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SEARCH AND RESCUE ( SAR )
Definitions of Terms: • SEARCH To look for through carefully for something missing or lost. • RESCUE To free or save from danger. • SAR Mission- Any situation involving dispatch of SAR resources. • SAR Plan Description of resources, procedures and
• SEARCH ACTION PLAN Used to formally/officially disseminate the specific action required of participating units/organization to carry out search operations. • RESCUE ACTION PLAN - Used to formally/officially disseminate the specific action required of participating units/organizations to carry out rescue operations. Most rescue OPN are logically combined with search operations.
• To look for and remove victims from areas likely to be affected or are being affected by disaster. • SAR Responsibilities • Local government units are responsible for all SAR activities with in their territories • The AFP/PNP shall assist the LGU’s when situation goes beyond their effective control/capabilities • The Phil. Navy/Phil. Cost Guard shall be responsible for SAR at Sea • The ATO shall be responsible for pin pointing the crash site of air transport.
ESSENTIAL INFORMATION FOR SAR MISSION • Type of incident and nature of emergency • Location and time of incident • Target description • Number and condition of people involved • Assistance desired • Weather information prevailing in the sea
STAGES OF SAR OPERATIONAL SYSTEM • AWARENESS
– Awareness that an emergency situation may exist – Includes the receiving of emergency information by any person or agency
• INITIAL ACTION
– Evaluation and classification of information – Alerting SAR facilities and resources
– – – – – – Determining most probable position of the emergency Size of SAR area Optimum search plan Attainable Rescue Plan Selection of Safe delivery point of survivors Selection of suitable medical facilities
– – – – – SAR facilities/resources proceed to the scene Conduct Search Rescue Survivors Assist Distressed craft Provide emergency care to survivors
• MISSSON CONCLUSSION
– Movement of SAR facilities/resources from the safe delivery point to their regular station Documentation Reporting
– Define areas of responsibility – Centralized control and coordination – Effective used of available facilities
– Provides the personnel, equipment , facility necessary to perform the SAR systems. Includes all types of aircraft, watercraft and land vehicles including personnel to man them..
– Provides all communication media through which early detection, alerting, support and coordination are maintained.
4.Emergency Care • Provides survivors with all necessary emergency treatment within their capability 4. Documentation * Provides for the collection and analysis of information
6. Indication of Incident Proximity
• Bits of wreckage • Presence of smoke • Disturbed trees • Presence of scavengers • Drops of oil/fuel • Odor
Evaluation of the situation
Consider the following : • Number of person reported in distress • Signs of bail out • Method of evacuation • Terrain and weather • Distance
Handling of survivors
• Evaluate survivors for priority • Provide life saving care • Report survivor status • Tag survivors and maintain medical log book • Provide shelter, water, food and warn if evacuation not possible
Evacuation of survivors
• Condition of survivors • Practicability of aerial evacuation • Mode of overland travel • Maintaining communication link
10.Departure from incident site
• Evaluate methods of travel • Effects of travel must be weighed against comfort
LAND PARTY PROCEDURES
1. Organization of the Party • Team Leader -Equip with radio, compass, whistle, and map of the area • Flankers Equip with edged instrument • Linemen Equip with whistle • Planners Who will select the
Search pattern Identification
• Parallel sweep • Contour search • Trail search/visual tracking
3. Plotting of search boundaries Natural and artificial boundary line utilized 4. Plotting search progress • Percentage of coverage completed 5.Ground Interrogations • Knowledge of local dialect and costumes • Ability to invite confidence • Social acceptance • Tact
• Land • Mountain / jungle • Urban area • Water • Water surface • Underwater
TYPES OF SEARCH AND RESCUE
• EVACUATION To leave or withdraw from possible danger especially for safety. • PRECAUTIONARY It Is under taken before impact of disaster threatened person from the full effects of the disaster. • POST IMPACT To move person from disaster stricken area into safer,
FACTORS THAT AFFECT DECISION TO EVACUATE
• Clear understanding of disaster threat (nature, speed onset, severity, frequency, predictability, and past experiences) • General disaster Management system (organizational plan, resources) • Vulnerability ( location , NR , people at risk , structure , etc )
• To transfer the populace and properties systematically in case an emergency arises to safer area.
ISSUES / PROBLEMS
• Components of evacuation SVC groups • Communication and warning system • Legal, ethnical and ethnic consideration • Accommodation • Behavioral aspect • Evacuation management
• Determine ideal sites for evacuation before the occurrence of any disaster • Maintain charts of routes from disaster area to evacuation center. • Keep abreast of current situation • Determine available transport and other resources needed for evacuation • Inform all concerned for prompt and proper implementation of evacuation.
• Evacuation is a local function • Regional/national level will extend assistance when situation is no longer effectively handled by LGU’s/ DCC’s • AFP/PNP units shall give assistance upon order/request of Municipal or Provincial DCC’s.
CONCEPT OF OPERATION
• To conduct of a timely evacuation will minimize loss of life, confusion and neglect of vital needs during movement. • Coordination with adjacent and higher DCC’s is desirable in the selection of evacuation centers. • Courier or messenger unit shall be employed in the absence of communication devices. • Lateral coordination with other disaster action teams for support and matters that cannot be supported will be referred to higher authorities.