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What is a VOLCANO?
The term VOLCANO refers to a vent, hill or mountain from which molten or hot rocks with gaseous materials are ejected. The term also applies to craters, hills or mountains formed by removal of pre-existing materials or by accumulation of ejected materials.
Classification of Volcanoes
– – – – – Eruption in historic times Historical record - 500 years C14 dating - 10,000 years Local seismic activity Oral / folkloric history
– – – – – – – – Solfotaras / Fumaroles Geologically young (possibly erupted < 10,000 years and for calderas and large systems - possibly < 25,000 years). Young-looking geomorphology (thin soil cover/sparse vegetation; low degree of erosion and dissection; young vent featuresl; +/vegetation cover). Suspected seismic activity. Documented local ground deformation Geochemical indicators of magmatic involvement. Geophysical proof of magma bodies. Strong connection with subduction zones and external tectonic settings.
– No record of eruption and its form is beginning to change by the agents of weathering and erosion via formation of deep and long gullies.
A process wherein molten rock materials are emitted or ejected in the form of flowing masses, discrete particles and steam from a crater, vent or fissure.
WHAT CAUSES A VOLCANO TO ERUPT?
Changes in pressure and temperature in the magma chamber
Types of Volcanic Eruptions
• classified according to: • what propels the eruption • character of eruption itself • nature of materials ejected • 6 Types:
eruption resulting from the release of large quantities of accumulated magmatic gas which lifts fine ash and block from the magma with great force high in the air forming voluminous cauliflower clouds.
occurs when a gas-rich pasty lava accumulates to form a dome on the volcano edifice either on or beneath its surface caused by release of large quantities of gas from a near- or at- surface extremely viscous magma that hurls out ash and other pyroclastic materials
eruption of great violence characterized by voluminous explosive ejections of pumice and ash flows with tall eruption column
explosion driven by steam produced by heating and expansion of groundwater due to an underlying hot source.
results from the simultaneous ejection of fresh magmatic materials and steam produced by the contact of groundwater with ascending magma.
Volcano-related phenomena that pose potential threat or cause negative impact to man, property and the environment in a given period of time.
stream-like flows of hot, incandescent, molten materials that are erupted quietly from a volcano
Lava Flow from 1984 Mauna Loa eruption. (from Volcanic & Seismic Hazards on the Island of Hawaii, 1986)
Mayon Volcano, 1984
Lava Flow Impact
turbulent hot mass of ejected fragmented volcanic materials (ash & rocks), mixed with hot gases that flow downslope at very high speed (>60kph)
showers of fine- to coarse-grained volcanic materials and other airborne products of a volcanic eruption
Clark Air Base Olongapo City
Ashfall impact of Pinatubo Volcano, 1991
some of the basic components of magma or lava (H2O, CO2, CO, H2S, HF, SO2, etc.) released into the atmosphere during eruptions
VOLCANIC GAS IMPACT:
Plants damaged by volcanic flume from Pu’u’O’o vent 12 miles away. (from Volc. & Seismic Hazards in the Island of Hawaii,1986)
rapidly flowing thick mixture of volcanic sediments and water; contains 20% to 80% sediments by volume
Pampanga Post-1991 Pinatubo
Agoho, Mambajao Oct. 25, 1950
After (October 1995)
Before (27 July 1994)
22 Active Volcanoes in the Philippines
LOCATION • 12.8n, 124.1E • Batan Island, Batanes
ERUPTION • 1464
LOCATION • 19.5N, 121.9 E • NNE across Babuyan Channel ERUPTION • 1831
LOCATION • 20.33N, 121.75 E • Ibugos Island (southern end of Batan Island chain)
ERUPTION • 1924
LOCATION • 19.077N, 122.202 E • 22 km NE of Camiguin Island
ERUPTION • 1978
CAMIGUIN DE BABUYANES
LOCATION • 18.83 N, 121.860 E • 22 kms long in Camiguin Island in the Babuyan Archipelago ERUPTION • 1857
LOCATION • 18.133 N, 122.3 E • Gonzaga, Cagayan ERUPTION • 1860
Mitigation of Volcanic Hazards
• Scientific reports • Popular information packages • Seminars, workshops • Coordination with NDCC, LGUs
PHIVOLCS Quick Response Team (QRT)
Mitigation of Volcanic Hazards: Public Education and Preparedness
Teach the public, school children and parents what to do during and after occurrence of volcanic hazards