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Reporter: Quincy Quain Myrr T. Quimosing Professor: Dr. Cresencio Quinto Topic: Management PHENOMENOLOGY Process: TYPE OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH:

Studies the lived experiences of individuals about a phenomenon through

description and analysis, such as the stress and anxiety students feel during examinations. The goal is to describe the lived experiences and lived human relations or being in the world of people, that are of interest to the researcher or to phenomenologist.

This study involves the ff steps:

a. BRACKETING refers to identifying and holding in abeyance preconceived

beliefs and opinions about the phenomenon under study.

b. INTUITING the researcher is open to meanings attributed to the

phenomenon by those who have experienced it.

c. ANALYZING dissecting significant meanings of statements and events d. DESCRIBING defining and interpreting the meaning of the phenomenon

under study Data collection: Any way the participant can describe their lived phenomenal experience can be used to gather data in a phenomenological study. You can use an interview to gather the participants' descriptions of their experience, or the participants' written or oral selfreport, or even their aesthetic expressions (e.g. art, narratives, or poetry). Try to be as non-directive as possible in your instructions. Unlike a survey or questionnaire, in a phenomenological study you would ask participants to describe their experience of, for example, "riding on a BC Ferry", without directing or suggesting their description in any way. However, do encourage your participant to give a full description

of their experience, including their thoughts, feelings, images, sensations, memories their stream of consciousness - along with a description of the situation in which the experience occurred. You may need to ask for clarification of details on the self-report or interview. If so, your follow up questions should again ask for further description of the detail, without suggesting what you are looking for. Data analysis: The first principle of analysis of phenomenological data is to use an emergent strategy, to allow the method of analysis to follow the nature of the data itself. For example, artistic depictions of experience would have to be approached differently from narratives or interview data. In all cases, however, the focus is on an understanding of the meaning of the description. To get at the essential meaning of the experience, a common approach is to abstract out the themes. These are essential aspects "without which the experience would not have been the same". In a narrative, consider aspects such as the physical surroundings, the objects, the characters or aspects of the characters (e.g. their relationship), the social interactions between the different characters (or groups), the type of activity, the outcome, the descriptive elements, or the time reference. If the narrative would keep its essential meaning even when various of these aspects are changed, then those aspects are not part of the essential theme. Only those elements that can't be changed without losing the meaning of the narrative contribute to the theme. Examples: Lived Experiences of Sexually Abused and Abondoned Children
Psycho-social and Emotional Trauma Experienced by Children of Separated

Parents and Overseas Workers Reference:

Tan, Crestita. A Research Guide in Nursing Education, 3rd Ed.2006 Plummer 1983, Stanley & Wise 1993 Husserl 1970