# Refracting = bending of light Convex = converging lens

for refracting telescope, the focal length is equal to the length of the tube

Galileo first telescopic discoveries: lunar craters, jupiter's moons, venus' phases, saturn's rings

Convex used for tools with small light grasp -- except for Yerkes and Lick

Focal Length: is the distance of the focus from the objective (light rays are effectively parallel) Focal Ratio: focal length/diameter

f-ratio = affects scale of the image larger the number, increases liner size, spreading more light creating a dimmer image

small f number = fast (lower diameter, quicker shutter speed) large f number = slow, but larger depth need good light

image scale: The scale of the image produced in the focal plane of the telescope is the reciprocal of the objective focal length s=1/f0 (radians/length) -- larger the focal length the smaller the image scale

Magnification: m=f0/fe, where fe is the focal length of the eye piece

reduced by combining two lenses of different refractive index and shape (convex and concave) --> achromatic doublet Reflector = concave mirror with a parboloid shape to focus radiation -. Focal length increased and moved outside the end of the tube opposite to light source… similar to refractor .focal length is folded Prime focus: a reflectors focus is not practical. corrected by using additional mirrors Newtonian: reflected by a flat secondary mirror through a hole in the side of the tube.refractive index of glass varies with wavelengths . the focus is thus moved outside the tube Cassegrain: secondary mirror is convex instead and oriented so that the light is sent through a hole in the primary mirror.aperture and focal length of primary mirror are defined in the same way as a refractor Advantage of mirrors: .Supported underneath (good for bigger telescopes).Angular Resolution: wavelengths/diameter Chromatic abberation: .Blue light is bent more than red light --> focus points are at different places for different colors . only one side needs to see the light . thus no chromatic aberration or light loss due to absorption or internal reflection .light does not pass through glass.

stars a comet like shape (paraboloid mirror or lens) 3. Coma -.Problems: 1. secondary mirrors and corrector lens are all spherical used for small portable telescopes and for medium sized survey telescopes Use Altazimuth mounts are used in preference for very large telescopes! -.caused by the support structor for the secondary mirror which is held in place by thin metallic vanes 2. light bent by refraction and appears more oval . Spherical Abberation -.image quality around the center of the FOV distorted eg.light rays from the edge of aperture have a sidffernt focus format hose near the center Hybrid (Catadiptric) use a spherical primary mirror and a correcting lens examples: Schmidt-Cassegrain --> spherical primary with corrector lens Maksutov --> primary. Diffraction Spikes -.more stable and well balanced structures Lecture 6: Atmospheric refraction: makes the moon seem higher in the sky than it actually is due to the earth's curve.

using laser as reference point) **** extinction = absorption + scattering Absorbtion = removal of photons from the beam of particles . hence the twinkling --> multiple images created Seeing Disk: smeared out image of star in long duration exposure (due to scintillation) ******* missing one slide Adaptive Optics: technique allos for corrections due to the distortions caused by bad seeing --> create a fake star by pointing a laser beam adjacent to the object being observed --> direct the light onto a phase corrector (flexible mirror --> adjusted by computer control to implement proper corrections. Short wavelengths displaced more efficiently (e. looks the same -.FCO reduce glare and produce much less light pollution turbulence: heat in the stratopause Scintillation and Seeing: Caused by the stratopause Scintillation: atmosphere refracts starlight in random directions very quickly." --> send light downward to the ground not upward (40% of urban glow) -.Scattering: photons deflected in random directions when they encounter a particle. Blue in comparison to red) Natural Light Pollution: Main thing is the Moon. Concern for astronomers. --> observing around the phases of the moon Unnatural Pollution: Hard to see the sky and stars International Dark-Sky association (1988) . affects ability to observe faint objects.FCO street lights (full cut off) vs. Sag lens.g."To preserve and protect the nighttime environment and our heritage of dark skies through environmentally responsible outdoor lighting.

Scattering = deflection of photons form the light of sight by these particles .

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