lonely may use virtual relationships to seek out feelings of comfort and community. However, greater research is needed to investigate how such interactive applications are capable of fulfilling such unmet needs and how this leads to addictive patterns of behavior. Finally, these results also suggested that Dependents were relative beginners on the Internet. Therefore, it may be hypothesized that new comers to the Internet may be at a higher risk for developing addictive patterns of Internet use. However, it may be postulated that "hi-tech" or more advanced users suffer from a greater amount of denial since their Internet use has become an integral part of their daily lives. Given that, individuals who constantly utilize the Internet may not recognize "addictive" use as a problem and therefore saw no need to participate in this survey. This may explain their low representation in this sample. Therefore, additional research should examine personality traits that may mediate addictive Internet use, particularly
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among new users, and how denial is fostered by its encouraged practice. Future research should develop treatment protocols and conduct outcome studies for effective management of these symptoms. It may be beneficial to monitor such cases of addictive Internet use in clinical settings by utilizing the adapted criteria presented in this study. Finally, future research should focus on the prevalence, incidence, and the role of this type of behavior in other established addictions (e.g., other substance dependencies or pathological gambling) or psychiatric disorders (e.g., depression, bipolar disorder, obsessivecompulsive disorder, attention deficit disorder).
Finally we can say that in this new Era of technology addictively using Internet is harmful for mental health. As we know there is no health without mental health so we must take necessary steps to prevent people from this kind of addiction. Using Internet is common in daily life and it makes life easier and knowledgeful, if used systematically. So a systematic approach of using internet must be adopted to avoid this addiction.
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This study should be viewed as a starting point from which future research could take place. It is suggested that future studies employ more varied personality variables such as self-esteem, Depression, Anxiety, sensation seeking, introversion-extroversion, personality type, affective states while using the internet, reasons for behaviors (e.g., ‘why do you avoid sleep to remain online?) and combinations of behaviors (e.g., ‘do you consume alcohol while using the Internet?’). Researcher completed his dissertation work at DSVV
(Hardwar). This work can be done in any other institute or any other organization. Researcher studied effect of Internet addiction on mental health but other aspects related to Internet addiction can be know. Such as effect of Internet addiction on Memory and etc. Other Internet addiction factors and formation of Internet addiction should be Known By which Internet addiction could be manage. Study of Internet addiction may be useful for the selection of the candidate for job or commercial purpose.
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