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Rebuilding Lives

Towards a Safer Pakistan

Authors Mariyam Nawaz Rabia Khattak Asad Malik Nimrah Zubair Rehan Rafay Jamil Edited by: Mehreen Saeed Stragetic Management Unit UNDP Pakistan.

Farmers working in the fields of Pakistan Adminsitered Kashmir after UNDP supported farmers through Community based Livelihoods Recovery Programme.

UNDP is the UNs global development network, advocating for change and connecting countries to knowledge, experience and resources to help people build a better life. We are on the ground in 166 countries, working with them on their own solutions to global and national development challenges. As they develop local capacity, they draw on the people of UNDP and our wide range of partners.

Front cover

A girl is standing next to her pre-fabricated school. To immediately restart functions after the earthquake, UNDP provided pre-fabricated offices to various government departments including schools in earthquake affected areas.

Contents
Foreword Acknowledgements UNDPs Crisis Prevention and Recovery Programme UNDPs Early Recovery Initiatives Section I: Disaster Risk Reduction Preparing Communities, Reducing Risks Melting glaciers- A Lurking Danger Section II: Disaster Response A story of hope and despair A beautifully functional space Prefabricated Offices TAMEER Build Back Better Community Based Livelihoods Recovery Programme - Rebuilding lives after the Earthquake Innovative solutions to Natures challenges Environmental Recovery Programme Support to Volunteerism Initiatives in Pakistan Section III: Refugee Affected and Hosting Areas Refugee Affected and Hosting Areas Section IV: Post Conflict Initiatives Sustainable Development through Peace building, Governance and Economic Recovery in NWFP 1 2 3 5 6 8 13 18 19 22 26 30 36 40 42 44 46 47

Acronyms
BCPR BEGIN-ER CBDP CCAR CMH COs CPRU CRRT DRR DRM ER ERP ERRA FAO FATA FRC GLOF GoP IDPs ILO JP KKH LGIs NARC NDMA NGOs NVM NWFP PAK PaRRSA PKR RAHA TAMEER TBA TMA UNDP UND UNHCR UNIDO UNISDR UNOPS UNV WFP WRRI Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery Building Enabling Governance and Institutions for Earthquake Response Community Based Disaster Preparedness Chief Commissionerate of Afghan Refugees Combined Military Hospital Community Organizations Crisis Prevention and Recovery Unit Community Rapid Response Teams Disaster Risk Reduction Disaster Risk Management Early Recovery Environmental Recovery Programme Earthquake Reconstruction and Rehabilitation Authority Food and Agriculture Organization Federally Administered Tribal Areas Federal Relief Commission Glacial Lake Outburst Floods Government of Pakistan Internally Displaced Persons International Labor Organization Joint Programme Karakoram Highway Local Government Institutions National Agricultural Research Center National Disaster Management Authority Non-Governmental Organizations National Volunteer Movement North West Frontier Province Pakistan Administered Kashmir Provincial Relief, Rehabilitation and Settlement Authority Pakistan Rupee Refugee Affected and Hosting Areas Technical Assistance for Management of Earthquake Early Recovery Traditional Birth Attendant Tehsil Municipal Administrator United Nations Development Programme UN Foundation United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees United Nations Industrial Development Organization United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction United Nations Office for Project Services United Nations Volunteers World Food Programme Water Resource Research Institute

This publication is dedicated to

Mr. Mohammad Zafar Iqbal


Assistant Resident Representative Crises Prevention and Recovery Unit, UNDP
for his dedicated services and outstanding leadership of 28 years from 1981 to 2009

Foreword
he scale and intensity of natural and human induced disasters can be mitigated or exacerbated by the relative effectiveness of humanitarian and recovery responses. Through coordinated and comprehensive humanitarian efforts, lives can be saved, infrastructure rebuilt, livelihoods restored and a sense of normalcy returned to the disaster-affected communities. Hence, it is critical to establish pre-crisis disaster risk management systems not only to mitigate the impact of disasters but also to help prevent future shocks from transforming into catastrophes. Like many countries, Pakistan is prone to natural disasters from floods to droughts to earthquakes and landslides. The fragile infrastructure and burgeoning economy of the country have been tested time and again by natural and human induced calamities which threaten hard-fought development gains. More importantly, those who are amongst the most vulnerable to disasters are often those also dealing with poverty and marginalization. In 2000, UNDP Pakistan formed a dedicated Unit for humanitarian crises and natural disasters. Over the past decade, the Unit has monitored emergency situations and implemented projects and programmes to rehabilitate communities affected by earthquakes, droughts, floods and, more recently, internal conflict. It has supported the Government of Pakistan to build its disaster risk management capacity at all levels, thereby strengthening the quality of protection afforded by the state to its potentially most vulnerable communities.

Through this booklet, UNDP illustrates the many facets of its work in an engaging and humane way. The stories reflect some of the challenges faced in a post crisis environment and describes the mitigation measures to overcome them. It is my hope that these stories will give voice to Pakistans men, women and children who are on the front line of managing disaster risks, vulnerabilities and consequences. Through their perspectives, we are reminded again of the imperative to work on disaster risk reduction and response in times of both stability and turmoil.

Maxx Dilley Director, Bureau for Crisis Prevention & Recovery (BCPR/DRT), UNDP

Rebuilding Lives

Acknowledgments
UNDP Pakistan is grateful for the efforts of all those who have been substantively involved in this publication. We would like to express our gratitude to Mr. Zafar Iqbal, Assistant Resident Representative, Crisis Prevention and Recovery Unit (CPRU), UNDP Country Office, Islamabad for his guidance and support. Without his leadership all the work that has been highlighted in this publication may not have been possible. We would like to extend a special thanks to Ms. Shaista Hussain, at CPRU for taking the lead and providing us valuable feedback whenever it was required. The publication would not have been initiated and carried out in its fullest without her support and input. We appreciate the contribution of every member from CPRU for making this publication a reality especially Mr. Hidayat Ullah Khan, Mr. Shiraz Ali Shah and Mr. Saqib Aziz who liaised with the project and field staff to help us collect primary information. We are also thankful to Mr. Zubair Murshed, Mr. Shahid Aziz, Mr. Amir Rahat and Ms. Amber Masood for arranging the field visits and community meetings for projects in the Disaster Risk Reduction section. For Disaster Response, the inputs from Mr. Tariq Bajwa, Dr. Ghulam Haider Kazmi and Ms. Shireen Gul proved very helpful. This publication owes almost everything to the outstanding work of our field staff whose dedicated efforts made it possible to carry out projects for the benefit of communities and the people of Pakistan. Last but not the least, the booklet would not have been completed without the tireless efforts of the Strategic Management Unit team, Ms. Rabia Khattak, Ms. Nimrah Zubair and Mr. Asad Malik were responsible for consolidating project information, contributing articles for the booklet and designing its layout. Mariyam Nawaz

Rebuilding Lives

UNDPs Crisis Prevention & Recovery Programme


An Overview
Strategically located at the cross roads of South Asia, Pakistan is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the West, India in the East, China in the North-East and the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the South. Due to its diverse range of terrain, the country is prone to a number of natural disasters. Whatever the nature of the disaster, these hazards adversely affect the population in various aspects-be it social, economic or environmental. Even though Pakistan has been identified as a disaster prone region, there was an absence of a comprehensive, integrated disaster management policy at the national level. A reactive, emergency response approach was the predominant way of dealing with disasters. The concept of disaster management was considered synonymous with relief and early recovery, rather than management in all phases of a disaster situation or long-term management of disaster risk. However, after the destructive October2005 earthquake in the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) and Pakistan Administered Kashmir (PAK), the need for policies specifically focusing on long term disaster mitigation became apparent. Thus the National Disaster Management Ordinance was promulgated in 2006. Under this Ordinance, the Government of Pakistan (GoP) established the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) in order to effectively coordinate and monitor implementation of national policies and strategies on disaster management in Pakistan.
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Following the creation of the Bureau of Crisis Prevention and Recovery (BCPR) in 2001 and realizing the significance of disaster management as an integral step towards achievement of development goals, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Pakistan established its Crisis Prevention and Recovery Unit (CPRU) in 2000. To date, UNDP has been involved in innumerable initiatives in collaboration with GoP in order to play its part in enhancing the governments technical capacities to manage natural disasters, crisis and post-conflict situations. UNDPs initiatives to rejuvenate lives and infrastructure in the conflict/disaster affected area have been significant. Other than providing early recovery support to the affectees, UNDP has strengthened the technical capacity of the government for planning, coordination, implementation and monitoring of disaster risk reduction, management and recovery activities at all levels. Apart from building capacity of state owned bodies, UNDP also helped create available alternative means of livelihoods for the vulnerable population. As part of the response to October 2005 earthquake, long term projects focused on rehabilitation of target communities after their immediate needs were fulfilled. These included provision of physical, technical support to the government-run Earthquake Reconstruction and Rehabilitation Authority (ERRA) and its provincial and district/state counterparts. A large number of volunteers were mobilized

to support ongoing early recovery projects. Support was provided to local government departments at the district, tehsil and union council level for improved service delivery and training on disaster risk reduction capacity at the local level, as well as communitybased livelihood interventions. In addition to providing immediate relief as well as long term rehabilitative measures, UNDP launched the One UN Disaster Risk Management (DRM) Joint Programme (JP) in partnership with GoP. The key interventions in this programme include, assisting the government in policy making, training and advice on DRM coordination and support to the government to map hazards and put in place an early warning system for natural disasters. Additionally the DRM JP will also work on education, training and public awareness on disasters and involving and training community members at the local level in managing disasters in 20 high-risk districts. Another important component of the DRM JP is the programme for Refugee Affected and Hosting Areas (RAHA). This initiative is a joint project of the GoP and UNDP/United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) supported by the UN Country Team. The refugee affected areas refers to rehabilitating areas where refugees have lived for a long time. A key area is enhancing social cohesion and local economies through community development and expanding livelihood opportunities. This is done by developing vocational technical skills and expertise of both Pakistani and Afghan communities. The programme will also improve access to social services through rehabilitation of physical infrastructure, improved services and social protection of the co-existing communities through advocacy, linkages, promotion of human rights,

advice and legal aid services, referral and improved governance of service delivery. Restoration and improvement of the environment is also a key focus area. In the coming years, UNDP will work on peace building, governance and economic recovery for the conflict-affected areas of North West Frontier Province (NWFP) focusing on Malakand Region. The three-year programme will help the Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) reconstruct their lives as they return home. It will support early recovery activities to bridge the gap between relief and long-term rehabilitation. This will include restoring livelihoods and also strengthen mechanisms for a coordinated response to the needs of the returnees at district level as well. At a more strategic level, UNDP will also work towards diffusing and preventing local conflicts and gaining a better understating of its structural causes. The programme will be implemented in cooperation with the Provincial Relief, Rehabilitation and Settlement Authority (PaRRSA), NGOs and other relevant stakeholders.

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UNDPs Early Recovery Initiatives


tive the recovery process is likely to be. As effective early recovery allows local institutions to progress with providing basic services and assume governance functions such as security, local administration and justice. UNDP is the global cluster lead for ER working around the world to restore the quality of life for men women and children who have been affected by natural disaster or conflict. Carving stability out of chaos, UNDP continues to seek new ways of preventing conflicts and of sustaining life in crisis situations. UNDP supports national counterparts to develop both a disaster risk perspective and the human, financial, technical and legislative capacity; civil society preparedness; and coordination systems to manage the response. UNDP identifies the needs of men, women and children in crisis and strives to meet those needs - whether they be as basic as a skills training to help a tsunami victim restart his trade, or as complex as a recovery plan to ease Pakistans IDPs from relief to reconstruction, training courses to empower women to start up their own businesses, or disarmament programmes turning former warlords into legitimate merchants.

Early Recovery (ER) is a multidimensional process that begins in a humanitarian setting. It is guided by development principles that seek to build on humanitarian programmes and catalyze sustainable development opportunities. It aims to generate self sustaining, nationally owned, resilient processes for post crisis recovery. It encompasses the restoration of basic services, livelihoods, shelter, governance, security and rule of law, environment and social dimensions, including the reintegration of displaced populations. People affected by conflict and natural disasters require life-saving support because their communities, institutions and livelihoods may be weakened or destroyed. Once they return back to their homes their survival depends upon how well and how quickly they resurrect their lives and everything associated with it. Recovery programming throughout the transition works to restore basic social services, infrastructure, livelihood opportunities and governance capacity. To achieve this, the foundation of recovery must be initiated in the humanitarian or emergency phase. Most initial attention will be given to life-saving interventions, but the sooner work on recovery begins, the sooner the affected areas are stabilized, and the shorter and more effec5 Rebuilding Lives

(Guidance Note on Early Recovery, April 2008 Forced Migration Review)

We cannot stop natural calamities, but we can and must better equip individuals and communities to withstand them. Kofi Annan, UN Secretary-General, October 2005

Section I:
Disaster Risk Reduction

Project Title:

One UN DRM Joint Programme Component Duration: 2007 - 2011 Project Budget: USD 22 million Donors: UNDP, BCPR, UNISDR Government of Japan Partners: National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) and Federal Line Ministries, Provincial/Regional Disaster Management Authorities, District Disaster Management Authorities, Departments, Training and Educational Institutions, UN agencies and NGOs. Targeted Areas: Countrywide Background: The Government of Pakistan has National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) which developed a National Disaster Risk Management Framework (NDRMF) defining strategies and priorities of the Government of Pakistan in the area of disaster risk management for the next five years. UNDP is providing assistance to the Government of Pakistan in building capacities at the national and regional levels through support in policy making, human resource development, implementation of pilot mitigation programmes, DRM planning, resource mobilization and response capacity development. Objective: The project intends to enhance capability of the Government of Pakistan at the federal, provincial and local levels in dealing with disaster risks/vulnerabilities in a systematic manner by establishing structures and systems and developing capacities in line with global good practices in order to achieve sustainable social, economic and environmental development through avoiding shocks from disasters.

Preparing Communities, Reducing Risks


On June 26th, 2007 Pakistans southern coastal areas in Balochistan were hit by Cyclone Yemyin. This was followed by heavy rains which caused an overflow of Mirani Dam and resulted in torrential flood. A few hundred people died and 2.15 million people were rendered homeless. Acres of crops and date palms were destroyed. Union Council Koshkalat, situated some 7 kilometers from Turbat on the bank of Ketch River was among the worst hit. We didnt know that the storm would trigger a flood . . . my hut was completely destroyed . . . I wish I could have saved something for my children said Gulab Ahmed, a resident of Koshkalat. My pumpkin crop was also destroyed. For us this means we have lost subsistence for the next season. It was a difficult time for our village integrated response system at the local level, UNDP initiated a flood and cyclones mitigation and preparedness programme in the coastal areas of Pakistan. Communities of villages situated on the banks of Ketch, Sami, Nehang and Dasht Rivers were trained on evacuation, rescue and relief. Early Warning Systems for floods were installed on each river and Community Rapid Response Teams (CRRT) were established, trained and equipped. A communication mechanism was also developed. Gulab Ahmed is a member of CRRT Koshkalat. He appreciates the value of this training I am now prepared in every way to face any challenge of nature, I know how to warn my community when a flood is expected, how to evacuate efficiently and how to rescue those who are caught Natural calamities are a world wide phenomenon. From 1995 to 2004 the number of natural disasters worldwide increased by 70% while the number of causalities caused by these disasters almost doubled. Climate-change has resulted in an increase in natural calamities causing huge economic and human losses. The developing world suffers the most due to population density and lack of disaster preparedness and mitigation mechanisms. When a disaster strikes, it is the poor and vulnerable who are the most affected. As a developing country, Pakistan faces a high risk of physical damage, environmental degradation, and social and economic disruption in the event of a disaster. This is evident from Pakistans experience of the October-2005 earthquake in which tens of thousands of
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Realizing the need to enhance the level of preparedness and develop an

people died for lack of basic building standards. It is very important to mitigate and prepare for the risk to save lives and protect livelihoods. Invest little, save much By investing a little in disaster preparedness and mitigation, we can save much. Based on this paradigm, UNDP Pakistan has adopted a three-pronged approach towards disaster risk reduction encompassing mitigation, preparedness and advocacy in every initiative with communities and government institutions. Ranging from mainstreaming of disaster risk management plans into planning process of line ministries to retrofitting disaster-hit buildings at minimal costs, UNDP has been actively advocating for disaster risk reduction. Communities participate in the preparedness trainings and exercises to mitigate prevailing risk of natural disasters including Glacial Lake Outburst Floods

(GLOFs), floods, cyclones, tsunami and earthquakes. Communities have been trained on how to build safer houses and how to withstand, respond to and recover from hazards. Apart from the capacity building and the development of community response teams, UNDP has taken other measures such as mangrove plantation in Thatta and Badin districts. These areas are prone to cyclones and floods and mangroves act as barriers. Specifically, 1,200,000 mangroves have been planted on 200 hectares of the coastal belt of UC Kothi, Tehsil Jati of District Thatta. This has motivated local communities to adopt the disaster preparedness practices. Building check dams-An effort to reduce the losses Apart from preparing communities for potential hazards, UNDP is also supporting them in mitigating and low-

ering the scale of damages. Building check dams to barricade land slides in earthquake hit areas is one such example. This has impacted the lives of many. Shahbaz 28, a father of two is one such example. He lives in a small house in a shanty town near Gulshan Nullah in Gulshan Colony, Muzaffarabad. His house was destroyed by the earthquake so he had to rent alternate accommodation. In his new home he faced another threat; flooding by monsoon. The earthquake had removed grass and trees from the nearby mountains. No longer protected by the plantation, rainwater flooded the houses bringing along debris from the mountains. Like Shahbaz, most of the neighbors had wooden or partially cemented houses which were badly damaged by rainwater and rubble with every rain. They (government) tried to help us by removing debris from our steep street after the rain but it would rain the next day and we would be back to where we started. . . sometimes we would spend the whole day removing debris from our house and stopping rainwater from entering our houses. Our children could not go to school Shahbaz said. This debris raised the street level eventually creating easy flow of rain water to the houses. I felt as if there would be no end to our misery, this is what

we are destined to do; removing debris from our streets and cleaning rainwater from our houses Sahabaz added. After a complete vulnerability assessment survey, UNDP plans to implement an environmental recovery project for prevention of debsis and mud flow and construction of check dams on steep slopes of the nearby mountains. This prevented the debris from flowing in and helped reduce the flow of rainwater. Retrofitting is another innovative approach. Damaged buildings are repaired and made functional. The Jinnah Dental Hospital, Muzaffarabad is a case in point. Built on 10,000 square feet, equipped with latest equipment, this state-of-art hospital was to be inaugurated in 2005 when earthquake struck. The hospital building was badly damaged and later marked by the
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structural engineers as not fit for use. The Government planned to demolish the building and rebuild the hospital on a new site which was to cost more than PKR 25 million. UNDP in collaboration with Engineering University, Peshawar arranged for retrofitting of the damaged building of Jinnah Hospital. This retrofitting cost less than 8% of construction cost and saved considerable resources for other development initiatives in the area. Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Management Incorporating disaster risk management practices in government planning and policies is essential for a comprehensive DRM approach. This is why UNDP is actively supporting line ministries to incorporate DRM practices in development plans for the future. District and provincial level DRM plans and maps Our vulnerability to disasters has never been so high. We have no choice we need to move the disaster risk reduction agenda forward if we want to save lives. John Holmes, United Nations UnderSecretary General For Humanitarian Affairs
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of vulnerable places have been developed to support this process. Building structure standards have been devised and civil engineers of municipals have been trained in safer and earthquakeresistant construction. Through its development efforts, UNDP has gained the goodwill of many communities. Syed Shakil Gillani, Secretary, Municipal Corporation, Muzaffarabad appreciates this work, The efforts of UNDP experts to support disaster preparedness will always be remembered

Title:

Regional Climate Risk Reduction Project in the Himalayas Duration: July 2009 December 2010 Donors: European Commission Humanitarian Aid department (ECHO) and Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery (BCPR) Target Areas: Districts in Pakistan: Gilgit Background The northern mountainous areas of Pakistan encompass the Hindu-Kush and Himalaya mountain ranges. The global warming in the Himalayas is higher than the global average which is causing the retreat of glaciers to an average rate of 30 to 60 meters per decade. This results in rapid accumulation of water lakes situated on top of the mountain. As glaciers retreat, glacial lakes form behind moraine or ice dams. These can breach anytime leading to floods known as Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOFs). In a GLOF, millions of cubic meters of water and debris is discharged in a few hours flooding up to hundreds of kilometers downstream. GLOFs destroy property, farms, socio-economic infrastructure and irrigation channels and undermine the already meager sources of livelihood of mountain people and downstream communities. The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery (BCPR) has initiated a project in four countries in the HinduKush-Himalayas including Gilgit Balttistan region of Pakistan to mitigate the risk of climate-induced disasters such as GLOFs. Objective The project aims to address the risks posed by GLOFs in the Hindu Kush-Himalaya (HKH) region through strengthening non-structural and community-based approaches.

Melting glaciers - A Lurking Danger


January 6, 2008: Sudden outburst in Passu glacier has caused release of huge volume of water from the nearby lake. The flood water has damaged glacier Burj Hotel and many houses in the vicinity. Karakoram Highway (KKH) remained blocked for all types of traffic. A Bridge on KKH is also under threat of being swept away. In order to avoid further damages, houses near the glacier have been evacuated and people have been shifted to safe places. After this event, volunteers and Scouts from surrounding villages gathered in Passu to deal with any emergency situation. (Pamir Times) evacuated the local houses in fear of more floods. . . . . . . Morever, seepage of water from the glacier just above the Ghulkin village has created fear among the local community. According to local people, unlike the past, excessive water flow from the glacier is observed even during December, when the temperature remains below zero. (Pamir Times) Why flood in the mountains? The Himalayan region contains the largest areas covered by glaciers and permafrost outside the polar region. Being the cradle of nine of the largest rivers in Asia whose basins are home to over 1.3 billion people, the region is susceptible to a whole range of hydrological, tectonic and climate induced disasters. The global warming in the Himalayas is higher than the global average which is causing the retreat of glaciers to an average rate of 30 to 60 meters per decade. This results in rapid accumulation of water lakes situated on top of the mountain. As glaciers retreat, glacial lakes form behind moraine or ice dams. These can breach anytime leading to floods known as Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOF). In a

May 25, 2008: Another flood from the Ghulkin Glacier hit the Karakoram Highway and the Chutghust settlement of Ghulkin village. The volume of water was very high as compared to the flood on May 21. It caused huge losses to the potato and wheat fields, orchards and forest areas. KKH also remained closed for 6 hours. The local volunteers have

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GLOF, millions of cubic meters of water and debris is discharged in a few hours flooding up to hundreds of kilometres downstream. GLOFs destroy property, farms, socio-economic infrastructure and irrigation channels and undermine the already meagre sources of livelihood of mountain people and downstream communities. Like other parts of the Himalayas, the climate-induced changes are quite apparent in Hunza river basin as well. Passu and Ghulkin glaciers in Hunza are also melting fast. The rapid melting of glacial ice mass is resulting into expansion of existing lakes and formation of new ones.

for the tourists. However the formation of glacial lakes poses a great threat to neighbouring communities because a sudden discharge of huge volume of water and debris from the lake can flood neighbouring villages of Hussaini, Passu and Ghulkin in Gojal. This can potentially harm livelihoods of many households in these villages. In Gojal, five GLOFs occurred in the first six months of 2008 . Socio-economic impact of GLOFs Livelihoods of people of Ghulkin, Passu and Hussaini villages depend on small plots of cultivable land, fruit farms and livestock which are now endangered due to GLOFs caused by melting of Passu and Ghulkin glaciers. Losing cattle or a fruit farm in a craggy area like Gojal means losing the food supplies for the whole family. Five GLOF events have already occurred in Gojal area of the Hunza river basin in the first half of 2008. GLOF events at Ghulkin and Passu caused substantial damage to infrastructure and arable land, however no lives were lost. As a result of the GLOFs seventy-

Glofs are potentially dangerous because melt water gets blocked inside a glacier. It can burst anytime. We cannot see it coming and that is what makes them a bigger problem than the larger glacial surface lakes, Shaun Richardson, Geologist, Institute of Geography and Earth Sciences, Aberystwyth University.
Splendour turning into menace The towering glaciers of Ghulkin and Passu are cradled in the serene valley of Gojal in Hunza river basin. The valley borders China through the famous Khunjrab, Kilik and Mintika passes and the Afghan Wakhan through Irshod Pass. Gojal spreads over an area of about 8,500 square kilometers. The beauty of its lakes and the potpourri of surrounding villages make it a heaven

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two canals of land were affected, out of which twenty-nine were cropland. 460 fruit trees amounting to a cost of PKR 161,000 were destroyed. Seven houses and four cattle sheds were demolished killing 15 cattle. Nine hundred Sq feet of terrace wall was damaged and a 2,500 feet long public link road and two electricity poles were destroyed. Three water channels/cools, 25 pipes and two water storage tanks were damaged. In total twenty one people were affected by the floods. The latest and most recent event occurred in May 2009 causing damage to infrastructure and property. During all flood events, local volunteers and scouts assisted the villagers in evacuation and any other type of support. The looming risk calls for attention In the past, the risk posed by GLOFs received little or no attention amongst governments, communities and de-

velopment actors in Pakistan. Consequently, despite the repeated events of glacial lake floods, people of Gojal did not know how to deal with the situation in the event of a disaster. When a flood occurred in the area, the recovery efforts were limited and impromptu. Preparing Communities Reducing Risks In order to meet the threat posed by formation of glacial lakes, UNDP BCPR in collaboration with NDMA, initiated to the Regional GLOF Risk Reduction Initiative in the Gilgit Baltistan of Pakistan. UNDP worked on raising awareness of the local communities and building their capacities in terms of Community Based Disaster Preparedness (CBDP) approaches. Under the GLOF Risk Reduction initiative pilot activities in Gojal (Ghulkin, Passu and Hussaini villages), were implemented in partnership with World Wide Fund for Nature Pakistan.

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A Baseline assessment study on the impact of GLOFs in Hunza River Basin emphasized the need of focused efforts to equip local communities with skills to deal with such eventualities. The baseline assessment study was conducted in the field with the support of Water Resource Research Institute (WRRI) of the National Agricultural Research Center (NARC) as an external consultant. Research indicates that people need to learn about hazards in order to prepare and plan in advance. In addition to community based disaster preparedness the structural mitigation approach should be explored. Unfortunately there has been no land use planning and zoning in these areas. Nonetheless, people are more aware and some are even considering moving their settlements to safer areas but have not been able to do so due to limited resources.

A system needs to be developed with ownership of the local administration. GLOF risk reduction needs to be factored in development planning process in the mountain areas. Rural communities need strong government support because they are bound by limited resources and poverty. Gearing up for preparedness UNDP piloted a training programme in three villages of Gojal to raise awareness in the communities on the danger and causes of GLOFs. 60 men and women of Voluntary Emergency Response Teams and some students from the three villages have been trained in first aid and search and rescue. Extensive field drills of first aid and Search and Rescue (SAR)have also been conducted. Along with the training, UNDP has also
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provided the required SAR and first aid equipment to the communities. The people of Ghulkin, Hussaini and Passu villages are now happy because they know how to reduce the risk of and respond to a flood. This learning is an asset for me. Now I know how to deliver first aid and conduct search and rescue. . We have the equipment now so we will teach these skills to our fellow villagers in next seasonal festival said Shahana, a village member of Ghulkin. Communities are also supported in building dams against moraine and draining of hazardous lakes to reduce the risk of outbursts. Water towers of Asia producing hazardous lakes The river basins in Hundu Kush and Himalyas in Pakistan are home to 39.36 million people . These basins include Swat, Chitral, Gilgit, Hunza, Shigar, Shyok, Indus, Shingo, Astor, and Jhelum . Out of 2,420 glacial lakes covering an area of 126 square kilometres, 52 are identified

as potentially dangerous for surrounding communities in these basins. Number of potentially hazardous lakes in ten river basins in Pakistan River Basin Swat Chitral Gilgit Hunza Shigar Shyok Indus Shingo Astor Jhelum Total Number of lakes 2 1 8 1 0 6 15 5 9 5 52

Appropriate and timely measures are needed to reduce the risk of GLOF in these river basins. UNDP, via its GLOF Risk Reduction project will replicate its pilot in the other basins as well and mainstream GLOF risk reduction measures into community and administrative socio-economic planning. Thus saving many lives from impending disaster.

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UNDPs

early

and

proactive role paved the way for the UN System.


General Nadeem Ahmed, Ex-Deputy Chairman, ERRA

Section II:
Disaster Reponse

A story of hope and despair


The eighteen storey building shivered like a decrepit old structure as the earth shook on 8th October 2005. In a matter of minutes the mighty structure was reduced to a maze of twisted iron and cracked concrete. From Islamabad to Mansehra, Rawalakot and Battagram, the destruction was widespread. As expected the amount of rubble that this created was immense. As did the entire UN system, UNDP also responded promptly and undertook a muchneeded rubble removal project. The rubble removal project showcased UNDPs commitment to help people earn a living by incorporating the cashfor work approach. The vast quantities of rubble and debris generated by the earthquake had to be removed before reconstruction could commence. At the same time, the destruction of offices, businesses and agriculture meant that thousands of families lost their livelihoods. UNDP addressed both these issues through hiring local people for the purpose of clearing the rubble and recovering reusable construction materials from the wreckage. 554,030 cubic meters of rubble cleared from 1,448 sites. This meant that 178,758 labor days were generated which were equivalent to one months work for 7,150 men. Over 500, 000 cubic meters of rubble was cleared from 1, 448 sites, mostly from essential public facilities such as schools and health clinics. Prioritizing these projects facilitated restoration of basic services and also helped in psychological recovery as a grim reminder of the tragedy was removed. In addition to this, UNDP also initiated a Heating and Cooking Energy Project as these needs had to be met on an urgent basis. A total of 78, 000 cooking and heating stoves along with LPG gas cylinders were distributed with each kit worth PKR. 6, 000. Before the earthquake, the local population relied primarily on wood for cooking and heating thus using the forests in

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an unsustainable manner. By allowing access of green fuel to these families, an estimated 50, 000 trees were saved. The support extended to critical institutions as well, 100 basic health units, 80 UNICEF child protections centers received heating equipment and fuel. 50 kerosene heaters and fuel supplies were provided to medical camps in Rawalakot, 100 patio heaters given to emergency communal hospitals and 9,500 cylinders and stoves were distributed to teachers. Shelters of hope The transitional shelters provided by UNDP were designed for easy construction, using available materials, and to withstand aftershocks. Each shelter took three people a time period of three days to put up. The walls comprised of 300 sturdy plastic bags stuffed with soil for the bottom layers. This provided insulation and stability, enabling the structure to withstand aftershocks. Wooden beams salvaged from the rubble were used to support

the pitched corrugated iron roof. At the rear was a stall for livestock. Tools to build the shelters were available locally. Materials provided for each shelter included a tool kit and a fuel-efficient heating and cooking stove. At a cost of only $ 250, each shelter could house a family of six. In addition to the support provided directly for shelter construction by UNDP, the locals could easily replicate the simple model and put up shelters for themselves. UNDP assisted in the construction of over 53, 252 transitional/semi-permanent shelters with the help of 221 local engineers, 185 local contractors, 168 community masons, 997 trainers that were especially trained for this purpose. With thousands benefitting from these shelters a feared winter disaster was averted but an important lesson was also learned, the poor construction and deforestation compounded the damage caused by the earthquake. A risk management approach thus became the only way forward for a disaster-prone country like Pakistan.

Project Title:

Building Enabling Governance and Institutions for Earthquake Response (BEGIN-ER) July 2006-March 2009 UNDP, DFID, United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR)

Duration: Donors:

Project Budget: USD 10.362 million

Partners: Economic Affairs Division, Earthquake Reconstruction & Rehabilitation Authority, Planning and Development Department, Local Government Department Provincial ERRA NWFP and SERRA Targeted Areas: Abbottabad, Mansehra, Batagarm, Shangla and Kohistan (N.W.F.P), Muzaffarabad, Neelum, Poonch and Bagh (PAK) Background: The 8th October 2005 earthquake devastated five districts of North West Frontier Province (NWFP) and four districts of Pakistan Administered Kashmir (PAK). Thousands of local government personnel at the district and tehsil levels perished and large number of office buildings, equipment, records and facilities were destroyed. The need to restore government capacity at local levels for planning, coordination, implementation and monitoring was immediate. UNDP responded to this need and committed to restoring local government institutions in the affected areas and improving their capacity to handle any future disasters more effectively. BEGIN-ER was thus launched to enable local government institutions to start working again quickly and to develop their technical capacities to plan and implement disaster risk reduction and recovery activities. Objective: To enable Local Government Institutions (LGIs) to function again quickly and have technical capacities to plan and implement disaster response activities through a transparent, equitable and participatory process. Capacity development of local government officials, elected representatives and NGOs to play an effective role in coordination, planning and monitoring disaster response

A beautifully functional space Prefabricated Offices


Muzaffarabad, the city of green hills Muzzafarabad district, the land of green hills, is situated on the banks of Jehlum and Neelum rivers. The district is situated in PAK in northern part of Pakistan. The state borders with Punjab province in the south and NWFP in the west. The district population of almost 800,000 people is served by land revenue, planning and development, local government and rural development and other key government departments. After the October-2005 earthquake, a large number of buildings in the district either collapsed or suffered irreparable damage. The Land Revenue Department was one of the many buildings that collapsed. Though the relief efforts started immediately after the earthquake, planning for recovery and reconstruction also commenced in parallel. It was a critical time and most offices had no infrastructure to work with. Nowhere to start In the wake of the earthquake, the task of land ownership verification for recovery and reconstruction planning was handed over to the Land Revenue Department. This institution primarily dealt in land revenue, agriculture income tax, land surveys and record of rights. Although some files were recovered from the debris, the Department urgently required an office space. Initially they began work in the damaged building of the Deputy Commissioners Office but a safe place was required to store the valuable land records as the files were piled in tents, susceptible to damage by rain. Hundreds of cases were being lodged every day and verification of land ownership was paramount. A respectful workplace; easy access for the common man UNDP provided pre-fabricated offices to all key local government departments and upon recognition of the Land Revenue Departments integral work they were amongst the first few to receive such a facility. Raja Farooq, Senior Member Board of Revenue, PAK appreciated the effort, We did not have any office set-up or infrastructure to process the cases. . . until we got 4 prefabs from the BEGIN-ER project. . . whoever thought about it (pre-fabs) was very astute. . . We were able to participate in the reconstruction work . . moreover it was an honorable place to sit for women and officers . I must say, every penny spent on these prefabs was worth it

The new offices set-up in pre-fabs were functional, however record keeping

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Capacitating local government departments to deliver Infrastructure support was critical at the time and UNDP recognized the need for this support along with the training. The scale of work that was expected of it was far beyond its traditional capacity. UNDP trained 360 land record officials and Patwaris in record management to address this critical gap. was still an issue. Responding to this need, UNDP gave 40 containers to store the files. These containers were used for transporting pre-fabs and were then put up for auction. It has become much easier for us now to maintain data and to help people manage their lands and livelihoods and to support them in resorting their ordinary pursuit of life Raja Farooq added. Patwaris, the mobile land recordersnow accessible by the people A Patwari is an employee of the land revenue department responsible for maintaining record of land at village level and is the primary and critical source of land verification. Patwaris are infamous for being inaccessible as they do not have permanent offices and move around with their ledgers. After the Land Revenue Department received the containers, they converted some of them into Patwar offices in order to facilitate the masses. . .We thought it a good idea to sit the Patwaris in one work space and thus make them available to people who waned their council . . now a Patwari happily sits in a container turned into his new office space twice a weekfeeling more important than ever! commented one anonymous observer. To further facilitate the citizens, the UNDP provided 32 pre-fabs for the purpose of Patwar offices.
23 Rebuilding Lives

Other than the land revenue department, government officials from other departments, elected representatives and members of NGOs were also trained in various skills including disaster risk reduction and information technology. Kaneez Sughra was the first Woman Master Trainer on DRR from Mansehra, NWFP reiterates the value of this training. I realized the importance of having disaster management skills after the earthquake but I still did not know how to deal with emergencies until I got training on disaster risk reduction by UNDP. . . .now I know what role a government servant can play when a disaster happens Magnifying the support scale UNDP considered the recovery efforts as a window of opportunity to equip departments and organizations with disaster management skills and thus provided infrastructure and capacity building support to several government departments and public institutions for enhanced performance and improved service delivery. This included State Disaster Management Au-

.this had not only resulted in enhancing the capacity of the recipient offices to face the challenges of reconstruction but had also improved their service delivery. . . . . Daily Times, Wednesday July 30, 2008

Pre-fabs- A respectable workplace As the Head of this administrative unit, I manage the Tehsil Municipal Administration (TMA) of Tehsil Balakot. People come to the TMA office for issues related to lands, estates, properties, sewerage, drainage, sanitation, roads, land use control, and coordination of development plans and projects. After the earthquake every structure in Balakot Tehsil was reduced to rubble. We had to sit in shabby gazebos on dirty grounds. People coming to us had to stand and wait because we had no place to make them sit. We were desperate to help our people but we were based in a cluster of tents in village of Shohal Najaf some 8 kilometers from Balakot city. People were looking up to us as their elected representatives but I myself had a tent as an office where there was hardly any furniture. . . . . I felt very helpless. The traumatized people started losing faith in their municipal administrations capacity to deliver. At that time UNDP team was administering relief efforts for the earthquake affectees in the area and we were coordinating their response. During their work in the area, they realized the tough conditions in which we were working. When the BEGIN-ER gave pre-fabs to local government institutions, we got 4 for us. I call this the actual capacity building because now TMA workers have a respectable and secure place to sit in and serve a population of 300,000 people. . . . people coming to our office in pre-fabs have a belief that they will receive service. . . . the scenario would have been completely different without pre-fabs Junaid Qasim, Tehsil Nazim, Tehsil Balakot, NWFP

thority, President and Prime Minister Secretariats, Combined Military Hospital (CMH) and District Judiciary as the prominent few among many in Muzaffarabad and other districts covered by the project. Subsequent to its support to government departments, UNDP focused on the restoration of public entities including police stations, schools and hospitals by providing them with infrastructure and equipment support. At present, many schools, hospitals and police stations are functional in prefabs. Said Tehseen Ahmed, officer, Local Government Department, PAK recommends pre-fabs as a solid and viable option Even when we construct our own building, we would continue using pre-fabs because they are as practical as a well constructed building

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Project Title:

Technical Assistance for Management of Earthquake Early Recovery Duration: Dec 2005- Dec 2009 Project Budget: USD 6.29 million Donors: DFID, UNISDR, UNF Government of Germany Partners: ERRA, PERRA, SERRA, DRU, Targeted Areas: Earthquake affected areas PAK and NWFP Background: The October 2005 earthquake caused widespread devastation in nine districts in NWFP and PAK. The Government formed the Federal Relief Commission (FRC) to coordinate the response to this disaster. Its primary task was to undertake the large scale relief operation in the areas of search and rescue, health, water, food and shelter. By March 2006, the relief phase moved into the reconstruction and rehabilitation phase. Since the damage to government institutions had been immense, the capacities of line departments in both NWFP and PAK were severely limited. Responding to this lack of capacity and in addition to the FRC, the Government established ERRA at the federal level. PERRA and SERRA were established at the provincial and state level respectively. The TAMEER project was initiated to provide physical, technical and intellectual support to ERRA and its provincial and state counterparts. The TAMEER project reflects UNDPs prioritized response towards the restoration of governance capacity as part of the early recovery phasing into long-term rehabilitation and reconstruction. Upon launch of TAMEER project in December 2005, ERRA was provided technical assistance on strategic planning, institutional development, programme and donor coordination, human settlements and resource and reconstruction database management. ERRA was also supported through office equipment, transportation, and internet facility. Support was also offered towards forming the organizational structure of ERRA, which included ToRs and a remuneration system for staff and Standard Operating Procedures (SoPs) including management of budget and procurement. Objective: To facilitate the government in the timely, equitable and sustained implementation of National Plan of Action for earthquake rehabilitation and reconstruction To prepare for future disasters

TAMEER Building Back Better


Very few communities in the world would have known the real meaning of building back better as Kashmiris have known it. Looking down at the valley of Muzaffarabad from the hills of Upper Chattar one can hardly believe that the city went through a huge disaster four years ago. The city presents a pristine view with rivers Neelum and Jehlum greeting each other. The huge red brick buildings of district complex resemble model blocks being displayed at the centre of a model city. This serene landscape was the scene of the 2005 earthquake disaster and only after much struggle and hardship has the tranquility been reclaimed. Given the amount of devastation that the earthquake caused, the task of recovery was enormous and the existing capacity of the institutions mandated to plan and execute the reconstruction work was in dire need of support and revision. Establishment of ERRA The Government formed the Federal Relief Commission (FRC) for coordinating the response to the disaster. This was mandated to undertake large scale relief operations in search and rescue, health, water, food and shelter. By March 2006, the relief phase had moved into the reconstruction and rehabilitation phase. But the government institutions were severely damaged the capacities of line departments in both NWFP and PAK were extremely limited to undertake the onerous task of rehabilitation. Responding to this lack of capacity and as an addition to the FRC, the Government established ERRA at the federal level while Provincial Earthquake Reconstruction and Rehabilitation Authority (PERRA) and State Earthquake Reconstruction and Rehabilitation Authority (SERRA) as the provincial and state counterparts. UNDP provided physical, technical and intellectual support to ERRA and its provincial and state counterparts at the request of GoP. This support reflected UNDPs prioritized response towards the restoration of governance capacity as part of early recovery phasing into long-term rehabilitation and reconstruction. The technical support provided to ERRA included resource and reconstruction database management, strategic planning, programme and donor coordination, institutional development as well as human settlements. Since it was a new institution, office equipment, transportation and internet facilities were also provided. UNDP also assisted in forming ERRAs organizational structure, through job descriptions, remuneration systems and management processes for budget and procurement. Supporting the Early Recovery Human resources and technical capacities of ERRA and its provincial and district counterparts were strengthened in management, environment, social protection, gender, governance and disaster risk reduction through 85 UNDP-supported experts. This dedicated team of professionals was an important asset to the organization as it worked to expedite recovery and restore normalcy to the lives of the affectees. While planning experts assisted SERRA and PERRA in formulating programmes;

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catering to almost 8,000 facilities, the environmental experts ensured that projects on forest, fisheries and debris removal followed their guidelines. Significantly, a manual on Integrated Slope Stabilization Techniques was developed illustrating ways of avoiding flash floods induced by torrential rain. Today, 30 slopes have been stabilized in Muzaffarabad and Mansehra guarding a large segment of the population from land slides. The Social Welfare Complexes at Muzaffarabad, Neelum, Rawalakot and Bagh were supported. UNDP also ensured that the inclusion of the most vulnerable affectees into ERRAs initiatives for housing reconstruction, livelihood rehabilitation, child and legal support and the Rural Landless Program of ERRA. Israr Mughal, Deputy Director, Department of Social Welfare appreciates UNDPs role The development of the Women Development Complex in Muzaffarabad has been made possible only with the unprecedented support of UNDP staff. From planning and approval to construction and operation, they have been with us every step of the way More than 4000 people benefitted from this identification exercise. Tanveer 6 and Rashid 7, two minor brothers from village Utrery in Muzaffarabad who were orphaned in the earthquake were among them. Their house was completely destroyed and they had no place to live. They were shifted from the camps to an orphanage where they resided for two years. They were categorized as extremely vulnerable through a UNDP-supported survey and given under guardianship to their Uncle, Muhammad Ba27 Rebuilding Lives

shir through UNDPs help. In order to ensure that they had a secure future, a PKR 75,000 grant was a disbursed to Bashir through which he bought a small plot next to his house. Additional support of PKR 275,000 enabled them to build a two-room house on the acquired land. Tanveer and Rashid have since been living here. A majority of water supply schemes were damaged or destroyed after the earthquake which needed to be restored for normal life to resume. UNDP helped in building 2754 water supply and sanitation schemes. These are now being managed by the Water Quality & Hygiene Promotion project through out the earthquake affected areas allowing access of this precious resource to the affected population. Building the future Muhammad Maqbool Abbasi, Director, Planning and Development Department, PAK highlights another aspect of UNDP support, After the earthquake, 3000 schools and colleges were destroyed in PAK. SERRA was to rebuild these. The UNDP team supported the whole activity. We cooperated very well. They helped us in developing the projects for the funding from various donors such as USAID and governments of Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. They have done a really good job.

More than 1000 schools were rebuilt. Zeenat Azam, Principal, Government Post Graduate College, RawlaKot reiterates, Our College was completely destroyed during earthquake. With the

dedicated support of UNDP staff, the plan for reconstruction was approved and the college has been completely rebuilt

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Project Title:

Community Based Livelihoods Recovery Programme Duration: April 2006- April 2009 Project Budget: USD 13.8 million Donors: European Union Partners: Governments of NWFP and PAK Targeted Areas: Earthquake-affected areas of PAK and NWFP (Balakot and Muzaffarabad Tehsils) Background: The 8 October 2005 earthquake played havoc with the production bases of the local population, destroying the wage based as well as natural resource based livelihoods in both rural and urban areas of the affected region. The project aims to support immediate and mid-term livelihoods recovery of the vulnerable population in the earthquake-affected areas of NWFP and PAK. Objectives: To revitalize and strengthen Community Organizations (COs) to ensure participation of affected people in planning, execution and monitoring of livelihoods recovery activities; To restore and strengthen the capacity of line departments and civil society organizations to enable them to be active partners in local development; To restore income generation activities of affected population especially the vulnerable groups through skills enhancement; To revive agriculture sector, provide food security and mitigate environmental effects of the earthquake; and To support construction or rehabilitation of community infrastructure related to livelihoods recovery and economic development.

Community Based Livelihoods Recovery Programme - Rebuilding lives after the Earthquake
Relief and Early Recovery Responding to the enormous challenge of rehabilitating livelihoods in the aftermath of the earthquake, UNDP began its relief and early recovery operations soon after. As the immediate life-saving needs were met in the relief phase, UNDP laid down the foundations for a self-sustaining, nationallyowned and resilient process for post crisis recovery. Working jointly with several UN agencies, including United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), United Nations Office for Project Services (UNOPS), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and International Labor Organization (ILO), the programme was able to adopt a holistic approach to livelihood restoration. The main areas of focus included enhancing the capacities of community organizations, line departments and civil society organizations and the revival of the agricultural sector. Community infrastructure was restored through the participation of the locals and their skills developed to enable them to earn a living. As in other programmes across the UN, a special effort was made to address gender, and environmental concerns and the inclusion of disabled persons in the rebuilding process. Learning in the field As many as 2.8 million inhabitants residing in the Northern regions of Pakistan were displaced after the earthquake. Afzal Khan was one such affectee. Leaving his 20 kanals of land unattended, the 45-year old left home soon after the earthquake to work as a labourer in Muzaffarabad. Like in most earthquake affected areas, agriculture had collapsed in his village; Thotha Dhiri, some 18 kilometres from Muzaffarabad in the valley of the Jehlam river. As a result, farmers were turning to other options or simply waiting for handouts from relief agencies. Afzal Khan recounts Agricultural activity came to a standstill after the earthquake but I decided to return when I heard that UNDP was organizing communities to restart agriculture. Alongside pro-

viding fertilizers and quality seeds for wheat, maize, vegetables and fodder, UNDP supported farmers in improving their agriculture techniques by forming Farmer Field Schools .

(The stories in this article are contributed by Zaigham Bajwa)

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Almost 1,400 farmers were trained through these schools, of these almost 40% were females. In Tanveers village, 25 farmers organized themselves into a group and started experimenting with new crops and technologies, sharing their learning at a weekly meeting including modern and indigenous farming methods. Rather than remaining confined to a single crop of maize, as they did before the earthquake, the farmers experimented with growing wheat and a number of vegetables. What was most important was that there was an emphasis on avoiding indiscriminate use of pesticides and chemical fertilizers, reflects Mohammad Tanveer Khan, facilitator of the group. Farmers, in fact, developed expertise in organic farming. In the past year, Afzal Khan has successfully grown and sold seedlings of onions, different vegetables, maize and wheat. I dont have to worry about the food for my family any longer and I make good money by marketing vegetables and rice, he says proudly. Today, there is almost no house in the village without a kitchen garden as hundred percent agricultural land has been cultivated. Farms have not only become green, they have become much more productive, according to Tanveer Khan. After the successful venture of Farmer Field Schools in Muzaffarabad, the support extended to other areas as well, mainly executed through implementing partners. Irshad Bibi, 30, was part of a group of six women who joined Farmer Field School at Dhani Shahdara, Jigal, Hattian Bala. While she used to grow wheat
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and vegetables for the familys subsistence on her four-kanal-land, now she is also producing vegetables for selling in the market. I grow spinach, coriander, garlic, tomato and chili, she says proudly. I earned 7,000 rupees by selling spinach alone and I hope to make a good income by selling other vegetables also, she says. Other women in her group are not far behind. A healthy competition has emerged among all the farmers in our village and in other villages too, to get the best out of our small farms, she adds. Rebuilding community organizations After the earthquake, many COs in Muzaffarabad ceased to function but communities recognized that reconstruction would only be possible through a collective effort, this concept is known as participatory development. Once formed in a transparent and democratic way, COs set their own priorities

for development and carry out their activities with or without external support. Participatory development particularly benefits the poor and marginalized sections of society by involving them in the process of reconstructing a group identity, raising awareness and acquiring new skills and knowledge. This process bestows on the poor a new power over the economic and social

forces that fashion their daily lives. It is through this power that the poor shift out of the perception of being passive victims of the circumstances that perpetuate their poverty. They start taking action to improve their economic and social conditions, and finally succeed in overcoming poverty. UNDP decided to help these communities revitalize dormant COs and form new ones. The project also encouraged existing COs to enhance female participation in rehabilitation efforts. Consequently, women were not only appointed as members and office bearers of COs, but separate COs for women were also formed. In Muzaffarabad alone, almost 250 women COs were formed, in other COs, women got healthy representation. As a result, men started to realize the decision making and leadership potential of women. So far 1116 COs have assembled in the form of 37 clusters. These clusters are emerging as effective platforms of

peoples organizations. The project has also made an effort to support the COs and clusters in establishing strong linkages with government departments and donors. Today, most of these organizations are effective forums with many already working with government and international organizations. To state a few examples, Area Development Organization, a cluster of 63 COs in Muzafarabad Tehsil is running 40 schools with support from the National Education Foundation. Its member COs have accumulated savings ranging from Rs. 60,000 to 100,000 and have received matching grants from Community Development Project of the PAK Government. The cluster is also running a micro-finance initiative that boasts of a hundred percent recovery rate. UNDP and its partners have played a significant role in the development of COs in this part of the country, states Syed Asghar Hussain Bukhari, President of the cluster.
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Saving mothers and babies The programme has enabled many to learn new skills and strengthen existing ones. Through Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) 80 women are now trained to assist in child birth. Maimoona Akhter is one of them. At 60, she is regarded as a wise old woman in the small village of Karian. Women consult her on all health issues but her advice is valued most during child birth. As it takes many hours to reach the nearest health care facility, women have to rely on their seniors for help and guidance, she elaborates. I was doing this work anyway. I thought why not try and learn it properly. Maimoona spent three months getting hands on training at the Rural Health Centre in Pattika and received a medical kit at the end. This training has been very beneficial to me, but I think it has also helped a large number of women who turn to me for help and advice, says Maimoona. Now
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I can warn an expectant mother if her delivery is potentially risky and she can be transferred to a hospital well in time. Because of the training, now we try to send women who are pregnant for the first time to a hospital and all TBAs take cleanliness very, very seriously, she elaborates. Due to the training, Maimoonas income has also increased substantially and now she charges PKR. 500 to 1,000 for a case. Skill training for livelihood Rana Iqbals story is another heartening one. Many guests who stop at Darwesh Hotel and Restaurant, near

Garhi Dupatta for a cup of hot tea or a plate of chicken biryani, dont know how he picked the pieces of his life after the earthquake. I almost lost my mind after my house was destroyed in the earthquake, my little daughter was killed and my wife was crippled due to a spinal chord injury, he recalls. His CO, encouraged him to join a training course for cooking arranged by the programme. This training has changed my life entirely. I used to be a daily wager before the training, but here I am, a small time restaurateur, working for myself he says. Based on market demand, the programme encouraged a wide range of trainings. While some enhanced their existing skills, others ventured in new means of livelihood. These include reconstruction work, cell phone repairs, tourism, marble cutting and polishing, driving and computer literacy. Women benefitted equally through training in

tailoring, embroidery, paper machie, candle-making, soap and detergent making, and tie and-dye. Four years down the road, the earthquake affected region barely reflects any evidence of devastation or turmoil. Newly constructed schools, buildings and infrastructure in the area represent the beginning of a new and improved life for its inhabitants. Creation of numerous job opportunities that did not exist prior to the earthquake, various skills trainings for locals and improvement in the agricultural sector has helped improve the quality of life in the area to a large extent. People have emerged from the disaster and have worked towards rebuilding their livelihoods being at all times at the centre of this effort.

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Project Title:

Environmental Recovery Programme for Earthquakeaffected Areas Duration: May 2007- April 2010 Project Budget: USD 12.8 million Donors: ERRA Partners: ERRA, Ministry of Environment, Geological Survey of Pakistan Targeted Areas: Mansehra (NWFP), Muzaffarabad and Bagh (PAK) Background: The October-2005 earthquake caused serious concern over its environmental impact. Landslides claimed many lives and continue to pose a major threat to life, livelihood, vegetation and infrastructure. This Program is designed to work through a partnership that has been developed in Pakistan between the Ministry of Environment, UNDP, UNEP, the Earthquake Rehabilitation and Reconstruction Authority (ERRA), other agencies, local and international NGOs to address the environmental issues triggered by the earthquake. The Programs development has been guided by needs identified in the joint UNEP/OCHA South Asia Earthquake Disaster Preliminary Environmental Assessment completed in early December 2005. The Assessment also informed the drafting of the United Nations Systems Pakistan 2005 Earthquake Early Recovery Framework. Objective: The Programme aims at providing safe, healthy, and viable environment for communities by strengthening institutional and community capacity to mitigate, rehabilitate and manage the environmental impacts of the earthquake, through waste and debris management, landslide/slope stabilization, and natural resource management.

Innovative solutions to Natures challenges Environmental Recovery Programme


Undoing the devastation caused by an earthquake In an instant the powerful earthquake changed the lives of hundreds of thousands of people, living in some of Pakistans most scenic and remote locations. Four years on, people in the region are still trying to rebuild their lives. The October-2005 earthquake also created formidable environmental challenges, with widespread debris and large areas denuded of vegetation. The Environmental Recovery Programme (ERP), a joint venture of ERRA and UNDP, was initiated to help local communities overcome the daunting environmental changes and facilitate sustainable development of the earthquake-affected areas. Conceived in 2007, and launched in August of that year, the ERP project has two main components: slope stabilization and integrated water-shed management. Controlling landslides through innovative methods One of the most pressing issues ERP addressed is that of landslides. In the aftermath of the October 2005 earthquake, landslides became a major threat for the inhabitants and remain so four years on. In the districts of Bagh, and Muzafarabad in PAK, and Mansehra in NWFP alone, there were over 2,500 landslides after the earthquake. Many of those affected live in remote valleys and mountainous areas with a difficult terrain. In such areas, landslides block road, hampering communications and damaging infrastructure. This threatens livelihoods of thousands of people living in the area. Slope stabilization, can be a slow and extremely expensive process. The continuous landslides exacerbated by long periods of rainfall, hampered efforts towards rehabilitation. However, ERP developed an innovative and affordable solution to overcome the root causes of this natural phenomenon. They proposed an innovative bio-engineering technique for slope stabilization, whereby the introduction of fast growing plants on these hazardous slopes, provide a natural barrier against landslides. The planting of bare rooted and tube plants were carried out on all the landslides treated for stabilization. This was further complimented by tuft plating of grass in almost all the landslides. Not only is this technique a faster way of addressing the issue of landslides, it is also more cost-effective. The method has proved extremely successful in combating landslides and has been adopted by locals in the area. ERP has already successfully treated 19 land slides on the main Kohala-Muzaffarabad road and 13 land slides on Mansehra-Kaghan road. Community mobilization and planning The second project component of the ERP is integrated watershed management. This aspect of the project aimed to ensure the restoration of water and irrigation supplies of the earthquake affected areas in an environmentally sustainable manner. The sites are located in Karli in PAK and the Kaghan valley of
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NWFP. The protection and restoration of water-based supplies and resources was a critical component of the reconstruction effort, as water forms the basis for peoples livelihoods in these largely agricultural communities. A key component of the watershed program is the Village land use plan. ERP mobilized local communities at a grass roots level to take ownership of the project and its long term sustainability. The watershed project was located in 24 villages in Karli district and 18 villages in Kashian district .The social mobilization process commenced with the two meetings, arranged at the watershed level in both Karli and Kanshian. Representatives of all the 27 villages of Karli and 17 villages of Kanshian were invited to participate in these meetings and were briefed by ERP about watershed management methods. The village level organization process was followed by the valley level organization. Thus in both Karli and Kanshian the village level have been networked in the form of a cluster organization. The objective is to ensure coordination among the member Village Organizations, liaison with various partners and mobilization of resources for the Integrated Watershed Management and sustainable development of the area. The first part of the project consisted of the assessment phase to evaluate how to improve the socioeconomic lives of the people and enhance capacity building. ERP facilitated the communities in villages to come up with a comprehensive plan for reconstruction. This ensured that the communities took the lead in determining their priorities for the reconstruction effort. In Kanshian around 40% of the population including women is represented in the village organization through general membership of the general bodies of these organizations. In Karli around 20% of the population is represented in
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the village organization through general membership of the general bodies of these organizations. Areas covered in this part of the project included water, irrigation, sanitation, rehabilitation, natural resources i.e.: forest, pastures, and landslides. Restoring water supplies To communities After the completion of the two trackapproaches of community mobilization and land use planning the Integrated Watershed Management Plans was developed. The purpose of these plans is to provide a road map for the Integrated Watershed Management of these two valleys. In Kanshian approximately 120 acres (70 winter + 50 monsoon) plantations, 6 large size gabion check dams , 22 small size check dams, 1 retaining wall, 1 loose stone diversion wall and 1 Km irrigation channel rehabilitation were constructed worth over 4 million Pakistani Rupees. In Karli the Integrated Watershed Management plan included the creation of loose stone 250 chekdams of 22,000 cft volume. 11.5 Km of roads were rehabilitated, 10 ponds for water storage for livestock and house hold water were constructed in five villages, and a 1 irrigation channel was rehabilitated with the World Food Programmes (WFP) assistance. 200 pipes were constructed for water supply in 5 villages through UNICEF assistance, worth 0.3 million Pakistani Rupees. Coordinating A Holistic Response For other aspects of the reconstruction not covered by the ERP directly, it helped local communities liaise with other UN agencies and ERRA to ensure that they obtained the help they required. In fact, playing a coordination role became a major function of ERP during the initial months following the October 2005 Earthquake and its work demonstrated how the various UN

agencies can effectively work together in a crisis situation on a small scale. ERP focuses on community based Natural Resource Management, whereas for the social sector such as water supply, education, Health, etc. support is mobilized from other UN agencies such as UNICEF (for water Supply), ILO (employment skills development), WFP (food for work), UNFPA (maternal Health). This coordinated approach ensured that the people in the area received the help the needed in a timely fashion.

By working with local communities and ensuring that their voices were heard, ERP helped communities face the immense challenges in rebuilding their lives. Although substantial work in the Slope Stabilization and Integrated Watershed Management has done in Karli and Kanshian, this is just the first step and in order to have impact, replication needs to be adopted across the earthquake-affected regions of Northern Pakistan.

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Support to Volunteerism Initiatives in Pakistan


In the words of Aesop, No act of kindness, no matter how small, is ever wasted. The true spirit of volunteerism entails contributing ones time, energy and capacity towards a worthwhile cause in any sphere of life, without expectation of compensation or monetary benefit. Understanding the need to inculcate this spirit at a global scale, the UN established a separate entity, the United Nations Volunteers (UNV). The programme contributes to peace and development through volunteerism worldwide The designated Volunteers, both national and international, play their part in promoting national volunteerism to support humanitarian and development programmes while embracing the values that sustain it: free will, commitment, engagement and solidarity. In the aftermath of the earthquake, the enormous task of relief and recovery required tremendous support from a large number of citizens. For this purpose, UNDP initiated the Support to Volunteerism Initiatives in Pakistan programme as UNV operates through the UNDP office. Launched shortly after the earthquake, the three year project mobilized a large number of volunteers by institutionalizing the National Volunteer Movement (NVM)

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in partnership with the Government. Even though this institution was established, it required capacity building to serve as a vibrant and fully functional forum. Subsequent change in its leadership also took away from the political ownership required to make it an effective entity. Nevertheless, it helped in mobilizing volunteers for the relief and recovery efforts. The UNVs not only work in collaboration with UN Agencies but also with local government departments and the civil society. Muhammad Ayaz Awan, from Battagram District in NWFP is a UNV and recalls As a volunteer. I have so many memories. One such incident totally blew me away, and made me realize the dangers I had chosen to work under when I had decided to become a volunteer. During our relief work, we traveled to District Kohistan to deliver some relief items to the affected community. On our way, we were stopped by a gun man, who threatened to shoot us instantly if we went ahead. Terrified though we were, we tried to diffuse the potentially dangerous situation by inquiring about his personal and loss during the earthquake. He broke down into tears as he narrated the irreparable losses that he had endured during the earthquake, which included losing close relatives. At that point, we realized that he was experiencing a traumatic phase in his life, and needed help and support. We told him why we were here. He warmed up to us instantly and guided us to the most affected and vulnerable communities in his area. After all this time, we are still in touch. The 7000 volunteers registered shortly after the earthquake as part of the NVM played an integral role in a wide variety of tasks, ranging from debris re41 Rebuilding Lives

moval and contribution to reconstruction efforts by the government; to imparting training in trauma counseling, first aid and disaster preparedness and response. Volunteers deployed to different UN agencies, NGOs and government departments under the National UNV Scheme have been making their mark. A total of 132 UNVs, both national and international, have been offering voluntary services to different regions in Pakistan. These include, Battagram, Besham, Mansehra, Abbottabad, Muzaffarabad, Bagh, Rawalakot and Islamabad, Quetta, Kunch, Badin and Thatta. UNVs are only given sustenance allowance not because they are worthless, but because they are priceless.

let us ensure that people displaced by conflict, persecution and upheaval get the support and services they need to build a better life.
Ban Ki-moon, UN Secretary General on World Refugee Day 2009.

Section III:
Refugee Affected and Hosting Areas

Project Title:

Refugee Affected Areas Programme Duration: 2007-2010 Project Budget: USD 140.0 million Donors: Partners: EAD and Chief Commissionerate of Afghan Refugees (CCAR), Provincial Planning and Development Departments of NWFP and Balochistan Background: The overall objective of the Needs Assessment exercise is to provide information, analysis and recommendations in support of possible future interventions addressing the consequences of poverty in areas and communities affected by high concentrations of Afghan refugees. The first phase (led by UNHCR) reviewed the situation for Water and Sanitation, Health and Education sectors. Objective Refugee Affected Areas initiative contributes to a transition from purely humanitarian to more development oriented interventions aimed at the environmental rehabilitation and socio-economic development of selected areas and communities impacted by the presence of Afghans.

CAMP OF CARPETS
Artisans without Borders

Weaving a life for themselves Refugees are expected to be repatriated voluntarily once conditions return to normalcy in their region. They return as soon as circumstances permit, generally when a conflict ends and stability returns and basic infrastructure has been rebuilt. While repatriation is considered to be the most durable solution to refugee problems, in the case of Afghan refugees, the prevailing situation in Afghanistan has not been conducive to comprehensive repatriation. Uncertainty pertaining not only to security but income generation also presents a huge roadblock in the face of the return of many. Livelihoods are the fundamental factor that moves people from dependence on humanitarian assistance to take back control of their lives and sustain their way of living.Many refugees who have been residing in Pakistan for years and have carved out livelihoods for themselves which they would have to abandon if they returned.

here for more than two decades. After our arrival in Pakistan, we started carpet weaving in the camp, says Haji Juma, a Turkmen elder who moved with his family from Jawzjan province in northern Afghanistan in 1982 following the Soviet invasion. Initially it was a hard task to establish the set-up in our camp houses, but somehow we did it. Now there are around 400 families involved in carpet weaving in Katwai, an Afghan refugee camp established by the UN refugee agency in the village of Loralai, some 275 km north-east of the Balochistan capital, Quetta. According to him, every home in the camp is involved in carpet making in some way. There are small units for spinning and dyeing wool. Its actually a combined family effort; women are a great help along with men in making hand-made carpets. The skills have sustained them in very difficult conditions. This is a great help for our families, says Palwasha Bibi, a woman who, in addition to household chores, makes time for carpet weaving. Whether we like it or not, we have to do it. It helps us earn money to run our homes. Men and women both have to work to sustain a livelihood. The refugees also face problems with Pakistani authorities when trying to send their carpets to customers. Being Afghan refugees, we face a lot of problems after weaving the carpets and sending them for sale
Rebuilding Lives 44

In the Katwai Refugee Camp located in Balochistan for example, carpet-weaving provides a viable means of livelihood for the Afghans who have been

in other cities of Pakistan, says Juma. Whenever we complete an order and try to send it from Loralai to other cities, the local authorities stop our carpets and accuse us of smuggling them from Afghanistan or Iran. They are often not ready to accept that we are weaving the carpets ourselves, complains Juma. Every week the families working under Jumas supervision weave around 2530 square metres of carpet. For a long time, a square metre of hand-made carpet had a cash value of around 2,000 rupees, equivalent to $35. That price was also the monthly wage of one carpet weaver. The refugees want to ease into life in Pakistan, offering even to pass on their carpet-weaving skills to the local Pakistani population in Balochistan. A lost opportunity? It is a reality that one day these craftsmen may move back to their country, thus taking their skill with them. If indeed the locals can learn the art of carpet making it could mitigate against the loss of trade as well as skill thus benefitting from the refugees rather than suffering the many pressures that they have created upon their arrival here. We are ready to do that. All that we ask from the Pakistani government, local authorities and the United Nations is to make local authorities understand that we are working on our own. They should respect our skills by considering the carpets as our own products not something that we keep smuggling from Afghanistan, says Juma. The need for social cohesion The lack of understanding extended to Juma and his colleagues highlights the need for social cohesion and presents an opportunity for exploring the medium of carpet making to
45 Rebuilding Lives

build bridges between local and refugee communities to achieve greater social and economic integration. In an effort to achieve this, UNDP has recently launched the Refugee-Affected and Hosting Areas Programme (RAHA) that aims to improve livelihoods, rehabilitate the environment and enhance social cohesion within communities of refugee-affected and hosting areas. Afghans have made a substantial contribution to the Pakistani economy. They have contributed towards economic uplift and have transferred traditional knowledge and skills to local communities in industries other than Afghan-style carpet weaving as well cultivation of nuts, fruits and vegetables, beekeeping, timber gathering and retailing, transportation, among others. The economy in some areas has flourished due to the presence of low wage Afghan labourers and their entrepreneurial activities, such as brick kilns, garbage collection and recycling. Some of these economic activities have caused social inequity and the RAHA programme intends to build on the positive elements of this influence. In order to further help in the integration, public services will be improved and policies made more effective by strengthening the capacities of the government, community institutions and vulnerable groups among the refugees and their hosts. This Programme also takes into account, the UN One Programme crosscutting issues relating to human rights, gender equality, civil society engagement and refugees. Peaceful co-existence between the communities will support a more productive and peaceful stay for Afghans until they can return to Afghanistan.

People expect to feel safe, to have access to basic services and to have the chance to provide for their families. They want to see things around them getting better quickly and to feel that they are included in the political process going forward. Ambassador Heraldo Muoz, Chairperson of the Peacebuilding Commission

Section IV:
Post Conflict Initiatives

Sustainable Development through Peace building, Governance and Economic Recovery in NWFP
The conflict in the FATA and NWFP led to the displacement of an estimated two million people. In their efforts to find a safer haven, the IDPs took refuge with host communities and in camps. My home is my paradise, declares Tahira 25, and a mother of two infants. Even if you make us a Taj Mahal here, we will not stay for long. This conflict further worsened conditions in regions where communities did not have any confidence in the local administration. Inadequate access to basic services, including health and education have compounded their problems. When we go back we will be living in darkness as the infrastructure has been destroyed. There is no electricity or communication facility, says Mazhar. My fields and my livelihood have been destroyed so there will be no way that I will be able to make a living when I go back, he elaborates. This means that we will be reliant on external aid and will probably have to live in tents as our homes have been damaged and are uninhabitable. As people begin to rebuild their lives, UNDP will support the process through its programme on Sustainable Development through Peace building, Governance and Economic Recovery in NWFP. The US$ 25 million programme will focus on the Malakand Region as prioritized by the government. The threeyear programme will help IDPs reconstruct their lives as they return home. It will support early recovery activities to bridge the gap between relief and long-term rehabilitation. This will include restoring livelihoods through cash for work on rubble removal and involving the community in micro infrastructure projects. The conflict has damaged or destroyed, water pumps, water pipelines, footpaths, culverts etc., which can be rehabilitated with the participation of the community. Skills training and financing support to small projects or businesses in the farm (agriculture, horticulture) and nonfarm sectors (marble quarrying, gem and jewelry, carpentry, tourism) sectors is another important component of this intervention .This programme

47

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will also strengthen mechanisms for a coordinated response to the needs of the returnees at district level as well. As the millions returned, the need to diminish the social tensions and grievances that have escalated as a result of events leading to the conflict and the subsequent displacement became evident. Communities have become divided roughly along the lines of those who supported and benefited from conflict and those who fell victim to it. During this time, the latter categories have allegedly lost all their properties, faced harassment, in some cases, death of family members and displacement. UNDP will work towards diffusing and preventing local conflicts and gaining a better understating of its struc-

tural causes. This will be made possible through engaging and establishing peace committees and alternate dispute resolution mechanisms while undertaking a comprehensive analysis of the root causes of conflict. The programme will focus on the conflict affected population with a special emphasis on the vulnerable, especially women-headed households; families with disabled members; families that have 10 members and an income of Rs. 7000. The programme will be implemented in cooperation with the Provincial Relief, Rehabilitation and Settlement Authority (PaRRSA), NGOs and other relevant stakeholders.

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Photograph Credits
Front Cover BEGINER/ UNDP Pakistan Cover Front Inside CBLRP Cover Back Regional Climate Risk Reduction Project in the Himalayas Page 6 -11 National Disaster Management Authority One UN DRM Joint Programme Component Page 12 - 17 Regional Climate Risk Reduction Project in the Himalayas Page 18- 28 UNDP Pakistan BEGINER/ UNDP Pakistan Mariyam Nawaz Page 29 - 34 CBLRP Page 35 Environmental Recovery Project Page 38 Muzammil Pasha Page 39 - 41 Support to Volunteerism Initiatives Page 42 - 44 UNHCR Page 46 49 UNDP Pakistan Muzammil Pasha

For further information contact: Strategic Management Unit United Nations Development Programme UN House House # 12, Street # 17, F-7/2, Islamabad.
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Copyright November 2009 To download the on-line version of this publication visit: http://www.undp.org.pk
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Communities of Gojal are trained in search and rescue with hands-on tools in case a disaster happens.

United Nations Development Programme UN House House 12, Street 17, Sector F-7/2, Islamabad. www.undp.org.pk