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Dr.

ShannonBiology Group # ______

Greenwich High School Name: ___________________

Understanding Mitosis: Making exact copies of Cells for Growth, Repair, or Reproduction. 40 Points + 10 Possible Extra Credit Points You are investigating the division of cells and want to understand the cellular mechanisms that answer the following question. When cells are copied, how do they ensure that each cell has the all of the hereditary information? You know the following background information. 1. DNA is contained on Chromosomes but is more loosely distributed when cells are active and not dividing. 2. DNA replication occurs prior to cell division so each cell gets a full copy of all of the DNA 3. Different Organisms have different numbers of Chromosomes i.e. Humans 46, Dogs 72, Yeast 16 etc our model cells are Eukaryotic. (See page 3) Mitosis, cell division, was discovered by analyzing micrographs (microscope pictures) of cells that were killed in the process of actively growing. For this reason it is divided into stages. Below is a picture similar to what scientist used to understand the process. Cells are shown in different stages of mitosis and some are not dividing.

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To understand our task here is a quick analogy. The following sequence of pictures are analogous (similar) to what your task is today. That is, can we order the physical requirements to construct a baseball swing from a series of still photographs. Also can we observe any other changes during the swing (ie, the bat movement, arm/leg movement, contact etc. for the baseball swing. Shown below are 5 still photographs of a player taking a baseball swing. Can you give the correct sequence to reconstruct the swing. 1 2 3

Your task is to try to order the different stages of cell division on the next page. First on youre own and then in a group. You must provide an explanation for your order and to try to label any cell structures you know. Chromosomes, Nucleus, centrioles etc. for the cells. Keep in mind that Mitosis is a continuous process that we have categorized in a series of steps. Changes between the different steps should be noted and may be good reasons for identifying their order. Page 2 of 5

NOW ORDER THE STAGES OF MITOSIS THAT WOULD GIVE YOU TWO EXACT COPIES WITH THE SAME HEREDITARY INFORMATION. 1 2

You may choose to cut these stages out so you can move them around to determine the sequence of stages. Make sure to retain the number with the picture if you cut them out by cutting along the lines provided.

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12 Points for This Page How do you think the stages should be ordered?

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Now form a group using the # on the top of your lab. Try to come up with a consensus sequence of the stages of Mitosis and add any reasons for your order. Group order (after discussing and coming up with consensus) My Order Picture #_____ Give one or more reasons why you put this stage first. Pic. # _____ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ Give one or more reasons why you put this stage second. Pic. # _____ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ Give one or more reasons why you put this stage third. Pic. # _____ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ Give one or more reasons why you put this stage fourth. Pic. # _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ Give one or more reasons why you put this stage fifth/last. Pic. # _____ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ Group Order Picture #_____ Give one or more reasons why you put this stage first. Pic. # _____ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ Give one or more reasons why you put this stage second . Pic. # _____ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ Give one or more reasons why you put this stage third Pic. # _____ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ Give one or more reasons why you put this stage fourth. Pic. # _____ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ Give one or more reasons why you put this stage fifth/last. Pic. # ____ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

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Follow-up Activities and Questions: 28 Pts 1. Label the following previously learned cell structures on the Stages of Mitosis Handout Page 6 of this packet. a. Cell Membrane, Nuclear Membrane, Nucleolus, Chromosomes, Centrioles (1pt each = 5 Points) b. Attempt to Label the following new structures: (1pt each) use your book for help Nuclear Membrane breaking down, Nuclear Membrane Forming, Microtubules, Cleavage Furrow (4 points) c. Add 2 Characteristics for each stage of mitosis to the Stages of Mitosis handout (2 Points X 5 Stages = 10 Points)

2. How many chromosomes does each cell have in the stages of mitosis? (1pt)

3. The chromosomes look like Xs in the initial stages of mitosis and Xs in the later stages? What relationship does each half X have to each other? Hint remember DNA was replicated prior to Mitosis. (3pts)

4. nuclear membrane breaks down? (2pts)

Why do you think the

5. How do you think the Xs, chromosomes, move to each side of the dividing cell? (3pts)

Extra Credit (up to 10 Points) Because Mitosis is a continuous process it would be a good idea to visualize it in a continuous format. One way to convert still images to a movie is to create a flip book. Use your mitosis stage pictures to create a flip book of mitosis in the correct sequence. It might be necessary to make multiple copies of each stage to get a better movie. (5 Pts.) OR Better yet go to the following website and determine how long each stage lasts so you can create a flip book that accurately represents the relative length of each stage in your flip book movie. Flip Book movie with correct temporal (time) representation of each stage (10 pts) Page 5 of 5

http://www.biology.arizona.edu/cell_bio/activities/cell_cycle/assignment.html

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